WorldWideScience

Sample records for on the scene accident investigation

  1. 22 CFR 102.10 - Rendering assistance at the scene of the accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accident. 102.10 Section 102.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL... airline representative, the Foreign Service representative should lend the competent local authorities all... investigation. If an airline representative is already at the scene of the accident or if one arrives shortly...

  2. What are the differences in injury patterns of young and elderly traffic accident fatalities considering death on scene and death in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniela; Holzmann, Christopher; Wagner, Anja; Fischer, Anja; Pfeifer, Roman; Graw, Matthias; Schick, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown. Our database comprises 309 road traffic fatalities, autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich in 2004 and 2005. Injuries are coded according to Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS© 2005 update 2008 [1]. Data used for this analysis are age, sex, site of death, site of accident, traffic participation mode, measures of injury severity, and rib fractures. The injury patterns of elderly, aged 65+ years, are compared to the younger ones divided by their site of death. Elderly with death on scene more often show serious thorax injuries and pelvic fractures than the younger. Some hints point towards older fatalities showing less frequently serious abdominal injuries. In hospital, elderly fatalities show lower Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) compared to the younger. The number of rib fractures is significantly higher for the elderly but is not the reason for death. Results show that young and old fatalities have different injury patterns and reveal first hints towards the need to analyze death on scene more in-depth.

  3. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  4. Televisual forensics on the edge of chaos: post-genomic complexity in CSI: Crime Scene Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the discourse on scientific knowledge in the forensic crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (CBS, 2000–), in ways that complicate the common assumption that its science only offers conservatively straightforward answers and simple solutions. Through close textual readings, and comparative historic genre analysis of The Expert (BBC, 1968–76), Quincy M.E. (NBC, 1976–83) and Silent Witness (BBC, 1996), the essay maps the residual, dominant and emergent scientific discour...

  5. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. a Study of the Reconstruction of Accidents and Crime Scenes Through Computational Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. J.; Chae, S. W.; Kim, S. H.; Yang, K. M.; Chung, H. S.

    Recently, with an increase in the number of studies of the safety of both pedestrians and passengers, computer software, such as MADYMO, Pam-crash, and LS-dyna, has been providing human models for computer simulation. Although such programs have been applied to make machines beneficial for humans, studies that analyze the reconstruction of accidents or crime scenes are rare. Therefore, through computational experiments, the present study presents reconstructions of two questionable accidents. In the first case, a car fell off the road and the driver was separated from it. The accident investigator was very confused because some circumstantial evidence suggested the possibility that the driver was murdered. In the second case, a woman died in her house and the police suspected foul play with her boyfriend as a suspect. These two cases were reconstructed using the human model in MADYMO software. The first case was eventually confirmed as a traffic accident in which the driver bounced out of the car when the car fell off, and the second case was proved to be suicide rather than homicide.

  7. On-scene alternatives for emergency ambulance crews attending patients who do not need to travel to the accident and emergency department: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snooks, H A; Dale, J; Hartley-Sharpe, C; Halter, M

    2004-03-01

    With rising demand and recognition of the variety of cases attended by emergency ambulance crews, services have been considering alternative ways of providing non-urgent care. This paper describes and appraises the research literature concerning on-scene alternatives to conveyance to an emergency department, focusing on the: (1) profile and outcomes of patients attended but not conveyed by emergency crews; (2) triage ability of crews; (3) effectiveness and safety of protocols that allow crews to convey patients to alternative receiving units or to self care. The literature search was conducted through standard medical databases, supplemented with manual searches. Very few "live" studies were identified, and fewer still that included a control group. Findings indicated a complex area, with the introduction of protocols allowing crews to leave patients at scene carrying clinical risk. Robust research evidence concerning alternatives to current emergency care models is needed urgently to inform service and practice development.

  8. 基于图像引导的交通事故现场实时测绘方法%Real Time Mapping Method for Traffic Accident Scene Based on Image Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗新强; 金先龙; 韩学源; 侯心一

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of mapping the accident scene diagram on the scene for traffic police, a real time mapping method for traffic accident scene investigation based on image guide was proposed. The proposed procedure consists of a transformation which transforms a single photo of the accident scene from perspective image to orthographic image using direct linear transformation method, followed by mapping accident scene information such as vehicles, bodies, fall out objects, braking traces and so on directly over the orthographic image, and finally printing out the accident scene diagram, which needs to be signed by interested parties. A typical traffic accident case was used to validate the proposed method. Compared with the traditional hands-on measurement, the proposed method can not only improve the accuracy of site investigation, but also can considerably reduce the time of on-scene data processing and drawing, which contributes to satisfying the requirement of printing out the accident scene diagram in real time.%为了满足交警现场绘制事故现场图的实际需要,提出了基于图像引导的交通事故现场实时测绘方法.首先根据直接线性变换法将事故现场照片由透视图转换为正投影图像;然后直接在正投影图像上进行车辆、人体、散落物和刹车痕迹等事故现场信息的绘制和相关尺寸的标注;最后实现现场图的打印输出并由当事人签字确认.通过典型交通事故案例验证了该方法的有效性.和传统手工测绘相比,该方法在提高事故现场勘测精度的同时,还能大大缩短数据处理和现场绘图时间,满足实时打印输出现场图的要求.

  9. An investigation of awareness on the Fukushima nuclear accident and Radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Chul; Song, Young Ju [Dept. of Consumer Safety, Korea Consumer Agency, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate Korean people's awareness about impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan and radioactive contamination caused by it. The respondents of the survey were 600 adults who resided in the Seoul metropolitan area. The survey results show that the majority of respondents were concerned about impact of radiation leakage that might have an effect on our environment. They were worried about radioactive contamination of foodstuffs, particularly fishery products and preferred to acquire information through TV(49.8%) or the Internet(31.3%). Meanwhile, respondents mentioned that the information on the Fukushima nuclear accident and radioactive contamination had not been sufficient and they didn't know well about the follow-up measures of the government on the accident. Most respondents answered that information on radioactive contamination levels and safety of foods and environment was most needed. The results of this study could be useful to enhance awareness on radioactivity and improve risk communication on nuclear power plant accidents.

  10. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  11. Was That Levity or Livor Mortis? Crime Scene Investigators' Perspectives on Humor and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…

  12. Facilitatory priming of scene layout depends on experience with the scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Facilitatory scene priming is the positive effect of a scene prime on the immediately subsequent spatial processing of a related target, relative to control primes. In the present experiments, a large set of scenes were presented, each several times. The accuracy of a relational spatial-layout judgment was the main measure (which of two probes in a scene was closer?). The effect of scene primes on sensitivity was near zero for the first presentation of a scene; advantages for scene primes occurred only after two or three presentations. In addition, a bias effect emerged in reaction times for novel scenes. These results imply that facilitatory scene priming requires learning and is top-down in nature. Scene priming may require the consolidation of interscene relations in a memory representation.

  13. The Temporal Dynamics of Scene Processing: A Multifaceted EEG Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our remarkable ability to process complex visual scenes is supported by a network of scene-selective cortical regions. Despite growing knowledge about the scene representation in these regions, much less is known about the temporal dynamics with which these representations emerge. We conducted two experiments aimed at identifying and characterizing the earliest markers of scene-specific processing. In the first experiment, human participants viewed images of scenes, faces, and everyday objects while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We found that the first ERP component to evince a significantly stronger response to scenes than the other categories was the P2, peaking ∼220 ms after stimulus onset. To establish that the P2 component reflects scene-specific processing, in the second experiment, we recorded ERPs while the participants viewed diverse real-world scenes spanning the following three global scene properties: spatial expanse (open/closed), relative distance (near/far), and naturalness (man-made/natural). We found that P2 amplitude was sensitive to these scene properties at both the categorical level, distinguishing between open and closed natural scenes, as well as at the single-image level, reflecting both computationally derived scene statistics and behavioral ratings of naturalness and spatial expanse. Together, these results establish the P2 as an ERP marker for scene processing, and demonstrate that scene-specific global information is available in the neural response as early as 220 ms. PMID:27699208

  14. Investigation Effect of Biorhythm on Work-Related Accidents in The Metal Industry (A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is one of the newest subjects in the field of cognition of mental ergonomics which can be very effective in reduction of work-related accidents or mistakes with no apparent reason. With evaluating Biorhythm individuals can intervention action to reduce job accidents carried out. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship Biorhythm and work-related accidents in the metal industry. This research is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive in the metal industrial Isfahan city of 120 work-related accidents during 2015. The required information was collected from available documents in HSE unit of the company biorhythm charts were drawn based on a date of accidents and participants birthdays, using natural Biorhythm Software V3.02 Conduct. Finally، the data were analyzed using spss version 20 and descriptive statistics.This study showed that the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle was more than expected. Also the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of emotional and intellectual cycles was less than expected. Most type of injury, including cuts to 35.8 percent and the lowest type of injury was torsion with 5 percent. Most limb injury, hands and fingers with 51.7 percent and the lowest limb injury were back at 2.5 percent. Accidents outbreak in physical cycles was 38.3 percent. These 120 accidents in additionally were causing 120 loss of working days in effect accident. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Most percent of loss of working days were for 20 to 30 days with of 39.2 percent. Due to the physical nature of the work activities in the metal industry can be stated that the study showed that in physical work activities, frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle in which the person is not physically ready to do the job was more than expected. Therefore, by training

  15. 3D scanning and imaging for quick documentation of crime and accident scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, L.; Sala, R.; Scaioni, M.; Cattaneo, C.; Gibelli, D.; Giussani, A.; Poppa, P.; Roncoroni, F.; Vandone, A.

    2012-06-01

    Fast documentation of complex scenes where accidents or crimes occurred is fundamental not to lose information for post-event analyses and lesson learning. Today 3D terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry offer instruments capable of achieving this task. The former allows the fast geometric reconstruction of complex scenes through dense point clouds. Different kinds of instruments can be used according to the size of the area to survey and to the required level of details. The latter can be used for both geometric reconstruction and for photo-realistic texturing of laser scans. While photogrammetry better focuses on small details, laser scanning gives out a more comprehensive view of geometry of whole crime/accident scene. Both techniques can be used for recording a scene just after a crime or a disaster occurred, before the area is cleared out to recover regular activities. Visualization of results through an easy-to-use 3D environment is another import issue to offer useful data to investigators. Here two experiences of crime scene documentation are proposed.

  16. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  17. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  18. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  19. Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

    1992-11-01

    A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy`s Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

  20. Cooperation of mobile robots for accident scene inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.; Harrington, J.

    1992-01-01

    A telerobotic system demonstration was developed for the Department of Energy's Accident Response group to highlight the applications of telerobotic vehicles to accident site inspection. The proof-of- principle system employs two mobile robots, Dixie and RAYBOT, to inspect a simulated accident site. Both robots are controlled serially from a single driving station, allowing an operator to take advantage of having multiple robots at the scene. The telerobotic system is described and some of the advantages of having more than one robot present are discussed. Future plans for the system are also presented.

  1. Smartphone and Tablet Applications for Crime Scene Investigation: State of the Art, Typology, and Assessment Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Gélinas, Anthony; Tremblay, Rémy; Lu, Karely; Crispino, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The use of applications on mobile devices is gradually becoming a new norm in everyday life, and crime scene investigation is unlikely to escape this reality. The article assesses the current state of research and practices by means of literature reviews, semistructured interviews, and a survey conducted among crime scene investigators from Canada and Switzerland. Attempts at finding a particular strategy to guide the development, usage, and evaluation of applications that can assist crime scene investigation prove to be rather challenging. Therefore, the article proposes a typology for these applications, as well as criteria for evaluating their relevance, reliability, and answer to operational requirements. The study of five applications illustrates the evaluation process. Far away from the revolution announced by some stakeholders, it is required to pursue scientific and pragmatic research to set the theoretical foundations that will allow a significant contribution of applications to crime scene investigation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Application of composite small calibration objects in traffic accident scene photogrammetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    Full Text Available In order to address the difficulty of arranging large calibration objects and the low measurement accuracy of small calibration objects in traffic accident scene photogrammetry, a photogrammetric method based on a composite of small calibration objects is proposed. Several small calibration objects are placed around the traffic accident scene, and the coordinate system of the composite calibration object is given based on one of them. By maintaining the relative position and coplanar relationship of the small calibration objects, the local coordinate system of each small calibration object is transformed into the coordinate system of the composite calibration object. The two-dimensional direct linear transformation method is improved based on minimizing the reprojection error of the calibration points of all objects. A rectified image is obtained using the nonlinear optimization method. The increased accuracy of traffic accident scene photogrammetry using a composite small calibration object is demonstrated through the analysis of field experiments and case studies.

  3. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident.

  4. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: the role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Valeria; Snee, Tim; Maschio, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction.

  5. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Influence of the critical accident seen to consciousness investigation of the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Teruaki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Here was introduced a consciousness investigation result carried out at Fukui prefecture and Osaka city after about two months of the JCO criticality accident. Peoples were disturbed by the accident, and not a little changed their individual estimations on items relating to energy. However, peoples lived in Fukui prefecture did not increase rate of opposition against nuclear energy promotion and nuclear power plant construction to their living area on comparison with a year before the accident. This reason might be understood by that the accident was not an accident of a nuclear power plant directly, and that their living area was much distant from place of the accident and was not suffered any danger. On the other hand, public opinion in Osaka city made worse on comparison with that before a year, and if such worse public opinion was thought to be due to the accident, its effect could be said to be different in each area even with no direct relation to the accident to shown a result dependent upon its various conditions. As a rough tendency on psychological disturbance due to the accident, it could be said that peoples became to have feelings of avoiding hard nuclear energy technology at a chance of the accident and to direct thoughts of soft natural energy and environment respect. (G.K.)

  6. Investigation into the causes of accidents on scraper systems in the gold and platinum mining sectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moseme, R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available and cleaning operations of the scraper winch systems that require identification. This research report identifies the risk and hazards associated with scraper winch systems that may lead to potential accidents in the gold and platinum sector. The research also...

  7. Accident investigation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J. van; Drupsteen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisations and companies take extensive proactive measures to identify, evaluate and reduce occupational risks. However, despite these efforts things still go wrong and unintended events occur. After a major incident or accident, conducting an accident investigation is generally the next ste

  8. The Importance of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis M. Albalooshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstain pattern analysis has become a field of specialization in Forensic sciences and plays an important role in the reconstruction of events at a crime scene. Research, books, and articles have been published on the analysis and interpretation of bloodstain patterns We present a case study of a road traffic accident in which bloodstain pattern analysis helped us to solve the discrepancy between reports produced by forensic examiners and by the forensic biology department. The case was of a 22-year-old man who died immediately and a 31- year-old woman who survived a road traffic accident. They were both found outside their overturned car and it was impossible to ascertain from initial observations which of the victims was driving the car at the time of the accident. An external examination of the man revealed multiple injuries, and the cause of his death was severe brain injury. The woman survived with a fracture of the forearm, dislocated clavicle bone, and other minor injuries. After initial examination of the car and based on the pattern of injuries the deceased received, forensic examiner concluded that the man was the driving the car at the time of accident. On the other hand, the forensic DNA analysis of bloodstains obtained from the driver's seat matched that of the woman, suggesting that she was the driver. This apparent discrepancy directed the forensic examiner to carry out a bloodstain pattern analysis on the driver's seat. The bloodstain pattern analysis helped resolve the discrepancy and enabled the investigators to identify the driver correctly. This case report emphasizes the importance of bloodstain pattern analysis in the reconstruction of cases involving road traffic accidents.

  9. A rational approach to the principles and practice of crime scene investigation: I. Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a structured approach to crime scene investigation that may be applied to the wider aspects of criminal investigation. The approach is an adaptation of the hypotheticodeductive method. The investigator begins with observation of the scene leading to a cycle of hypotheses creation and testing with other information being supplied only after the initial scene examination and hypotheses creation. The recording of observation, hypotheses creation and testing, and information received creates an audit trail of the investigative process. The method seeks to minimise observer bias by providing a rational and recorded approach to crime scene investigation.

  10. DNA methylation: the future of crime scene investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gršković, Branka; Zrnec, Dario; Vicković, Sanja; Popović, Maja; Mršić, Gordan

    2013-07-01

    Proper detection and subsequent analysis of biological evidence is crucial for crime scene reconstruction. The number of different criminal acts is increasing rapidly. Therefore, forensic geneticists are constantly on the battlefield, trying hard to find solutions how to solve them. One of the essential defensive lines in the fight against the invasion of crime is relying on DNA methylation. In this review, the role of DNA methylation in body fluid identification and other DNA methylation applications are discussed. Among other applications of DNA methylation, age determination of the donor of biological evidence, analysis of the parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation markers at imprinted loci for parentage testing and personal identification, differentiation between monozygotic twins due to their different DNA methylation patterns, artificial DNA detection and analyses of DNA methylation patterns in the promoter regions of circadian clock genes are the most important ones. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of open chapters in DNA methylation research that need to be closed before its final implementation in routine forensic casework.

  11. Simulating experimental investigation on the safety of nuclear heating reactor in loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanjie

    1996-12-01

    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University of China in 1989. Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation. This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments. First, the background and necessity of the experiments are presented, then the experimental system, including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system, and similarity criteria are introduced. Up to now, the discharge experiments with the residual heating power (20% rated heating power) have been carried out on the experimental system. The system parameters including circulation flow rate, system pressure, system temperature, void fraction, discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed. Based on the results of the experiments, the conclusions are shown as follos: on the whole, the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs, but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  12. Aircraft Accident Investigation at ARL: The First 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    by designing the DH.86 to the Qantas requirement. Holyman’s Airways also saw the DH.86 as suitable for regular services across Bass Strait and ordered...Airlines of Australia Library Australian Airlines Library Qantas Airways Limited Civil Aviation Authority Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd, Victoria...altitude rating of waxed wings is far too low for the accident investigation report to be tenable. Further, a wreckage trajectory analysis based on the

  13. Contextual effects of scene on the visual perception of object orientation in depth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Niimi

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of background scene on the human visual perception of depth orientation (i.e., azimuth angle of three-dimensional common objects. Participants evaluated the depth orientation of objects. The objects were surrounded by scenes with an apparent axis of the global reference frame, such as a sidewalk scene. When a scene axis was slightly misaligned with the gaze line, object orientation perception was biased, as if the gaze line had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 1. When the scene axis was slightly misaligned with the object, evaluated object orientation was biased, as if it had been assimilated into the scene axis (Experiment 2. This assimilation may be due to confusion between the orientation of the scene and object axes (Experiment 3. Thus, the global reference frame may influence object orientation perception when its orientation is similar to that of the gaze-line or object.

  14. Unusually extensive head trauma in a hydraulic elevator accident: post-mortem MSCT findings, autopsy results and scene reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christina; Schön, Corinna A; Kneubuehl, Beat; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin

    2008-10-01

    Accidental or intentional falls from a height are a form of blunt trauma and occur frequently in forensic medicine. Reports describing elevator accidents as a small subcategory of falls from heights are rare in the medical literature and no report on injury patterns or scene reconstruction of such an accident was found. A case of an accident in a hydraulic elevator with a man falling 3m was examined using post-mortem multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and autopsy. The man suffered an unusually extensive trauma and died at the scene. Post-mortem MSCT examination showed a comminute fracture of the skull, the right femur and the first lumbar vertebra. Severe lacerations of the brain with epidural, subdural and subarachnoidal haemorrhages over both hemispheres were diagnosed. Autopsy confirmed these findings. To reconstruct the accident we used radiological and autopsy results as well as findings at the scene.

  15. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

    1996-11-01

    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  16. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstuction (CSIRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John F.; Young, Jeffrey M.; Corrigan, Paul

    1997-02-01

    Graphic Data Systems Corporation (GDS Corp.) and Intellignet Graphics Solutions, Inc. (IGS) combined talents in 1995 to design and develop a MicroGDSTM application to support field investiations of crime scenes, such as homoicides, bombings, and arsons. IGS and GDS Corp. prepared design documents under the guidance of federal, state, and local crime scene reconstruction experts and with information from the FBI's evidence response team field book. The application was then developed to encompass the key components of crime scene investigaton: staff assigned to the incident, tasks occuring at the scene, visits to the scene location, photogrpahs taken of the crime scene, related documents, involved persons, catalogued evidence, and two- or three- dimensional crime scene reconstruction. Crime scene investigation, reporting, and reconstruction (CSIRR$CPY) provides investigators with a single applicaiton for both capturing all tabular data about the crime scene and quickly renderng a sketch of the scene. Tabular data is captured through ituitive database forms, while MicroGDSTM has been modified to readily allow non-CAD users to sketch the scene.

  17. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most endangered groups of road accident fatalities, which was conducted in this

  18. The Effect of Scene Variation on the Redundant Use of Color in Definite Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, Ruud; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent the amount of variation in a visual scene causes speakers to mention the attribute color in their definite target descriptions, focusing on scenes in which this attribute is not needed for identification of the target. The results of our three experiments show that speakers are more likely to redundantly…

  19. The Role of Visual Experience on the Representation and Updating of Novel Haptic Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, Achille; Newell, Fiona N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of visual experience on the spatial representation and updating of haptic scenes by comparing recognition performance across sighted, congenitally and late blind participants. We first established that spatial updating occurs in sighted individuals to haptic scenes of novel objects. All participants were required to…

  20. The influence of color on emotional perception of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Maurizio; De Cesarei, Andrea; Ferrari, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Is color a critical factor when processing the emotional content of natural scenes? Under challenging perceptual conditions, such as when pictures are briefly presented, color might facilitate scene segmentation and/or function as a semantic cue via association with scene-relevant concepts (e.g., red and blood/injury). To clarify the influence of color on affective picture perception, we compared the late positive potentials (LPP) to color versus grayscale pictures, presented for very brief (24 ms) and longer (6 s) exposure durations. Results indicated that removing color information had no effect on the affective modulation of the LPP, regardless of exposure duration. These findings imply that the recognition of the emotional content of scenes, even when presented very briefly, does not critically rely on color information.

  1. Crime Scene Soil Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia; Simms, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Mobile learning is an incredible way to engage students in activities that encourage exploration and critical thinking. This type of learning is defined by the use of portable technology, such as laptops, tablets, and smart phones, to support learning in various environments and in various ways. Depending on the technologies and resources already…

  2. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 636.13... Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In addition to the requirements in § 634... record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA...

  3. Methodological approach to crime scene investigation: the dangers of technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Peter D.

    1997-02-01

    The visitor to any modern forensic science laboratory is confronted with equipment and processes that did not exist even 10 years ago: thermocyclers to allow genetic typing of nanogram amounts of DNA isolated from a few spermatozoa; scanning electron microscopes that can nearly automatically detect submicrometer sized particles of molten lead, barium and antimony produced by the discharge of a firearm and deposited on the hands of the shooter; and computers that can compare an image of a latent fingerprint with millions of fingerprints stored in the computer memory. Analysis of populations of physical evidence has permitted statistically minded forensic scientists to use Bayesian inference to draw conclusions based on a priori assumptions which are often poorly understood, irrelevant, or misleading. National commissions who are studying quality control in DNA analysis propose that people with barely relevant graduate degrees and little forensic science experience be placed in charge of forensic DNA laboratories. It is undeniable that high- tech has reversed some miscarriages of justice by establishing the innocence of a number of people who were imprisoned for years for crimes that they did not commit. However, this papers deals with the dangers of technology in criminal investigations.

  4. Accident Journalism and Traffic Safety Education: A Three-Phase Investigation of Accident Reporting in the Canadian Daily Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Gerald J. S.; Ackersviller, Melody J.

    A study examined the potential for development of a traffic accident-reporting form in the Canadian daily press that strengthens concern for road safety in the general population and enhances knowledge, attitudes, and behavior leading to greater safety. The investigation was conducted on three levels: a content analysis, a readership analysis, and…

  5. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident final report of the AESJ investigation committee

    CERN Document Server

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan

    2015-01-01

    The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck  TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident ma...

  6. Faces in Context: Does Face Perception Depend on the Orientation of the Visual Scene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; van Golde, Celine; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms held responsible for familiar face recognition are thought to be orientation dependent; inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than their upright counterparts. Although this effect of inversion has been investigated extensively, researchers have typically sliced faces from photographs and presented them in isolation. As such, it is not known whether the perceived orientation of a face is inherited from the visual scene in which it appears. Here, we address this question by measuring performance in a simultaneous same-different task while manipulating both the orientation of the faces and the scene. We found that the face inversion effect survived scene inversion. Nonetheless, an improvement in performance when the scene was upside down suggests that sensitivity to identity increased when the faces were more easily segmented from the scene. Thus, while these data identify congruency with the visual environment as a contributing factor in recognition performance, they imply different mechanisms operate on upright and inverted faces.

  7. The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-05-01

    Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death.

  8. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  9. Crime scene investigation in child-abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G N

    1986-06-01

    Although child abuse and neglect continue to appear in the medical literature frequently, little regarding scene investigation in such cases has been discussed. Many explanations have been offered for this deficit, the most common one is based on the time delay between infliction of the injury and discovery. At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, child-abuse cases submitted for consultation repeatedly show deficits in the scene investigation and its documentation. Since the discovery of child abuse is dependent on either physical evidence of repetitive punitive measures or an injury pattern not in agreement with the alleged circumstances, it behooves the assigned investigator to make every attempt to document the scene(s) as in any other criminal investigation.

  10. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  11. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  12. Study of vehicle accident reconstruction based on the information of the tire marks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The tire mark is the important legacy in formation left at the accident scene. Based on the vehicle collision dynamics model, this study provided an optimized algorithm with vehicle final location and other related information for the tire marks. When the tire marks simulation results fit the real one well. The state of vehicle can be understood as the real state in the accident. Based on above. The vehicle velocity and direction are decided. According to the velocity and direction of the vehicle, the complete accident process can be simulated. With the help of the Pc-Crash software. The method has been applied in typical collision accident cases analysis. The reconstruction results will provide the scientific and numerical References for vehicle collision accidents analyzing and appraising.

  13. Dependence of Adaptive Cross-correlation Algorithm Performance on the Extended Scene Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we reported an adaptive cross-correlation (ACC) algorithm to estimate with high accuracy the shift as large as several pixels between two extended-scene sub-images captured by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It determines the positions of all extended-scene image cells relative to a reference cell in the same frame using an FFT-based iterative image-shifting algorithm. It works with both point-source spot images as well as extended scene images. We have demonstrated previously based on some measured images that the ACC algorithm can determine image shifts with as high an accuracy as 0.01 pixel for shifts as large 3 pixels, and yield similar results for both point source spot images and extended scene images. The shift estimate accuracy of the ACC algorithm depends on illumination level, background, and scene content in addition to the amount of the shift between two image cells. In this paper we investigate how the performance of the ACC algorithm depends on the quality and the frequency content of extended scene images captured by a Shack-Hatmann camera. We also compare the performance of the ACC algorithm with those of several other approaches, and introduce a failsafe criterion for the ACC algorithm-based extended scene Shack-Hatmann sensors.

  14. Atlante del bianco: new dancers on the contemporary scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Germanà

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay deals with the experience of the newborn Italian dance company Damasco Corner, a group of visually impaired professional dancers working with the choreographer Virgilio Sieni in Firenze, at CANGO_Cantieri Goldonetta. The text looks at the performance process they went through (workshops, training and rehearsals preparing the first official piece of the company: Atlante del bianco. The access of these new dancers to the field of professional artistic education implies different changing, in the studio as well as on the scene. Inclusive approaches are applied, teaching dance techniques, improvisation and creating choreographies. The audience needs to embrace different perspectives to feel and understand the dance that is lived and presented on the scene

  15. Review of the TMI-2 accident evaluation and vessel investigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladekarl Thomsen, Knud

    1998-03-01

    The results of the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Programme and the Vessel Investigation Project have been reviewed as part of a literature study on core meltdown and in-vessel coolability. The emphasis is placed on the late phase melt progression, which is of special relevance to the NKS-sponsored RAK-2.1 project on Severe Accident Phenomenology. The body of the report comprises three main sections, The TMI-2 Accident Scenario, Core Region and Relocation Path Investigations, and Lower Head Investigations. In the final discussion, the lower head gap formation mechanism is explained in terms of thermal contraction and fracturing of the debris crust. This model seems more plausible than the MAAP model based on creep expansion of the lower head. (au) 1 tab., 33 ills., 31 refs.

  16. Aspects Concerning The Rules And The Investigation Of Traffic Accidents As Work Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnu, Lucian Ioan

    2015-07-01

    When Romania joined the European Union, it was imposed that the Romanian legislation in the field of the security and health at work be in line with the European one. The concept of health as it is defined by the International Body of Health, refers to a good physical, mental and social condition. The improvement of the activity of preventing the traffic accidents as work accidents must have as basis the correct and accurate evaluation of risks of getting injured. The goal of the activity of prevention and protection is to ensure the best working conditions, the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases and the adjustment to the scientific and technological progress. In the road transport sector, as in any other sector, it is very important to pay attention to working conditions to ensure a workforce motivated and well qualified. Some features make it a more difficult sector risk management than other sectors. However, if one takes into account how it works in practice this sector and the characteristics of drivers and how they work routinely, risks, dangers and threats can be managed efficiently and with great success.

  17. Simulating Experimental Investigation on the Safety of Nuclear Heating Reactor in Loss—of —Coolant Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanjieXu

    1996-01-01

    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology(INET) of Tisinghuan University of CHina in 1989,Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation.This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of -coolant accidents(LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments.First,the Background and necessity of the experiments are presented.then the experimental system,including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system,and similarity criteria are introduced.Up to now ,the discharge experiments with the residual heating power(20% rated heating power)have been carried out on the experimental system,The system prameters including circulation flow rate,system pressure,system temperature,void fraction,discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed.Based on the results of the experiments,the conclusionas are shown as follos:on the whole,the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs,but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  18. A Guide for Explosion and Bombing Scene Investigation. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This document presents an investigative outline of the tasks that law enforcement personnel should consider at every bombing and explosion scene. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's seven sections: (1) procuring equipment and tools (safety, general crime scene tools/equipment, scene documentation, evidence collection,…

  19. THE USE OF AVIATION ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORTS AS EVIDENCE IN COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana POP PĂUN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Air transport is an essential part of the international society, constituting a liaison between people and continents and an important contributor to the world economy and globalization. Aircraft operation has grown in complexity needing for a safety level to be maintained and constantly grown. Along with the development of the aviation industry, the legal system in the aviation field has registered significant challenges, one of them being the claims related to air crashes which are contested. The investigation process of an accident or incident has become not only important for the safety of operations but also to the establishment of legal fault and blame. The article proposes to present the principles of conducting and accident and incident investigation, the value of the report and new developments in relation to the recent case law on the use of the accident investigation report in Court.

  20. Effects of scene content and layout on the perceived light direction in 3D spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling; Pont, Sylvia C; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-08-01

    The lighting and furnishing of an interior space (i.e., the reflectance of its materials, the geometries of the furnishings, and their arrangement) determine the appearance of this space. Conversely, human observers infer lighting properties from the space's appearance. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to investigate how the perception of the light direction is influenced by a scene's objects and their layout using real scenes. In the first experiment, we confirmed that the shape of the objects in the scene and the scene layout influence the perceived light direction. In the second experiment, we systematically investigated how specific shape properties influenced the estimation of the light direction. The results showed that increasing the number of visible faces of an object, ultimately using globally spherical shapes in the scene, supported the veridicality of the estimated light direction. Furthermore, symmetric arrangements in the scene improved the estimation of the tilt direction. Thus, human perception of light should integrally consider materials, scene content, and layout.

  1. Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jennifer J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Gunn, Peter R; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2009-12-01

    The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and 'bag snatch' offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that the ability to recover DNA from human cells on outdoor surfaces decreases significantly over two weeks. Conversely, no clear trends were identified in the casework data, indicating that many other factors are involved affecting the recovery of trace DNA. Nevertheless, to ensure that valuable trace evidence is not lost, it is recommended that crime scenes

  2. Expert meeting with the Belgoprocess Inc. on the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. Search and investigation on cause elucidation and reoccurrence control for the fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility. A visiting report on abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Fujita, Hideto; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Koyama, Tomozo

    1997-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail on fire cause materials, test results of thermal analysis on waste liquids, and flow of affairs relating to the fire accident (15th December, 1981) of the Euro Bitum Plant (an asphalt solidification facility of the middle level wastes) settled at the Eurochemic reprocessing work in the Kingdom of Belgium, resemble to the present accident, 4 members of the Cause Elucidation Group and Mr. Kaneko, director of the Paris Office of PNC visited to Belgium to hold a meeting with experts of the Belgoprocess Inc. for 4 days. In this meeting, after exchanging mutual detail informations on accident occurred at the Euro Bitum Plant and fire and explosion accident of the asphalt solidification facility, some discussions on cause supposition of the present accident. For cause of the fire, mutual differences were found. As a state at occurring fires was much resemble, their followed states seemed to be extremely different on responses of operators to fire-extinguishing action, filter exchanging and so forth. As finishing to recover the plant after 1 month passed from the accident to restart its operation, the Belgoprocess, Inc. has conducted some improvements of the facility such as sufficiency of fire extinguishing apparatus, addition and improvements of fire detecting means, direct measurement of solid temperature and so on, as well as reinforcement of thermal analysis procedure and renewal to new apparatus. Although no special supposition on cause of the fire at this meeting, a lot of items to learn such as operation system, responses after accident, and so forth were acquired. (G.K.)

  3. Accident investigation related to the use of chainsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Rossano Secondo Cividino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Operating in woods might be highly dangerous as it takes place in hard environments because of slopes, uneven ground and the presence of the underwood that may prevent machines and operators from moving. The chainsaw is a widely-used tool in agriculture, in forestry as well as for professional and hobby-related purposes. This article has the aim to highlight the state of injuries both for professional and domestic uses. The research focused on web-based report of news published between 2007 and 2012 about mortal and non-mortal accidents occurred in Italy and involving people who were using a chainsaw. On the whole, 336 cases were collected over a 5-year period. The results of the work are represented by a series of thematic maps related to the causative agent, the age of the injured and the seat of the injury. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the operator’s head is the most exposed area of the body and is often correlated with the death of the operator (death is often due to collision against the chainsaw blade, facial traumas as well sudden contact with parts of the plant. The study shows the dangers of chainsaw. Even workers experts are involved in serious injury and death. The study highlights the needing of looking for technical solutions and specific procedures for training unskilled worker.

  4. Who Scared the Cat? A Molecular Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Ott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady or dog (Kona committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes. They then BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool the in silico PCR results to confirm that the PCR primers are designed to amplify genomic fragments of the cardiac actin gene in both dogs and humans. Finally, they use DNA quantification techniques, PCR, and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the culprit and they confirm results by analyzing Sanger sequencing. Student learning gains were demonstrated by successful execution of the lab and by analysis and interpretation of data in the completion of laboratory reports. The student learning gains were also demonstrated by increased performance on a post-laboratory assessment compared to the pre-assessment. A post-activity assessment also revealed that students perceived gains in the skills and conceptual knowledge associated with the student learning outcomes. Finally, assessment of this introductory molecular biology and bioinformatics activity reveals that it allows first-year students to develop higher-order data analysis and interpretation skills.

  5. Who Scared the Cat? A Molecular Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Exercise†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady) or dog (Kona) committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes. They then BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) the in silico PCR results to confirm that the PCR primers are designed to amplify genomic fragments of the cardiac actin gene in both dogs and humans. Finally, they use DNA quantification techniques, PCR, and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the culprit and they confirm results by analyzing Sanger sequencing. Student learning gains were demonstrated by successful execution of the lab and by analysis and interpretation of data in the completion of laboratory reports. The student learning gains were also demonstrated by increased performance on a post-laboratory assessment compared to the pre-assessment. A post-activity assessment also revealed that students perceived gains in the skills and conceptual knowledge associated with the student learning outcomes. Finally, assessment of this introductory molecular biology and bio-informatics activity reveals that it allows first-year students to develop higher-order data analysis and interpretation skills. PMID:28101273

  6. Who Scared the Cat? A Molecular Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E; Carson, Susan D

    2016-12-01

    This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady) or dog (Kona) committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes. They then BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) the in silico PCR results to confirm that the PCR primers are designed to amplify genomic fragments of the cardiac actin gene in both dogs and humans. Finally, they use DNA quantification techniques, PCR, and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the culprit and they confirm results by analyzing Sanger sequencing. Student learning gains were demonstrated by successful execution of the lab and by analysis and interpretation of data in the completion of laboratory reports. The student learning gains were also demonstrated by increased performance on a post-laboratory assessment compared to the pre-assessment. A post-activity assessment also revealed that students perceived gains in the skills and conceptual knowledge associated with the student learning outcomes. Finally, assessment of this introductory molecular biology and bio-informatics activity reveals that it allows first-year students to develop higher-order data analysis and interpretation skills.

  7. Identification of Drivers in Traffic Accidents and Determination of Passenger Position in a Vehicle by Finger Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Trapečar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper aims to illustrate certain investigative activities in the forensic analysis and examination of the scene of traffic accidents. When a traffic accident occurs, the scene must be secured as soon as possible to enable professional and proper forensic investigation. Failure to secure the accident scene might result in losing or contaminating the traces, which makes it more difficult to prove or explain trace evidence in further procedure or even makes such evidence inadmissible. The topic is discussed from the viewpoint of crime scene examination, since analysing and investigating traffic accidents requires a great deal of expertise and attention of the investigators. Complex traffic accidents include feigned accidents, hit-and-run accidents as well as accidents in which the driver and passengers, dead or alive, need to be identified. In identifying the passengers, standard criminal investigation methods as well as police forensic and forensic medicine methods are followed. Such methods include confirming the identities with identity documents, other documents and vehicle ownership, fingerprints, biological traces, fibre traces, contact traces, traces of physical injuries on the driver and passengers, etc. According to the results obtained in fingerprint detection on human skin surfaces, this method can also be applied in confirming physical contact between the driver and the passengers in the accident, e.g. in the event of moving the victims and changing the scene of the accident.   Key words: traffic accidents, accident analysis, driver's identity, passengers' position, finger marks, human skin

  8. Effects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident on goshawk reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori; Murase, Joe; Horie, Reiko; Endo, Koichi

    2015-03-24

    Although the influence of nuclear accidents on the reproduction of top predators has not been investigated, it is important that we identify the effects of such accidents because humans are also top predators. We conducted field observation for 22 years and analysed the reproductive performance of the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis fujiyamae), a top avian predator in the North Kanto area of Japan, before and after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that occurred in 2011. The reproductive performance declined markedly compared with the pre-accident years and progressively decreased for the three post-accident study years. Moreover, it was suggested that these declines were primarily caused by an increase in the air dose rate of radio-active contaminants measured under the nests caused by the nuclear accidents, rather than by other factors. We consider the trends in the changes of the reproductive success rates and suggest that internal exposure may play an important role in the reproductive performance of the goshawk, as well as external exposure.

  9. The Influence of Familiarity on Affective Responses to Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    This kansei study explored how familiarity with image-word combinations influences affective states. Stimuli were obtained from Japanese print advertisements (ads), and consisted of images (e.g., natural-scene backgrounds) and their corresponding headlines (advertising copy). Initially, a group of subjects evaluated their level of familiarity with images and headlines independently, and stimuli were filtered based on the results. In the main experiment, a different group of subjects rated their pleasure and arousal to, and familiarity with, image-headline combinations. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scale was used to evaluate pleasure and arousal, and a bipolar scale was used to evaluate familiarity. The results showed a high correlation between familiarity and pleasure, but low correlation between familiarity and arousal. The characteristics of the stimuli, and their effect on the variables of pleasure, arousal and familiarity, were explored through ANOVA. It is suggested that, in the case of natural-scene ads, familiarity with image-headline combinations may increase the pleasure response to the ads, and that certain components in the images (e.g., water) may increase arousal levels.

  10. Forensic botany as a useful tool in the crime scene: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, Gabriele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Carnevali, Eugenia; Severini, Simona; Bacci, Mauro; Gabbrielli, Mario

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous presence of plant species makes forensic botany useful for many criminal cases. Particularly, bryophytes are useful for forensic investigations because many of them are clonal and largely distributed. Bryophyte shoots can easily become attached to shoes and clothes and it is possible to be found on footwear, providing links between crime scene and individuals. We report a case of suicide of a young girl happened in Siena, Tuscany, Italia. The cause of traumatic injuries could be ascribed to suicide, to homicide, or to accident. In absence of eyewitnesses who could testify the dynamics of the event, the crime scene investigation was fundamental to clarify the accident. During the scene analysis, some fragments of Tortula muralis Hedw. and Bryum capillare Hedw were found. The fragments were analyzed by a bryologists in order to compare them with the moss present on the stairs that the victim used immediately before the death. The analysis of these bryophytes found at the crime scene allowed to reconstruct the accident. Even if this evidence, of course, is circumstantial, it can be useful in forensic cases, together with the other evidences, to reconstruct the dynamics of events.

  11. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  12. Application of Electron Microscopy Techniques to the Investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the investigation into the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia, and addresses the importance of a failure analysis strategy for the investigation of the Columbia accident. The main focus of the presentation is on the usefulness of electron microscopy for analyzing slag deposits from the tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) wing panels of the Columbia orbiter.

  13. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N = 171) to various...... geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N = 88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance...

  14. Skidding accidents : considerations on road surface and vehicle characteristics : summary of the present situation. Provisional recommendation concerning skidding resistance of road surfaces investigation programme. Interim report of the SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    1970-01-01

    This is the first report of SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents". Skidding is considered to be an important contributory factor in traffic accidents. Skidding can in principle be prevented in two ways, viz: (1) reduction of the minimum necessary friction, and (2) increasi

  15. Experimental investigations relevant for hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanjeev [Becker Technologies GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    The accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, caused by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, resulted in a failure of the power systems that are needed to cool the reactors at the plant. The accident progression in the absence of heat removal systems caused Units 1-3 to undergo fuel melting. Containment pressurization and hydrogen explosions ultimately resulted in the escape of radioactivity from reactor containments into the atmosphere and ocean. Problems in containment venting operation, leakage from primary containment boundary to the reactor building, improper functioning of standby gas treatment system (SGTS), unmitigated hydrogen accumulation in the reactor building were identified as some of the reasons those added-up in the severity of the accident. The Fukushima accident not only initiated worldwide demand for installation of adequate control and mitigation measures to minimize the potential source term to the environment but also advocated assessment of the existing mitigation systems performance behavior under a wide range of postulated accident scenarios. The uncertainty in estimating the released fraction of the radionuclides due to the Fukushima accident also underlined the need for comprehensive understanding of fission product behavior as a function of the thermal hydraulic conditions and the type of gaseous, aqueous, and solid materials available for interaction, e.g., gas components, decontamination paint, aerosols, and water pools. In the light of the Fukushima accident, additional experimental needs identified for hydrogen and fission product issues need to be investigated in an integrated and optimized way. Additionally, as more and more passive safety systems, such as passive autocatalytic recombiners and filtered containment venting systems are being retrofitted in current reactors and also planned for future reactors, identified hydrogen and fission product issues will need to be coupled with the

  16. The Phantom Vanish Magic Trick: Investigating the Disappearance of a Non-existent Object in a Dynamic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Matthew L; Woods, Andy T; Aimola Davies, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from sleight-of-hand magic tricks, we developed an experimental paradigm to investigate whether magicians' misdirection techniques could be used to induce the misperception of "phantom" objects. While previous experiments investigating sleight-of-hand magic tricks have focused on creating false assumptions about the movement of an object in a scene, our experiment investigated creating false assumptions about the presence of an object in a scene. Participants watched a sequence of silent videos depicting a magician performing with a single object. Following each video, participants were asked to write a description of the events in the video. In the final video, participants watched the Phantom Vanish Magic Trick, a novel magic trick developed for this experiment, in which the magician pantomimed the actions of presenting an object and then making it magically disappear. No object was presented during the final video. The silent videos precluded the use of false verbal suggestions, and participants were not asked leading questions about the objects. Nevertheless, 32% of participants reported having visual impressions of non-existent objects. These findings support an inferential model of perception, wherein top-down expectations can be manipulated by the magician to generate vivid illusory experiences, even in the absence of corresponding bottom-up information.

  17. Driving Organizational Change From the Bedside: The AACN Clinical Scene Investigator Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Susan R; Goodyear-Bruch, Caryl; Olney, Adrienne; Hanson, Dave; Altman, Marian S; Varn-Davis, Natasha S; Brinker, Debbie; Lavandero, Ramón; Cox, Karen S

    2017-08-01

    Staff nurses are pivotal in leading change related to quality improvement efforts, although many lack skills to steer change from the bedside. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) staff nurse leadership program, Clinical Scene Investigator (CSI) Academy, teaches and empowers staff nurses in leadership skills and change concepts to translate evidence into practice affecting patient outcomes. To describe the curriculum of the AACN CSI Academy that provides staff nurses with the leadership skills required to create unit-based change projects that positively impact patient/family outcomes. The curriculum of the Academy included leadership topics, communication, change concepts, quality improvement methods, project management, and data management and analysis. Each team of participants collected project data to show improvements in patient care. The program evaluation used many data sources to assess the program effectiveness, relating to the professional growth of the participant nurses. The participants assessed project patient outcomes, sustainability, and spread. The first cohort of CSI participants included 164 direct care nurses from 42 hospitals in 6 cities. They rated the Academy highly in the program evaluation, and they reported that the Academy contributed to their professional development. The individual hospital quality improvement projects resulted in positive patient and estimated fiscal outcomes that were generally sustained 1 year after the program. With the skills, tools, and support obtained from participation in the CSI Academy, staff nurses can make substantial contributions to their organizations in clinical and possibly fiscal outcomes. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-03-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N=171) to various geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N=88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance of speed and traffic volume for traffic accidents with more than one partner involved. The 48 single cyclist accidents were significantly related to the traffic volume of cyclists only. Due to our limited number of observations, the models should be regarded as indicative.

  19. The roles of scene priming and location priming in object-scene consistency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Nils; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Presenting consistent objects in scenes facilitates object recognition as compared to inconsistent objects. Yet the mechanisms by which scenes influence object recognition are still not understood. According to one theory, consistent scenes facilitate visual search for objects at expected places. Here, we investigated two predictions following from this theory: If visual search is responsible for consistency effects, consistency effects could be weaker (1) with better-primed than less-primed object locations, and (2) with less-primed than better-primed scenes. In Experiments 1 and 2, locations of objects were varied within a scene to a different degree (one, two, or four possible locations). In addition, object-scene consistency was studied as a function of progressive numbers of repetitions of the backgrounds. Because repeating locations and backgrounds could facilitate visual search for objects, these repetitions might alter the object-scene consistency effect by lowering of location uncertainty. Although we find evidence for a significant consistency effect, we find no clear support for impacts of scene priming or location priming on the size of the consistency effect. Additionally, we find evidence that the consistency effect is dependent on the eccentricity of the target objects. These results point to only small influences of priming to object-scene consistency effects but all-in-all the findings can be reconciled with a visual-search explanation of the consistency effect.

  20. 32 CFR 634.29 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 634.29... records. Installation law enforcement officials will record traffic accident investigations on Service/DLA... traffic accident investigation reports pertaining to accidents investigated by military police that...

  1. Phantom Vanish magic trick: Investigating the disappearance of a non-existent object in a dynamic scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Tompkins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing inspiration from sleight-of-hand magic tricks, we developed an experimental paradigm to investigate whether magicians’ misdirection techniques could be used to induce the misperception of ‘phantom’ objects. While previous experiments investigating sleight-of-hand magic tricks have focused on creating false assumptions about the movement of an object in a scene, our experiment investigated creating false assumptions about the presence of an object in a scene. Participants watched a sequence of silent videos depicting a magician performing with a single object. Following each video, participants were asked to write a description of the events in the video. In the final video, participants watched the Phantom Vanish Magic Trick, a novel magic trick developed for this experiment, in which the magician pantomimed the actions of presenting an object and then making it magically disappear. No object was presented during the final video. The silent videos precluded the use of false verbal suggestions, and participants were not asked leading questions about the objects. Nevertheless, 32% of participants reported having visual impressions of non-existent objects. These findings support an inferential model of perception, wherein top-down expectations can be manipulated by the magician to generate vivid illusory experiences, even in the absence of corresponding bottom-up information.

  2. Lateral car collisions : characteristics of lateral car collisions based on SWOV accident investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1979-01-01

    During 1976 and part of 1977 the Dutch institute for road safety research SWOV carried out the field work for an accident study involving passenger cars. The purpose of this crash injury investigation was to evaluate the influence of relevant crash safety factors (like safety belts and head

  3. A Study on the Operation Strategy for Combined Accident including TLOFW accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Gook Young [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-10-15

    It is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of a feed-and-bleed (F-B) operation when the loss of coolant accident and failure of secondary side occur. An F-B operation directly cools down the reactor coolant system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. The plant is not always necessary the F-B operation when the secondary side is failed. It is not necessary to initiate an F-B operation in the case of a medium or large break because these cases correspond to low RCS pressure sequences when the secondary side is failed. If the break size is too small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the F-B operation is necessary. Therefore, in the case of a combined accident including a secondary cooling system failure, the provision of clear information will play a critical role in the operators' decision to initiate an F-B operation. This study focuses on the how we establish the operation strategy for combined accident including the failure of secondary side in consideration of plant and operating conditions. Previous studies have usually focused on accidents involving a TLOFW accident. The plant conditions to make the operators confused seriously are usually the combined accident because the ORP only focuses on a single accident and FRP is less familiar with operators. The relationship between CET and PCT under various plant conditions is important to decide the limitation of initiating the F-B operation to prevent core damage.

  4. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination...... are signs to be read and interpreted. Thus the place carries a plot (a narrative) which at first is hidden and scattered and has to be revealed and pieced together through a process of investigation and exploration with the aid of different forensic methods, eyewitnesses and so on; - through reading...... this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...

  5. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an…

  6. An outlook on the scenes of paradigmatic changes in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girola, R.

    2009-05-01

    In this introduction I will put forward solutions which have been given to resolve the disagreements about the different models in the history of Astronomy from a didactic point of view. It is also about having a critical and prudent look concerning the risk of combining theories which may turn out apparently valid as it is in the case of the Tycho Brahe historical model. I will particularly focus on four models from a historical and epistemological perspective with the purpose of showing how the conflictive scene moved on to an efficient way out of the problem. To do so I will describe the variables in age, time and space(cognitive space and time of Astronomy) by confronting historical models with contemporary ones about the dispute concerning the Universe dynamic description. The Mond theory explains the difficulties in the interpretation of the rotation of the spiral galaxies claiming that Newton laws are not accurate in great scale, thus denying the solution of the missing matter. At the same time the rival theory refuses the solution given by its opponent Mond theory, through observations of galactic clusters in interaction, stating the existence of Dark Matter. The chosen historical confrontations are the following: (a) Heliocentric and Geocentric Model, (b) The origin of the 1920 debate: Curtis and Shapley, (c) The Red Shift of the Galaxies and the Unchanging Cosmology, and (d) Dark Matter and Newton's Laws as viewed from Mond Theory, which is about the present disagreement. The target focuses on showing the building up of both theories and the risk of combining them as well.

  7. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  8. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  9. Towards a definition of the concept of scene: Communicating on the basis of things that matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozorog Miha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proceeds from four different but equally important concepts of scene by the authors John Irwin, Barry Shank, Will Straw, and Keith Harris. On the basis of these authors’ formulations, some essential elements for conceptualizing scenes are developed - interaction, communication, identity, and local and supralocal spaces. The four authors’ definitions are elaborated comparatively, and certain problems in the operationalisation of the concept are discussed. The authors of this article propose their own definition of the concept of scene, which is based on communication around core or important “things”.

  10. ADvice on the Use of Active seNsors in the ADM scene ID (ADUANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rhydian; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Domenech, Carlos

    2012-07-01

    Medium resolution imaging sensors, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) on board Terra and Aqua platforms, are currently used in the interpretation of radiance measurements and in the target identification required in the flux estimation from top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Instantaneous radiative flux estimates are difficult to derive from satellite broad-band radiometers due to the non-isotropic character of the emitting target. CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiance-to-flux retrieval algorithms successfully exploit the MODIS spectral capabilities to infer the required information from the scene target. However, since MODIS is a passive sensor, it provides limited information of the scene. Active sensors, such as lidar and radar, could provide more accurate scene identification since they measure realistic atmospheric vertical profiles. Considering that CERES, MODIS and the active sensors on board CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) and CloudSat are part of the payload of the A-Train, this study will assess the impact of the use of active sensors on the CERES flux retrieval algorithms. A priori, the use of active sensors in the CERES scene ID may result in both advantages and disadvantages. Potential MODIS flaws, for example, cirrus clouds over snow or overlapped clouds, could produce a misinterpretation of scenes that could now be corrected by the use of active sensor products. However, the coherence of the CERES retrieval algorithms may be partially lost if there is a systematic scene misidentification, since the flux retrieval algorithms are based on MODIS scene detection. The integrated CALIPSO, CloudSat, CERES and MODIS merged product (CCCM or C3M) provides a perfect opportunity to compare both active and passive atmospheric products for many targets. Systematic and occasionally MODIS scene misidentification will be detected and treated differently. For non

  11. Assessment of the USAF Aircraft Accident Investigation Board (AIB) Report on the F-22A Mishap of November 16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    proprioceptive system is comprised of nerves in the skin, muscles, joints, and interorgans, along with hearing. The nerves sense pressure differentials. 4...un likely. the Task Force speculated that the MP could have disconnected his mask at some point during the mishap th~n reattached it or perhaps he

  12. Traffic Accident Investigation: A Suitable Theme for Teaching Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests the development of curriculum materials on the applications of physics to traffic accident investigations as a theme for teaching mechanics. Describes several standard investigation techniques and the physics principles involved, along with some sample exercises. (TW)

  13. ERP evidence for the influence of scene context on the recognition of ambiguous and unambiguous objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Melissa; Brodeur, Mathieu B

    2015-06-01

    We are used to seeing objects in specific settings, and in association with other related objects. This contextual information allows for fast and efficient object recognition and influences brain-related processes. The influence of scene context has been studied using event-related potentials (ERPs) in order to further our understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms. Current ERP studies have focused on effects related to the incongruity between unambiguous objects and their scenes, rather than the specific influence of a congruent scene. The present study sought to examine ERPs associated with the beneficial influence of scene context on object recognition. This influence was examined using ambiguous objects that required a congruent scene in order to be recognized, as well as unambiguous objects, to determine whether scene processing occurs even when it is unnecessary for recognizing the object. Twenty healthy subjects were instructed to indicate whether they recognized, had a vague idea, or did not recognize target objects that appeared within congruent and neutral scenes. ERPs from 250 to 1000 ms, including the N300 and N400, were more positive at anterior sites and more negative at posterior sites, when objects appeared in congruent scenes as opposed to when they appeared in neutral scenes, with a larger effect seen for ambiguous objects. Upon further examination, the results showed that the ERPs to ambiguous objects became similar to those of unambiguous objects when they appeared in congruent contexts. These findings indicated that a congruent context exerted its influence by reducing the ambiguity of objects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. European Council of Legal Medicine (ECLM) principles for on-site forensic and medico-legal scene and corpse investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, D; Ferrara, S D; Keller, E; Ludes, B; Mangin, P; Väli, M; Vieira, N

    2017-07-01

    Forensic medical practitioners need to define the general principles governing procedures to be used for the on-site examination of a body where the death has occurred in unnatural, violent or suspicious circumstances. These principles should be followed whenever a medical expert is required to perform an on-site corpse inspection and should be utilised as a set of general guidelines to be adapted to the specific situation in hand and interpreted using common sense and scientific knowledge of the relevant procedures and facts of the case. The aim of these principles is to ensure that forensic evidence at the scene of a death is properly observed and assessed and all necessary relevant evidence gathered in order to ensure that a comprehensive report is available to the judicial authority (investigating judge or coroner) in the justice system. The on-site corpse inspection by a forensic practitioner is a mandatory and essential stage of the forensic and medico-legal autopsy, as it may provide important information for subsequent investigation stages.

  15. Mechanism and implementation of bidirectional IR scene simulation system based on the Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun-song; Lu, Yuan; Shen, Jia

    2011-08-01

    The IR scene simulation technique is an effective method to test the responsivity, the precision and the anti-interference capability of the IR detector during its research and development; thus the technique may reduce the cost and research time. Currently, the IR scene simulation technique based on MOS-Resistance arrays is one of the most popular IR scene simulation techniques. However, resistance arrays can only be heated, but not refrigerated. Moreover, other simulation techniques also have the problem of one-direction IR scene simulation. In this paper, the IR simulation mechanism is studied in detail. According to the analysis of the characteristic of the semiconductor device based on the Peltier effect , the bidirectional IR scene simulation technique based on semiconductor refrigeration device with the Peltier effect and the computer controlling technology is put forward. Moreover, a prototype machine is designed ,and the shortcoming of the IR scene simulation system based on MOS-Resistance arrays which can only be heated is avoided. Finally, the performance of the prototype machine is tested by experiments. The results show that the system can realize bidirectional IR scene simulation perfectly by the means of increasing and reducing the temperature.

  16. A “JUST CULTURE”? CONFLICTS OF INTEREST IN THE INVESTIGATION OF AVIATION ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sole purpose of air accident investigations should be the prevention of accidents and other incidents in the future, without apportioning blame or liability. A civil aviation safety system is based on feedback and lessons learned from accidents and incidents, while requiring the strict application of rules on confidentiality in order to ensure the availability of valuable sources of information in the future. Therefore, related data, especially sensitive safety information, should be protected in an appropriate manner. Information provided by an individual in the framework of a safety investigation should not be used against them, in full respect of constitutional principles, and national and international law. Each “involved person” who knows about an accident or serious incident should promptly notify the competent state authority for carrying out an investigation of the event. “Involved person” refers to one of the following: the owner; a member of the crew; the operator of the aircraft involved in an accident or serious incident; any person involved in the maintenance, design, manufacture of that aircraft or in the training of its crew; any person involved in air traffic control, providing flight information or providing airport services, which provided services for the aircraft concerned; staff of the national civil aviation authority; or staff of the European Aviation Safety Agency. In terms of the protection level of the organization (employer, employees who report an event or submit an application to the investigation cannot bear any prejudice from their employer because of information provided by the applicant. The protection does not cover (exclusions: infringement with wilful misconduct (direct intent, recklessness infringement; infringement committed by a clear and serious disregard of the obvious risks; and serious professional negligence, i.e., the failure to provide unquestionably duty of care required under the

  17. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

  18. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  19. Biomass accident investigations – missed opportunities for learning and accident prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2017-01-01

    selected serious accidents involving biogas and wood pellets in Denmark and argues that such opportunities for learning were missed because accident investigations were superficial, follow-up incomplete and information sharing absent. In one particularly distressing case, a facility saw a repeat accident......, this time with fatal outcome, still without any learning taking place. The paper presents some information on other biomass accidents in Denmark, mostly involving biogas from anaerobic digestion. Details are lacking however, precisely because the accidents were insufficiently investigated and results...... not communicated. The biomass industry needs to pay more attention to safety. Utmost care should be taken to avoid so-called mediashifting i.e. that the resolution of a problem within one domain, the environmental, creates a new problem in another, the workplace safety domain....

  20. The basic problems of bed-fence-covers in hospitals for preventing accidents based on the investigation into the actual conditions: for developing the safer bed-fence-cover for elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Megumi; Konishi, Teuko; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    The basic problems of bed-fence-covers in hospitals were listed for preventing relevant accidents based on the investigation into actual conditions in a hospital in Kawasaki City. There were many elderly aged patients with dementia, higher brain dysfunction or psychosis in the hospital. They sometimes fell into the gaps of bed-fences, resulting in serious accidents. It was due not only to the structure of the bed-fences, but also to the characteristics of patients. Therefore the authors listed up the problems concerning the accidents to recognize them; (i) as physical conditions, (1) they could not move by themselves because of paralysis or decrease of fitness, (2) they could not feel when they were pinched by the gaps because of decrease of sense, (3) they moved irregularly or violently without their intention, and (ii) as mental conditions, (1) they took dangerous behaviors because of dementias, (2) they could not control their behaviors because of higher brain dysfunctions, (3) they could not control their feelings and moved violently because of mental disorders. The authors intend to develop safer bed-fence-covers to prevent these accidents for the elderly patients.

  1. A trial product of a new safety belt for a wheelchair user and its evaluation based on the actual investigation of fall accidents related to wheelchairs in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Teuko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Toyoda, Mitsuko; Maie, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    Old-aged patients, especially when they cannot keep stable sitting postures on wheelchairs, may get hurts seriously by falls. Preventing fall accidents is one of the most important subjects for keeping ADL of old-aged persons. We investigated the fall accidents related to from wheelchairs that occurred in a hospital (Asao General Hospital of Rehabilitation), and tried to make a new type of safety belts for old-aged wheelchair users based on the investigation. The results of trials using the product was evaluated by the care givers. The number of fall accidents in the hospital amounted to 226 cases within a year. It is noticed that the patients removed their belts by themselves intentionally or unintentionally, which is the most important point of the accidents. The evaluators of new belts were 91 care givers. The evaluation items were (1) the convenience for caregivers to fasten and remove the belts, (2) the ability of holding the patient on the wheelchair, (3) the safeness to prevent the fall from wheelchair (including the disability of removing a belt by the user), (4) the appearance when the usually used belts and the new belts were used, and only for the new belts, (5) the hygienic aspect and (6) the utility of the pocket. The new belts got better marks than the usually used belts. We intend to further improve the trial product (new belt) to be safer, more effective and more comfortable, based on the evaluation.

  2. On Crime Scene Investigation of Duty Crime%试论职务犯罪现场勘查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏

    2012-01-01

      近年来,在司法实践中,职务犯罪存在着高发的态势,同时呈现出隐蔽化、智能化、复杂化等特点。这些都给职务犯罪侦查工作的开展,带来了新的难度。传统突破职务犯罪案件主要依靠讯问,采取“由供到证”的侦查模式。本文从证据的角度分析出发,利用现场勘查来寻找证据为案件的侦破打开缺口,力图通过职务犯罪的现场勘查寻找证据,实现“由证到供”侦查模式的转变,提高侦查工作的有效性%  In the judicial practice, there are high rates of duty crime situation in recent years. At the same time, duty crimes have the characteristics of concealment, intelligence, and complication etc. These bring new difficulties to the work of criminal investigation. The traditional method of cracking down duty crime cases mainly depends on interrogation,which is the investigation mode of “from confession to evidence”. From the perspective of analyzing evidences, this article aims to bring the change of investigation mode “from evidence to confession” into reality by searching evidences in crime scene investigation of duty crime in order to improve the effectiveness of the investigation work.

  3. The crisis of investigative Journalism in Spain. The journalism practice in the Spanair accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente García-Santamaría, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crash of the McDonnell Douglas plane operated by the Spanish airline Spanair, on 20 August 2008 at Barajas Airport, and the journalistic treatment it received undoubtedly represent a unique opportunity to address the current state of journalism in Spain. In particular, this article studies the use of information sources in a crisis situation, which requires a major effort to find the maximum number of primary and specialised sources to provide, in a short period of time, the audience with the key facts to understand the event. This accident also represents an excellent opportunity to study some practices within investigative journalism and the different factors that condition the media agenda. Finally, as in any other air tragedy, where millionaire compensations can be paid to the victims, it is important to examine the application of a series of ethical frameworks, which have been captured in deontological codes designed to assure fair journalistic practices.

  4. Traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance : an investigation into the statistical relationship between the skidding resistance of the road surface and relative road risk. Summary of the research report of Sub-committee V of the Working Group on Tyres, Road Surfaces and Skidding Accidents of the Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M

    1975-01-01

    This study forms part of an extended research programme of the Working Group on Tyres, Road-surfaces and Skidding accidents. According to the terms of reference a statistical relationship had to be established between the skidding resistance of a road-surface and the number of accidents per million

  5. Identification, Collection, and Preservation of Veterinary Forensic Evidence: On Scene and During the Postmortem Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroo, R; Fitch, A

    2016-09-01

    Although it is the obligation of the veterinary forensic pathologist to be competent in identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence from the body, it is also necessary for them to understand the relevance of conditions on the crime scene. The body is just one piece of the puzzle that needs to be considered when determining the cause of death. The information required for a complete postmortem analysis should also include details of the animal's environment and items of evidence present on the crime scene. These factors will assist the veterinary forensic pathologist in the interpretation of necropsy findings. Therefore, the veterinary forensic pathologist needs to have a basic understanding of how the crime scene is processed, as well as the role of the forensic veterinarian on scene. In addition, the veterinary forensic pathologist must remain unbiased, necessitating an understanding of evidence maintenance and authentication.

  6. Features of the traffic accidents happened in the province of Aydın between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Musa; Bostancıoğlu, Başak Çakır; Elbek, Tülay; Korkmaz, Bedir; Çallak Kallem, Füsun; Gün, Berk

    2014-09-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the traffic accidents with postmortem examinations and autopsies. From the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic autopsies, reports of 334 traffic accidents were searched. Features such as the scene of the accident, type of the accident, type of the vehicles involved in the accident, the year, season, day and hour of the accident, the positions of the victims in the traffic, concomitant orthopedic injuries, whether autopsy was performed, and cause of death were investigated. Among the one thousand eight hundred and fifteen forensic death cases, observed cause of death was determined to be traffic accidents in 334 (18.4%) cases. Male cases accounted 84.1%, and male to female ratio was 5.3 to 1. From the reports, 32.6% of the accidents happened in summer and most commonly during holidays (33%). The rate of the accidents happened in the city center was 35.3% and 32.9% of these cases died due to pedestrian collision. Moreover, it was determined that the most injured person was the driver. Automobiles took the lead in the causes of the traffic accidents. It is realized that traffic accident-related deaths have a substantial place among forensic deaths and continue to be an important public health problem. It is conspicuous that improving public education on traffic safety, increasing traffic management and control measures are of great significance.

  7. An analysis on the severe accident progression with operator recovery actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, T.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, J.H., E-mail: dosa@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.W.; Kim, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Severe accident progression for the station blackout and SBLOCA accident. • Analyses on APR1400 using MELCOR. • Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up. • Determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. • Insight for the operator recovery actions for the severe accident management. - Abstract: Analyses on the severe accident progressions for the station blackout (SBO) accident and small break LOCA (SBLOCA) initiated severe accident were performed for APR1400 by using MELCOR computer code. Operator recovery actions for decay heat removal and inventory make up using a depressurization system and safety injection pump were simulated in parallel with a simulation of the severe accident progression. Sensitivity studies on the operator actions were performed to investigate the changes in the timing of the reactor vessel failure and to determine the time allowed for the operator to prevent reactor vessel failure. Sensitivity analyses on the effect of major modeling parameters were performed additionally to quantify the uncertainties in timing. It is found that the operator has about 2 h for the recovery actions after the indication of core damage by the signal of core exit thermocouple (CET) for the SBLOCA initiated severe accident, while the operator has to take immediate actions after the indication of core damage by CET for the SBO accident.

  8. On the causes of car accidents on German Autobahn connectors

    OpenAIRE

    Garnowski, Martin; Manner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The work at hand tries to identify factors that explain accidents on German Autobahn connectors. To find these factors the empirical study makes use of count data models. The findings are based on a set of 197 ramps, which we classified into three distinct types of ramps. For these ramps accident data was available for a period of 3 years (January 2003 until December 2005). The Negative Binomial model proved to be an appropriate model for our cross-sectional setting in detecting factors that ...

  9. Look Closely: The Finer Points of Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Continues a discussion of script analysis for actors. Focuses on specific scenes and how an eventual scene-by-scene analysis will help students determine a "throughline" of a play's action. Uses a scene from "Romeo and Juliet" to illustrate scene analysis. Gives 13 script questions for students to answer. Presents six tips for scoring the action.…

  10. High Temperature Chemistry in the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Tallant, David; Simpson, Regina

    2004-01-01

    Initial estimates on the temperature and conditions of the breach in Columbia's wing focused on analyses of the slag deposits. These deposits are complex mixtures of the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) constituents, insulation material, and wing structural materials. However it was possible to clearly discern melted/solidified Cerachrome(R) insulation, indicating the temperatures had exceeded 1760 C. Current research focuses on the carbon/carbon in the path from the breach. Carbon morphology indicates heavy oxidation and erosion. Raman spectroscopy yielded further temperature estimates. A technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories is based on crystallite size in carbon chars. Lower temperatures yield nanocrystalline graphite; whereas higher temperatures yield larger graphite crystals. By comparison to standards the temperatures on the recovered RCC fragments were estimated to have been greater than 2700 C.

  11. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    Safety has been in the focus of seafaring during the past decade that observed a gradual reduction of reported work injuries in Danish ships. The injuries are, however, unevenly distributed in the maritime workforce, depending on various factors, the nationality of seafarer among them. The aim of...... the occurrence as well as the reporting of accidents is crucial to construct effective preventive measures for risk management....... to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... Western European seafarers compared to South East Asian (mostly Filipino) employees. The results highlight a favourable level of reported injuries in the Danish maritime sector but also point out detectable differences between groups of employees. The identification of factors that determine...

  12. THE FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Latipulhayat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of an aircraft accident investigation is to find out the most probable causes of such accident. This represents a technical investigation in nature. At the practical level, however, this report is often used as legal evidence before the court. This paper argues that the main purpose of an aircraft acccident investigation is technical in nature and judicial investigation is carried out when the technical investigation found elements of crime that has been alleged as the most probable cause of the accident.   Menurut Konvensi Chicago 1944, tujuan utama suatu investigasi kecelakaan pesawat udara adalah untuk menemukan penyebab terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut. Jadi, investigasi ini bersifat teknis. Namun, laporan investigasi ini seringkali dijadikan alat bukti di pengadilan khususnya apabila faktor kesalahan manusia dianggap sebagai penyebab utama terjadinya kecelakaan tersebut. Investigasi teknis berubah menjadi investigasi yuridis. Tulisan ini berpendapat bahwa hakikat investigasi kecelakaan pesawat udara adalah bersifat teknis dan investigasi yuridis hanya akan dilakukan apabila laporan investigasi teknis menunjukkan adanya elemen kriminal.

  13. On support relations and semantic scene graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Ying; Liao, Wentong; Ackermann, Hanno; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2017-09-01

    Scene understanding is one of the essential and challenging topics in computer vision and photogrammetry. Scene graph provides valuable information for such scene understanding. This paper proposes a novel framework for automatic generation of semantic scene graphs which interpret indoor environments. First, a Convolutional Neural Network is used to detect objects of interest in the given image. Then, the precise support relations between objects are inferred by taking two important auxiliary information in the indoor environments: the physical stability and the prior support knowledge between object categories. Finally, a semantic scene graph describing the contextual relations within a cluttered indoor scene is constructed. In contrast to the previous methods for extracting support relations, our approach provides more accurate results. Furthermore, we do not use pixel-wise segmentation to obtain objects, which is computation costly. We also propose different methods to evaluate the generated scene graphs, which lacks in this community. Our experiments are carried out on the NYUv2 dataset. The experimental results demonstrated that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in inferring support relations. The estimated scene graphs are accurately compared with ground truth.

  14. How to reduce the number of accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Among the safety objectives that the Director-General has established for CERN in 2012 is a reduction in the number of workplace accidents.   The best way to prevent workplace accidents is to learn from experience. This is why any accident, fire, instance of pollution, or even a near-miss, should be reported using the EDH form that can be found here. All accident reports are followed up. The departments investigate all accidents that result in sick leave, as well as all the more common categories of accidents at CERN, essentially falls (slipping, falling on stairs, etc.), regardless of whether or not they lead to sick leave. By studying the accident causes that come to light in this way, it is possible to take preventive action to avoid such accidents in the future. If you have any questions, the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. HSE Unit

  15. The chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith; Williams, Dillwyn

    2006-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused widespread radioactive contamination and enormous concern. Twenty years later, the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a generally reassuring statement about the consequences. Accurate assessment of the consequences is important to the current debate on nuclear power. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths ; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects, such as mini-satellite instability, which is potentially important. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment of Chernobyl's future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties over the dose from and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. Because of the problems with the international response to Chernobyl, the United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.

  16. Applying the AcciMap methodology to investigate the tragic Sewol Ferry accident in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Samuel; Moh, Young Bo; Tabibzadeh, Maryam; Meshkati, Najmedin

    2017-03-01

    This study applies the AcciMap methodology, which was originally proposed by Professor Jens Rasmussen (1997), to the analysis of the tragic Sewol Ferry accident in South Korea on April 16, 2014, which killed 304 mostly young people and is considered as a national disaster in that country. This graphical representation, by incorporating associated socio-technical factors into an integrated framework, provides a big-picture to illustrate the context in which an accident occurred as well as the interactions between different levels of the studied system that resulted in that event. In general, analysis of past accidents within the stated framework can define the patterns of hazards within an industrial sector. Such analysis can lead to the definition of preconditions for safe operations, which is a main focus of proactive risk management systems. In the case of the Sewol Ferry accident, a lot of the blame has been placed on the Sewol's captain and its crewmembers. However, according to this study, which relied on analyzing all available sources published in English and Korean, the disaster is the result of a series of lapses and disregards for safety across different levels of government and regulatory bodies, Chonghaejin Company, and the Sewol's crewmembers. The primary layers of the AcciMap framework, which include the political environment and non-proactive governmental body; inadequate regulations and their lax oversight and enforcement; poor safety culture; inconsideration of human factors issues; and lack of and/or outdated standard operating and emergency procedures were not only limited to the maritime industry in South Korea, and the Sewol Ferry accident, but they could also subject any safety-sensitive industry anywhere in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Most Effective Safety Codes on Occupational Accidents Prevention in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid pace of the construction projects have led to safety negligence on the part of the contractors causing higher numbers of accidents in construction industry. Thus, over 2200 legal provisions have been established for the prevention of accidents on construction sites. Not only contractors are unable to implement all provisions, but also it is hard for regulatory bodies to implement all rules, but they are also hard to remember and attend to by regulatory forces. Therefore, identifying the set of codes with the highest effect on reducing accidents would be most beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective legal provisions in reducing accidents on construction sites in Zanjan city. Methods: In this study, 378 work-related accidents in construction sites in Zanjan city, already registered in the Labor Inspection Authority, were investigated .Then the codes that had not been respected in the construction industry accidents were identified. Effective codes were determined based on their frequency on Pareto chart. Results: Results indicated that out of 2200 legal matters, only 164 were broken in the accidents. Conclusion: Application of Pareto chart could raise safety professionals' awareness of the specific broken codes in accidents, thus draw higher attention to the codes.

  18. Reconstruction of an inn fire scene using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    An inn fire occurring in the middle of the night usually causes a great deal more injuries and deaths. This article examines the case study of an inn fire accident that resulted in the most serious casualties in Taiwan's history. Data based on the official fire investigation report and NFPA921 regulations are used, and the fire scenes are reconstructed using the latest Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program from NIST. The personnel evacuation time and time variants for various fire hazard factors of reconstructive analysis clarify the reason for such a high number of casualties. It reveals that the FDS program has come to play an essential role in fire investigation. The close comparison between simulation result and the actual fire scene also provides fire prevention engineers, a possible utilization of FDS to examine the effects of improved schemes for fire safety of buildings.

  19. 园内儿童意外伤害对托幼园所影响的调查分析%Investigation on the influence of children's accident on kindergartens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁全莲; 马迎华

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解海淀区园内儿童意外伤害对托幼园所影响的现状,为制定减少园内意外伤害发生及其对园所影响的有效干预措施提供依据.方法 针对海淀区2007至2009年发生的306例园内意外伤害对托幼园所的影响进行调查分析.结果 随着园所级别升高,发生意外伤害的园所数逐渐减少,各类园所间发生意外伤害的比例差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.49,P<0.05).3年中园所因意外伤害导致直接经济损失约22万元,占园所支付伤害处置费用的76.1%.意外伤害的发生对园所的正常工作、教师情绪及经济损失等的不良影响程度随园所级别的降低而升高.结论 加强托幼园所与家长的信息沟通,使家长充分理解托幼园所的工作,推广全面覆盖儿童的意外伤害保险,减少儿童意外伤害对园所的影响.%Objective To understand the current status of the influence of children' s accident in kindergartens of Haidian District on kindergartens, so as to provide scientific guideline for effective measures to decrease children' s accident in kindergartens and the influence on kindergartens. Methods Three hundred and six cases of children s accident happened from 2007 to 2009 and the influence on the kindergartens of Haidian District were investigated. Results The children s accident was less with the highering of kindergartens rank, and the difference in rate of accident in different kindergartens was statistically significant ( χ2 - 29. 49,P < 0. 05 ). In these three years about 220 thousands yuan was lost because of accident in kindergartens, which occupied 76. 1% of expense of injury. The negative effects of accident on normal work of kindergarten, teachers' mood and economic loss increased with the lowering of kindergartens' rank. Conclusion Enhancing communication between parents and kindergartens promotes parents full understanding of kindergartens daily work. Accident insurance for children needs to be promoted so

  20. Eye tracking to evaluate evidence recognition in crime scene investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watalingam, Renuka Devi; Richetelli, Nicole; Pelz, Jeff B; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-08-23

    Crime scene analysts are the core of criminal investigations; decisions made at the scene greatly affect the speed of analysis and the quality of conclusions, thereby directly impacting the successful resolution of a case. If an examiner fails to recognize the pertinence of an item on scene, the analyst's theory regarding the crime will be limited. Conversely, unselective evidence collection will most likely include irrelevant material, thus increasing a forensic laboratory's backlog and potentially sending the investigation into an unproductive and costly direction. Therefore, it is critical that analysts recognize and properly evaluate forensic evidence that can assess the relative support of differing hypotheses related to event reconstruction. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to determine if quantitative eye tracking data and qualitative reconstruction accuracy could be used to distinguish investigator expertise. In order to assess this, 32 participants were successfully recruited and categorized as experts or trained novices based on their practical experiences and educational backgrounds. Each volunteer then processed a mock crime scene while wearing a mobile eye tracker, wherein visual fixations, durations, search patterns, and reconstruction accuracy were evaluated. The eye tracking data (dwell time and task percentage on areas of interest or AOIs) were compared using Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) and the Needleman-Wunsch (N-W) algorithm, revealing significant group differences for both search duration (EMD), as well as search sequence (N-W). More specifically, experts exhibited greater dissimilarity in search duration, but greater similarity in search sequences than their novice counterparts. In addition to the quantitative visual assessment of examiner variability, each participant's reconstruction skill was assessed using a 22-point binary scoring system, in which significant group differences were detected as a function of total

  1. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles.......Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  2. The Lecture Video Scene Extracting System

    OpenAIRE

    石黒, 信啓; 白井,治彦; 黒岩,丈介; 小高, 知宏; 小倉, 久和; ISHIGURO, Nobuhiko; SHIRAI, Haruhiko; KUROIWA, Josuke; ODAKA, Tomohiko; OGURA, Hisakazu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the system of extracting feature of scenes in a lecture video. To avoid a hand work on a lecture video, we propose a new method automate the judgment of importance of a scene. This system uses the TF-IDF method that is the technique of the natural language processing. Our system has four functions to watch a lecture video efficiently. They are the function of extracting feature of scenes, character string choice, keyword search and important scene choice.These functi...

  3. Investigation on Melt-Structure-Water Interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Bui, V.A.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Li, H.X.; Konovakhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Leung, W.H [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1999-08-01

    This report is the final report for the work performed in 1998 in the research project Melt Structure Water Interactions (MSWI), under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The present report describes results of advanced analytical and experimental studies concerning melt-water-structure interactions during the course of a hypothetical severe core meltdown accident in a light water reactor (LWR). Emphasis has been placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. Many of the investigations performed in support of this project have produced papers which have been published in the proceedings of technical meetings. A short summary of the results achieved in these papers is provided in this overview. Both experimental and analytical studies were performed to improve knowledge about phenomena of melt-structure-water interactions. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: the solidification has a strong effect on the drop deformation and breakup. Initially appearing at the drop surface and, later, thickening inwards, the solid crust layer dampens the instability waves on the drop surface and, therefore, hinders drop deformation and breakup. The drop thermal properties also affect the thermal behavior of the drop and, therefore, have impact on its deformation behavior. The jet fragmentation process is a function of many related phenomena. The fragmentation rate depends not only on the traditional parameters, e.g. the Weber number, but also on the melt physical properties, which change as the melt cools down from the liquidus to the solidus temperature. Additionally, the crust formed on the surface of the melt jet will also reduce the propensity

  4. An examination of aviation accidents in the context of a conflict of interests between law enforcement, insurers, commissions for aircraft accident investigations and other entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sole purpose of air accident investigations should be the prevention of accidents and incidents in the future without apportioning blame or liability. Any civil aviation safety system is based on feedback and lessons learned from accidents and incidents, which require the strict application of rules on confidentiality in order to ensure the availability of valuable sources of information in the future. Therefore, related data, especially sensitive safety information, should be protected in an appropriate manner. Information provided by a person in the framework of a safety investigation should not be used against that person, in full respect of constitutional principles, as well as national and international law. Each “involved person” in an accident or another serious incident should promptly notify the competent investigating authority of the state of the event. An “involved person” means the owner, a member of the crew, the operator of the aircraft involved in an accident or other serious incident, or any person involved in the maintenance, design, manufacture of the affected aircraft or in the training of its crews, as well as any person involved in air traffic control, providing flight information or providing airport services to the aircraft in question, the staff of the national civil aviation authority, or staff of the European Aviation Safety Agency. The protection level of the organization (employer: employees who report an event or replace applications following an event with regard to the appropriate reporting systems should not face any prejudice from their employer because of information provided by the applicant. The protection does not cover (exclusions: infringement with wilful misconduct (direct intent, recklessness infringement; infringement committed by a clear and serious disregard of the obvious risks; and serious professional negligence of an unquestionably duty of care required under the circumstances

  5. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high, but not low, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low- complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  6. Scene complexity: influence on perception, memory, and development in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Ofen, Noa; Jacobs, Lucia F; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-01-01

    Regions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are involved in memory formation for scenes in both children and adults. The development in children and adolescents of successful memory encoding for scenes has been associated with increased activation in PFC, but not MTL, regions. However, evidence suggests that a functional subregion of the MTL that supports scene perception, located in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), goes through a prolonged maturation process. Here we tested the hypothesis that maturation of scene perception supports the development of memory for complex scenes. Scenes were characterized by their levels of complexity defined by the number of unique object categories depicted in the scene. Recognition memory improved with age, in participants ages 8-24, for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. High-complexity compared to low-complexity scenes activated a network of regions including the posterior PHG. The difference in activations for high- versus low-complexity scenes increased with age in the right posterior PHG. Finally, activations in right posterior PHG were associated with age-related increases in successful memory formation for high-, but not low-, complexity scenes. These results suggest that functional maturation of the right posterior PHG plays a critical role in the development of enduring long-term recollection for high-complexity scenes.

  7. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  8. Analysis on the severe accidents in KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Jae; Cheong, Y. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Cheon, E. J. [PlaGen, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-11-15

    The establishment of regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been demanded as the facility is targeted to be completed in the year of 2005. Such establishment can be achieved by performing adequate and in-depth analyses on safety issues covering radiological and chemical hazard materials, radiation protection, high vacuum, very low temperature, etc. The loss of coolant accidents and the loss of vacuum accident in fusion facilities have been introduced with summary of simulation results that were previously reported for ITER and JET. Computer codes that are actively used for accident simulation research are examined and their main features are briefly described. It can be stated that the safety analysis is indispensable to secure the safety of workers and individual members of the public as well as to establish the regulatory and approval systems for KSTAR tokamak.

  9. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  10. Integrating engineering principles into the medico-legal investigation of a rare fatal rollover car accident involving complex dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Vincenzo M; Castagnola, Flaminia; Miscusi, Massimo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Rollover car accidents can be the result of forceful steering or hitting an obstacle that acts like a ramp. Mortality from this type of car accident is particularly high, especially when occupants are thrown out of the vehicle. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who died after a rollover accident that occurred when he was driving a car equipped with a glass moonroof. He was found inside his car with his safety belt correctly fastened and the roof shattered. At autopsy, a wide avulsion injury of the head was observed, which was associated with an atlanto-axial dislocation and full-thickness fracture of the cervical body and posterior facet joints of the seventh cervical vertebra. The data collected at the scene of the accident were integrated with the autopsy results to yield a forensic engineering reconstruction. This reconstruction elucidated the dynamics of the event and correctly ascribed the lesions observed at autopsy to the phases of the rollover. Afterward, an analysis of the scientific literature concerning rollover crash tests was conducted to understand why the driver sustained fatal injuries even though his seatbelt was properly fastened.

  11. Clandestine laboratory scene investigation and processing using portable GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Raymond J.

    1997-02-01

    This presentation describes the use of portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for on-scene investigation and processing of clandestine laboratories. Clandestine laboratory investigations present special problems to forensic investigators. These crime scenes contain many chemical hazards that must be detected, identified and collected as evidence. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performed on-scene with a rugged, portable unit is capable of analyzing a variety of matrices for drugs and chemicals used in the manufacture of illicit drugs, such as methamphetamine. Technologies used to detect various materials at a scene have particular applications but do not address the wide range of samples, chemicals, matrices and mixtures that exist in clan labs. Typical analyses performed by GC/MS are for the purpose of positively establishing the identity of starting materials, chemicals and end-product collected from clandestine laboratories. Concerns for the public and investigator safety and the environment are also important factors for rapid on-scene data generation. Here is described the implementation of a portable multiple-inlet GC/MS system designed for rapid deployment to a scene to perform forensic investigations of clandestine drug manufacturing laboratories. GC/MS has long been held as the 'gold standard' in performing forensic chemical analyses. With the capability of GC/MS to separate and produce a 'chemical fingerprint' of compounds, it is utilized as an essential technique for detecting and positively identifying chemical evidence. Rapid and conclusive on-scene analysis of evidence will assist the forensic investigators in collecting only pertinent evidence thereby reducing the amount of evidence to be transported, reducing chain of custody concerns, reducing costs and hazards, maintaining sample integrity and speeding the completion of the investigative process.

  12. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (I: Major inducement events of the accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen drilling in poor tight gas sandstone should be safe because of very low gas production. But a serious accident of fire blowout occurred during nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1. This is the first nitrogen drilling accident in China, which was beyond people's knowledge about the safety of nitrogen drilling and brought negative effects on the development of gas drilling technology still in start-up phase and resulted in dramatic reduction in application of gas drilling. In order to form a correct understanding, the accident was systematically analyzed, the major events resulting in this accident were inferred. It is discovered for the first time that violent ejection of rock clasts and natural gas occurred due to the sudden burst of downhole rock when the fractured tight gas zone was penetrated during nitrogen drilling, which has been named as “rock burst and blowout by gas bomb”, short for “rock burst”. Then all the induced events related to the rock burst are as following: upthrust force on drilling string from rock burst, bridging-off formed and destructed repeatedly at bit and centralizer, and so on. However, the most direct important event of the accident turns out to be the blockage in the blooie pipe from rock burst clasts and the resulted high pressure at the wellhead. The high pressure at the wellhead causes the blooie pipe to crack and trigged blowout and deflagration of natural gas, which is the direct presentation of the accident.

  13. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country’s economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of industry is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers’ health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

  14. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario.

  15. Radioactivity impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Chen, L.; Yu, W.; Ma, H.; Zeng, Z.; Lin, J.; Zeng, S.

    2015-02-01

    The Fukushima Nuclear Accident (FNA) resulted in a large amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere and dispersed globally, which has greatly raised public concerns. The state of the art for source terms of 19 kinds of radionuclides derived from the FNA was comprehensively collected and compared with levels of the global fallout and the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident (CNA). The atmospheric impacts of the FNA were evaluated from three aspects including radioactive baseline of the atmosphere, the concentration limits in standards and radiological protection. The FNA should not impose significant radiological risk on the public members in the countries excluding Japan. A conceptual scheme of Fukushima-derived radionuclides with physical and physicochemical insights on different temporal-spatial timescales was discussed and illustrated to understand their fates in the atmosphere.

  16. Tracing bloodlines: kinship and reproduction under investigation in CSI: Crime Scene Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    This article examines discourses on kinship and reproduction in the forensic crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (2000–). I argue that the programme stages a visual materialization of genetic kinship in order to assert its importance as a crucial type of forensic evidence, which evokes the traditional Darwinian framework of genealogy for understanding biological kinship as a substantial and enduring trace between generations. However, I show that CSI also participates in contemporary b...

  17. Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure,however,the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those in low pressure,Therefore,the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University.The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of -coolant accident for pressurized water reacor.The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of -coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop.Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for :hot leg” break,while three types for “cold leg”break and the effect parameters on the break geometries.Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur.A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergentdivergent nozzles.

  18. Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Ronny; Breuhan, Andy; Hildebrandt, Mario; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-06-01

    In the field of crime scene forensics, current methods of evidence collection, such as the acquisition of shoe-marks, tireimpressions, palm-prints or fingerprints are in most cases still performed in an analogue way. For example, fingerprints are captured by powdering and sticky tape lifting, ninhydrine bathing or cyanoacrylate fuming and subsequent photographing. Images of the evidence are then further processed by forensic experts. With the upcoming use of new multimedia systems for the digital capturing and processing of crime scene traces in forensics, higher resolutions can be achieved, leading to a much better quality of forensic images. Furthermore, the fast and mostly automated preprocessing of such data using digital signal processing techniques is an emerging field. Also, by the optical and non-destructive lifting of forensic evidence, traces are not destroyed and therefore can be re-captured, e.g. by creating time series of a trace, to extract its aging behavior and maybe determine the time the trace was left. However, such new methods and tools face different challenges, which need to be addressed before a practical application in the field. Based on the example of fingerprint age determination, which is an unresolved research challenge to forensic experts since decades, we evaluate the influences of different environmental conditions as well as different types of sweating and their implications to the capturing sensory, preprocessing methods and feature extraction. We use a Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor to exemplary represent such a new optical and contactless measurement device and investigate the influence of 16 different environmental conditions, 8 different sweat types and 11 different preprocessing methods on the aging behavior of 48 fingerprint time series (2592 fingerprint scans in total). We show the challenges that arise for such new multimedia systems capturing and processing forensic evidence

  19. "On the scene": Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoying, Cheryl; Lecher, William T; Mosko, Dee Dee; Roberto, Nancy; Mason, Char; Murphy, Susan Wade; Taylor, Janalee; Cortina, Sandra; Mathison, Elizabeth; Dick, Leaann; Schoettker, Pamela J; Britto, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center is transforming the way it cares for its patients by building a sophisticated model that focuses on accountable care across the continuum. As nurses from different parts of the organization, we act as change agents to develop an integrated structure built around the patient's needs, from prevention to self-management. We demonstrate how organizational structure, fluid staffing, professional practice, and healthy behaviors operationally catalyze the continuum of care, and how we utilize self-management, community-based programs, and care integration to change the outcome for our patients and families. While care coordination is taking on many forms in medical centers around the world, Cincinnati Children's is proud and passionate about sharing its best practices along the way.

  20. Forensic DNA Evidence at a Crime Scene: An Investigator's Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozis, J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. The first is to present a law enforcement perspective of the importance of a crime scene, the value of probative evidence, and how to properly recognize, document, and collect evidence. The second purpose is to provide forensic scientists who primarily work in laboratories with the ability to gain insight on how law enforcement personnel process a crime scene. With all the technological advances in the various disciplines associated with forensic science, none have been more spectacular than those in the field of DNA. The development of sophisticated and sensitive instrumentation has led forensic scientists to be able to detect DNA profiles from minute samples of evidence in a much timelier manner. In forensic laboratories, safeguards and protocols associated with ASCLD/LAB International, Forensic Quality Services, and or ISO/IEC 17020:1998 accreditation have been established and implemented to ensure proper case analysis. But no scientist, no instrumentation, and no laboratory could come to a successful conclusion about evidence if that evidence had been compromised or simply missed at a crime scene. Evidence collectors must be trained thoroughly to process a scene and to be able to distinguish between probative evidence and non probative evidence. I am a firm believer of the phrase "garbage in is garbage out." One of the evidence collector's main goals is not only to recover enough DNA so that an eligible CODIS profile can be generated to identify an offender but also, more importantly, to recover sufficient DNA to exonerate the innocent.

  1. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  2. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  3. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  5. Scenes of the self, and trance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trance shows the Self as a process involved in all sorts and forms of life. A Western perspective on a self and its reifying tendencies is only one (or one series of those variations. The process character of the self does not allow any coherent theory but shows, in particular when confronted with trance, its variability in all regards. What is more: the Self is always first on the scene of itself―a situation in which it becomes a sign for itself. That particular semiotic feature is again not a unified one but leads, as the Self in view of itself does, to series of scenes with changing colors, circumstances and environments. Our first scene “Beyond Monotheism” shows semiotic importance in that a self as determining component of a trance-phenomenon must abolish its own referent and seems not able to answer the question, what makes trance a trance. The Pizzica is an example here. Other social features of trance appear in the second scene, US post traumatic psychological treatments included. Our third scene underlines structures of an unfolding self: beginning with ‘split-ego’ conclusions, a self’s engenderment appears dependent on linguistic events and on spoken words in the first place. A fourth scene explores that theme and explains modern forms of an ego ―in particular those inherent to ‘citizenship’ or a ‘corporation’. The legal consequences are concentrated in the fifth scene, which considers a legal subject by revealing its ‘standing’. Our sixth and final scene pertains to the relation between trance and commerce. All scenes tie together and show parallels between Pizzica, rights-based behavior, RAVE music versus disco, commerce and trance; they demonstrate the meaning of trance as a multifaceted social phenomenon.

  6. [Historic significance and future prospect of cancer high incidence scenes in China based on the development of esophageal cancer high incidence scene in Linzhou, Henan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W W

    2016-09-23

    Cancer high incidence scenes are specific and distinguishing characteristics of cancer prevention in China, which not only have made significant contributions to cancer control with Chinese characteristics, but also benefited the masses in cancer high incidence areas and have achieved a great deal of success. These achievements affect not only the prevention and control of cancer, but also of chronic non-communicable diseases both in China and in the world. This paper reviews the history, successes and problems of cancer prevention and control in esophageal cancer high incidence areas in Linzhou City, Henan Province and other provinces in China, and point out the future direction of cancer high incidence scenes on the basis of opportunities and challenges to be faced in modern era.

  7. Who by accident? The social morphology of car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Yair, Gad; Mahalel, David

    2010-09-01

    Prior studies in the sociology of accidents have shown that different social groups have different rates of accident involvement. This study extends those studies by implementing Bourdieu's relational perspective of social space to systematically explore the homology between drivers' social characteristics and their involvement in specific types of motor vehicle accident. Using a large database that merges official Israeli road-accident records with socioeconomic data from two censuses, this research maps the social order of road accidents through multiple correspondence analysis. Extending prior studies, the results show that different social groups indeed tend to be involved in motor vehicle accidents of different types and severity. For example, we find that drivers from low socioeconomic backgrounds are overinvolved in severe accidents with fatal outcomes. The new findings reported here shed light on the social regularity of road accidents and expose new facets in the social organization of death. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso dos; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. METHOD...

  9. Three-dimensional imaging in crime scene investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    Law enforcement is responsible for investigating crimes, identifying and arresting the suspects, and presenting evidence to a judge and jury in court. In order to objectively perform these duties, police need to gather accurate information and clearly explain the crime scene and physical evidence in a court of law. Part of this information includes the documentation of the incident. Documenting an incident has always been divided into three categories: notes, sketch, and photographs. This method of recording crime scenes has been the standard for years. The major drawback, however, is that the visual documents of sketches and photographs are two dimensional. This greatly restricts the actual visualization of the incident requiring a careful cross referencing of the details in order to understand it.

  10. Investigation and analysis of the intoxication accident of sodium nitrite%一起亚硝酸钠中毒事故的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨; 周东升

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the causes of food-poisoning, to prevent and eliminate the similar accident. METHODS Used scene hygienic investigation, epidemiological analysis, laboratory detection and so on. RESULTS The food- poisoning event was caused by the polluted water with sodium nitrite from the reservior. The sodium nitrite water was siphoned from supply water pipe to drinking water pipe by temporary stop water. CONCLUSION More propagandas should be strengthened, the all population should improve the knowledge of the sodium nitrite intoxication. The health supervision department should strength training and inspection works. The enterprise should strength the management of sodium nitrite, the same water source should be forbidden to be used as industry water and drinking water in order to eliminate the accident and the similar accident of hazarding wokers' health.%目的 对一起食物中毒的原因进行分析,防止和杜绝事故的再次发生.方法 采用现场卫生学调查、流行病学分析、实验室检测等方法.结果 该事故为一起因暂时停水,引起的车间除锈用亚硝酸钠蓄水池水,由进水管虹吸返流至饮用水管,污染饮用水所致的食物中毒.结论 应加强多渠道宣传,提高各类人员对亚硝酸盐中毒的认识,卫生监督部门要加强培训和监督工作,企业要加强对亚硝酸盐规范管理,严禁工业用水与生活饮用水共用同一水源,以消除这类事件或其他危害职工身体健康的事件发生.

  11. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident…

  12. The Influence of Emotion on Recognition Memory for Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Pryde, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    According to dual-process models, recognition memory is supported by two distinct processes: familiarity, a relatively automatic process that involves the retrieval of a previously encountered item, and recollection, a more effortful process that involves the retrieval of information associated with the context in which an item was encoded (Mickes, Wais & Wixted, 2009). There is a wealth of research suggesting that recognition memory performance is affected by the emotional content of stimul...

  13. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigat...

  14. The Use of Archaeological and Anthropological Methods in Fatal Fire Scene Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    mortem traumatic events. This analysis is highly dependent upon the volume of osteological material available for assessment, the area of the body that...impact on the osteological composition of remains and thus bone reactions can be expected to differ in different age groups. Other variables such as body

  15. On the scene: St Mary's Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine; Beglinger, Joan Ellis; Derosa, Jody; Griffin, Carla; Laham, Mary; Leonard, Mary Kay; Vanderkolk, Caprice

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss Shared Governance as the foundation of our nursing professional practice model. Through the use of case examples and reflections from our management team, we demonstrate how this accountability-based practice model promotes excellence through developing, connecting, and engaging people, clarifying and communicating goals, using data to make decisions, and even shaping our organizational response to a critical incident. We close with a look to our future as our hospital embraces whole-system shared decision making.

  16. 32 CFR 636.12 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 636.12 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.12 Traffic accident investigation. In addition to the requirements in § 634.28 of...

  17. The real-time complex cruise scene motion detection system based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic target recognition is an important issue in the field of image processing research. It is widely used in photoelectric detection, target tracking, video surveillance areas. Complex cruise scene of target detection, compared to the static background, since the target and background objects together and both are in motion, greatly increases the complexity of moving target detection and recognition. Based on the practical engineering applications, combining an embedded systems and real-time image detection technology, this paper proposes a real-time movement detection method on an embedded system based on the FPGA + DSP system architecture on an embedded system. The DSP digital image processing system takes high speed digital signal processor DSP TMS320C6416T as the main computing components. And we take large capacity FPGA as coprocessor. It is designed and developed a high-performance image processing card. The FPGA is responsible for the data receiving and dispatching, DSP is responsible for data processing. The FPGA collects image data and controls SDRAM according to the digital image sequence. The SDRAM realizes multiport image buffer. DSP reads real-time image through SDRAM and performs scene motion detection algorithm. Then we implement the data reception and data processing parallelization. This system designs and realizes complex cruise scene motion detection for engineering application. The image edge information has the anti-light change and the strong anti-interference ability. First of all, the adjacent frame and current frame image are processed by convolution operation, extract the edge images. Then we compute correlation strength and the value of movement offset. We can complete scene motion parameters estimation by the result, in order to achieve real-time accurate motion detection. We use images in resolution of 768 * 576 and 25Hz frame rate to do the real-time cruise experiment. The results show that the proposed system achieves real

  18. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  19. New Transnational Literary Histories on the World Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Ceserani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio discute il rapporto sempre più problematico fra storia della letteratura e identità nazionale. Dopo aver esaminato alcune storie recenti che continuano a privilegiare la dimensione nazionale ed esclusivamente letteraria della materia trattata, si sofferma su alcune interessanti esperienze di storie che trattano la produzione culturale e letteraria di intere zone geografiche, a prescindere dalle identità statali, culturali e linguistiche di singoli Paesi e nazioni (per esempio: l’Europa centro-orientale, la penisola iberica, l’intero continente sudamericano. Fra i testi presi in esame: la Storia della letteratura ungherese, a cura di B. Ventavoli (2002-2004, la Storia della letteratura polacca, a cura di L. Marinelli (2004, la Geografia e storia della civiltà letteraria rumena nel contesto europeo, a cura di B. Mazzoni e A. Tarantino (2010, la History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, a cura di M. Cornis-Pope e J. Neubauer (2004-2010, la New History of German Literature, a cura di D. E. Wellbery e J. Ryan (2004, la New History of French Literature, a cura di D. Hollier (1998, la Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula, a cura di F. Cabo Aseguinolaza, A. Abuín Gonzales e C. Domínguez (2010, la New Literary History of America, a cura di G. Marcus e W. Sollors (2009 e le Literary Cultures of Latin America, a cura di M. Valdés e D. Kadir (2004.  

  20. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident.

  1. Regulation Plans on Severe Accidents developed by KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyun Tae; Chung, Ku Young; Na, Han Bee [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Some nuclear power plants in Fukushima Daiichi site had lost their emergency reactor cooling function for long-time so the fuels inside the reactors were molten, and the integrity of containment was damaged. Therefore, large amount of radioactive material was released to environment. Because the social and economic effects of severe accidents are enormous, Korean Government already issued 'Severe Accident Policy' in 2001 which requires nuclear power plant operators to set up 'Quantitative Safety Goal', to do 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis', to install 'Severe Accident Countermeasures' and to make 'Severe Accident Management Plan'. After the Fukushima disaster, a Special Safety Inspection was performed for all operating nuclear power plants of Korea. The inspection team from industry, academia, and research institutes assessed Korean NPPs capabilities to cope with or respond to severe accidents and emergency situation caused by natural disasters such as a large earthquake or tsunami. As a result of the special inspection, about 50 action items were identified to increase the capability to cope with natural disaster and severe accidents. Nuclear Safety Act has been amended to require NPP operators to submit Accident Management Plant as part of operating license application. The KINS Severe Accident Regulation Preparation TFT had first investigated oversea severe accident regulation trend before and after the Fukushima accident. Then, the TFT has developed regulation draft for severe accidents such as Severe accident Management Plans, the required design features for new NPPs to prevent severe accident against multiple failures and beyond-design external events, countermeasures to mitigate severe accident and to keep the integrity of containment, and assessment methodology on safety assessment plan and probabilistic safety assessment.

  2. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Rameezdeen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS policies.

  3. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies. PMID:28085067

  4. The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas

    2017-01-11

    The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers' health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002-2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies.

  5. Use of Data Mining Techniques to Model Crime Scene Investigator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Richard; Townsley, Michael; Bond, John

    This paper examines how data mining techniques can assist the monitoring of Crime Scene Investigator performance. The findings show that Investigators can be placed in one of four groups according to their ability to recover DNA and fingerprints from crime scenes. They also show that their ability to predict which crime scenes will yield the best opportunity of recovering forensic samples has no correlation to their actual ability to recover those samples.

  6. Scenes from the past: initial investigation of early jurassic vertebrate fossils with multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Ross, Steffen; Thali, Michael J; Hostettler, Bernhard; Menkveld-Gfeller, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    The study of fossils permits the reconstruction of past life on our planet and enhances our understanding of evolutionary processes. However, many fossils are difficult to recognize, being encased in a lithified matrix whose tedious removal is required before examination is possible. The authors describe the use of multidetector computed tomography (CT) in locating, identifying, and examining fossil remains of crocodilians (Mesosuchia) embedded in hard shale, all without removing the matrix. In addition, they describe how three-dimensional (3D) reformatted CT images provided details that were helpful for extraction and preparation. Multidetector CT can help experienced paleontologists localize and characterize fossils in the matrix of a promising rock specimen in a nondestructive manner. Moreover, with its capacity to generate highly accurate 3D images, multidetector CT can help determine whether the fossils warrant extraction and can assist in planning the extraction process. Thus, multidetector CT may well become an invaluable tool in the field of paleoradiology.

  7. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; dos Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident) and the case group (workers who had had an accident). 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.

  8. Om at blive skudt med hagl. En "Crime Scene Investigation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Jensen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Rifle contra shotgun shots are considered in relation to an X-mas goose and shooting accident. Depending on the size of shots, material and velocity, the effect in the body may vary considerably. Myocardial infarction, secondary to accidental shotgun shot, may be caused by 1) thrombosis secondary...

  9. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  10. Multilevel modelling for the regional effect of enforcement on road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Antoniou, Constantinos

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the intensification of Police enforcement on the number of road accidents at national and regional level in Greece, focusing on one of the most important road safety violations: drinking-and-driving. Multilevel negative binomial models are developed to describe the effect of the intensification of alcohol enforcement on the reduction of road accidents in different regions of Greece. Moreover, two approaches are explored as far as regional clustering is concerned: the first one concerns an ad hoc geographical clustering and the second one is based on the results of mathematical cluster analysis through demographic, transport and road safety characteristics. Results indicate that there are significant spatial dependences among road accidents and enforcement. Additionally, it is shown that these dependences are more efficiently interpreted when regions are determined on the basis of qualitative similarities than on the basis of geographical adjacency.

  11. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...... scene is conducted by investigators (crime scene coordinators) who's task it is to decide how the investigation should be carried out and which is best described as a narrative practice; a systematic - and expertise based - work of imagination....... are signs to be read and interpreted. Thus the place carries a plot (a narrative) which at first is hidden and scattered and has to be revealed and pieced together through a process of investigation and exploration with the aid of different forensic methods, eyewitnesses and so on; - through reading...... this reconstructed place the story itself is also reconstructed: the crime is being solved, the murderer revealed.                       An important element in this narrative and performative practise is the use of simulation as a storytelling device. Simulation is a well-known method in investigation of crime...

  12. 3D Reconstruction of Crime Scenes and Design Considerations for an Interactive Investigation Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Bostanci, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Crime Scene Investigation (CSI) is a carefully planned systematic process with the purpose of acquiring physical evidences to shed light upon the physical reality of the crime and eventually detect the identity of the criminal. Capturing images and videos of the crime scene is an important part of this process in order to conduct a deeper analysis on the digital evidence for possible hints. This work brings this idea further to use the acquired footage for generating a 3D model of the crime s...

  13. Investigation of the melt-down behaviour of massive radial core enclosures during LWR accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, W.; Sengpiel, W.; Messainguiral, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France). DRN

    2000-11-01

    At the Institute for Reactor Safety (IRS) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) accident analyses were performed for the projected European pressurised water reactor (EPR) up to 1999 using the best estimate severe core damage code SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5). From various scenarios investigated with S/R5 the loss-of-offsite power (LOOP) and the 46 cm{sup 2} small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) were selected to be discussed here in some detail. To simulate the heavy reflector (HR) and core barrel (CB) behaviour beyond the capabilities of S/R5 mod 3.2 a detailed stand alone analytical tool (LOWCOR2) was developed and used to determine the time of HR melting, its axial position, the melting velocity and the melt mass. Furthermore, results of MELCOR calculations performed at Siemens/KWU were used for the SBLOCA scenario. The analyses were extended by a feasibility study to find out whether ICARE2 and the commercial FEM code FIDAP are applicable. The axial position of HR and CB melt through strongly depends on the scenario an ranges between 1.0 m and 2.5 m core elevation. The time period to melt down the HR inner edges lasts up to 17 min and a complete melt through of HR and CB is in the order of magnitude of one hour. At melt through time LOWCOR2 calculated a molten steel mass between 10 Mg and 32 Mg and a melt relocation rate of 35 kg/s along the HR inner surface into the core cavity. (orig.) [German] Am Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit (IRS) des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe (FZK) wurden bis 1999 Unfallanalysen fuer den projektierten Europaeischen Druckwasser Reaktor (EPR) mit dem ''best estimate'' Kernschmelzcode SCDAP/RELAP5 (S/R5) durchgefuehrt. Von den verschiedenen mit S/R5 untersuchten Szenarien wurden der ''Ausfall der Wechselspannungsnetze'' (LOOP) und das kleine Leck (46 cm{sup 2}) im kalten Strang der Hauptkuehlmittelleitung (SBLOCA) fuer eine ausfuehrlichere Diskussion ausgewaehlt. Um das Verhalten des &apos

  14. Effects of pre-encoding stress on brain correlates associated with the long-term memory for emotional scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Wirkner

    Full Text Available Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400-800 ms during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes.

  15. Effects of pre-encoding stress on brain correlates associated with the long-term memory for emotional scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Weymar, Mathias; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O

    2013-01-01

    Recent animal and human research indicates that stress around the time of encoding enhances long-term memory for emotionally arousing events but neural evidence remains unclear. In the present study we used the ERP old/new effect to investigate brain dynamics underlying the long-term effects of acute pre-encoding stress on memory for emotional and neutral scenes. Participants were exposed either to the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressure Test (SECPT) or a warm water control procedure before viewing 30 unpleasant, 30 neutral and 30 pleasant pictures. Two weeks after encoding, recognition memory was tested using 90 old and 90 new pictures. Emotional pictures were better recognized than neutral pictures in both groups and related to an enhanced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference (400-800 ms) during recognition, which suggests better recollection. Most interestingly, pre-encoding stress exposure specifically increased the ERP old/new-effect for emotional (unpleasant) pictures, but not for neutral pictures. These enhanced ERP/old new differences for emotional (unpleasant) scenes were particularly pronounced for those participants who reported high levels of stress during the SECPT. The results suggest that acute pre-encoding stress specifically strengthens brain signals of emotional memories, substantiating a facilitating role of stress on memory for emotional scenes.

  16. Discussion on Strengthening and Improving the Fire Accident Investigation%关于加强和改进火灾事故调查工作的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文主要根据国家现行的关于火灾调查法的规定,主要针对我国在火灾调查工作展开上的不足和缺陷之处做相应的分析,对于产生这类现象的原因进行简单分析,然后结合现下火灾调查工作对于预防火灾的重要性问题,提出相应的改进和强化火灾调查工作的办法,希望对于火灾调查工作者能有一定的帮助。%This paper according to the current national regula-teons on fire investigation, mainly to do the corresponding an-alysis aiming at the flaw of our country started in the fire inv-estigation work, makes a simple analysis for the reasons of this phenomenon, and then combined with the current fire investig-ation work for the importance of fire prevention, and puts for-ward the corresponding improvement and measures to strengt-hhen fire investigation, hopes having some help for fire invest-tigators.

  17. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  18. The anatomy of the crime scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Crime scenes are constituted by a combination of a plot and a place. The crime scene is a place which has been in a certain state of transformation at a certain moment in time, the moment at which the place constituted the scene for some kind of criminal activity. As such the place has been encod...

  19. A study on the late core melt progression in pressurized water reactor severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jeun Gyoo Dong; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Seh In; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Park, Seong Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Back, Hyung Hmm [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    After TMI-2 accidents, it has been paid much attention to severe accidents beyond the design basis accidents and the research on the progress of severe accidents and mitigation and the closure of severe accidents has been actively performed. In particular, a great deal of uncertainties yet exist in the phase of late core melt progression and thus the research on this phase of severe accident progress has a key role in obtaining in severe accident mitigation and nuclear reactor safety. In the present study, physics of late core melt progression, experimental data and the major phenomenological models of computer codes are reviewed and a direction of reducing the uncertainties in the late core melt progression os proposed.

  20. A comparative study on the wear behaviors of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Byun, Thak Sang

    2015-10-01

    Accident-tolerant fuels are expected to have considerably longer coping time to respond to the loss of active cooling under severe accidents and, at the same time, have comparable or improved fuel performance during normal operation. The wear resistance of accident tolerant fuels, therefore, needs to be examined to determine the applicability of these cladding candidates to the current operating PWRs because the most common failure of nuclear fuel claddings is still caused by grid-to-rod fretting during normal operations. In this study, reciprocating sliding wear tests on three kinds of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuels have been performed to investigate the tribological compatibilities of self-mated cladding candidates and to determine the direct applicability of conventional Zirconium-based alloys as supporting structural materials. The friction coefficients of the cladding candidates are strongly influenced by the test environments and coupled materials. The wear test results under water lubrication conditions indicate that the supporting structural materials for the cladding candidates of accident-tolerant fuels need to be replaced with the same cladding materials instead of using conventional Zirconium-based alloys.

  1. Psoriasis: Behind the scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Masutaka; Kadono, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a significant deterioration in the quality of life of affected individuals. Notably, psoriasis is significantly associated with cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome and other autoimmune disorders. Recent progress in biologic therapies has revealed the fundamental role of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-23 and the IL-17A axis together with aberrant overproduction of epidermal IL-36γ in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This review provides an update on the clinical, pathological and therapeutic advancements involving psoriasis.

  2. Leading-edge forensic DNA analyses and the necessity of including crime scene investigators, police officers and technicians in a DNA elimination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Martine; Rogic, Anita; Bourgoin, Sarah; Jolicoeur, Christine; Séguin, Diane

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, sophisticated technology has significantly increased the sensitivity and analytical power of genetic analyses so that very little starting material may now produce viable genetic profiles. This sensitivity however, has also increased the risk of detecting unknown genetic profiles assumed to be that of the perpetrator, yet originate from extraneous sources such as from crime scene workers. These contaminants may mislead investigations, keeping criminal cases active and unresolved for long spans of time. Voluntary submission of DNA samples from crime scene workers is fairly low, therefore we have created a promotional method for our staff elimination database that has resulted in a significant increase in voluntary samples since 2011. Our database enforces privacy safeguards and allows for optional anonymity to all staff members. We also offer information sessions at various police precincts to advise crime scene workers of the importance and success of our staff elimination database. This study, a pioneer in its field, has obtained 327 voluntary submissions from crime scene workers to date, of which 46 individual profiles (14%) have been matched to 58 criminal cases. By implementing our methods and respect for individual privacy, forensic laboratories everywhere may see similar growth and success in explaining unidentified genetic profiles in stagnate criminal cases.

  3. No Place for Adolescence to Rest - The Symbolic Scenes on Holden’s Journey in The Catcher in the Rye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉

    2015-01-01

    By releasing the book The Catcher in the Rye, J. D. Salinger received an immediate popularity of his writing career.His symbolic use of language has been thoroughly researched but the symbolic scenes which make up Holden’s life stage, especially the symbolic connotations of ironic resting places in the novel, such as bed,couch and bedroom, has not been paid much attention. It tries to analyse the four scenes:on Holden’s history teacher’s bed, on the hotel bed with a prostitute, in his sister’s bedroom, and on his English teacher’s couch, and aims to discover his spiritual chaos as well as adolescent desires in the real world, demon⁃strating that there is no place for adolescent Holden to rest after he chooses his own stage of scenes in his life.

  4. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  5. Study of criteria influencing the success rate of DNA swabs in operational conditions: A contribution to an evidence-based approach to crime scene investigation and triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S

    2016-01-01

    DNA is nowadays swabbed routinely to investigate serious and volume crimes, but research remains scarce when it comes to determining the criteria that may impact the success rate of DNA swabs taken on different surfaces and situations. To investigate these criteria in fully operational conditions, DNA analysis results of 4772 swabs taken by the forensic unit of a police department in Western Switzerland over a 2.5-year period (2012-2014) in volume crime cases were considered. A representative and random sample of 1236 swab analyses was extensively examined and codified, describing several criteria such as whether the swabbing was performed at the scene or in the lab, the zone of the scene where it was performed, the kind of object or surface that was swabbed, whether the target specimen was a touch surface or a biological fluid, and whether the swab targeted a single surface or combined different surfaces. The impact of each criterion and of their combination was assessed in regard to the success rate of DNA analysis, measured through the quality of the resulting profile, and whether the profile resulted in a hit in the national database or not. Results show that some situations-such as swabs taken on door and window handles for instance-have a higher success rate than average swabs. Conversely, other situations lead to a marked decrease in the success rate, which should discourage further analyses of such swabs. Results also confirm that targeting a DNA swab on a single surface is preferable to swabbing different surfaces with the intent to aggregate cells deposited by the offender. Such results assist in predicting the chance that the analysis of a swab taken in a given situation will lead to a positive result. The study could therefore inform an evidence-based approach to decision-making at the crime scene (what to swab or not) and at the triage step (what to analyse or not), contributing thus to save resource and increase the efficiency of forensic science

  6. [Accidents with the "paraglider"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T H; Dengg, C; Gabl, M

    1988-09-01

    With a collective of 46 patients we show the details and kinds of accidents caused by paragliding. The base for the casuistry of the accidents was a questionnaire which was answered by most of the injured persons. These were questions about the theoretical and practical training, the course of the flight during the different phases, and the subjective point of view of the course of the accident. The patterns of the injuries showed a high incidence of injuries of the spinal column and high risks for the ankles. At the end, we give some advice how to prevent these accidents.

  7. The multiple truths about crystal meth among young people entrenched in an urban drug scene: a longitudinal ethnographic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2014-06-01

    Transitions into more harmful forms of illicit drug use among youth have been identified as important foci for research and intervention. In settings around the world, the transition to crystal methamphetamine (meth) use among youth is considered a particularly dangerous and growing problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that, particularly among young, street-involved populations, meth use is associated with numerous sex- and drug-related "risks behaviors" and negative health outcomes. Relatively few studies, however, have documented how youth themselves understand, experience and script meth use over time. From 2008 to 2012, we conducted over 100 in-depth interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth in Vancouver, Canada, as well as ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, in order to examine youth's understandings and experiences of meth use in the context of an urban drug scene. Our findings revealed positive understandings and experiences of meth in relation to other forms of drug addiction and unaddressed mental health issues. Youth were simultaneously aware of the numerous health-related harms and social costs associated with heavy meth use. Over time, positive understandings of meth may become entirely contradictory to a lived reality in which escalating meth use is a factor in further marginalizing youth, although this may not lead to cessation of use. Recognition of these multiple truths about meth, and the social structural contexts that shape the scripting of meth use among youth in particular settings, may help us to move beyond moralizing debates about how to best educate youth on the "risks" associated with meth, and towards interventions that are congruent with youth's lived experiences and needs across the lifecourse.

  8. Singapore - The Nursing Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Doyle

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available In many ways Singapore still bears evidence of the period of British colonialism and the system of nursing service and nursing education is also still greatly influenced by the British system of nursing.

  9. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  10. Behind the scenes at the LHC inauguration

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 21 October the LHC inauguration ceremony will take place and people from all over CERN have been busy preparing. With delegations from 38 countries attending, including ministers and heads of state, the Bulletin has gone behind the scenes to see what it takes to put together an event of this scale.

  11. Scenes From The Spectacle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Athletes at the World University Games in Shenzhen took part not only in sports events but also in a series of cultural and recreational activities. Here is a selection caught by photographers’ cameras.

  12. An analytical investigation of cold leg small break accidents of the ATLAS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon-Sik, E-mail: yskim3@kaeri.re.kr; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki-Yong

    2015-09-15

    A previous parametric study of the direct vessel injection (DVI) line breaks was re-evaluated to see its applicability to that of the cold leg (CL) pipe breaks in advanced thermal-hydraulic test loop for accident simulation (ATLAS). Evaluation results of the tests and analyses for the major parameters, e.g., the pressurizer (PZR) pressure, downcomer water level, collapsed core water level, and clad temperature, were compared for four different CL pipe break scenarios. The overall trends of the major parameters showed reasonable behaviors between the tests and analyses. The clad temperature showed conservative behaviors in the analyses using the suggested options. The suggested counter-current flow limit (CCFL) options for the fuel alignment plate (FAP) and cross-over legs (COLs) can be applicable to any small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) scenario for the CL pipe and DVI line breaks in the ATLAS tests.

  13. Pyromania and the primal scene: a psychoanalytic comment on the work of Yukio Mishima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlow, J A

    1978-01-01

    In the writings of the Japanese novelist, Yukio Mishima, primal scene experiences and derivative expressions of them recur persistently. The element of fire figures prominently in connection with the wish to wreak vengeance on the persons originally observed in the act of intercourse. As a destructive, attention-compelling spectacle, fire is a particularly suitable vehicle for this purpose. In Mishima's works, revenge takes the form of retaliation in kind: parental figures, or their surrogates, are put into the position of having to observe the child, or substitutes for him, in the act of sexual infidelity. These observations as well as clinical reports in the literature suggest some insights into fantasies of pyromania. They also make possible certain speculations concerning Misima's turbulent life and dramatic suicide.

  14. Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretten, S. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Museum of Natural Sciences and Archaeology); Gaare, E.; Skogland, T. (Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Steinnes, E. (Trondheim Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-03-01

    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the {sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author).

  15. Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretten, S; Gaare, E; Skogland, T; Steinnes, E

    1992-03-01

    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134Cs+137Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed.

  16. Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Umminger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR at a height scale of 1 : 1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1 : 145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circulation pumps and steam generators (SGs arranged symmetrically around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV. The investigations carried out encompass a very broad spectrum from accident scenario simulations with large, medium, and small breaks, over the investigation of shutdown procedures after a wide variety of accidents, to the systematic investigation of complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena. This paper presents a survey of test objectives and programs carried out to date. It also describes the test facility in its present state. Some important results obtained over the years with focus on investigations carried out since the beginning of the international cooperation are exemplarily discussed.

  17. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research on the framework of safety recommendations for human factor in aviation accident investigation%航空事故调查中人的因素安全建议框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍志勤; 谢孜楠; 张永一

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe acts of human in aviation accidents were analyzed systemically. The errors were classified into sense and perceptual errors, memory error, decision-making error and skill error. Violation were classified into routine and exceptional violation. The dimensions for human factor intervention were organization and management,human/team, technology, task and the environment. After preliminary recommendations were made to various unsafe acts, they were necessary to be assessed comprehensively and chosen in accordance with the feasibility, acceptability, cost and effectiveness. Practical study showed that human factors intervention matrix provides an effective tool for developing the proposed safety recommendations and the frame on aviation accident investigation has excellent adaptability.%对航空事故中人的不安全行为进行了系统分析,将失误划分为感知失误、记忆失误、决策失误、技能失误4个类别,将违章划分为习惯性违章和偶然性违章.将人的因素干预维度确定为组织管理、人/团队、技术、任务和环境.针对不安全行为制定相应的初步改进措施后,还需从措施的可行性、可接受性、经济性和有效性4个方面进行综合评估和取舍.实证研究表明,人的因素干预矩阵是制定安钱建议的有效工具,该框架具备良好的适用性.

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-97)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Jun [ed.

    1998-05-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-97) was taken place at Pacifico Yokohama on October 6 - 8, 1997, and attended by 180 participants from 15 countries and one international organizations. The 59 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analysis, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research held in Japan (SARJ-98)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Jun [ed.

    1999-07-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research held in Japan (SARJ-98) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 4-6, 1998, and attended by 181 participants from 13 countries. The 63 papers, which cover wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as in-vessel melt retention, fuel-coolant interaction, fission products behavior, structural integrity, containment behavior, computer simulations, and accident management, are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. [The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonenberg, Anna; Leoniak, Marcin; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to "epidemic" of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.

  2. Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW, respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms.

  3. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  4. Analysis on relation between safety input and accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing-guo; ZHANG Xue-mu; LI Chun-hui

    2007-01-01

    The number of safety input directly determines the level of safety, and there exists dialectical and unified relations between safety input and accidents. Based on the field investigation and reliable data, this paper deeply studied the dialectical relationship between safety input and accidents, and acquired the conclusions. The security situation of the coal enterprises was related to the security input rate, being effected little by the security input scale, and build the relationship model between safety input and accidents on this basis, that is the accident model.

  5. Crime scene units: a look to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Hayden B.

    1999-02-01

    The scientific examination of physical evidence is well recognized as a critical element in conducting successful criminal investigations and prosecutions. The forensic science field is an ever changing discipline. With the arrival of DNA, new processing techniques for latent prints, portable lasers, and electro-static dust print lifters, and training of evidence technicians has become more important than ever. These scientific and technology breakthroughs have increased the possibility of collecting and analyzing physical evidence that was never possible before. The problem arises with the collection of physical evidence from the crime scene not from the analysis of the evidence. The need for specialized units in the processing of all crime scenes is imperative. These specialized units, called crime scene units, should be trained and equipped to handle all forms of crime scenes. The crime scenes units would have the capability to professionally evaluate and collect pertinent physical evidence from the crime scenes.

  6. International law problems for realisation of the IAEA conventions on notification and assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident underscored the need for an early warning system and international assistance plan in case of a nuclear accident. Shortly after Chernobyl, two conventions were adopted under the auspices of the IAEA. The convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in force since 1986, establishes an early warning system for all nuclear accidents whose effects might cross national boundaries. Under the convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear accident or radiological Emergency,in force since 1987, countries must facilitate prompt assistance in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, to minimize it`s consequences. Issues with the conventions are described.

  7. The light field in natural scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muryy, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of light fields with respect to object appearance. More specifically, our interest was mainly directed to the structure and spatial variation of light fields in natural scenes. We approached the structure of light fields by means of spherical harmonics which

  8. Techniques and Tools of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia accident investigation was a fusion of many disciplines into a single effort. From the recovery and reconstruction of the debris, Figure 1, to the analysis, both destructive and nondestructive, of chemical and metallurgical samples, Figure 2, a multitude of analytical techniques and tools were employed. Destructive and non-destructive testing were utilized in tandem to determine if a breach in the left wing of the Orbiter had occurred, and if so, the path of the resultant high temperature plasma flow. Nondestructive analysis included topometric scanning, laser mapping, and real-time radiography. These techniques were useful in constructing a three dimensional virtual representation of the reconstruction project, specifically the left wing leading edge reinforced carbon/carbon heat protectant panels. Similarly, they were beneficial in determining where sampling should be performed on the debris. Analytic testing included such techniques as Energy Dispersive Electron Microprobe Analysis (EMPA), Electron Spectroscopy Chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray dot mapping; these techniques related the characteristics of intermetallics deposited on the leading edge of the left wing adjacent to the location of a suspected plasma breach during reentry. The methods and results of the various analyses, along with their implications into the accident, are discussed, along with the findings and recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Likewise, NASA's Return To Flight efforts are highlighted.

  9. Experimental investigation of material chemical effects on emergency core cooling pump suction filter performance after loss of coolant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon, E-mail: parkjw@dongguk.ac.k [Dongguk University, 707 Seokjang-Dong, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam, 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. 25-1, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Integral tests of head loss through an emergency core cooling filter screen are conducted, simulating reactor building environmental conditions for 30 days after a loss of coolant accident. A test rig with five individual loops each of whose chamber is established to test chemical product formation and measure the head loss through a sample filter. The screen area at each chamber and the amounts of reactor building materials are scaled down according to specific plant condition. A series of tests have been performed to investigate the effects of calcium-silicate, reactor building spray, existence of calcium-silicate with tri-sodium phosphate (TSP), and composition of materials. The results showed that head loss across the chemical bed with even a small amount of calcium-silicate insulation instantaneously increased as soon as TSP was added to the test solution. Also, the head loss across the filter screen is strongly affected by spray duration and the head loss increase is rapid at the early stage, because of high dissolution and precipitation of aluminum and zinc. After passivation of aluminum and zinc by corrosion, the head loss increase is much slowed down and is mainly induced by materials such as calcium, silicon, and magnesium leached from NUKON{sup TM} and concrete. Furthermore, it is newly found that the spay buffer agent, tri-sodium phosphate, to form protective coating on the aluminum surface and reduce aluminum leaching is not effective for a large amount of aluminum and a long spray.

  10. Om at blive skudt med hagl. En "Crime Scene Investigation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Jensen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Rifle contra shotgun shots are considered in relation to an X-mas goose and shooting accident. Depending on the size of shots, material and velocity, the effect in the body may vary considerably. Myocardial infarction, secondary to accidental shotgun shot, may be caused by 1) thrombosis secondary...... to intima lesion, 2) stenosis, oedema and haematoma in relation to myocardial lesion; and, in addition, 3) the cumulative energy of many shots may give myocardial contusion with infarction. Pathotechnical and pathophysiological analyses are required to reveal complicated causes and effects and unusual...

  11. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong Ho

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved family members of the Sewol ferry accident were recruited. Severity of complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorder was assessed through self-reporting questionnaire, inventory of complicated grief (ICG), PTSD Check List-5 (PCL-5) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We also included demographic, socioeconomic, health-related variables, and Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), which affect the ICG score. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the experience of psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident and mental health support after the disaster. In univariate analysis, these 4 groups showed a significant difference in the mean ICG score (P = 0.020). Participants who received mental health support only after the Sewol ferry accident (group 2) showed a lower mean ICG score than those who received neither psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the disaster nor mental health support after the accident (group 4). There was no significant correlation between the ICG score and other variables except for subjective health status measured 1 month after the disaster (P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PCL-5 (P = 0.140) and PHQ-9 scores (P = 0.603) among groups, respectively. In conclusion, mental health support significantly reduced the severity of grief only in those participants who had not received any psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. The Effect of Walking and Teleportation on Spatial Updating in Virtual and Real Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vuong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, it seems as if we should be able to point accurately to the location of a target object within a room even if we were teleported to a different location and the object removed from view. We measured the precision of pointing to a previously-seen object in a real room, a virtual room with same dimensions (presented in immersive virtual reality and a sparse virtual scene consisting only of long thin poles at the same locations as the target object and room corners. Participants viewed the target object from one location, walked to another so that the object passed out of view, then turned in complete darkness to point at the location of the previously-viewed target. In a separate experiment, participants viewed a sparse scene consisting of long thin poles (including a target and had to point to the location of the absent target after teleportation to a new location within the scene. Pointing precision in this case was dramatically reduced (σ ≈ 34° compared to the conditions in which participants walked in the real room, virtual room or sparse scene. In the latter three conditions, pointing precision was very similar (σ ≈ 15° despite the removal of prominent distance cues in the sparse condition. Our results show that spatial updating after teleportation is substantially poorer than when walking between two locations. [Supported by Microsoft Research and Wellcome Trust

  13. Emergency patients receiving anaesthesiologist-based pre-hospital treatment and subsequently released at the scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, S G; Sørensen, L P; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Mobile Emergency Care Unit in Odense, Denmark consists of a rapid response car, manned with an anaesthesiologist and an emergency medical technician. Eleven per cent of the patients are released at the scene following treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate which...... with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit within 24 h. Of the 143 victims of traffic accidents, 19 (13%) required renewed contact with the emergency department and one required admission to hospital (0.7%). Of all 1609 patients, four died within 24 h of contact (0.2%). CONCLUSION: Patients treated and released...... investigated. In each patient, diagnosis as well as any renewed contact with the Mobile Emergency Care Unit or the hospital within 24 h was registered. RESULTS: ONE THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED NINE: patients were released at the scene. Diagnoses within the category 'examination and investigation' [International...

  14. Effects of the Beijing Subway Accident on Engineering Monitoring and Auditing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Beijing Subway Line 10 Accident On March 28, 2007, six people were buried by a cave-in at Suzhoujie Station on Line 10 of the Beijing Subway. The fatalities were caused when the unit in charge of construction failed to implement a timely evacuation after a construction accident took place. (See Beijing Youth, April 1, 2007)

  15. The effects of motor vehicle accidents on careers and the work performance of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Diedericks

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research into the long-term effects of motor accidents on the work performance and careers of victims in South Africa is limited. Results of this research are important for employers who must assist the employees after they return to work.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to research on the effects of the injuries by investigating the relationship between the severity of the injuries and the careers and growth potential of victims.Motivation for the study: Employers could use the information on the effects of the injuries on the careers of victims to plan interventions and job accommodations to retain employees and to manage their well-being and performance.Research design, approach and method: The author conducted a quantitative survey on a purposive sample (N = 199 of adult victims of motor vehicle accidents in 2010 in South Africa. She used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyse the data.Main findings: The author observed a number of significant relationships between the effects of the different injuries on the careers and growth potential of victims.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations and managers need to recognise the physical and psychological effects of injuries victims sustain in motor accidents and the associated responsibility of organisations to accommodate these employees.Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study can add to the literature and provide insights into the consequences of the injuries. They also provide information that can assist organisations to create an awareness of job accommodation and employee wellness of accident victims.

  16. Research into the method for construction of interactive virtual reality scenes based on Ajax technology: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing; Zheng, Xinqi

    2010-11-01

    Nowadays, the development of Digital Earth has made a tremendous impact on all aspects of human social life, and a series of effective work around Digital Earth, which attracted wide attention, have been carried out by people with different background. Meantime, exploitation of the popularized technology is constantly being mature with the development of Google Earth. However, users still have many difficulties in constructing and operating 3D scenes on web, because of the limitation of network speed. This paper aims to provide a more convenient method for the client users to interact with the 3D models, thus to promote popularization of Digital Earth technology and apply it in many aspects of social life. In this research, Ajax was utilized as a newly emerged network technology, since it could provide a good solution for application in developing of virtual reality technology based on Web. This paper analyzed the principles and key technologies of Ajax, explored how Ajax can be used in construction of interactive virtual reality scenes through case study, in order to enhance access speed of virtual scenes on Web page, and increase the authenticity, interactivity and extensibility of virtual scenes. This paper introduced the whole process of virtual model construction and proposed an efficient way to achieve interactive scene. The results showed that the combination of SAI (Scene Access Interface) method and Ajax technology could effectively save network bandwidth and enhance user experience, which laid the foundation for the development of virtual reality technology based on Web and the popularization of Digital Earth technology.

  17. A study on the core analysis methodology for SMART CEA ejection accident-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Lee, Chung Chan; Kim, Kyo Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh

    1999-04-01

    A methodology to analyze the fuel enthalpy is developed based on MASTER that is a time dependent 3 dimensional core analysis code. Using the proposed methodology, SMART CEA ejection accident is analyzed. Moreover, radiation doses are estimated at the exclusion area boundary and low population zone to confirm the criteria for the accident. (Author). 31 refs., 13 tabs., 18 figs.

  18. Internal Accident Report on EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2006-01-01

    The A2 Safety Code requires that, the Internal Accident Report form must be filled in by the person concerned or any witness to ensure that all the relevant services are informed. Please note that an electronic version of this form has been elaborated in collaboration with SC-IE, HR-OPS-OP and IT-AIS. Whenever possible, the electronic form shall be used. The relative icon is available on the EDH Desktop, Other tasks page, under the Safety heading, or directly here: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Accident/. If you have any questions, please contact the SC Secretariat, tel. 75097 Please notice that the Internal Accident Report is an integral part of the Safety Code A2 and does not replace the HS50.

  19. Indoor scene classification of robot vision based on cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Qi, Yuxiao; Li, Shipeng

    2016-07-01

    For intelligent service robots, indoor scene classification is an important issue. To overcome the weak real-time performance of conventional algorithms, a new method based on Cloud computing is proposed for global image features in indoor scene classification. With MapReduce method, global PHOG feature of indoor scene image is extracted in parallel. And, feature eigenvector is used to train the decision classifier through SVM concurrently. Then, the indoor scene is validly classified by decision classifier. To verify the algorithm performance, we carried out an experiment with 350 typical indoor scene images from MIT LabelMe image library. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can attain better real-time performance. Generally, it is 1.4 2.1 times faster than traditional classification methods which rely on single computation, while keeping stable classification correct rate as 70%.

  20. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  1. Sociological study on the course of the traffic system and the traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Erjem

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this research is the operation of the traffic system and traffic accidents from a sociological perspective. In the research , the traffic system is taken as a sub-system of the social system. In this context the effects of the social, cultural and demographic factors on traffic accidents are examined . The data were collected from 681 people of whom 300 are drivers 300 pedestrians, 4 directors and 20 instructors of driving courses in Konya in Turkey. The research findings showe...

  2. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  3. Impact of the Fukushima accident on marine biota, five years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives I Batlle, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    In a previous commentary written in 2011 in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident in Japan, I summarized what was then understood about the effects of accidental radioactive discharges to marine life and forecasted into the future how the marine environment would likely be affected. Since that time, several studies have been conducted on the impact of the accident on marine organisms, and radiation doses arising thereof. I developed a dynamic transfer model for studying the bioaccumulation of Fukushima radionuclides in marine biota and assessed the impact and likelihood of effects to marine life. In the present article, I highlight the lessons learned over the past 5 years. I address whether the environmental consequences in the marine environment are as significant as initially feared and, with respect to the current situation, what remains to be investigated as the radioactivity continues to spread in the marine environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:654-658. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Kinjo, Seira; Taira, Wataru; Gima, Shinichi; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2012-01-01

    The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relative...

  5. Sensitivity to emotional scene content outside the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Del Líbano, Mario

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether the emotional content of visual scenes depicting people is processed in peripheral vision. Emotional or neutral scene photographs were paired with a matched scrambled image for 150ms in peripheral vision (≥5°). The pictures were immediately followed by a digit or letter in a discrimination task. Interference (i.e., slowed reaction times) with performance in this task indexed the processing resources drawn by the pictures. Twelve types of specific emotional scene contents (e.g., erotica or mutilation) were compared. Results showed, first, that emotional scenes caused greater interference than neutral scenes, in the absence of fixations. This suggests that emotional scenes are processed and draw covert attention outside the focus of overt attention. Second, interference was similar for female and male participants with pleasant scenes (except for erotica), but females were more affected by all types of unpleasant scenes than males. This reveals that sensitivity to peripheral vision is modulated by sex and affective valence. Third, low-level image properties, visual saliency, and size of bodies and faces, were generally equivalent for emotional and neutral scenes. This rules out the alternative hypothesis of a contribution of non-emotional, purely perceptual factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The forensic holodeck: an immersive display for forensic crime scene reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars C; Nguyen, Tuan T; Breitbeck, Robert; Braun, Marcel; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    In forensic investigations, crime scene reconstructions are created based on a variety of three-dimensional image modalities. Although the data gathered are three-dimensional, their presentation on computer screens and paper is two-dimensional, which incurs a loss of information. By applying immersive virtual reality (VR) techniques, we propose a system that allows a crime scene to be viewed as if the investigator were present at the scene. We used a low-cost VR headset originally developed for computer gaming in our system. The headset offers a large viewing volume and tracks the user's head orientation in real-time, and an optical tracker is used for positional information. In addition, we created a crime scene reconstruction to demonstrate the system. In this article, we present a low-cost system that allows immersive, three-dimensional and interactive visualization of forensic incident scene reconstructions.

  7. Correlation between the Ship Grounding Accident and the Ship Traffic – A Case Study Based on the Statistics of the Gulf of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsham Mazaheri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ship traffic is one of the factors that is presented in almost all of the existing grounding models, and is considered as one of the affecting factors on the likelihood of grounding accident. This effect in grounding accident is mostly accepted by the experts as a common sense or simply by just generalizing the ship-ship collision cases to grounding accidents. There is no available research on the actual causal link between the ship traffic and grounding accident in the literature. In this paper, authors have utilized the statistical analysis on historical grounding accident data in the Gulf of Finland between the years 1989 and 2010 and the AIS data of the same area in year 2010, as the source of ship traffic data, to investigate the possible existence of any correlation between the ship traffic and the grounding accident. The results show that for the studied area (Gulf of Finland there is no correlation between the traffic density and the grounding accident. However, the possibility of the existence of minor relation between the traffic distribution and grounding accident is shown by the result. This finding, however, needs further investigation for more clarification.

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on severe accident research, Japan (SARJ-99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuichiro [ed.

    2000-11-01

    The Workshop on Severe Accident Research, Japan (SARJ-99) was taken place at Hotel Lungwood on November 8-10, 1999, and attended by 156 participants from 12 countries. A total of 46 papers, which covered wide areas of severe accident research both in experiments and analyses, such as fuel/coolant interaction, accident analysis and modeling, in-vessel phenomena, accident management, fission product behavior, research reactors, ex-vessel phenomena, and structural integrity, were presented. The panel discussion titled 'Link of Severe Accident Research Results to Regulation: Current Status and Future Perspective' was successfully conducted, and the wide variety of opinions and views were exchanged among panelists and experts. (J.P.N.)

  9. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  10. The radioactive fallout of Chernobylsk accident on the French territory; Les retombees radioactives de l'accident de Tchernobyl sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Champion, D.; Brenot, J

    2008-07-01

    The twentieth anniversary of the Chernobylsk disaster was the opportunity, for the I.R.S.N., to to draw up a new assessment of radioactive fallout due to the accident on the French territory. This new publishing gives the knowledge and the most current interpretations on the radioactive substances transfer released by the accident, in grounds and in food. This inventory allows to explain the levels of radioactive contamination observed in France from 1986 till 2006, then to estimate the exposure of the French population at the fallout from the accident. The analysis of the Chernobylsk accident illustrates the multitude and the complexity of the contamination phenomena and radioactive substances transfer in the environment to the man.The book presents finally the lessons pulled by the disaster in terms of scientific knowledge and program development, of radiological surveillance and management of a nuclear crisis in France. (N.C.)

  11. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Work Accidents in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Akgun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and work accidents among waste collector workers in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Services Section. The study consisted 92 (%68 out of 135 workers of those accepted to participation. METHOD: face-to-face questionnaire were administered for data collection. Dependent variable was the work-related accident for previous six months. Independent variables were sociodemographic features, working conditions, mental health status, daytime sleepiness, workload and social support. The chi-square test and the logistic regression models used for data analysis. RESULTS: Work accident prevalence was 32.6% for the last 6 months. Age and workload were significantly affected work-related accidents (p=0.03; p=0.01 respectively. Social support, mental health status and daytime sleepiness status did not effect work-related accident prevalence (p=0.48; p=0.21; p=0.30 respectively. CONCLUSION: Results of the study indicated that work-related accident prevalence is high among workers in Izmir Konak Municipality. Workload was found important risk factor for the work accident among waste collector workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 623-632

  12. On the divergences in assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P; Sundell-Bergman, S; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M

    2017-01-21

    The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment. This article provides an overview of the work conducted in relation to the environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, critically comparing and contrasting methodologies and results with a view towards finding reasons for discrepancies, should they indeed exist. Based on the outcomes of studies conducted to date, it would appear that in order to avoid the fractured and disparate conclusions drawn in the aftermath of previous accidents, radioactive contaminants and their effects can no longer simply be viewed in isolation with respect to the ecosystems these effects may impact. A combination of laboratory based and field studies with a focus on ecosystem functioning and effects could offer the best opportunities for coherence in the interpretation of the results of studies into the environmental impacts of ionising radiation.

  13. Memory, scene construction, and the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2015-04-14

    We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.

  14. Sensory substitution: the spatial updating of auditory scenes ‘mimics’ the spatial updating of visual scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achille ePasqualotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual-to-auditory sensory substitution is used to convey visual information through audition, and it was initially created to compensate for blindness; it consists of software converting the visual images captured by a video-camera into the equivalent auditory images, or ‘soundscapes’. Here, it was used by blindfolded sighted participants to learn the spatial position of simple shapes depicted in images arranged on the floor. Very few studies have used sensory substitution to investigate spatial representation, while it has been widely used to investigate object recognition. Additionally, with sensory substitution we could study the performance of participants actively exploring the environment through audition, rather than passively localising sound sources. Blindfolded participants egocentrically learnt the position of six images by using sensory substitution and then a judgement of relative direction task (JRD was used to determine how this scene was represented. This task consists of imagining being in a given location, oriented in a given direction, and pointing towards the required image. Before performing the JRD task, participants explored a map that provided allocentric information about the scene. Although spatial exploration was egocentric, surprisingly we found that performance in the JRD task was better for allocentric perspectives. This suggests that the egocentric representation of the scene was updated. This result is in line with previous studies using visual and somatosensory scenes, thus supporting the notion that different sensory modalities produce equivalent spatial representation(s. Moreover, our results have practical implications to improve training methods with sensory substitution devices.

  15. On the use of new generation mobile phone (smart phone) for retrospective accident dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. I.; Chang, I.; Pradhan, A. S.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. S.

    2015-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of resistors, inductors and integrated-circuit (IC) chips, extracted from new generation smart phones, were investigated for the purpose of retrospective accident dosimetry. Inductor samples were found to exhibit OSL sensitivity about 5 times and 40 times higher than that of the resistors and the IC chips, respectively. On post-irradiation storage, the resistors exhibited a much higher OSL fading (about 80 % in 36 h as compared to the value 3 min after irradiation) than IC chips (about 20 % after 36 h) and inductors (about 50 % in 36 h). Higher OSL sensitivity, linear dose response (from 8.7 mGy up to 8.9 Gy) and acceptable fading make inductors more attractive for accident dosimetry than widely studied resistors.

  16. Study on coal mines accidents based on the grey relational analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuai; ZHANG Jin-long

    2008-01-01

    The subject investigated the system of people-machine-environment in coal mines. The coal mines working process was researched and the theory of grey system was applied to analyze coal mines safety accidents and those relevant factors. This re-search reveals that this analysis method is easy and highly available and the result is of great credibility, which can not only provide theoretical supports to the quantitative study of coal mines safety accident, but offer basis for coal mines companies' safety management.

  17. Affective salience can reverse the effects of stimulus-driven salience on eye movements in complex scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqing eNiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural vision both stimulus features and cognitive/affective factors influence an observer's attention. However, the relationship between stimulus-driven (bottom-up and cognitive/affective (top-down factors remains controversial: Can affective salience counteract strong visual stimulus signals and shift attention allocation irrespective of bottom-up features? Is there any difference between negative and positive scenes in terms of their influence on attention deployment? Here we examined the impact of affective factors on eye movement behavior, to understand the competition between visual stimulus-driven salience and affective salience and how they affect gaze allocation in complex scene viewing. Building on our previous research, we compared predictions generated by a visual salience model with measures indexing participant-identified emotionally meaningful regions of each image. To examine how eye movement behaviour differs for negative, positive, and neutral scenes, we examined the influence of affective salience in capturing attention according to emotional valence. Taken together, our results show that affective salience can override stimulus-driven salience and overall emotional valence can determine attention allocation in complex scenes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive/affective factors play a dominant role in active gaze control.

  18. Affective salience can reverse the effects of stimulus-driven salience on eye movements in complex scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaqing; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, A K

    2012-01-01

    In natural vision both stimulus features and cognitive/affective factors influence an observer's attention. However, the relationship between stimulus-driven ("bottom-up") and cognitive/affective ("top-down") factors remains controversial: Can affective salience counteract strong visual stimulus signals and shift attention allocation irrespective of bottom-up features? Is there any difference between negative and positive scenes in terms of their influence on attention deployment? Here we examined the impact of affective factors on eye movement behavior, to understand the competition between visual stimulus-driven salience and affective salience and how they affect gaze allocation in complex scene viewing. Building on our previous research, we compared predictions generated by a visual salience model with measures indexing participant-identified emotionally meaningful regions of each image. To examine how eye movement behavior differs for negative, positive, and neutral scenes, we examined the influence of affective salience in capturing attention according to emotional valence. Taken together, our results show that affective salience can override stimulus-driven salience and overall emotional valence can determine attention allocation in complex scenes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive/affective factors play a dominant role in active gaze control.

  19. Natural scene recognition with increasing time-on-task: the role of typicality and global image properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csathó, Á; van der Linden, D; Gács, B

    2015-01-01

    Human observers can recognize natural images very effectively. Yet, in the literature there is a debate about the extent to which the recognition of natural images requires controlled attentional processing. In the present study we address this topic by testing whether natural scene recognition is affected by mental fatigue. Mental fatigue is known to particularly compromise high-level, controlled attentional processing of local features. Effortless, automatic processing of more global features of an image stays relatively intact, however. We conducted a natural image categorization experiment (N = 20) in which mental fatigue was induced by time-on-task (ToT). Stimuli were images from 5 natural scene categories. Semantic typicality (high or low) and the magnitude of 7 global image properties were determined for each image in separate rating experiments. Significant performance effects of typicality and global properties on scene recognition were found, but, despite a general decline in performance, these effects remained unchanged with increasing ToT. The findings support the importance of the global property processing in natural scene recognition and suggest that this process is insensitive to mental fatigue.

  20. Safety and Health Standard 110: Incident/accident reporting and investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sones, K. [West Kootenay Power, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Incident/accident reporting requirements in effect at West Kootenay Power are discussed. Details provided include definitions of low risk, high risk, and critical events, the incidents to be reported, the nature of the reports, the timelines, the investigation to be undertaken for each type of incident/accident, counselling services available to employees involved in serious incidents, and the procedures to be followed in accidents involving serious injury to non-employees. The emphasis is on the `critical five` high risk events and the procedures relating to them.

  1. The Fukushima accident; Accident nucleaire a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, D.

    2012-02-15

    The Fukushima accident is characterized by a sequence of natural disasters: earthquake and tsunamis that deprived simultaneously 3 reactors from cooling and electrical power for quite a long time. A series of hydrogen explosion has added to the mess. Experts agree to say that certainly nuclear fuel has melt to form corium in all 3 reactors. The accident has contaminated tens of thousand acres of land around the plant and has jeopardized local coastal fishery. The human toll is unexpectedly low: no direct casualty in the population but several suicides among the people that was forced to leave their home. 5 people from the plant staff died certainly from the consequences of the tsunami. (A.C.)

  2. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on obesity of children in Japan (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008-2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5-7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort.

  3. Impacts of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on emergency medical service times in Soma District, Japan: a retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiro; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Shuhei; Leppold, Claire; Takahara, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Yuki; Fujioka, Sho; Kami, Masahiro; Kato, Shigeaki; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of the 3.11 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident) on the emergency medical service (EMS) system in Fukushima. Methods Total EMS time (from EMS call to arrival at a hospital) was assessed in the EMS system of Soma district, located 10–40 km north of the nuclear plant, from 11 March to 31 December 2011. We defined the affected period as when total EMS time was significantly extended after the disasters compared with the historical control data from 1 January 2009 to 10 March 2011. To identify risk factors associated with the extension of total EMS time after the disasters, we investigated trends in 3 time segments of total EMS time; response time, defined as time from an EMS call to arrival at the location, on-scene time, defined as time from arrival at the location to departure, and transport time, defined as time from departure from the location to arrival at a hospital. Results For the affected period from week 0 to week 11, the median total EMS time was 36 (IQR 27–52) minutes, while that in the predisaster control period was 31 (IQR 24–40) min. The percentage of transports exceeding 60 min in total EMS time increased from 8.2% (584/7087) in the control period to 22.2% (151/679) in the affected period. Among the 3 time segments, there was the most change in transport time (standardised mean difference: 0.41 vs 0.13–0.17). Conclusions EMS transport was significantly delayed for ∼3 months, from week 1 to 11 after the 3.11 triple disaster. This delay may be attributed to malfunctioning emergency hospitals after the triple disaster. PMID:27683521

  4. Characterization of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA suffered the loss of the seven-member crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003 when the vehicle broke apart upon re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that the accident was caused by a launch ascent incident-a suitcase-sized chunk of insulating foam on the Shuttle's External Tank (ET) broke off, and moving at almost 500 mph, struck an area of the leading edge of the Shuttle s left wing. As a result, one or more of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the wing leading edge were damaged. Upon re-entry, superheated air approaching 3,000 F breached the wing damage and caused the vehicle breakup and loss of crew. The large chunk of insulating foam that broke off during the Columbia launch was determined to come from the so-called bipod ramp area where the Shuttle s orbiter (containing crew) is attached to the ET. Underneath the foam in the bipod ramp area is a layer of TPS that is a cork-filled silicone rubber composite. In March 2003, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama received cured samples of the foam and composite for testing from the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, Louisiana. The MAF is where the Shuttle's ET is manufactured. The foam and composite TPS materials for the ET have been well characterized for mechanical property data at the super-cold temperatures of the liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuels used in the ET. However, modulus data on these materials is not as well characterized. The TA Instruments 2980 Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) was used to determine the modulus of the two TPS materials over a range of -145 to 95 C in the dual cantilever bending mode. Multi-strain, fixed frequency DMA tests were followed by multi-frequency, fixed strain tests to determine the approximate bounds of linear viscoelastic behavior for the two materials. Additional information is included in the original extended

  5. Two-gun suicide by simultaneous shots to the head: interdisciplinary reconstruction on the basis of scene investigation, autopsy findings, GSR analysis and examination of firearms, bullets and cartridge cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Nadjem, Hadi; Merkel, Joachim; Braunwarth, Roland; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal shots fired simultaneously to the head from two handguns are rare. The authors report about a recent case in which a Smith & Wesson cal. 9 mm pistol and a Smith & Wesson cal. .357 Magnum revolver were used. Sitting on a sofa, a 33-year-old man (member of a shooting club) fired two simultaneous shots to the head; the pistol held in the left hand was discharged into the left temple, and the revolver held in the right hand was fired into the mouth. Both weapons remained in the respective hands. An upside-down muzzle imprint in the left temporal region and recoil injuries of a mandibular incisor, and the lower lip indicated that both the pistol and the revolver had been held in an inverted manner at the time of discharge. Blood stains (backspatter) and gunshot residues were present on both firing hands, whereas forward spatter originating from the exit wounds was deposited on the wall behind the suicide's head.

  6. Sexual sadism in the context of rape and sexual homicide: an examination of crime scene indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Jay; Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the convergent and predictive validity of behavioral crime scene indicators of sexual sadism in the context of rape and sexual homicide. The study is based on a sample of 268 adult males sentenced to a federal penitentiary in Canada. Information regarding crime scene behaviors was gathered from police records, a clinical interview with a psychologist, and a semistructured interview with the offender. A series of logistic regressions were performed to determine whether behavioral crime scene indicators of sexual sadism were associated with an official diagnosis of sexual sadism and were able to distinguish between sexual aggressors against women and sexual murderers. Findings suggest that several crime scene behaviors overlap with an official diagnosis of sexual sadism as well as being able to distinguish between sexual aggressors of women and sexual murderers. Importantly, the majority of crime scene behaviors associated with a clinical diagnosis of sexual sadism are not the same as those associated with sexual homicide.

  7. Analyzing the role of climatic factors on road accidents (Case study: Ardabil-Parsabad road in Ardabil Province, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegheh Alizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Road accidents and their fatalities are among the currentchallenges human society facing, which in turn resulting in huge social and economiccosts on the countries. Thedeveloping countries are the biggest victims of the road accidents such that inthese countries, road accidents are considered asthe major cause of death. Unfortunately, Iran is amongthe countries in which the rate of road accidents is high. Among thedriving factors that affect road safety and transport isclimate. Ardabil-Parsab...

  8. A study on the recriticality possibilities of fast reactor cores after a hypothetical core meltdown accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Byung Chan; Han, Do Hee; Kim, Young Cheol

    1997-04-01

    The preliminary and parametric sensitivity study on recriticality risk of fast reactor cores after a hypothetical total core meltdown accident was performed. Only the neutronic aspects of the accident was considered for this study, independent of the accident scenario. Estimation was made for the quantities of molten fuel which must be ejected out of the core in order to assure a sub-critical state. Diverse parameters were examined: molten pool type (homogenized or stratified), fuel temperature, conditions of the reactor core, core size (small or large), and fuel type (oxide, nitride, metal) (author). 7 refs.

  9. The effect of gamma-ray transport on afterheat calculations for accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.

    2000-05-01

    Radioactive afterheat is an important source term for the release of radionuclides in fusion systems under accident conditions. Heat transfer calculations are used to determine time-temperature histories in regions of interest, but the true source term needs to be the effective afterheat, which considers the transport of penetrating gamma rays. Without consideration of photon transport, accident temperatures may be overestimated in others. The importance of this effect is demonstrated for a simple, one-dimensional problem. The significance of this effect depends strongly on the accident scenario being analyzed.

  10. The Modelling of Stereoscopic 3D Scene Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasmanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to find a suitable method for calculating the best setting of a stereo pair of cameras that are viewing the scene to enable spatial imaging. The method is based on a geometric model of a stereo pair cameras currently used for the acquisition of 3D scenes. Based on selectable camera parameters and object positions in the scene, the resultant model allows calculating the parameters of the stereo pair of images that influence the quality of spatial imaging. For the purpose of presenting the properties of the model of a simple 3D scene, an interactive application was created that allows, in addition to setting the cameras and scene parameters and displaying the calculated parameters, also displaying the modelled scene using perspective views and the stereo pair modelled with the aid of anaglyphic images. The resulting modelling method can be used in practice to determine appropriate parameters of the camera configuration based on the known arrangement of the objects in the scene. Analogously, it can, for a given camera configuration, determine appropriate geometrical limits of arranging the objects in the scene being displayed. This method ensures that the resulting stereoscopic recording will be of good quality and observer-friendly.

  11. Neutron Imaging Investigations of the Secondary Hydriding of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Alloys during Loss of Coolant Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, M.; Roessger, C.; Stuckert, J.; Steinbrueck, M.; Kaestner, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Schillinger, B.

    The hydrogen concentration and distribution at both sides of the burst opening of cladding tubes used in three QUENCH-LOCA simulation bundle experiments were investigated by means of neutron radiography and tomography. The quantitative correlation between the total macroscopic neutron cross-section and the atomic number density ratio between hydrogen and zirconium was determined by testing calibration specimens with known hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen enrichments located at the end of the ballooning zone of the tested tubes were detected in the inner rods of the test bundles. Nearly all of the peripheral claddings exposed to lower temperatures do not show such enrichments. This implies that under the conditions investigated a threshold temperature exists below which no hydrogen enrichments can be formed. In order to understand the hydrogen distribution a model was developed describing the processes occurring during loss of coolant accidents after rod burst. The general shape of the hydrogen distributions with a peak each side of the ballooning region is well predicted by this model whereas the absolute concentrations are underestimated compared to the results of the neutron tomography investigations. The model was also used to discuss the influence of the alloy composition on the secondary hydrogenation. Whereas the relations for the maximal hydrogen concentrations agree well for one and the same alloy, the agreement for tests with different alloys is less satisfying, showing that material parameters such as oxidation kinetics, phase transition temperature for the zirconium oxide, and yield strength and ductility at high temperature have to be taken into account to reproduce the results of neutron imaging investigations correctly.

  12. Study on the code system for the off-site consequences assessment of severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sora; Mn, Byung Il; Park, Ki Hyun; Yang, Byung Mo; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The importance of severe nuclear accidents and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were brought to international attention with the occurrence of severe nuclear accidents caused by the extreme natural disaster at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. In Korea, studies on level 3 PSA had made little progress until recently. The code systems of level 3 PSA, MACCS2 (MELCORE Accident Consequence Code System 2, US), COSYMA (COde SYstem from MAria, EU) and OSCAAR (Off-Site Consequence Analysis code for Atmospheric Releases in reactor accidents, JAPAN), were reviewed in this study, and the disadvantages and limitations of MACCS2 were also analyzed. Experts from Korea and abroad pointed out that the limitations of MACCS2 include the following: MACCS2 cannot simulate multi-unit accidents/release from spent fuel pools, and its atmospheric dispersion is based on a simple Gaussian plume model. Some of these limitations have been improved in the updated versions of MACCS2. The absence of a marine and aquatic dispersion model and the limited simulating range of food-chain and economic models are also important aspects that need to be improved. This paper is expected to be utilized as basic research material for developing a Korean code system for assessing off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents.

  13. Auditory scene analysis: The sweet music of ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ePressnitzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper aimed at the non-specialist, we explore the use that neuroscientists and musicians have made of perceptual illusions based on ambiguity. The pivotal issue is auditory scene analysis, or what enables us to make sense of complex acoustic mixtures in order to follow, for instance, a single melody in the midst of an orchestra. In general, auditory scene analysis uncovers the most likely physical causes that account for the waveform collected at the ears. However, the acoustical problem is ill-posed and it must be solved from noisy sensory input. Recently, the neural mechanisms implicated in the transformation of ambiguous sensory information into coherent auditory scenes have been investigated using so-called bistability illusions (where an unchanging ambiguous stimulus evokes a succession of distinct percepts in the mind of the listener. After reviewing some of those studies, we turn to music, which arguably provides some of the most complex acoustic scenes that a human listener will ever encounter. Interestingly, musicians will not always aim at making each physical source intelligible, but rather to express one or more melodic lines with a small or large number of instruments. By means of a few musical illustrations and by using a computational model inspired by neuro-physiological principles, we suggest that this relies on a detailed (if perhaps implicit knowledge of the rules of auditory scene analysis and of its inherent ambiguity. We then put forward the opinion that some degree perceptual ambiguity may participate in our appreciation of music.

  14. Scene recognition for mine rescue robot localization based on vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yi-an; CAI Zi-xing; WANG Lu

    2008-01-01

    A new scene recognition system was presented based on fuzzy logic and hidden Markov model(HMM) that can be applied in mine rescue robot localization during emergencies. The system uses monocular camera to acquire omni-directional images of the mine environment where the robot locates. By adopting center-surround difference method, the salient local image regions are extracted from the images as natural landmarks. These landmarks are organized by using HMM to represent the scene where the robot is, and fuzzy logic strategy is used to match the scene and landmark. By this way, the localization problem, which is the scene recognition problem in the system, can be converted into the evaluation problem of HMM. The contributions of these skills make the system have the ability to deal with changes in scale, 2D rotation and viewpoint. The results of experiments also prove that the system has higher ratio of recognition and localization in both static and dynamic mine environments.

  15. Utilization of the IAIA (Investigation and Analysis of Incidents and Accidents) method in the investigation of the P-36 platform accident; Utilizacao do metodo IAIA (Investigacao e Analise de Acidentes e Incidentes) na investigacao do acidente ocorrido na plataforma P-36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [ARCE - Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginning of XXI century the Brazilian oil industry report a big accident involving that which was the biggest petroleum platform of the world. With capacity production of 180.000 barrels a day and capacity compression of 7,2 million cubic meter a day of natural gas, the off-shore platform P-36 was situated on Roncador field, in Campos basin, operating in 1360 meters of water. As consequences, eleven deaths with irreparable traumas to the families, friends and worker partners, one billion dollars in prejudices to brazilian country, environmental damages by oil leak and injuries to PETROBRAS reputation in Brazil and in the world. The method of investigation and analysis of incidents and accidents - IAIA is very wide and its philosophy contain a lot of topics, since basic concepts, investigation actions, analysis action and diagnosis by the general kind of fail. Using this method and taking advantage from the report elaborated by the commission organized by ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo and DPC - Diretoria de Portos e Costas, responsible for the investigation and analysis of the accident occurred with P-36, this paper identify the direct and indirect causes of the accident, in attempt to avoid new similar situations. (author)

  16. Effect of the Duration Time of a Nuclear Accident on Radiological Health Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojoon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the effect of duration time of a nuclear accident on the radiation dose of a densely populated area and the resulting acute health effects. In the case of nuclear accidents, the total emissions of radioactive materials can be classified into several categories. Therefore, the release information is very important for the assessment of risk to the public. We confirmed that when the duration time of the emissions are prolonged to 7 hours, the concentrations of radioactive substances in the ambient air are reduced by 50% compared to that when the duration time of emission is one hour. This means that the risk evaluation using only the first wind direction of an accident is very conservative, so it has to be used as a screening level for the risk assessment. Furthermore, it is judged that the proper control of the emission time of a nuclear accident can minimize the health effects on residents.

  17. Three-dimensional scene capturing for the virtual reality display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingsheng; Sang, Xinzhu; Guo, Nan; Chen, Duo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A virtual reality shooting and display system based on multiple degrees of freedom camera is designed and demonstrated. Three-dimensional scene display and the wide angle display can be achieved easily and quickly through the construction with the proposed system. The range of the viewing scene can be broaden with the image stitching process, and the display in the demonstrated system can achieve the effect of wide angle for applications of image mosaic. In the meantime, the system can realize 3D scene display, which can effectively reduce the complexity of the 3D scene generation, and provide a foundation for adding interactive characteristics for the 3D scene in the future. The system includes an adjustable bracket, computer software, and a virtual reality device. Multiple degrees of freedom of the adjustable bracket are developed to obtain 3D scene source images and mosaic source images easily. 5 degrees of freedom are realized, including rotation, lifting, translation, convergence and pitching. To realize the generation and display of three-dimensional scenes, two cameras are adjusted into a parallel state. With the process of image distortion eliminating and calibration, the image is transferred to the virtual reality device for display. In order to realize wide angle display, the cameras are adjusted into "V" type. The preprocessing includes image matching and fusion to realize image stitching. The mosaic image is transferred for virtual reality display with its image reading and display functions. The wide angle 3D scene display is realized by adjusting different states.

  18. Accident statistics for fixed offshore units on the UK Continental Shelf 1980-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funnemark, E. [Det Norske Veritas Industry AS, (Norway); Young, E. [Health and Safety Executive, (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Comprehensive statistics for the accidents and incidents on fixed units engaged in oil and gas exploration/exploitation on the UK continental shelf between 1980 and 2001 have been assembled from other databases. The data includes nature of the incident, type of unit involved, geographical area and time period. The results cover a total of 5,563 events which are described as accidents, hazardous situations or near misses.

  19. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition.

  20. NASA's Accident Precursor Analysis Process and the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Lutomski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the implementation of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), as well as the evaluation of In-Flight Investigations (IFI) and Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) data for the identification of unrecognized accident potentials on the International Space Station.

  1. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  2. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  3. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  4. Hysteresis in the dynamic perception of scenes and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Tong, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Scenes and objects are effortlessly processed and integrated by the human visual system. Given the distinct neural and behavioral substrates of scene and object processing, it is likely that individuals sometimes preferentially rely on one process or the other when viewing canonical "scene" or "object" stimuli. This would allow the visual system to maximize the specific benefits of these 2 types of processing. It is less obvious which of these modes of perception would be invoked during naturalistic visual transition between a focused view of a single object and an expansive view of an entire scene, particularly at intermediate views that may not be assigned readily to either stimulus category. In the current study, we asked observers to report their online perception of such dynamic image sequences, which zoomed and panned between a canonical view of a single object and an entire scene. We found a large and consistent effect of prior perception, or hysteresis, on the classification of the sequence: observers classified the sequence as an object for several seconds longer if the trial started at the object view and zoomed out, whereas scenes were perceived for longer on trials beginning with a scene view. This hysteresis effect resisted several manipulations of the movie stimulus and of the task performed, but hinged on the perceptual history built by unidirectional progression through the image sequence. Multiple experiments confirmed that this hysteresis effect was not purely decisional and was more prominent for transitions between corresponding objects and scenes than between other high-level stimulus classes. This finding suggests that the competitive mechanisms underlying hysteresis may be especially prominent in the perception of objects and scenes. We propose that hysteresis aids in disambiguating perception during naturalistic visual transitions, which may facilitate a dynamic balance between scene and object processing to enhance processing efficiency.

  5. Does object view influence the scene consistency effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastyin, Gergo; Niimi, Ryosuke; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Traditional research on the scene consistency effect only used clearly recognizable object stimuli to show mutually interactive context effects for both the object and background components on scene perception (Davenport & Potter in Psychological Science, 15, 559-564, 2004). However, in real environments, objects are viewed from multiple viewpoints, including an accidental, hard-to-recognize one. When the observers named target objects in scenes (Experiments 1a and 1b, object recognition task), we replicated the scene consistency effect (i.e., there was higher accuracy for the objects with consistent backgrounds). However, there was a significant interaction effect between consistency and object viewpoint, which indicated that the scene consistency effect was more important for identifying objects in the accidental view condition than in the canonical view condition. Therefore, the object recognition system may rely more on the scene context when the object is difficult to recognize. In Experiment 2, the observers identified the background (background recognition task) while the scene consistency and object views were manipulated. The results showed that object viewpoint had no effect, while the scene consistency effect was observed. More specifically, the canonical and accidental views both equally provided contextual information for scene perception. These findings suggested that the mechanism for conscious recognition of objects could be dissociated from the mechanism for visual analysis of object images that were part of a scene. The "context" that the object images provided may have been derived from its view-invariant, relatively low-level visual features (e.g., color), rather than its semantic information.

  6. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches th...... ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals....

  7. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    . This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective...

  8. Review of Maritime Accidents Involving Chemicals – Special Focus on the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Häkkinen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and handling of hazardous chemicals and chemical products around the world’s waters and ports have considerably increased over the last 20 years. Thus, the risk of major pollution accidents has also increased. Past incidents/accidents are, when reported in detail, first hand sources of information on what may happen again. This paper provides an overview of the past tanker accidents in the Baltic Sea and chemical related accidents in seas worldwide. The aim is to find out what can be learned from past accidents, especially from the environmental point of view. The study is carried out as a literature review and as a statistical review. The study revealed that the risk of a chemical accident is highest in seas where the highest tonnes of chemicals are transported, the density of maritime traffic is highest and, of course, in the ship-shore interface where unloading/loading takes place. Incidents involving chemical spills are statistically much less likely to occur than oil spills. However, chemical cargoes can be more dangerous to humans and property because chemicals can be more combustible, poisonous, irritating and reactive. The most important difference between a chemical and an oil spill may be related to response actions. In case of a chemical accident, the air quality or the risk of explosion should be more carefully evaluated before any response actions are taken. In case of chemical spills, the response is more limited in comparison to oil. Actually, very little is known about the actual marine pollution effect of most of highly transported substances. From the environmental point of view, the previous studies have highlighted accidents in which pesticides were released to water, but also substances considered as non-pollutants (vegetable oils seem to have a negative effect on biota in the water environment.

  9. Rapid influence of emotional scenes on encoding of facial expressions: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righart, Ruthger; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-09-01

    In daily life, we perceive a person's facial reaction as part of the natural environment surrounding it. Because most studies have investigated how facial expressions are recognized by using isolated faces, it is unclear what role the context plays. Although it has been observed that the N170 for facial expressions is modulated by the emotional context, it was not clear whether individuals use context information on this stage of processing to discriminate between facial expressions. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the early stages of face processing are affected by emotional scenes when explicit categorizations of fearful and happy facial expressions are made. Emotion effects were found for the N170, with larger amplitudes for faces in fearful scenes as compared to faces in happy and neutral scenes. Critically, N170 amplitudes were significantly increased for fearful faces in fearful scenes as compared to fearful faces in happy scenes and expressed in left-occipito-temporal scalp topography differences. Our results show that the information provided by the facial expression is combined with the scene context during the early stages of face processing.

  10. Rapid influence of emotional scenes on encoding of facial expressions: an ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righart, Ruthger

    2008-01-01

    In daily life, we perceive a person's facial reaction as part of the natural environment surrounding it. Because most studies have investigated how facial expressions are recognized by using isolated faces, it is unclear what role the context plays. Although it has been observed that the N170 for facial expressions is modulated by the emotional context, it was not clear whether individuals use context information on this stage of processing to discriminate between facial expressions. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the early stages of face processing are affected by emotional scenes when explicit categorizations of fearful and happy facial expressions are made. Emotion effects were found for the N170, with larger amplitudes for faces in fearful scenes as compared to faces in happy and neutral scenes. Critically, N170 amplitudes were significantly increased for fearful faces in fearful scenes as compared to fearful faces in happy scenes and expressed in left-occipito-temporal scalp topography differences. Our results show that the information provided by the facial expression is combined with the scene context during the early stages of face processing. PMID:19015119

  11. A religião em cena: perspectivas de investigação (Religion on the scene: perspectives of investigation - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n23p883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodrigues da Conceição

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio parte dos problemas enfrentados pela religião no âmbito do mundo moderno e sua particular compreensão de ciência. Pontualmente, ocupou-se em problematizar as querelas por ela enfrentadas quando a então embrionária modernidade estabelecia seus novos paradigmas científicos, motivando, portanto, o seu profundo deslocamento. Assevera-se, a partir daí, cada vez mais, uma inadequação da religião enquanto alvo a ser perspectivado pelo movimento científico nascente. A religião, portanto, não se viu pertencida aos debates produzidos pelo mundo moderno, nem tampouco pelo cânone dos novos postulados científicos, representado, majoritariamente, pelo vertiginoso avanço das ciências da natureza. Discute-se, por isso, a partir de W. Dilthey, a emergência do paradigma das chamadas ciências humanas e daí a possibilidade de se entrever, novamente, a pergunta pela pertinência da religião, enquanto elemento fundamental da cultura humana e, portanto, indispensável à compreensão da humanidade do homem. Por fim, procurou-se convocar, no âmbito das chamadas ciências da religião, a dimensão hermenêutica das ciências humanas e a reabilitação da teologia enquanto campo imprescindível para a audição da religião. Palavras-chave: Modernidade. Ciências. Teologia.   Abstract The standpoints of this essay are the problems faced by religion in modern world and its particular understanding of science. From time to time, the concerns on this matter were centered in the debates that involved religion, especially when the recently formed modernity established its new scientific paradigms, motivating, thus, its deep displacement. It was assured then, and ever more, an inadequacy of religion as a target to be reached by the rising scientific movement. Religion, therefore, has never been truly inserted in the debates produced by the modern world, not even by the canon of the new scientific statements, mostly represented by

  12. The dominance of accidents caused by banalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    . Nevertheless, the fact is that the simpler accidents normally caused by what might be regarded as banalities occur at a much higher frequencies and with many more fatalities and invalidities than any of what are usually regarded as the most dangerous kinds of accidents. In depth analysis of national statistics...... on accidents could reveal the kind of accidents we are talking about, where they happen, to whom, how, and what can be done about them. This would require a special registration system of the events leading up to the accident. The main results for the four most frequent types of accident will be described...... as an example of how much information such systems can offer in general for the work of accident prevention in more traditional and common enterprises....

  13. [Effects on health of the Chernobyl accident: 30 years on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, N; Steiner, Dr M; Grosche, B

    2016-09-01

    This paper reflects the current state of research into the short- and long-term effects on health in the former Soviet Union and Europe of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. It discusses the latest results of epidemiological studies and presents future research perspectives.

  14. The influence of seatbelts on the types of operated brachial plexus lesions caused by car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Radek; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between seatbelt use and type of brachial plexus injury seen in automobile accidents. Knowledge of such a relationship may help guide the surgical management of these patients. We retrospectively evaluated 43 surgical patients with brachial plexus palsy caused by car accidents. We recorded sex, age, and type of injury for each case. We also obtained data regarding the patients' position in the car at the time of the accident and whether they were wearing a seatbelt. We obtained data on 39 men and 4 women. Of the seatbelted patients, 24 (100%) had upper plexus palsy on the side where the seatbelt crossed the shoulder. Of those who were not wearing seatbelts, 17 (86%) had complete plexus injuries. We also found 1 upper and 1 lower plexus injury in the unbelted group. We found a relationship between the type of brachial plexus injury sustained by the accident victim and the use and position of the seatbelt. Complete plexus injuries were more common in those who were not wearing seatbelts. We saw upper plexus injuries for those wearing seatbelts. Information about seatbelt use may be useful in clinical practice. When treating an unbelted car accident victim with a brachial plexus injury, it is reasonable to anticipate a more serious form of the injury. Prognostic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Three interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet

    OpenAIRE

    Unander-Scharin, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The interactive scenes of The Crystal Cabinet (2008) constitute the first part in my choreographic research project exploring volatile bodies and multistable corporealities. This performance took the form of a dream play opera in twelve scenes including texts and images from William Blake’s (1757-1827) illuminated books. To create his books Blake invented a printing-machine with which he could print his handwritten poems and images. We transformed this idea into an interactive stage area wher...

  16. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law enforcement personnel must make detailed investigations of...

  17. The influence of the crust layer on RPV structural failure under severe accident condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianfeng, E-mail: jianfeng-mao@163.com [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Li, Xiangqing [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Bao, Shiyi [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China); Luo, Lijia [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); Engineering Research Center of Process Equipment and Re-manufacturing, Ministry of Education (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior. • The RPV failure is investigated in depth under severe accident. • The creep and plastic damage mainly contribute to RPV failure. • An elastic core in RPV wall is essential for ensuring RPV integrity. • The multiaxial state of stress accelerates the total damage evolution. - Abstract: The so called ‘in-vessel retention (IVR)’ is regarded as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy, which is widely used in most of advanced nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of IVR strategy is to employ the external water flooding to cool the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The RPV integrity has to be maintained within a required period during the IVR period. The degraded melting core is assumed to be arrested in the lower head (LH) to form the melting pool that is bounded by upper, side and lower crusts. Consequently, the existence of the crust layer greatly affects the RPV structural behavior as well as failure process. In order to disclose this influence caused by the crust layer, a detailed investigation is conducted by using numerical simulation on the two RPVs with and without crust layer respectively. Taking the RPV without crust layer as a basis for the comparison, the present study assesses the likelihood and potential failure location, time and mode of the LH under the loadings of the critical heat flux (CHF) and slight internal pressure. Due to the high temperature melt on the inside and nucleate boiling on the outside, the RPV integrity is found to be compromised by melt-through, creep, elasticity, plasticity as well as thermal expansion. Through in-depth investigation, it is found that the creep and plasticity are of vital importance to the final structural failure, and the introduction of crust layer results in a significant change on field parameters in terms of temperature, deformation, stress(strain), triaxiality factor and total damage.

  18. The association of mobile medical team involvement on on-scene times and mortality in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sema; Overwater, Eline; Saltzherr, Teun Peter; Jin, P H Ping Fung Kon; van Exter, Pieternel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan S K; Goslings, J Carel

    2010-09-01

    Mobile medical teams (MMTs) provide specialized care on-scene with the purpose to improve outcome. However, this additional care could prolong the on-scene time (OST), which is related to mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of MMT involvement on the mortality rate and on the OST, in a Dutch consecutive cohort of Level I trauma patients. All patients who required presentation in the trauma resuscitation room in an urban Level I trauma center were included in this prospective study during the period of November 2005 till November 2007. For data collection, we used both pre- and in-hospital registration systems. Outcome measures were 30-day mortality and OST. In total, 1,054 patients were analyzed. In 172 (16%) patients, the MMT was involved. Mortality was significantly higher in the MMT group compared with patients treated without MMT involvement; 9.9% versus 2.7%, respectively (p PHTLS recommendations. MMT involvement slightly prolonged the OST. Trauma patients with MMT involvement had a high mortality, but after correction for patient and injury characteristics, the mortality rate did not significantly differ from patients without MMT involvement.

  19. Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

  20. Scene analysis in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated, and there remain critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying scene analysis comprising four essential properties: (1) the ability to solve ill-posed problems, (2) the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, (3) efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and (4) the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress toward behavioral goals.

  1. Impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction among Korean industrial accident workers completing convalescence: dual mediating effects of self-esteem and sleeping time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHOI, Wan-Suk; KIM, Bo-Kyung; KIM, Ki-Do; MOON, Ok-Kon; YEUM, Dong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction among workers who experienced an industrial accident and investigated how self-esteem and sleeping time affected life satisfaction...

  2. Papel del Médico Forense en la Inspección Ocular y Levantamiento del Cadáver: Propuesta de documento. (Recomendaciones, guías, normas o protocolos de actuación profesional The role of the Forensic Physician at the Death Scene Investigation: A proposal for a document. (Guidelines for Death Scene Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Palomo Rando

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La creación de los Institutos de Medicina Legal y los recientes cambios legislativos en nuestro país obligan al Médico Forense a elaborar un informe para el Juzgado de Guardia y el Servicio de Patología Forense del levantamiento del cadáver. Los autores revisan cual debe ser la información recogida por el Médico Forense con carácter general en la escena de la muerte con relación a la identificación, antecedentes, circunstancias y la data de la misma. Igualmente, analizan la información esencial que debe registrarse y los indicios que deben recogerse en los casos de muerte súbita e inesperada y en los tipos más frecuentes de muerte violenta. Se relaciona el instrumental necesario para poder realizar adecuadamente la investigación de la escena de la muerte y se propone un impreso para plasmar la información que se envía al Instructor y al Servicio de Patología Forense donde se practicará la autopsia.The role of the forensic physician at the death scene investigation has changed in Spain during the last year. When attending a crime scene, forensic physicians must write a report for the examining court and the Forensic Pathology Service. This report should provide enough information about the deceased’s identification, time of death, medical history and circumstances surrounding the death. The authors enumerate the examinations and evidence that must be collected in cases of sudden-unexpected deaths and in the main types of violent deaths. Finally, the equipment used in the death scene investigation is reviewed and an official form for the examining court and the Forensic Pathology Service is proposed.

  3. Technical Advisory Team (TAT) report on the rocket sled test accident of October 9, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stofleth, Jerome H.; Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Medina, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes probable causes and contributing factors that led to a rocket motor initiating prematurely while employees were preparing instrumentation for an AIII rocket sled test at SNL/NM, resulting in a Type-B Accident. Originally prepared by the Technical Advisory Team that provided technical assistance to the NNSA's Accident Investigation Board, the report includes analyses of several proposed causes and concludes that the most probable source of power for premature initiation of the rocket motor was the independent battery contained in the HiCap recorder package. The report includes data, evidence, and proposed scenarios to substantiate the analyses.

  4. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρaccident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρtraffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-07-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  6. Severe accident progression perspectives for Mark I containments based on the IPE results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.C.; Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Drouin, M. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, N. Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Based on level 2 analyses in IPE (Individual Plant Examination) submittals accident progression, perspectives were obtained for all containment types. These perspectives consisted of insights on containment failure modes, releases therein, and factors responsible for the results. To illustrate the types of perspectives acquired on severe accident progresssion, insights obtained for (BWR) Mark I containments are discussed here. Mark I containments have high strength but small volumes and rely on pressure suppression pools to condense steam released from the reactor coolant system during an accident. Accidents causing structural failure of the drywell shortly after the core debris melts through the reactor vessel were found to be dominant contributors to risk. Importance of individual containment failure mechanisms depends on plant features and in some cases on modeling assumptions; however the following mechanisms were found important: drywell shell melt-through caused by direct contact with core debris and drywell failure caused by rapid pressure/temperature pulses at time of vessel melt-through. Drywell failure caused by gradual pressure/temperature buildup due to gases and steam released during core/concrete interactions is important in some IPEs. In other IPEs vent was an important contributor. However, accidents that bypass containment (eg interfacing systems LOCA)or involve containment isolation failure were not important contributors to the CDF in any of the IPEs for Mark I plants. These accidents are also not important to risk (even though they can involve large fission product release) because their frequencies of occurrence are so much lower than frequencies of early structural failure caused by other accidents that dominate the CDF.

  7. 3D Road Scene Monitoring Based on Real-Time Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuezhou Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road monitoring helps to control the regional traffic situation so as to adjust the traffic flow. Real-time panorama is conducive to timely treat traffic accidents and to greatly improve traffic capacity. This paper designs a 3D road scene monitoring framework based on real-time panorama. The system is the combination of large scale panorama, satellite map textures, and 3D scene model, in which users can ramble freely. This paper has the following contributions. Firstly, land-points were extracted followed by motion detection, then comotion algorithm was applied to land-points from adjacent cameras, and homography matrix was constructed. Secondly, reference camera was chosen and transformed to overhead viewpoint; subsequently multiviews were morphed to the same viewpoint and stitched to panorama. Finally, the registration based on high-precision GPS information between 2D road panorama and 3D scene model was also proposed. The proposed framework has been successfully applied to a large road intersection monitoring. Experimental results are furnished at the end of the paper.

  8. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  9. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  10. Forensic DNA Phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Forensic DNA Phenotyping refers to the prediction of appearance traits of unknown sample donors, or unknown deceased (missing) persons, directly from biological materials found at the scene. "Biological witness" outcomes of Forensic DNA Phenotyping can provide investigative leads to trace unknown persons, who are unidentifiable with current comparative DNA profiling. This intelligence application of DNA marks a substantially different forensic use of genetic material rather than that of current DNA profiling presented in the courtroom. Currently, group-specific pigmentation traits are already predictable from DNA with reasonably high accuracies, while several other externally visible characteristics are under genetic investigation. Until individual-specific appearance becomes accurately predictable from DNA, conventional DNA profiling needs to be performed subsequent to appearance DNA prediction. Notably, and where Forensic DNA Phenotyping shows great promise, this is on a (much) smaller group of potential suspects, who match the appearance characteristics DNA-predicted from the crime scene stain or from the deceased person's remains. Provided sufficient funding being made available, future research to better understand the genetic basis of human appearance will expectedly lead to a substantially more detailed description of an unknown person's appearance from DNA, delivering increased value for police investigations in criminal and missing person cases involving unknowns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; J. C. VAN OURS

    2002-01-01

    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  12. Crime scene as spatial production on screen, online and offline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    Our field of investigation is site specific realism in crime fiction and spatial production as media specific features. We will analyze the (re)production of crime scenes in respectively crime series, computer games and tourist practice, and relate this to the ideas of emotional geography. The use...

  13. Scene construction impairments in Alzheimer's disease - A unique role for the posterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Halena, Stephanie; Kamminga, Jody; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R

    2015-12-01

    Episodic memory dysfunction represents one of the most prominent and characteristic clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and posterior parietal regions of the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated marked impairments in the ability to envisage personally relevant events in the future in AD. It remains unclear, however, whether AD patients can imagine fictitious scenes free from temporal constraints, a process that is proposed to rely fundamentally upon the integrity of the hippocampus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the capacity for atemporal scene construction, and its associated neural substrates, in AD. Fourteen AD patients were tested on the scene construction task and their performance was contrasted with 14 age- and education-matched healthy older Control participants. Scene construction performance was strikingly compromised in the AD group, with significant impairments evident for provision of contextual details, spatial coherence, and the overall richness of the imagined experience. Voxel-based morphometry analyses based on structural MRI revealed significant associations between scene construction capacity and atrophy in posterior parietal and lateral temporal brain structures in AD. In contrast, scene construction performance in Controls was related to integrity of frontal, parietal, and medial temporal structures, including the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) emerged as the common region implicated for scene construction performance across participant groups. Our study highlights the importance of regions specialised for spatial and contextual processing for the construction of atemporal scenes. Damage to these regions in AD compromises the ability to construct novel scenes, leading to the recapitulation of content from previously experienced events.

  14. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  15. Beyond the organisational accident: the need for "error wisdom" on the frontline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, J

    2004-12-01

    Complex, well defended, high technology systems are subject to rare but usually catastrophic organisational accidents in which a variety of contributing factors combine to breach the many barriers and safeguards. To the extent that healthcare institutions share these properties, they too are subject to organisational accidents. A detailed case study of such an accident is described. However, it is important to recognise that health care possesses a number of characteristics that set it apart from other hazardous domains. These include the diversity of activity and equipment, a high degree of uncertainty, the vulnerability of patients, and a one to one or few to one mode of delivery. Those in direct contact with patients, particularly nurses and junior doctors, often have little opportunity to reform the system's defences. It is argued that some organisational accident sequences could be thwarted at the last minute if those on the frontline had acquired some degree of error wisdom. Some mental skills are outlined that could alert junior doctors and nurses to situations likely to promote damaging errors.

  16. [Accidents in travellers - the hidden epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Alexander; Hatz, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The risk of malaria and other communicable diseases is well addressed in pre-travel advice. Accidents are usually less discussed. Thus, we aimed at assessing accident figures for the Swiss population, based on data of the register from 2004 to 2008 of the largest Swiss accident insurance organization (SUVA). More than 139'000 accidents over 5 years showed that 65 % of the accidents overseas are injuries, and 24 % are caused by poisoning or harm by cold, heat or air pressure. Most accidents happened during leisure activities or sports. More than one third of the non-lethal and more than 50 % of the fatal accidents happened in Asia. More than three-quarters of non-lethal accidents take place in people between 25 and 54 years. One out of 74 insured persons has an accident abroad per year. Despite of many analysis short-comings of the data set with regard to overseas travel, the figures document the underestimated burden of disease caused by accidents abroad and should affect the given pre-health advice.

  17. Investigate the role of environmental factors in causing or contributing to underground accidents in gold and platinum mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Franz, RM

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available velocity 53 Distribution of accidents in relation to wet Kata reading 54 Distribution of accidents in relation to heat stress at time of accident compared with norm for workplace 55 Distribution of accidents in relation to changes in heat stress... accidents occurred 64 Distribution of accidents in relation to visibility at time of occurrence compared with norm for workplace 65 Distribution of accidents in relation to changes in visibility immediately prior to occurrence 66 Distribution...

  18. Nondestructive Testing As a Tool in the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDanels, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) played a crucial role in determining the Columbia tragedy's cause. Over 84,000 pieces of debris were recovered; hundreds were subsequently subjected to NDT and materials analysis. Visual NDT of the debris revealed localized areas of damage such as erosion, excessive heating, knife edging and mechanical damage. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of the left wing leading edge, utilizing a tripod-mounted laser scanning head and focused laser beam, and an advanced topometric optical scanner (ATOS) with digital white light to scan complex-shaped debris, producing monochrome 3-D models. Texture mapping provided a means to capture true colors of the debris and superimpose them on the scanned images. Uniform deposits were found over large portions of debris, obscuring underlying materials. To determine what was beneath, inverse radiography was enlisted. The radiographs guided investigators to where samples should be taken. To ascertain compositions, these samples were subjected to analytical testing, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. This combination of visual evidence, radiography, virtual reconstruction, and materials analysis allowed the forensic scientists to verify that a breach occurred in the leading edge of the left wing, the path the plasma followed, and the sequence of events that led to the loss.

  19. Affective salience can reverse the effects of stimulus-driven salience on eye movements in complex scenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niu, Yaqing; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, A K

    2012-01-01

    ... allocation in complex scene viewing. Building on our previous research, we compared predictions generated by a visual salience model with measures indexing participant-identified emotionally meaningful regions of each image...

  20. The future of forensic and crime scene science. Part II. A UK perspective on forensic science education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennell, Julie

    2006-03-14

    This paper builds on the views presented by the author at 'The Future of Forensic and Crime Scene Science Conference'. Forensic science has become an increasingly prominent area of science within the last 10 years. This increasing prominence together with popularity in the subject has seen the number of undergraduate students studying forensic science related courses at UK Universities increase rapidly in just 5 years and there are no short term signs of this trend reducing. In 2005, there were 450 courses with forensic in the title offered by higher education institutes. Although the forensic community has expressed its concern that job prospects for these students wishing to pursue careers as forensic scientists will be limited numbers of students undertaking science courses have still increased. The increase in students studying forensic science comes in an era of decreasing science numbers in higher education with the potential to produce high calibre science graduates with sought after skills in critical thinking, analysis, interpretation and communication. Technology has continued to advance at a similar pace providing those responsible for managing crime with a need and opportunity to identify and predict new and future applications of science and technology; not just in reducing and detecting crime but also in predicting how technology will be used by criminals in the future. There is therefore a need for forensic science users, providers and educators to identify the knowledge and skills required by forensic scientists and crime investigators of the future to ensure that technology continues to be used and applied to its full advantage. This provides universities an opportunity to contribute to the development of both the practice and practitioners of forensic science. This paper outlines the current issues facing universities in relation to forensic science and identifies their future role in providing high quality relevant courses for future forensic

  1. Development and test results of the Realtime Severe Accident Model 5 (RSAM5) based on the MAAP5 For the Kori 1 simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Hyuk; Lee, Myeong Soo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Real Time Severe Accident Model (RSAM) in the Kori simulator employs the standard MAAP 5.01.1101 code (which is defined as MAAP 5.01) plus several statically linked libraries that interface with the simulator environment. The physical phenomena that can be envisioned inside the reactor vessel, the reactor coolant system (RCS), and the containment during severe accidents are comprehensively modeled by the MAAP5 code. The MAAP5 code has been known to be a reliable tool for understanding the sequence of events that occur during severe LWR accidents, evaluating the consequences of the failure of emergency systems, assessing the effects of operator interventions, and investigating the influence of design features of the RCS, containment, and safety systems on the accident consequences. The purpose of this paper is to describe the modeling of the Kori Unit 1 nuclear plant with the MAAP5 code and major outputs in the event of the SBO, SBO + SGTR, SBO + LBLOCA.

  2. Experimental Investigation on Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident for Direct Vessel Injection Line%DVI管小破口失水事故实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭传新; 张妍; 黄志刚; 昝元锋; 卓文彬; 闫晓

    2016-01-01

    在模块化小型反应堆非能动安全系统综合模拟实验装置上进行了压力容器直接注入(DVI)管小破口失水事故实验,研究了DVI管小破口失水事故过程中的热工水力现象和非能动安全系统运行特性。研究结果表明:模块化小型反应堆DVI管小破口失水事故中,非能动安全系统可对堆芯进行注水,有效导出堆芯衰变热量,保护堆芯安全。%T he small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA ) experiment for direct vessel injection (DVI ) line , w hich investigated the thermal‐hydraulic phenomena and the performances of passive safety system during the accident ,was performed on the passive safety system test facility for small modular reactor .The experimental results show that the passive safety system of small modular reactor can provide effective cool‐ant injection ,successful removal of core residual heat under the DVI line SBLOCA and protection to reactor core safety .

  3. Theoretical Perspectives on Learning for the Prevention of Fishing Vessel Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical model for accident prevention education that includes four paradigms: humanism, radical humanism, functionalism, and radical functionalism. Applies the model to fishing boat accidents and derives implications for changing the content and processes of prevention education. (SK)

  4. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lewicki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of scene analysis has been studied in a number of different fields over the past decades. These studies have led to a number of important insights into problems of scene analysis, but not all of these insights are widely appreciated. Despite this progress, there are also critical shortcomings in current approaches that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying analysis comprising four essential properties: 1 the ability to solve ill-posed problems, 2 the ability to integrate and store information across time and modality, 3 efficient recovery and representation of 3D scene structure, and 4 the use of optimal motor actions for acquiring information to progress towards behavioral goals.

  5. Effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Fridstrøm, Lasse; Kaminska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies made eleven years apart in Norway (0035 and 0025) to evaluate effects on accidents of changes in the use of studded tyres in major cities in Norway. The first study covered the period from 1991 to 2000, the second study covered the period from 2002...... to 2009. In both these periods, large changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were found in the cities that were included in the study. There was, in most cities, a tendency for the use of studded tyres to go down. Effects of these changes on injury accidents were evaluated by means...... of negative binomial regression models, using city and day as the unit of analysis, and including more than twenty explanatory variables in order to control for confounding factors. The effects of changes in the percentage of cars using studded tyres were well described by an accident modification function...

  6. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  7. Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dandan; Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation method of hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyperspectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyperspectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyperspectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyperspectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyperspectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyperspectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.

  8. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -The development of a severe accident analysis code-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heui Dong; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Jong Hwa; Hong, Sung Wan; Yoo, Dong Han; Hwang, Moon Kyoo; Noh, Kee Man; Song, Yong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    For prevention and mitigation of the containment failure during severe accident, the study is focused on the severe accident phenomena, especially, the ones occurring inside the cavity and is intended to improve existing models and develop analytical tools for the assessment of severe accidents. A correlation equation of the flame velocity of pre mixture gas of H{sub 2}/air/steam has been suggested and combustion flame characteristic was analyzed using a developed computer code. For the analysis of the expansion phase of vapor explosion, the mechanical model has been developed. The development of a debris entrainment model in a reactor cavity with captured volume has been continued to review and examine the limitation and deficiencies of the existing models. Pre-test calculation was performed to support the severe accident experiment for molten corium concrete interaction study and the crust formation process and heat transfer characteristics of the crust have been carried out. A stress analysis code was developed using finite element method for the reactor vessel lower head failure analysis. Through international program of PHEBUS-FP and participation in the software development, the research on the core degradation process and fission products release and transportation are undergoing. CONTAIN and MELCOR codes were continuously updated under the cooperation with USNRC and French developed computer codes such as ICARE2, ESCADRE, SOPHAEROS were also installed into the SUN workstation. 204 figs, 61 tabs, 87 refs. (Author).

  9. Evacuation effect on excess mortality among institutionalized elderly after the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake hit Fukushima Prefecture on March 11, 2011, just over 3 years ago and it continues to affect our lives. In Fukushima, many people are confirmed dead or still missing due to the earthquake and/or tsunami. Additional "disaster-related deaths" have been attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Mortality among the institutionalized elderly rates after the NPP accident were exceptionally high during the first 3 months, and persisted at a lower level for 9 months, in comparison with similar periods before the accident. This study demonstrates the great impact of evacuation on mortality of institutionalized elderly, excluding inpatients. We need to pay special attention to evacuation of the elderly, regardless of whether voluntary or forced.

  10. Tracking the Origins of an Ancient Star Scene on a Nova Scotian Chancel Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David G.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reconstruction of St. John's Church in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, a World Heritage Site, following a disastrous 2001 fire, led to the 2004 discovery that the chancel ceiling star pattern emplaced in 1870-72 was designed to replicate the sky seen locally at the traditional beginning of the first Christmas. The resulting media blitz following the discovery generated several unanswered questions: who designed the original pattern?, who was the artist responsible for the work?, and why was such a scene used at St. John's? Further research into such questions has made little progress, mainly because there is no direct archival evidence related to the events of 1870-72. Indirect archival clues are more revealing, however, and lead to a likely scenario that explains all available evidence, including why Lunenburg residents referred to the original star pattern as 'the Mariner's Sky.' The original work appears to have been completed under the guise of a Canadian Confederation project, and provides graphic evidence for more extensive astronomical expertise in Nova Scotia in that era than previously believed.

  11. Foggy Scene Rendering Based on Transmission Map Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering of foggy scene is important in game development and virtual reality. Traditional methods have many parameters to control or require a long time to compute, and they are usually limited to depicting a homogeneous fog without considering the foggy scene with heterogeneous fog. In this paper, a new rendering method based on transmission map estimation is proposed. We first generate perlin noise image as the density distribution texture of heterogeneous fog. Then we estimate the transmission map using the Markov random field (MRF model and the bilateral filter. Finally, virtual foggy scene is realistically rendered with the generated perlin noise image and the transmission map according to the atmospheric scattering model. Experimental results show that the rendered results of our approach are quite satisfactory.

  12. [Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

    1987-06-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv.

  13. Review of On-Scene Management of Mass-Casualty Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Holgersson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The scene of a mass-casualty attack (MCA entails a crime scene, a hazardous space, and a great number of people needing medical assistance. Public transportation has been the target of such attacks and involves a high probability of generating mass casualties. The review aimed to investigate challenges for on-scene responses to MCAs and suggestions made to counter these challenges, with special attention given to attacks on public transportation and associated terminals. Methods: Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus, “relevant articles” as defined by the databases, and a manual search of references. Inclusion criteria were that the article referred to attack(s and/or a public transportation-related incident and issues concerning formal on-scene response. An appraisal of the articles’ scientific quality was conducted based on an evidence hierarchy model developed for the study. Results: One hundred and five articles were reviewed. Challenges for command and coordination on scene included establishing leadership, inter-agency collaboration, multiple incident sites, and logistics. Safety issues entailed knowledge and use of personal protective equipment, risk awareness and expectations, cordons, dynamic risk assessment, defensive versus offensive approaches, and joining forces. Communication concerns were equipment shortfalls, dialoguing, and providing information. Assessment problems were scene layout and interpreting environmental indicators as well as understanding setting-driven needs for specialist skills and resources. Triage and treatment difficulties included differing triage systems, directing casualties, uncommon injuries, field hospitals, level of care, providing psychological and pediatric care. Transportation hardships included scene access, distance to hospitals, and distribution of casualties. Conclusion: Commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying

  14. Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approva l 26 FEB 2016 1. Your paper, entitled Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Aoolication of...or technical information as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MDW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.] Crime Scene Investiga...tion: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool 1. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED Crime Scene

  15. Introduction to the Special Issue on the U.S. Response to the Fukushima Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, Daniel J. [USDOE NA Office of Emergency Response

    2012-05-01

    Provides an introduction to the May 2012 issue of Health Physics, based on a special session at the 2011 Health Physics Society (HPS) annual meeting that focused on the United States' radiological response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This introduction outlines the papers in this important issue and describes the activities of the U.S. response participants, including the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), Department of Defense, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations. Observations are provided and the stage is set for the articles in this issue which document many of the activities undertaken during the Fukushima accident and which describe challenges faced and valuable lessons learned.

  16. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  17. Study on Brain Injury Biomechanics Based on the Real Pedestrian Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengjian; Yin, Zhiyong

    This paper aimed to research the dynamic response and injury mechanisms of head based on real pedestrian traffic accidents with video. The kinematics of head contact with the vehicle was reconstructed by using multi-body dynamics models. These calculated parameters such as head impact velocity and impact location and head orientation were applied to the THUMS-4 FE head model as initial conditions. The intracranial pressure and stress of brain were calculated from simulations of head contact with the vehicle. These results were consistent with that of others. It was proved that real traffic accidents combined with simulation analysis can be used to study head injury biomechanics. Increasing in the number of cases, a tolerance limit of brain injury will be put forward.

  18. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be approx 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the

  19. The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Kinjo, Seira; Taira, Wataru; Gima, Shinichi; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2012-01-01

    The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relatively mild abnormalities. The F₁ offspring from the first-voltine females showed more severe abnormalities, which were inherited by the F₂ generation. Adult butterflies collected in September 2011 showed more severe abnormalities than those collected in May. Similar abnormalities were experimentally reproduced in individuals from a non-contaminated area by external and internal low-dose exposures. We conclude that artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant caused physiological and genetic damage to this species.

  20. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  1. The influence of age, seat belt, time of day, and type of vehicles on road accidents in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2009-04-01

    Traffic accidents are one of the main external causes of morbidity and mortality in various parts of the world, including Kerman, a city that has experienced rapid growth in the number of cars in the last 5 years. The objective of this article was to identify the influence of age, belt use, time of day, and type of vehicle road accidents of southeastern Iran. This study used data obtained from Kerman police force reports on incidents of road traffic accidents (RTAs). We analyzed the police reports of total road accidents that occurred from 2005 to 2007. The involvement in fatal and non-fatal accidents was determined for females than among males. The analysis of the data indicated that the female drivers have a much better road safety record than male drivers, especially with regards to their involvement in severe traffic accidents. Forty-nine percent of accidents involve passenger cars, which is higher than other type of vehicles. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers who did not use seat belts had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. Time of day analyses suggested that the problems of accidents in darkness are not a matter of visibility but a consequence of the way drivers use the roads at night. A number of recommended measures for the improvement of road safety in southeastern Iran are suggested.

  2. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  3. Augustus De Morgan behind the Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Augustus De Morgan's support was crucial to the achievements of the four mathematicians whose work is considered greater than his own. This article explores the contributions he made to mathematics from behind the scenes by supporting the work of Hamilton, Boole, Gompertz, and Ramchundra.

  4. Development of the source term PIRT based on findings during Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Shoichi, E-mail: suehiro-shouichi@tepsys.co.jp [TEPCO SYSTEMS Co., 2-37-28 Eitai, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Sugimoto, Jun [Kyoto University, Yoshida Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Hidaka, Akihide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Okada, Hidetoshi [The Institute of Applied Energy, 14-2 Nishi-Shimbashi 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Mizokami, Shinya [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho 1-Chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8560 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji [The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed the source term PIRT based on findings during the Fukushima accident. • The FoM is the masses or fractions of radionuclides released into the environment. • 68 phenomena were identified as influencing to the FoM. • Radionuclide release from molten fuel had the highest score in the early phase. • MCCI, iodine chemistry, and chemical form had the highest score in the later phase. - Abstract: Research Expert Committee on Evaluation of Severe Accident of AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan) has developed thermal hydraulic PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) and source term (ST) PIRT based on findings during the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident. These PIRTs aim to explore the debris distribution and the current condition in the NPPs with high accuracy and to extract higher priority from the aspect of the sophistication of the analytical technology to predict the severe accident phenomena by the analytical codes. The ST PIRT is divided into 3 phases for time domain and 9 categories for spatial domain. The 68 phenomena have been extracted and the importance from the viewpoint of the source term has been ranked through brainstorming and discussions among experts. The present paper describes the developed ST PIRT list and summarizes the high ranked phenomena in each phase.

  5. Assessment of the potential impact of Nuclear Power Plant accidents on aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Arnold, Delia; Maurer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear accidents in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 demonstrated the urgent need to provide adequate guidance for land-based, marine and airborne transport. Quick assessments of potential impacts are essential to avoid unnecessary traffic disruptions while guaranteeing appropriate safety levels for staff in the transport industry as well as travellers. Such estimates are to be provided under difficult circumstances, mostly due to the lack of reliable initial information on the severity of the accident and the exact source term of radionuclides. Regarding aviation, there are three equally relevant aspects to look at, namely aircraft in cruising altitude (about 40000 ft), aircraft approaching an airport, and finally the airports as such as critical infrastructure, including airport operations and ground transport. Based on the accident scenarios encountered in the Chernobyl and Fukushima cases, exemplary case studies shall be provided to assess the potential impacts of such events on aviation. The study is based on the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Model (ATDM) FLEXPART and a simplified scheme to calculate effective dose rates based on a few key radionuclides (Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133). Besides the impact assessment, possible new products provided by WMO Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres in the event of an accident shall be discussed as well.

  6. The Clinical Study on 34 Admission Patients due to Sequela of Traffic Accident

    OpenAIRE

    No, Bu-Rae; Lee, Eun-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical progress of patients diagnosed as sequela of traffic accident. Methods : We studied 34 cases who were admitted in Semyung University Oriental Hospital from 1st, January, 2005 to the 31st, December, 2005. And we came to some conclusion about clinical tendencies as follows. Results and Conclusions : 1. Women had occupied more than men, and 14 persons in 20th were the most distribution of age. 2. In distribution o...

  7. Reconciling nuclear risk: The impact of the Fukushima accident on comparative preferences for nuclear power in UK electricity generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C.; Elgueta, H.; Eiser, J.

    2015-01-01

    Polls conducted in the United Kingdom following the Fukushima nuclear accident (March 2011) indicated a fairly muted and temporary shift in public approval of nuclear power. This study investigated how: (a) comparative preferences for nuclear power in the U nited Kingdom might have been affected by the accident; and (b) how “supporters” of nuclear power reconciled their pro-nuclear attitude in the wake of the disaster. Between-subjects comparisons with a pre-Fukushima sample revealed our post...

  8. Responding to emotional scenes: effects of response outcome and picture repetition on reaction times and the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Nina N; Keil, Andreas; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-12-06

    Processing the motivational relevance of a visual scene and reacting accordingly is crucial for survival. Previous work suggests the emotional content of naturalistic scenes affects response speed, such that unpleasant content slows responses whereas pleasant content accelerates responses. It is unclear whether these effects reflect motor-cognitive processes, such as attentional orienting, or vary with the function/outcome of the motor response itself. Four experiments manipulated participants' ability to terminate the picture (offset control) and, thereby, the response's function and motivational value. Attentive orienting was manipulated via picture repetition, which diminishes orienting. A total of N = 81 participants completed versions of a go/no-go task, discriminating between distorted versus intact pictures drawn from six content categories varying in positive, negative, or neutral valence. While all participants responded faster with repetition, only participants without offset control exhibited slower responses to unpleasant and accelerated responses to pleasant content. Emotional engagement, measured by the late positive potential, was not modulated by attentional orienting (repetition), suggesting that the interaction between repetition and offset control is not due to altered emotional engagement. Together, results suggest that response time changes as a function of emotional content and sensitivity to attention orienting depends on the motivational function of the motor response.

  9. The Effects of the Daily Driven Distance and Age Factor on the Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Ş. KALYONCUOĞLU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on Turkish traffic survey data (n=5,520, driver accident rates per million kilometre-driver were compared according to the daily driven distances (DDD for each age group as very old (65+, n=39, old (56-65, n=183, above middle-aged (36-55, n=1,875, middle-aged (26-35, n=2,204, and young (25-, n=1,219. When the accidents-per-km comparison was made in groups matched for daily exposure, there was no evidence of higher risk with increasing age. In all age groups, risk per km decreased with increasing daily driving distance. With this study the accident involvement prediction models have been obtained related to the daily driven distance with and without considering age. These models have been applied to some earlier studies. The results are quite satisfactory. The set of data of this study and the analysis controlling the daily (yearly driving distance might make the “age” effect disappear.

  10. Studies on environmental impacts of the JCO criticality accident conducted by grant-in aid for scientific research from the ministry of education, science, sports and culture, Japan. Overview of environmental research group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K. [Kanazawa Univ., Faculty of Science, Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Tatsunokuchi, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Environmental impacts of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura were investigated by a Monbusho collaborating scientific group composed of more than 50 members. This paper describes the scientific activity of the group based on 6 times of sampling campaigns in the JCO campus, specially emphasis on topical results and our remaining tasks on the accident. (author)

  11. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  12. Investigation regarding the long-term security developments in the Swedish nuclear power and the response to the accident at Fukushima; Utredning avseende den laangsiktiga saekerhetsutvecklingen i den svenska kaernkraften och aatgaerder med anledning av olyckan i Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaanberg, Lars

    2012-07-01

    Swedish nuclear plants need to continue to work on analysis and actions in the plants, partly to meet the demands of legislation and agreed action plans, and partly due to additional security requirements on account of experiences from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, stress tests, security investigations and investigations relating to physical protection. It is also essential to continue with safety improvements to gradually increase margins against unforeseen events in aging plants during long-term operation.

  13. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Yohanna.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  14. ACTIVITIES OF ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN PRIMORSKY TERRITORY AND FHO “CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN PRIMORSKY TERRITORY” IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ACCIDENT ON NPP “FUKUSHIMA-1”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Ananyev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contents information about the activities of Rospotrebnadzor organizations in Primorsky territory after the accident at the “Fukushima-1” NPP. The data are given on the staff, equipment and methodical providences of Rospotrebnadzor organizations in Primorsky territory to the moment of the accident. Article presents the results of the dose rate measurements in monitoring points and laboratory investigations of the foodstuffs and environmental samples after the accident in Primorsky territory. 

  15. "What--me worry?" "Why so serious?": a personal view on the Fukushima nuclear reactor accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Infrequently, it seems that a significant accident precursor or, worse, an actual accident, involving a commercial nuclear power reactor occurs to remind us of the need to reexamine the safety of this important electrical power technology from a risk perspective. Twenty-five years since the major core damage accident at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, the Fukushima reactor complex in Japan experienced multiple core damages as a result of an earthquake-induced tsunami beyond either the earthquake or tsunami design basis for the site. Although the tsunami itself killed tens of thousands of people and left the area devastated and virtually uninhabitable, much concern still arose from the potential radioactive releases from the damaged reactors, even though there was little population left in the area to be affected. As a lifelong probabilistic safety analyst in nuclear engineering, even I must admit to a recurrence of the doubt regarding nuclear power safety after Fukushima that I had experienced after Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This article is my attempt to "recover" my personal perspective on acceptable risk by examining both the domestic and worldwide history of commercial nuclear power plant accidents and attempting to quantify the risk in terms of the frequency of core damage that one might glean from a review of operational history.

  16. Accidents on vessels transporting liquid gases and responder's concerns : the Galerne Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabioc' h, F. [Centre de Documentation, de Recherche et d' Experimentations, Brest (France); De Castelet, D. [Veritas, Paris (France); Penelon, T.; Pagnon, S. [Ineris, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Peuch, A.; Bonnardot, F. [Meteo France, Toulouse (France); Duhart, J. [GdF-Suez, Paris (France); Drevet, D. [French Ministry of Transport, Paris (France). Sea Accident Investigation Bureau; Cerutti, C. [French Navy, Brest (France); Estiez, C. [French Civil Security, Paris (France); Dernat, M. [Total Gaz and New Energy, Paris (France); Hermand, J.C. [Total PetroChemicals, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    In 2006, the French Ministry of Research financed the Galerne project to provide responders at sea with relevant information on the hazards posed by liquid gas chemicals on vessels disabled at sea. Thirty-one chemicals are transported as liquids in order to facilitate handling and lower transport costs. Temperature and pressure parameters are manipulated in order to generate the liquefaction of the gases. Members of the Galerne project are producers and handlers of liquefied gases and are experts in atmospheric modelling, ship structure, risk assessment, hazards assessment and operations. Several simulations and experiments were performed in an effort to produce operational information for responders and headquarters. For practical and financial reasons, it was not possible to consider all 31 chemicals described in the IGC code. Only 4 liquid gases were chosen for the Galerne project, notably methane liquefied natural gas (LNG); propane LNG; ammonia; and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). They were chosen on the basis of their transport characteristics and behaviour. This paper outlined the physical characteristics of the transported products verses their volume in standard conditions; the type of ship dedicated to transporting gases in liquid forms; and various response phases. It also included a brief review of several ship incidents and accidents. It was concluded that as far as the LNG carriers are concerns, a few accidents at sea have occurred in more than 28 years, but no major accidents involving the cargo have been reported. Handling LNG at terminals can lead to serious accidents. Accidents have occurred at sea, but without any accidental spillage of cargo. It was concluded that response teams on-board disabled liquefied gas carriers need to know the main characteristics of the cargo and the potential hazards. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. The impacts of speed cameras on road accidents: an application of propensity score matching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J; Majumdar, Arnab

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of speed limit enforcement cameras on reducing road accidents in the UK by accounting for both confounding factors and the selection of proper reference groups. The propensity score matching (PSM) method is employed to do this. A naïve before and after approach and the empirical Bayes (EB) method are compared with the PSM method. A total of 771 sites and 4787 sites for the treatment and the potential reference groups respectively are observed for a period of 9 years in England. Both the PSM and the EB methods show similar results that there are significant reductions in the number of accidents of all severities at speed camera sites. It is suggested that the propensity score can be used as the criteria for selecting the reference group in before-after control studies. Speed cameras were found to be most effective in reducing accidents up to 200 meters from camera sites and no evidence of accident migration was found.

  18. Occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Schneeberger, P.M.; Heimeriks, K.; Boland, G.J.; Karagiannis, I.; Geraedts, J.; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To make proper evaluation of prevention policies possible, data on the incidence and associated medical costs of occupational blood exposure accidents in the Netherlands are needed. METHODS: Descriptive analysis of blood exposure accidents and risk estimates for occupational groups. Cost

  19. Behind the scenes at Effekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorman Jensen, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Effect´s breakthrough was dramatic, and was one of the factors that led to changes in the debate concerning planning. Today young architects work on many varied assignments that include everything from showcase design to architecture in Central America......Effect´s breakthrough was dramatic, and was one of the factors that led to changes in the debate concerning planning. Today young architects work on many varied assignments that include everything from showcase design to architecture in Central America...

  20. Development of severe accident analysis code - A study on the molten core-concrete interaction under severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chang Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Young; Kim, Ju Yeul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the phenomena of the molten core/concrete interaction during the hypothetical severe accident, and to develop the model for heat transfer and physical phenomena in MCCIs. The contents of this study are analysis of mechanism in MCCIs and assessment of heat transfer models, evaluation of model in CORCON code and verification in CORCON using SWISS and SURC Experiments, and 1000 MWe PWR reactor cavity coolability, and establishment a model for prediction of the crust formation and temperature of melt-pool. The properties and flow condition of melt pool covering with the conditions of severe accident are used to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients in each reviewed model. Also, the scope and limitation of each model for application is assessed. A phenomenological analysis is performed with MELCOR 1.8.2 and MELCOR 1.8.3 And its results is compared with corresponding experimental reports of SWISS and SURC experiments. And the calculation is performed to assess the 1000 MWe PWR reactor cavity coolability. To improve the heat transfer model between melt-pool and overlying coolant and analyze the phase change of melt-pool, 2 dimensional governing equations are established using the enthalpy method and computational program is accomplished in this study. The benchmarking calculation is performed and its results are compared to the experiment which has not considered effects of the coolant boiling and the gas injection. Ultimately, the model shall be developed for considering the gas injection effect and coolant boiling effect. 66 refs., 10 tabs., 29 refs. (author)

  1. Setting the scene in Nuuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    cultural traditions with envisioned future independence. Hence, the chapter introduces the central members of the cast of characters in the most important narratives, which Greenland is telling about its place in the world. The analysis shows how narratives about indigenous identity combines...... - and infrequently clashes - with narratives of modernization in different ways when Greenland relates to Inuit kinsmen, Nordic siblings, the UN, the USA, the EU and Asian powers; the presentation of each character put in historical perspective. Theoretically, the analysis draws on a tradition of analysing...

  2. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies.

  3. Dental implant treatment following trauma: An investigation into the failure to complete Accident Compensation Corporation funded care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R; Murray, C; Leichter, J

    2016-03-01

    Among other restorative strategies, the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) provides benefits for dental implant treatment to replace teeth lost as a result of trauma. While ACC has funded over 15,000 dental implants since 2002, the outcomes of this treatment and patient perceptions of this treatment have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of the dental implant treatment outcomes and reasons for failure to complete restorative treatment in patients who had undergone trauma-related implant surgery funded by ACC between February 2006 and September 2009, but had not completed the prosthetic component of the treatment. A randomly selected sample of 399 patients, who had undergone dental implant surgery but not completed the crown restoration, was identified from the ACC database. These individuals were contacted by mail for expressions of interest and 181 clients were interviewed by telephone. Responses to open-ended questions were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analysed using a general inductive technique. A common emergent theme was the high level of satisfaction expressed by participants with the implant process, however just under half of those responding felt they had been pushed into having implants and were given the impression that this was the only treatment ACC paid for. The cost of the prosthetic phase of the treatment and surgical complications were identified as the primary reasons why participants failed to complete the restorative phase of treatment, after completing the surgical phase. The results highlighted the need to better inform patients of their treatment options and to allow time for them to process this information before progressing with care. A patient decision tool may help to give greater ownership of the treatment options. Newly implemented protocols to assist dentists to better assess treatment needs may also assist in achieving improvements in perceived treatment outcomes for

  4. [Clinical examinations for the traffic accident patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito

    2008-11-30

    Traffic accident is a leading cause of unintentional death and about six-thousands annually died in Japan. As about one-million of persons suffer from traffic injuries, most of them seek medical attention. Therefore, medical staffs have to find the injuries accurately and treat immediately. Furthermore, the cause of accident should also be considered; why the accident was occurred, human error of the driver? To solve these problems, clinical examinations were needed. Medical staffs have to understand the characteristics of the traffic injuries: severe and multiple blunt injuries, popular injuries can be estimated with considering the pattern of the accident. Because some of the accidents are occurred when the driver is under the influence of alcohol and other drugs, screening of these subjects should be performed. Because the public is largely unaware of the preventable nature of traffic injuries, in addition to diagnose and treat accurately, we medical staffs have to attend on the primary prevention of the traffic injuries.

  5. Behind the scenes at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Works advance at Microcosm in preparation for a progressive opening of the new exhibitions from mid-July onwards.   Construction of the section on the LHC experiments (mid-June 2015).   The Microcosm exhibition space is undergoing a total revamp and will feature many new objects. Old favourites, such as the LHC tunnel model and the Linac module, will be brought up to date with more modern exhibition techniques. Another main thrust of the new exhibitions will be the focus on the people that make CERN work. This is both to show the huge diversity of expertise needed at CERN and also to help students envisage where a career in physics or engineering might take them. With the project getting the go-ahead last autumn and the closure of the Globe for building works starting from May this year, the new Microcosm exhibition areas will open progressively as and when installations are completed to ensure that summer visitors who haven’t booked a guided tour will have something to ...

  6. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W. P.; Armstrong, N. A.; Acheson, D. C.; Covert, E. E.; Feynman, R. P.; Hotz, R. B.; Kutyna, D. J.; Ride, S. K.; Rummel, R. W.; Sutter, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of the Commission regarding the circumstances surrounding the Challenger accident are reported and recommendations for corrective action are outlined. All available mission data, subsequent tests, and wreckage analyses were reviewed and specific failure scenarios were developed. The Commission concluded that the cause of the Mission 51-L accident was the failure of the pressure seal in the aft field joint of the right solid rocket motor. The failure was due to a faulty design unacceptably sensitive to a number of factors. These factors were the effects of temperature, physical dimensions, the character of materials, the effects of reuse, processing, and the reaction of the joint to dynamic loading. In addition to analyzing the material causes of the accident, the Commission examined the chain of decisions that culminated in approval of the launch. It concluded that the decision making process was flawed in several ways including (1) failure in communication resulting in a launch decision based on incomplete and misleading information, (2) a conflict between engineering data and management judgements, and (3) a NASA management structure that permitted flight safety problems to bypass key Shuttle managers.

  7. High-extensible scene graph framework based on component techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi-cheng; WANG Guo-ping; ZHOU Feng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component-based scene graph is proposed, in which all objects in the scene are classified to different entities, and a scene can be represented as a hierarchical graph composed of the instances of entities. Each entity contains basic data and its operations which are encapsulated into the entity component. The entity possesses certain behaviours which are responses to rules and interaction defined by the high-level application. Such behaviours can be described by script or behaviours model. The component-based scene graph in the paper is more abstractive and high-level than traditional scene graphs. The contents of a scene could be extended flexibly by adding new entities and new entity components, and behaviour modification can be obtained by modifying the model components or behaviour scripts. Its robustness and efficiency are verified by many examples implemented in the Virtual Scenario developed by Peking University.

  8. Investigation and management of patients with pleuritic chest pain presenting to the accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K.; Raghuram, A

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of a patient with pleuritic chest pain calls for a high degree of clinical acumen and a high degree of suspicion that the diagnosis might be pulmonary embolism. This area is one of the most difficult in A&E medicine (and indeed chest medicine). One error is to "think the best" when considering the diagnosis in such patients but experience soon teaches to "think PE" and diagnose less serious conditions only when pulmonary embolism has been excluded. A key consideration is the pr...

  9. ANALYSIS OF MEDIA PUBLICATIONS ON THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zykova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of informing the public about radiation and radiation risks is made on the basiс of publications on the Fukushima nuclear accident after the earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, by five newspapers and the official internet sites of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being and the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The analysis of the data suggests that the population is satisfied with its request in timely, clear, and reliable information on the radiation situation, protective measures and forecast of the situation development in the future. The possibility to learn about different viewpoints positively affects the mood of readers and reduces their anxiety. However, it should be recognized that, if the information have been provided by a single media only, the population would not have adequate understanding of the situation related to the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

  10. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantanee Dumrak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

  11. Prehospital treatment of opioid overdose in Copenhagen--is it safe to discharge on-scene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren; Jehu, G; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2011-01-01

    In the prehospital setting opioid overdose is often treated with naloxone. In our physician-based medical emergency care unit (MECU) we have adopted a discharge-on-scene policy, where patients are released on scene if no residual signs of opioid intoxication are found after treatment. The aim...... of this study was to describe our experience with the discharge-on-scene policy used during a 10-year-period with focus on the frequency of rebound opioid toxicity....

  12. Investigation into slipping and falling accidents and materials handling in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available was conducted at a gold mine, a colliery and a quarry to establish current manual materials handling practices. This included walk-through observational surveys of the work facilities to observe obvious ergonomics-related risk factors....

  13. Speed Variance and Its Influence on Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Nicholas J.; Gadirau, Ravi

    A study was conducted to investigate the traffic engineering factors that influence speed variance and to determine to what extent speed variance affects accident rates. Detailed analyses were carried out to relate speed variance with posted speed limit, design speeds, and other traffic variables. The major factor identified was the difference…

  14. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  15. Scene di emigranti sull’Oceano. Su The Amateur Emigrant di Stevenson - Scenes of migrants on the Ocean. About Stevenson’s The Amateur Emigrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Cepparrone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The depth of the scars inflicted by travelling on the body and soul of a great and sensitive novelist such as Robert Louis Stevenson will be analyzed here concerning the trip made by Stevenson on board of the transatlantic Devonia. To sleep in second class while living in the world of the third class passengers gives Stevenson the opportunity to face his own alterity, an unsettling experience for the soul. Novelists rather than ethnographers inaugurate, during the second half of the XIXth century, the ethnographic studies of complex social forms which characterized European societies and the study of social change which characterized the history of the Western world, with the analysis of the great migration processes to begin with

  16. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Asgari Darian, Ali; Rahim, Fakher; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Nabi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the 8(th) cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3(rd) rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82) were evaluated (92.4% male). Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44%) of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%). 610 (87.1%) cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53%) occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4%) cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1%) patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p accidents (p traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian, and motorcycle-pedestrian accidents among the agent factors.

  17. Evaluation of a Bladder Cancer Cluster in a Population of Criminal Investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives—Part 2: The Association of Cancer Risk and Fire Scene Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the association of bladder cancer risk and fire scene investigation within a cohort of white male criminal investigators with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives that was found to be at increased risk for bladder cancer. Medical surveillance data were used in a nested case-control study to determine odds ratios (ORs estimating the relative risk of the cancer associated with post-fire investigation. The study comprised seven bladder cancer cases and 1525 controls. Six of the cases reported holding assignments associated with post-fire investigation. The OR for bladder cancer was 19.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.94–186.39 for those holding any one or more of these assignments for one to four years versus zero years and 12.56 (1.14–138.58 for those holding any one or more of these assignments for five or more years versus zero years. The risk for bladder cancer is significantly elevated for those holding post-fire investigation assignments compared to those not holding these assignments.

  18. Evaluation of a bladder cancer cluster in a population of criminal investigators with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives--part 2: the association of cancer risk and fire scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan R; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward J; Alfriend, Amy S; Delowery, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the association of bladder cancer risk and fire scene investigation within a cohort of white male criminal investigators with the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives that was found to be at increased risk for bladder cancer. Medical surveillance data were used in a nested case-control study to determine odds ratios (ORs) estimating the relative risk of the cancer associated with post-fire investigation. The study comprised seven bladder cancer cases and 1525 controls. Six of the cases reported holding assignments associated with post-fire investigation. The OR for bladder cancer was 19.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.94-186.39) for those holding any one or more of these assignments for one to four years versus zero years and 12.56 (1.14-138.58) for those holding any one or more of these assignments for five or more years versus zero years. The risk for bladder cancer is significantly elevated for those holding post-fire investigation assignments compared to those not holding these assignments.

  19. Integral Test Facility PKL: Experimental PWR Accident Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of pressurized water reactors under accident conditions have been carried out in the PKL test facility at AREVA NP in Erlangen, Germany for many years. The PKL facility models the entire primary side and significant parts of the secondary side of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) at a height scale of 1 : 1. Volumes, power ratings and mass flows are scaled with a ratio of 1 : 145. The experimental facility consists of 4 primary loops with circul...

  20. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  1. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  2. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  3. Application of a Step-by-Step Fingerprinting Identification Method on a Spilled Oil Accident in the Bohai Sea Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; GAO Zhenhui; CAO Lixin; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; ZHAO Yuhui; LI Guangmei

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oil spill accidents occur frequently in the marine area of China. Finding out the spilled oil source is a key step in the relevant investigation. In this paper, a step-by-step fingerprinting identification method was used in a spilled oil accident in the Bohai Sea in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical composition and determine the possible sources of two spilled oil samples. The original gas chromatography -flame ionization detection (GC-FID) chromatogram of saturated hydrocarbons was compared. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)chromatograms of aromatic hydrocarbons terpane and sterane, n-alkane and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The correlation analysis on diagnostic ratios was performed with Student's t-test. It is found that the oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as szl) from the polluted sand beach was identical with the suspected oil (designated as kyl) from a nearby crude oil refinery factory. They both showed the fingerprinting character of mixed oil. The oil fingerprinting of the spilled oil (designated as msl) collected from the port was significantly different from oil kyl and oil szl and was with a lubricating oil fingerprint character. The identification result not only gave support for the spilled oil investigation, but also served as an example for studying spilled oil accidents.

  4. Behind the scenes at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A new book chronicling the journey of LHCb has just been published: “LHCb: the collaboration in photos”. It takes readers through the creation of the detector, from the project's inception to the construction of the site and final operation.   Cover of the new book, "LHCb: the collaboration in photos". “LHCb: the collaboration in photos” presents a stunning collection of images and information about the experiment and its staff. Part photo journal of the experiment’s creation, part introduction to the physics and engineering of the detector, it provides a complete overview of the LHCb project. The many faces of the LHCb collaboration are reflected in the 77 glossy pages of the new book: from technical staff to computer scientists, physicists to secretaries, and Nobel Prize winners to post-docs. For all of its members, the book represents a well-earned celebration of their 15 years of effort. “We are very pleased to ha...

  5. Libraries in the Political Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosa, Marta L.

    An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

  6. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  7. Library mashups: behind the scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaria Biancu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the multiform phenomenon of mashup. The development and diffusion of tools able to integrate and combine data from different systems, creating then new apps and new services is typical of Web 2.0. The paper offers and overview of the technology useful in order to create aggregators, such as API (Application Programming Interface.  Moreover, mashup creation must take into account the most widespread protocols, REST and SOAP to make an example. If there are no APIs available, data reuse is still possible, even though more unsecure: this possibility is pointed out by the presence of feed and the usage of AJAX. Yahoo! Answers is recognized to be a valid example of a tool that offers the possibility of creating a mashup.

  8. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  9. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Jianzhong Chen; Zhiyuan Peng; Yuan Fang

    2014-01-01

    A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD) model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are...

  10. Social Scenes in the Sky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Compared with humans, you might not think of birds as social animals. (I mean, you hardly ever see geese hanging out at the mall.) But look skyward when great flocks of birds migrate toward their feeding grounds. Many of these birds not only fly and feast together, but also breed in huge colonies and join forces to fend off predators.

  11. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  12. Development of an Ontology to Assist the Modeling of Accident Scenarii "Application on Railroad Transport "

    CERN Document Server

    Maalel, Ahmed; Mejri, Lassad; Ghezela, Henda Hajjami Ben

    2012-01-01

    In a world where communication and information sharing are at the heart of our business, the terminology needs are most pressing. It has become imperative to identify the terms used and defined in a consensual and coherent way while preserving linguistic diversity. To streamline and strengthen the process of acquisition, representation and exploitation of scenarii of train accidents, it is necessary to harmonize and standardize the terminology used by players in the security field. The research aims to significantly improve analytical activities and operations of the various safety studies, by tracking the error in system, hardware, software and human. This paper presents the contribution of ontology to modeling scenarii for rail accidents through a knowledge model based on a generic ontology and domain ontology. After a detailed presentation of the state of the art material, this article presents the first results of the developed model.

  13. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident crisis and its influence on energy policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Fossil fuel power plants (FPPs) and nuclear power plants (NPPs) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan experienced a mega earthquake and resulting tsunamis on March 11, 2011, which resulted in serious damage. More than half of the FPPs have returned to supplying electricity, while all NPPs are still shut down. In particular, Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Tokyo Electric Power Co. experienced a nuclear accident crisis unprecedented in both scale and timeframe. This paper gives a brief overview of the events and their propagation based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report and the authors' studies on accident analysis, and offers considerations on root causes of the propagation, e.g., problems in hardware, software and accident management, by comparing the responses of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP with those of other reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ni, Tokai, Onagawa and Higashidori NPPs, where cold shutdowns were successfully maintained even though they had also been affected by the earthquake and tsunamis. Future technical subjects for safe NPP operation and the influence of the events on Japanese energy policy are presented. (orig.)

  14. [The airplane accident in Torghatten on May 6, 1988].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, T; Stene-Johansen, W; Lorentsen, M; Sakshaug, O

    1989-01-01

    On May 6th, 1988, a Dash 7 airplane crashed into the mountain of Torghatten, near Brønnøy-sund in northern Norway. All 33 passengers and the three crew members were killed. The National Identification Commission, including a forensic dentist, was at the disaster site twelve hours later. A dentist and a forensic pathologist worked with the police at the site until all the victims had been found. Three other dentists were responsible for collecting antemortem material and for the postmortem examination of all victims. 32 of the victims, or 89%, could be identified by dental means alone; a higher percentage than ever before reported. The final meeting of the Identification Commission took place five days after the disaster. All the victims were identified on the basis of technical, medical, and dental evidence, and the report signed by each of the three specialist groups. The quality of the dental records was evaluated with respect to requirements set up by the Ministry of Social Affairs in 1983. Dental records had improved since the "Alexander Kielland" disaster in 1980. However, only five of the missing persons had full mouth intraoral radiography, only nine records met the requirements for general information about the patient (birth date and identification number, home and business address, etc), only three had information about earlier diseases, and none had recorded previous dental restorations. Diagnoses were given only for nine persons. The records showed that 21 of the victims had not received any prophylactic treatment.

  15. Art Toys in the contemporary art scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sernissi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Art Toys phenomenon, better known as Art Toy Movement, was born in China in the mid-nineties and quickly spread out to the rest of the world. The toys are an artistic production of serial sculpture, made by handcrafts or on an industrial scale. There are several types of toys, such as custom toys and canvas toys, synonyms of designer toys, although they are often defined according to the constituent material, such as vinyl toys (plastic and plush toys (fabric. Art toys are the heirs of an already pop-surrealist and neo-pop circuit, which since the eighties of the twentieth century has pervaded the Japanese-American art scene, winking to the playful spirit of the avant-garde of the early century. Some psychoanalytic, pedagogical and anthropological studies about “play theories”, may also help us to understand and identify these heterogeneous products as real works of art and not simply as collectible toys.

  16. The effect of using limited scene-dependent averaging kernels approximations for the implementation of fast observing system simulation experiments targeted on lower tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical implementations of chemical OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments usually rely on approximations of the pseudo-observations by means of a predefined parametrization of the averaging kernels, which describe the sensitivity of the observing system to the target atmospheric species. This is intended to avoid the use of a computationally expensive pseudo-observations simulator, that relies on full radiative transfer calculations. Here we present an investigation on how no, or limited, scene dependent averaging kernels parametrizations may misrepresent the sensitivity of an observing system. We carried out the full radiative transfer calculation for a three-days period over Europe, to produce reference pseudo-observations of lower tropospheric ozone, as they would be observed by a concept geostationary observing system called MAGEAQ (Monitoring the Atmosphere from Geostationary orbit for European Air Quality. The selected spatio-temporal interval is characterised by an ozone pollution event. We then compared our reference with approximated pseudo-observations, following existing simulation exercises made for both the MAGEAQ and GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE missions. We found that approximated averaging kernels may fail to replicate the variability of the full radiative transfer calculations. In addition, we found that the approximations substantially overestimate the capability of MAGEAQ to follow the spatio-temporal variations of the lower tropospheric ozone in selected areas, during the mentioned pollution event. We conclude that such approximations may lead to false conclusions if used in an OSSE. Thus, we recommend to use comprehensive scene-dependent approximations of the averaging kernels, in cases where the full radiative transfer is computationally too costly for the OSSE being investigated.

  17. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2015-07-01

    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

  18. Assessment of the most significant causes of transportation and machinery accidents on collieries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholzer, JW

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify those areas, classified according to the SAMRASS data base system under the codes relating to underground transport and machinery type accidents that give cause to the greatest amount of accidents...

  19. Infrared investigation of hard human teeth tissues exposed to various doses of ionizing radiation from the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    OpenAIRE

    Darchuk, L. A.; Zaverbna, L. V.; Bebeshko, V. G.; Worobiec, A.; Stefaniak, E. A.; Van Grieken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR) was applied to study changes in solid teeth tissues of persons exposed to low (0.12–0.20 Gy) and high (0.5–1.7 Gy) doses of ionizing radiation during their work in the Chernobyl zone after the accident. Changes in the inorganic and organic matrix of teeth were noted for both high and low radiation doses. The obtained results demonstrated that high doses of radiation lead to imbalance between phosphate–carbonate phases level (because of increasing of CO32− content) a...

  20. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, G. E-mail: gianni@fismedw2.univaq.it; Colacicchi, S.; Sgattoni, R.; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  1. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, G; Colacicchi, S; Sgattoni, R; Giannoni, M

    2001-07-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal.

  2. The Factors Analysis on Food Safety Accidents Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study uses SPSS17.0 analysis of validity and reliability of the food enterprises questionnaire. Using AMOS17. 0 software for structural equation model test of goodness of fit and analysis of on the path. From the “melamine” to “Sudanred” and “steroid-tainted pork” events that have been exposed recently, series of typical food safety incidents resulted in the emergence of food safety issues become the focus of attention. A series of food processing can be contaminated by harmful substances, resulting in harmful food, thus constituting food safety issues and poses a serious threat to public and person’s health.

  3. Multiple synergistic effects of emotion and memory on proactive processes leading to scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Visual scene recognition is a proactive process through which contextual cues and top-down expectations facilitate the extraction of invariant features. Whether the emotional content of the scenes exerts a reliable influence on these processes or not, however, remains an open question. Here, topographic ERP mapping analysis and a distributed source localization method were used to characterize the electrophysiological correlates of proactive processes leading to scene recognition, as well as the potential modulation of these processes by memory and emotion. On each trial, the content of a complex neutral or emotional scene was progressively revealed, and participants were asked to decide whether this scene had previously been encountered or not (delayed match-to-sample task). Behavioral results showed earlier recognition for old compared to new scenes, as well as delayed recognition for emotional vs. neutral scenes. Electrophysiological results revealed that, ~400 ms following stimulus onset, activity in ventral object-selective regions increased linearly as a function of accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to recognition of old scenes. The emotional content of the scenes had an early influence in these areas. By comparison, at the same latency, the processing of new scenes was mostly achieved by dorsal and medial frontal brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula. In the latter region, emotion biased recognition at later stages, likely corresponding to decision making processes. These findings suggest that emotion can operate at distinct and multiple levels during proactive processes leading to scene recognition, depending on the extent of prior encounter with these scenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively.

  5. Research study on typical feature of the media coverage on nuclear accidents in the national newspapers in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, T. [Univ. of Tokyo, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, H. [Univ. of Tokyo, Nuclear Professional School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    This study focuses on survey of the characteristics of the media coverage on three well-known nuclear accidents. From a quantitative standpoint of the media reporting, it was revealed that the amount of the articles in the surveyed national newspapers tend to increase soon after accidents happen. Plus, as a qualitative research the author interviewed three leader writers, who suggested that the Japanese nuclear industry should prepare to distribute information more timely and sufficiently. They also answered the PR staff needs to contact journalists regularly in order to recognize their awareness and earn their trust. (author)

  6. [EU policy orientations on road accidents prevention and workplace health promotion in the transport sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolani, L

    2012-01-01

    In the European Union (EU) transport industry directly employs more than 10 million people, accounting for 4.5% of total employment. Road traffic accidents and road safety are a major public health issue. The Commission of the EU has published policy orientations on road safety to provide a general framework, under which concrete action can be taken at European, national, regional and local levels. Some strategic objectives were identified in order to 1) improve education and training of road users and the quality of the licensing and training system of drivers; 2) make both road infrastructure and vehicles safer. These orientations will translate for the workers of the transport sector in an important initial and periodic training with the aim to improve their health and well-being and to reduce road risk and road accidents, representing a very good example of health promotion.

  7. Behind the scenes: the corporate governance preferences of institutional investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.; Sautner, Z.; Starks, L.T.

    2010-01-01

    Institutional investors are a dominant force in financial markets today, yet their preferences about corporate governance are generally undisclosed and their activities in this area tend to be performed behind the scenes. We conduct a survey to elicit institutional investors’ views on investor

  8. Safety Enhancements for PHWRs Based on Macroscopic Losses of the Fukushima Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of nuclear energy is to supply electric power on a stable basis to meet increasing demands, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and maintain stable electric power costs while ensuring safety. The Fukushima accident taught us many lessons for creating safer nuclear power plants. Considering the design of systems, the areas of weakness at the Fukushima nuclear power plants can be divided into three categories: plant protection, electricity supply, and cooling of the nuclear fuel. In this paper, focusing on these three areas, the lessons learned are proposed and applied for pressurized heavy water reactors. Firstly, hard protection against external risks ensures the integrity of components and systems such that they can perform their original functions. Secondly, additional emergency power supply systems for electrical redundancy and diversity can improve the response capabilities for an accident by increasing the availability of active components. Thirdly, cooling for removing decay heat can be augmented by adopting diverse safety systems derived from other types of reactors. This study is expected to contribute to the safety enhancement of pressurized heavy water reactors by applying design changes based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident.

  9. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  10. Effect of hypoiodous acid volatility on the iodine source term in reactor accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routamo, T. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A FORTRAN code ACT WATCH has been developed to establish an improved understanding of essential radionuclide behaviour mechanisms, especially related to iodine chemistry, in reactor accidents. The accident scenarios calculated in this paper are based on the Loss of Coolant accident at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant. The effect of different airborne species, especially HIO, on the iodine source term has been studied. The main cause of the high HIO release in the system modelled is the increase of I{sub 2} hydrolysis rate along with the temperature increase, which accelerates HIO production. Due to the high radiation level near the reactor core, I{sub 2} is produced from I{sup -}very rapidly. High temperature in the reactor coolant causes I{sub 2} to be transformed into HIO and through the boiling of the coolant volatile I{sub 2} and HIO are transferred efficiently into the gas phase. High filtration efficiency for particulate iodine causes I{sup -} release to be much lower than those of I{sub 2} and HIO. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  11. 基于动态风险平衡的海洋平台事故连锁风险研究%On the risk chain of the offshore oil-drilling platform accidents based on the dynamic risk balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恒; 陈国明; 朱渊

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at introducing a dynamic model for the offshore oil-drilling platform accidents proposed by the authors based on the two concepts, that is, the accident impetus and accident obstruction. As is well known, due to its own restricted conditions, offshore platforms, on the event of fire or explosion, are likely to suffer tragic casualties and material losses, letting alone the environmental contamination. Based on investigating and analyzing plenty of offshore platform accidents both at home and abroad, we have brought forward a new approach to dealing with such tragic accidents, that is, to finding the accident dynamic model characterized as dynamic nature and transient stability. As a matter of fact, a regular oil-drilling platform tends to present a dynamic equilibrium state between the accident impetus and the accident obstruction, while the accident dynamic state indicates a kind of energy that tends to lead to the happening of an accident whereas there exists some kind of transmitting impetus that passes on the energy that may obstruct or prevent the accident from occurring. In view of the dynamic risk balance, we have come up with the accident dynamic model consisting of four steps: first of all, the offshore platform likely to lead to grave accidents are chosen as an object of study, and next, the corresponding factors likely to cause the accidents are analyzed from the points of view of accident-incidence process, and, last of all, the countermeasures were taken in engineering, technology and management. What's more, the risk statistical data and information concerning the accident chains are to be built up when the elementary accident impetus has been determined. And, by this moment, it would be necessary to work out the probability distribution of all transmitting impetus and obstruction factors in the circumstance that the elementary accident-incidence dynamic has been calculated. Furthermore, the analysis results should be made

  12. Visual Multi-Object Tracking in the Presence of Cluttered Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Sheng Gan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the visual multi-object tracking in the presence of cluttered scenes. A improved algorithm of fusing multi-source information including location and color evidences were introduced based on Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT and Particle Filters (PF. Results showed that the conflict strategy and DSmT combination model were available and the proposed approach exhibited a significantly better performance for dealing with high conflict between evidences than a conventional PF. The suggested approach can easily be generalized to deal with larger number of visual multi-object and additional cues in the presence of cluttered scenes.

  13. Initial effect of the Fukushima accident on atmospheric electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.

    2011-08-01

    Vertical atmospheric DC electric field at ground level, or potential gradient (PG), suddenly dropped by one order of magnitude at Kakioka, 150 km southwest from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) right after the plant released a massive amount of radioactive material southward on 14 March, 2011. The PG stayed at this level for days with very small daily variations. Such a long-lasting near-steady low PG has never been observed at Kakioka. The sudden drop of PG with one-hour time scale is similar to those associated with rain-induced radioactive fallout after nuclear tests and the Chernobyl disaster. A comparison with the PG data with the radiation dose rate data at different places revealed that arrival of the radioactive dust by low-altitude wind caused the PG drop without rain. Furthermore, the PG might have reflected a minor release several hours before this release at the distance of 150 km. It is recommended that all nuclear power plant to have a network of PG observation surrounding the plant.

  14. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasao, Mamiko [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public’s interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  15. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Mamiko

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public's interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  16. Analysis and prevention on explosion accident of sulfuric acid tanks%硫酸储罐爆炸事故分析及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启波; 袁凤丽; 王清

    2012-01-01

    介绍了山东省某化工有限公司苯胺厂的工人在废硫酸罐顶部焊接管线时发生的一起废硫酸罐爆炸事故.通过对事故发生经过及现场情况的调查分析,找出了导致事故发生的原因,由于废硫酸罐耐酸瓷瓦破损,废硫酸渗漏与罐体接触反应产生的氢气,与由苯-稀硫酸萃取分离器串入废硫酸罐的苯或硝基苯蒸气及罐内空气混合形成爆炸性混合物,遇到因违章操作产生的明火、高温发生爆炸.通过对这次事故的详细描述、分析,在吸取事故教训的基础上,提出了相应的预防措施,为预防类似事故的发生提供参考.%In February of 2007, an accident happened in a chemical Co. , LTD aniline factory in Shandong Province. When welding the pipe of the waste sulphuric acid can on the top of the waste sulphuric acid , the tank exploded suddenly. Based on a large number of investigation and analysis on the accident process and the scene of the accident, the reasons that caused the accident were found. The damage of waste sulphuric acid porcelain tile leaded to waste sulphuric acid leakage and generated hydrogen by reaction with the tank body. Benzene and nitrobenzene steam gone by benzene-dilute sulphuric acid extraction separator strung into the workers were on waste sulphuric acid tank. Hydrogen, benzene and nitrobenzene steam and air in the tank were mixed into explosive mixtures. These explosive mixtures encountered open flame and high temperature resulted from workers'illegal operations and then exploded, which caused the tragic accident. Facing the accident, and taking it as a warning for future, through the detailed description and analysis of the accident and in the draw lessons from the accident, the corresponding prevention measures were put forward, in order to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.

  17. Road accidents at night in the Netherlands : a national analysis according to official road accident data. Contribution to OECD Research Group TS 3 on Improving Road Safety at Night.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1979-01-01

    The questionnaire about night-time accident data of the OECD Research Group TS 3 on Improving Road Safety at Night was filled in for the Netherlands. Thereafter a national analysis was written, using the already completed accident data questionnaire. Guidelines for the contents and presentation fo

  18. Primal scene derivatives in the work of Yukio Mishima: the primal scene fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Ronald N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the preoccupation with fire, revenge, crucifixion, and other fantasies as they relate to the primal scene. The manifestations of these fantasies are demonstrated in a work of fiction by Yukio Mishima. The Temple of the Golden Pavillion. As is the case in other writings of Mishima there is a fusion of aggressive and libidinal drives and a preoccupation with death. The primal scene is directly connected with pyromania and destructive "acting out" of fantasies. This article is timely with regard to understanding contemporary events of cultural and national destruction.

  19. The Role of Binocular Disparity in Rapid Scene and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.

  20. Sclerostin─A Debutant on the Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Scene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jankowska

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: Circulating sclerostin levels are increased in ADPKD, possibly reflecting impaired mechanosensation. The clinical relevance of this finding, especially with regard to bone health, remains to be investigated. Our finding draws attention to the etiology of kidney disease as an important, yet neglected, confounder of the association between renal failure and mineral and bone disease.

  1. Review of literature on the TMI accident and correlation to the LWR Safety Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This report is the result of approximately two man-months of effort devoted to assimilating and comprehending significant publicly available material related to Three Mile Island Unit 2 and events during and subsequent to the accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Those events were then correlated with the Preliminary LWR Safety Technology Program Plan (Preliminary Program Plan) prepared for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Lab. This report is being submitted simultaneously with the SAI report entitled Preliminary Prioritization of Tasks in the Draft LWR Safety Technology Program Plan.

  2. Aerosols correction of the OMI tropospheric NO2 retrievals over cloud-free scenes: Different methodologies based on the O2-O2 477 nm band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimot, Julien; Vlemmix, Tim; Veefkind, Pepijn; Levelt, Pieternel

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have drawn attention to the complexities related to the retrievals of tropospheric NO2 columns derived from satellite UltraViolet-Visible (UV-Vis) measurements in the presence of aerosols. Correction for aerosol effects will remain a challenge for the next generation of air quality satellite instruments such as TROPOMI on Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instrument has provided daily global measurements of tropospheric NO2 for more than a decade. However, aerosols are not explicitly taken into account in the current operational OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval chain (DOMINO v2 [Boersma et al., 2011]). Our study analyses 2 approaches for an operational aerosol correction, based on the use of the O2-O2 477 nm band. The 1st approach is the cloud-model based aerosol correction, also named "implicit aerosol correction", and already used in the operational chain. The OMI O2-O2 cloud retrieval algorithm, based on the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) approach, is applied both to cloudy and to cloud-free scenes with aerosols present. Perturbation of the OMI cloud retrievals over scenes dominated by aerosols has been observed in recent studies led by [Castellanos et al., 2015; Lin et al., 2015; Lin et al., 2014]. We investigated the causes of these perturbations by: (1) confronting the OMI tropospheric NO2, clouds and MODIS AQUA aerosol products; (2) characterizing the key drivers of the aerosol net effects, compared to a signal from clouds, in the UV-Vis spectra. This study has focused on large industrialised areas like East-China, over cloud-free scenes. One of the key findings is the limitation due to the coarse sampling of the employed cloud Look-Up Table (LUT) to convert the results of the applied DOAS fit into effective cloud fraction and pressure. This leads to an underestimation of tropospheric NO2 amount in cases of particles located at elevated altitude. A higher sampling of the

  3. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  4. IRSN press briefing on the issue 'Fukushima, one year after': Situation of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear installations; Accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi: briefing on the situation in February 2012; The Fukushima 1 accident one year after: assessment of environmental consequences in Japan; assessment of consequences of the Fukushima accident on the environment in Japan, one year after; Health consequences of the Fukushima Dai-ichi: situation briefing in February 2012; Point presse de l'IRSN sur le theme 'Fukushima, un an apres': Situation des installations nucleaires de Fukushima Dai-ichi; Accident survenu a la centrale de Fukushima Dai-Ichi Point de la situation en fevrier 2012; L'accident de Fukushima 1 an apres: bilan des consequences environnementales au Japon; bilan des consequences de l'accident de Fukushima sur l'environnement au Japon, un an apres l'accident; Les consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Fukushima Dai-ichi: point de situation en fevrier 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, T.; Jourdain, Jean-Rene

    2012-02-28

    This document gathers reports and Power Point presentations (with maps, data tables and graphs) dealing with the Fukushima accident, one year after its occurrence. Different issues are addressed: the status of the nuclear installations, the situation of the installations and of the environment, assessments, measurements and investigations on the effects and consequences of the accident (radioactive releases and fallouts) on the ground and marine environment and on public health

  5. RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF TARGET PROGRAMS ON RADIATION ACCIDENT REMEDIATION FOR THE PERIOD TO 2010 AND PROSPECTS OF FURTHER ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains information about measures undertaken by the Ministry of Civil Defense and Emergencies of the Russian Federation in the framework of implementation of the state policy in the field of radiation accidents remediation. Results of works realized in the framework of target programs on remediation of radiation accidents at Chernobyl NPP and Production Association MAYAK, and on problems caused by nuclear weapon tests at Seminalatinsk test site are presented.

  6. Analysis on the dispersion of radioactive materials in marine environment after the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.; Youm, M.K.; Lee, B.G.; Suh, K.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Raul, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and ocean due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in March 2011. Marine environment was contaminated by the aeolian fallout and direct release to the sea, especially the radioactive materials were entered in the sea from atmospheric deposition from March 12-30. It was important to evaluate the marine pollution due to the radioactive materials in Pacific Ocean as well as the near fields in the Fukushima Sea. A three-dimensional Lagrangian particle model was used to predict the overall dispersion patterns of the radioactive materials in the global ocean during 2011 to 2021. The spatial domain for the simulations extended from 180 deg. W to 180 deg. E and from 75 deg. S to 75 deg. N. The monthly averaged current data of the 10 years forecast, from JAMSTEC, were used. Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the distribution of the radionuclides in the ocean with considering directly release and deposition from the atmosphere. Simulated results in the sea water and seabed are compared with the measured data, and atmospheric transport model has been also used to calculate the rates of atmospheric deposition on the sea surface. The clouds of the radioactive materials in surface waters were predicted from 2012 (1 year after accident) to 2021 (10 years after accident) in global ocean. The distributions of the radioactive materials in 2012 showed the rapid movements due to the Kuroshio currents to the eastward direction from Fukushima site. It was predicted that the radioactive clouds reached in the west coast of US after 5 ∼ 6 years from the accident. Comparative results had good agreements in some places over the ocean, but they had a little differences in some locations. The difference between the calculations and measurements are due to the currents and relatively coarse resolutions in the model. The concentrations in dissolved, suspended matters and bottom sediments would be

  7. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J. L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knudson, D. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lutz, R. J. [Lutz Nuclear Safety Consultant, LLC, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  8. Assault on the USS LIBERTY: Deliberate Action or Tragic Accident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Fleet directed the USS Liberty to report all threatening actions via flash precedence. For some unknown reason, the USS Liberty did not receive this...not able to identify the plane. Again, at 1056 an aircraft circled the ship and was later identified as a French-built Noratlas NORD 2501, piloted

  9. Construction accidents: identification of the main associations between causes, mechanisms and stages of the construction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Trillo-Cabello, Antonio F; Rubio-Romero, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    To identify the most frequent causes of accidents in the construction sector in order to help safety practitioners in the task of prioritizing preventive actions depending on the stage of construction. Official accident investigation reports are analysed. A causation pattern is identified with the proportion of causes in each of the different possible groups of causes. Significant associations of the types of causes with accident mechanisms and construction stages have been identified. Significant differences have been found in accident causation depending on the mechanism of the accident and the construction stage ongoing. These results should be used to prioritize preventive actions to combat the most likely causes for each accident mechanism and construction stage.

  10. MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucheron, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and the radiological source team. The analysis of the TMI-2 standard problem allowed for comparison of the model predictions in MELCOR to plant data and to the results of more mechanistic analyses. This exercise was, therefore valuable for verifying and assessing the models in the code. The major trends in the TMI-2 accident are reasonably well predicted with MELCOR, even with its simplified modeling. Comparison of the calculated and measured results is presented and, based on this comparison, conclusions can be drawn concerning the applicability of MELCOR to severe accident analysis. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  12. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  13. Accident investigation: case study and lessons learnt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirsten, T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . The proceedings of the TC were strictly confi dential and therefore this report only provides generic information and insights. User briefi ng The fi rst activity of the TC on the 25 October 2007 was the briefi ng by the SANDF offi cer who had been responsible...

  14. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  15. Non-vehicular homicides masquerading as road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, K U; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Sane, Mandar Ramchandra; Bhuyyar, Chandrashekhar; Rathod, S N

    2016-03-01

    Interfering with or planting evidence to disguise the cause of a death is not uncommon in forensic practice. Homicides staged as road accidents are, however, rarely encountered by crime scene investigators. We report two homicides which were presented as road traffic accidents. Case 1: Dead body of a 35-year-old male was brought for autopsy with history of road traffic accident. Primary police inquiry suggested that the victim was knocked down by a speeding four-wheeler, while walking by the side of a high way with his friends. On postmortem examination the deceased's death was found due to homicidal smothering staged as a road traffic accident. Case 2: Dead body of 40-year-old male was brought for autopsy with history of road traffic accident. It was an unwitnessed crush by a speeding four-wheeler. However, on postmortem examination, the deceased was found to have died from homicidal multiple stab wounds with his death staged as a road traffic accident. Importance of meticulous autopsy to determine accurately the cause of death is emphasized. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Scene classification of infrared images based on texture feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Tingzhu; Shang, Fei

    2008-12-01

    Scene Classification refers to as assigning a physical scene into one of a set of predefined categories. Utilizing the method texture feature is good for providing the approach to classify scenes. Texture can be considered to be repeating patterns of local variation of pixel intensities. And texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification or segmentation of images based on local spatial variations of intensity. Texture describes the structural information of images, so it provides another data to classify comparing to the spectrum. Now, infrared thermal imagers are used in different kinds of fields. Since infrared images of the objects reflect their own thermal radiation, there are some shortcomings of infrared images: the poor contrast between the objectives and background, the effects of blurs edges, much noise and so on. Because of these shortcomings, it is difficult to extract to the texture feature of infrared images. In this paper we have developed an infrared image texture feature-based algorithm to classify scenes of infrared images. This paper researches texture extraction using Gabor wavelet transform. The transformation of Gabor has excellent capability in analysis the frequency and direction of the partial district. Gabor wavelets is chosen for its biological relevance and technical properties In the first place, after introducing the Gabor wavelet transform and the texture analysis methods, the infrared images are extracted texture feature by Gabor wavelet transform. It is utilized the multi-scale property of Gabor filter. In the second place, we take multi-dimensional means and standard deviation with different scales and directions as texture parameters. The last stage is classification of scene texture parameters with least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) algorithm. SVM is based on the principle of structural risk minimization (SRM). Compared with SVM, LS-SVM has overcome the shortcoming of

  17. Implementing recommendations from accident investigations: a case study of inter-organisational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In many industries, a national accident investigation board conducts investigations following major accidents. For safety improvements to be achieved, however, it is essential that the recommendations presented in these investigations are followed by necessary actions. In this paper, challenges related to implementation of recommendations from accident investigations are studied. The theoretical framework providing the foundation for the study lies at the intersection between systems safety, risk governance, and implementation research. Empirical data for the case study was collected from the Swedish railway sector. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the extent of recommendations that have not resulted in implemented actions. The second part consists of an interview study aiming at providing a deeper understanding of the difficulties related to transforming these recommendations into actual changes. Two key factors that give rise to challenges to implementation of recommendations are identified. The first factor is related to the different actors' views on their own and other stakeholders' roles in the implementation process, and can be described as a trade-off between being insider and outsider to the industry. The second factor is related to the scope of the accident investigations and their recommendations, and can be described as a trade-off between micro-level and macro-level factors. The opportunities for implementing recommendations, and achieving safety improvements at the industry level, are affected by the ways in which the different stakeholders manage these trade-offs at the local level. This study thus mainly contributes by highlighting the importance of co-ordinating the various actors involved in the implementation process, and the results show that challenges to implementation to a large extent arise in the interactions between these actors.

  18. Rapid influence of emotional scenes on encoding of facial expressions: An ERP study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Righart, R. G. R; de Gelder, B

    2008-01-01

    ... to discriminate between facial expressions. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the early stages of face processing are affected by emotional scenes when explicit categorizations of fearful and happy facial expressions are made...

  19. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the au......A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  20. Scene change detection for video retrieval on MPEG streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eung-Kwan; Kim, Sung-Joo; Jahng, SurngGabb; Song, Ho-Keun; Choi, Jong S.

    2000-05-01

    IN this paper, we propose a new scene change detection (SCD) algorithm, and also provide a novel video-indexing scheme for fast content-based browsing and retrieval in video databases. We detect scene changes from the MPEG video sequence, and extract key frames to represent contents of a shot. Then, we perform the video indexing by applying the rosette pattern to the extracted key frames, and retrieve them. Our SCD method is better than the conventional ones in terms of the SCD performance. Moreover, by applying the rosette pattern for indexing, we can remarkably reduce the number of pixels required to index and excellently retrieve the video scene.

  1. Target detection in complex scene of SAR image based on existence probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Cao, Zongjie; Wu, Honggang; Pi, Yiming; Yang, Haiyi

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a target detection approach based on the target existence probability in complex scenes of a synthetic aperture radar image. Superpixels are the basic unit throughout the approach and are labelled into each classified scene by a texture feature. The original and predicted saliency depth values for each scene are derived through self-information of all the labelled superpixels in each scene. Thereafter, the target existence probability is estimated based on the comparison of two saliency depth values. Lastly, an improved visual attention algorithm, in which the scenes of the saliency map are endowed with different weights related to the existence probabilities, derives the target detection result. This algorithm enhances the attention for the scene that contains the target. Hence, the proposed approach is self-adapting for complex scenes and the algorithm is substantially suitable for different detection missions as well (e.g. vehicle, ship or aircraft detection in the related scenes of road, harbour or airport, respectively). Experimental results on various data show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The evaluation of effects on driver behavior and accidents of concentrated general enforcement on interurban roads in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, A S; Gitelman, V; Cohen, A; Doveh, E; Umansky, T

    2001-01-01

    The study deals with the evaluation of the effects of a new deployment of the National Traffic Police in Israel--a concentrated general enforcement on 700 km of interurban roads, which contain 60% of all rural accidents and about half of the severe accident locations. The enforcement project began in April 1997 and lasted for 1 year, aiming at a 10% reduction of severe accidents on those roads. The evaluation study consisted of three main parts: (a) monitoring of everyday police operations on the project roads; (b) periodic evaluation of the project's influence on drivers' behavior and attitudes; and (c) the evaluation of accident changes within the project area, at the end of the project year. Speed measurements, performed before the police project launch, demonstrated that, depending on road type, up to 85% of drivers violated the rural road speed limits. Two rounds of field observations, before and during the project, took place at 32 sites throughout the project area and comprised eight behavior types: turning performance; signaling while turning; compliance with 'stop' and 'yield' signs; safety belt use by drivers and front-seat passengers, at the intersections; 'keeping to the right' on dual carriageway roads; and 'not-crossing of the white separating line' at single carriageway roads. A comparison revealed a general reduction in violation rates of most behaviors, during-the-project, except for compliance with 'stop' signs and signaling. Concurrently, two rounds of driver surveys were performed which examined the project's influence on the drivers' attitudes towards the police enforcement effectiveness and risk connected with traffic rule violations. An improvement was identified in perceived general level of police activity, during the project, whereas a lower or similar risk of apprehension was attributed by drivers to most specific violations of the traffic rules. Three groups of indices of police activity were estimated monthly during the study: inputs

  3. How long do the Danish emergency medical services stay on the scene to play?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael; Thorgaard, Per

    them with non-CRT-patients.   Method Retrospectively we extracted data for all acutely ill or injured patients treated by the emergency medical services between 1st May and 31st December 2006. The patients were divided in two groups: CRT-patients and non-CRT-patients. We calculated the median OST...... to the definitive care that varies between countries....

  4. Emotional and neutral scenes in competition: orienting, efficiency, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2007-12-01

    To investigate preferential processing of emotional scenes competing for limited attentional resources with neutral scenes, prime pictures were presented briefly (450 ms), peripherally (5.2 degrees away from fixation), and simultaneously (one emotional and one neutral scene) versus singly. Primes were followed by a mask and a probe for recognition. Hit rate was higher for emotional than for neutral scenes in the dual- but not in the single-prime condition, and A' sensitivity decreased for neutral but not for emotional scenes in the dual-prime condition. This preferential processing involved both selective orienting and efficient encoding, as revealed, respectively, by a higher probability of first fixation on--and shorter saccade latencies to--emotional scenes and by shorter fixation time needed to accurately identify emotional scenes, in comparison with neutral scenes.

  5. Review the number of accidents in Tehran over a two-year period and prediction of the number of events based on a time-series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P < 0.05). Most of the accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405

  6. The investigation and analysis of an atypical chemical fire accident%一起非典型化工火灾事故的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少波

    2012-01-01

    结合一起化工火灾事故介绍火灾事故调查的程序.上海化工园区某公司低温罐区乙烯管道发生泄漏,引发爆炸燃烧,未造成人员伤亡.通过多方人证询问,首先排除人为破坏因素.录像分析表明首先发生了可燃物的泄漏,而后瞬间爆炸产生了亮光,发生火灾.由破坏痕迹轻重、可燃气体探测仪DCS分析、平台南侧管廊管道裂口朝向、平台区域管道裂口朝向确定泄漏部位;由录像比对分析阀门阀盖缺失情况,结合鉴定分析,确定泄漏点为超临界乙烯操作平台底层东南侧超临界乙烯计量器旁路阀处.引火源有三种可能,事故定性为设备缺陷引发的安全生产事故.应进一步研究分析新技术的安全风险,制定相关技术标准.应加强对化工设备的监管,细化部分电气设施的控制权限.%The fire accident investigation procedure with a chemical fire accident was put forward. A cryogenic tank farm ethyl-ene pipeline leak of a company in the Shanghai Chemical Industry Park caused the explosion burning without casualties. Through multi-party witnesses asked, the human damage factors were ruled out first. Video analysis showed that first the leakage of combustible occurred and then an instant explosion of light before the fire. Through the damage traces, DCS analysis of combustible gas detector, the orientation of pipe gallery and pipeline gap of the south side of the platform and the orientation of pipeline gap of platform, the leak site was determined. Combined with the identification analysis, the leak point was the bypass valve of the supercritical ethylene meter bypass on the southeast of the bottom of the supercritical ethylene platform by video analysis and the valve bonnet loss situation. There are three possibilities of ignition source. The accident was determined to be a production safety accident caused by equipment defects. It should be further studied to analyze the security risks of new

  7. 32 CFR 634.30 - Use of traffic accident investigation report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of traffic accident investigation report data... § 634.30 Use of traffic accident investigation report data. (a) Data derived from traffic accident... accidents (collision diagram) will be examined. (b) Law enforcement personnel and others who prepare traffic...

  8. The Effects of Scene Changes and Semantic Relatedness on Attention to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Seth; Reeves, Byron

    1993-01-01

    Tests the proposition that message structure (cuts) affects attention to television differently, depending on whether the cuts link related or unrelated content. Finds cuts in unrelated sequences require more attention than cuts in related sequences. (NH)

  9. Autopsy investigation and Bayesian approach to coronary artery disease in victims of motor-vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; Flores, Jose; Merigioli, Sara; LeDuc, Louis; Benito, Begoña; Partemi, Sara; Arzamendi, Dabit; Campuzano, Oscar; Leung, Tack Li; Iglesias, Anna; Talajic, Mario; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Ramon

    2011-09-01

    Each year, 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of motor-vehicle accidents (MVA), representing a tremendous burden to healthcare. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of coronary disease and its possible role in motor-vehicle accidents. We examined consecutive cases of non-hospital sudden death autopsies in the area of West Quebec during the period of 2002-2006, and we focused on those victims of MVA. Severe coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as a narrowing of ≥ 75% of a cross-sectional area or the presence of acute plaque events in major epicardial coronary arteries. From a total cohort of 1260 autopsies, MVA were responsible for 123 deaths, 100 of whom were men and 23 were women. Significant CAD was documented in approximately 37% of these cases. In individuals older than 60 years, the prevalence of significant CAD and ischemia were 86.2% and 19.8%, respectively. A percentage of 40% of the coronary patients showed erratic driving before the accident, as observed by witnesses. Statistical analysis showed that an individual affected by CAD has 9% probability of suffering a motor-vehicle accident. The prevalence of severe CAD and acute myocardial ischemia is very high among individuals who have suffered a MVA. Our data suggest the hypothesis that acute CAD could be the cause of accidents in a large group of the drivers affected by coronary disease. For these reasons CAD could be investigated in drivers above 50 years old, as a possible preventive measure and determinant of individual risk stratification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An aftermath analysis of the 2014 coal mine accident in Soma, Turkey: Use of risk performance indicators based on historical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-02-01

    On the 13th of May 2014 a fire related incident in the Soma coal mine in Turkey caused 301 fatalities and more than 80 injuries. This has been the largest coal mine accident in Turkey, and in the OECD country group, so far. This study investigated if such a disastrous event should be expected, in a statistical sense, based on historical observations. For this purpose, PSI's ENSAD database is used to extract accident data for the period 1970-2014. Four different cases are analyzed, i.e., OECD, OECD w/o Turkey, Turkey and USA. Analysis of temporal trends for annual numbers of accidents and fatalities indicated a non-significant decreasing tendency for OECD and OECD w/o Turkey and a significant one for USA, whereas for Turkey both measures showed an increase over time. The expectation analysis revealed clearly that an event with the consequences of the Soma accident is rather unlikely for OECD, OECD w/o Turkey and USA. In contrast, such a severe accident has a substantially higher expectation for Turkey, i.e. it cannot be considered an extremely rare event, based on historical experience. This indicates a need for improved safety measures and stricter regulations in the Turkish coal mining sector in order to get closer to the rest of OECD.

  11. Accumulating and remembering the details of neutral and emotional natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to our rich sensory experience with complex scenes in everyday life, the capacity of visual working memory is thought to be quite limited. Here our memory has been examined for the details of naturalistic scenes as a function of display duration, emotional valence of the scene, and delay before test. Individual differences in working memory and long-term memory for pictorial scenes were examined in experiment 1. The accumulation of memory for emotional scenes and the retention of these details in long-term memory were investigated in experiment 2. Although there were large individual differences in performance, memory for scene details generally exceeded the traditional working memory limit within a few seconds. Information about positive scenes was learned most quickly, while negative scenes showed the worst memory for details. The overall pattern of results was consistent with the idea that both short-term and long-term representations are mixed together in a medium-term 'online' memory for scenes.

  12. Syntactic Accidents in Program Analysis: On the Impact of the CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Damian; Danvy, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    control-flow analysis yields equivalent results on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart, a monovariant binding-time analysis yields less precise results on a direct-style program than on its CPS counterpart, and an enhanced monovariant binding-time analysis yields equivalent results...... on a direct-style program and on its CPS counterpart. Our proof technique amounts to constructing the CPS counterpart of flow information and of binding times. Our results formalize and confirm a folklore theorem about traditional binding-time analysis, namely that CPS has a positive effect on binding times....... What may be more surprising is that the benefit does not arise from a standard refinement of program analysis, as, for instance, duplicating continuations. The present study is symptomatic of an unsettling property of program analyses: their quality is unpredictably vulnerable to syntactic accidents...

  13. The Effects of Spatial Contextual Familiarity on Remembered Scenes, Episodic Memories, and Imagined Future Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have explored the effect of contextual familiarity on remembered and imagined events. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of this effect by comparing the effect of cuing spatial memories, episodic memories, and imagined future events with spatial contextual cues of varying levels of familiarity. We used…

  14. Microbiology of diabetic foot infections: from Louis Pasteur to 'crime scene investigation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichler, Anne; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Armstrong, David G; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-07

    Were he alive today, would Louis Pasteur still champion culture methods he pioneered over 150 years ago for identifying bacterial pathogens? Or, might he suggest that new molecular techniques may prove a better way forward for quickly detecting the true microbial diversity of wounds? As modern clinicians faced with treating complex patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI), should we still request venerated and familiar culture and sensitivity methods, or is it time to ask for newer molecular tests, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing? Or, are molecular techniques as yet too experimental, non-specific and expensive for current clinical use? While molecular techniques help us to identify more microorganisms from a DFI, can they tell us 'who done it?', that is, which are the causative pathogens and which are merely colonizers? Furthermore, can molecular techniques provide clinically relevant, rapid information on the virulence of wound isolates and their antibiotic sensitivities? We herein review current knowledge on the microbiology of DFI, from standard culture methods to the current era of rapid and comprehensive 'crime scene investigation' (CSI) techniques.

  15. Accident Information from six European Countries Based on Self-reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Várhelyi, András

    A questionnaire survey has been conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Poland, Spain and Sweden in 2016-2017. Once every third month through one year respondents have received a link to an online questionnaire which asked them about information on any traffic accidents they might have experienced...... in the period. Different procedures for gaining respondents were used in each country, resulting in relatively small and skewed sample sizes from Germany, Poland and Spain, causing data analysis based on these numbers to be highly unreliable. Thus results are based on data from Belgium, Denmark and Sweden....... A special focus in the survey is on pedestrian single accidents, which are not normally considered traffic accidents. The survey finds that more than 80% of the pedestrian accidents that have been self-reported are in fact single accidents, which illustrates the need for further investigation...

  16. Boating Accident Investigations 1974, Fire and Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-15

    supplement the written section of the report. (3) Narrative Report of Incident - This section is in- tended to describe the condUtions and sequence of...split. It is probable that the nut split as a re- sult of thermal shock when it was hit by cold water by the Fire Department. (3) The fabric...that a thermal draft created by the initial fire introduced sufficient I oxygen to cause the explosion that followed. It is noted that j the initial

  17. The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on marine biota: Retrospective assessment of the first year and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vives i Battle, Jordi; Aono, Tatsuo; Brown, Justin E.; Hosseini, Ali; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Sazykina, Tatiana; Steenhuisen, Frits; Strand, Per

    2014-01-01

    An international study under the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was performed to assess radiological impact of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) on the marine environment. This work constitutes the first inte

  18. The development of the crime scene behavior risk measure for sexual offense recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Klaus-Peter; Biedermann, Jürgen; Lehmann, Robert J B; Gallasch-Nemitz, Franziska

    2014-12-01

    The inclusion of crime scene behavior in actuarial risk assessment so far is insufficient, unsystematic, and neglecting factors theoretically relevant to sexual recidivism. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to develop a brief actuarial risk scale based on crime scene characteristics. The development sample consisted of data (police databases, paper records, and the National Conviction Registry) from 955 male sexual offenders (77% German citizens, 20% foreign nationals, mean age = 35 years, convicted for sexual abuse and/or sexual violence). Further, the independent cross-validation-sample consisted of data from 77 sexual offenders. The 7 items that are comprised by the Crime Scene Behavior Risk (CBR) measure showed high predictive accuracy for sexual recidivism with little variation between the development (c index = .72) and the replication sample (c index = .74). Further, the CBR was found to provide significant incremental validity and improve the predictive accuracy of the Static-99R risk assessment tool. Given the predictive and incremental validity of the CBR it is suggested that sexual offender risk assessment can be improved by utilizing crime scene behavior. The CBR is currently being used in addition to the Static-99R by the State Office of Criminal Investigations in Berlin to prioritize released sexual offenders for police supervision.

  19. The effect of spatial-temporal audiovisual disparities on saccades in a complex scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, M.M. van; Bell, A.H.; Munoz, D.P.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we quantified the effect of multisensory integration on the latency and accuracy of saccadic eye movements toward spatially aligned audiovisual (AV) stimuli within a rich AV-background (Corneil et al. in J Neurophysiol 88:438-454, 2002). In those experiments both stimulus modalit

  20. Implementation of Natural Scene Modeling Method Based onPhysical Properties and a Particle System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽琨; 陈定方

    2004-01-01

    In virtual environment construction of natural scenes, high realism of the scenes and real time control to the objects in the scene are needed. With a modeling method based on physical properties and a particle system, together with a mipmapping texture technique,good integration between realism and real time control of the natural scenes such as clouds and smoke can be obtained. This paper briefly introduces the basic theory of particle system first, and then describes the construction method of a cloud and smoke particle system. By changing the values of physical properties in the particle system, different shapes and motion status of cloud and smoke result. With a mipmapping technique, real time control and variety of the scenes are improved. Finally an example showing implementation of this method is presented.

  1. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Masoumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents are the 8th cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3rd rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. Methods: In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82 were evaluated (92.4% male. Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44% of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%. 610 (87.1% cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53% occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4% cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1% patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p < 0.001. The most common mechanisms of trauma for critical injuries were rollover (72.5%, motorcycle-pedestrian (23.8%, and car-motorcycle (13.14% accidents (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the most important effective factors in severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car

  2. 试论现场短新闻传播现场感的实现%The Realization of Live Broadcasting of Concise News on the Scene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷

    2012-01-01

    In the environment of media market the news report needs to meet the targets" information demand for their work. At present, under the background of media information diversification, the short news on the scene win the favor of the audience in which reporters concisely recapture the news on the scene where the events took place and broadcast to the audience. Therefore, how to realize the live broadcasting of the concise news on the scene has become journalists" major task.%在媒介市场化环境下,新闻报道要以满足受众的信息需求为工作的目标。目前在媒介信息多样化的背景下,现场短新闻以记者在新闻事件发生的现场,用短小的篇幅再现新闻现场的境况,并把新闻事件简明扼要地传播给受众,这样的新闻传播形式受到了受众的青睐。因此,如何实现现场短新闻的现场感成为新闻记者探索的重点。