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Sample records for omega-3 fatty acid

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  6. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  7. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  8. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  10. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  11. Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFAs are thought to be important for normal dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Depression is less prevalent in societies with high fish consumption, and depressed patients have significantly lower red blood cell ω-3 levels. Studies with ω-3 supplementation have led to controversial results. A significantly longer remission of bipolar symptomatology has been confirmed from a high-dose DHA and EPA mixture. Greater seafood consumption per capita has been connected with a lower prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders. Reduced levels of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were found in patients with schizophrenia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  12. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  13. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  14. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... the beneficial healthy effects. As important membrane lipids, the incorporation and depletion kinetics of EPA and DHA in biological membranes have been found to be different, DHA was depleted slowly from both erythrocyte and plasma membranes due to the slow re-synthesis of DHA in the body. The bioavailability...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids...

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  16. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    OpenAIRE

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-01-01

    Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3...

  17. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and FFAR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Young eOh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial roles of omega-3 fatty acids (ω3-FAs on obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases are well known. Most of these effects can be explained by their anti-inflammatory effects, triggered through their receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120 activation. Although the whole mechanism of action is not fully described yet, it has been shown that stimulation of ω3-FA to GPR120 is followed by receptor phosphorylation. This makes GPR120 be capable of interacting to beta-arrestin-2, which in turn results in association, of beta-arrestin-2 to TAB1. This stealing of an important partaker of the inflammatory cascade, leads to interruption of the pathway, resulting in reduced inflammation. Besides this regulation of the anti-inflammatory response, GPR120 signaling also has been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis, adiposity, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and taste preference. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the interaction of ω3-FAs with GPR120 and the consequent opportunities for the application of ω3-FAs and possible GPR120 targets.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan C. Vesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some general facts about omega-3 fatty acids and their role in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the human body. Their beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been known for decades. Since then, several epidemiological and interventional trials showed the value of omega-3 acids in the treatment of certain diseases. Most of them revealed the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on heart and cardiac functions. However, some of these studies couldn?t demonstrate a positive association between fish oils and preventing cardiac events. The major cardiologic societies from European Union and United States of America recommend omega-3 fatty acids as supplements for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the development of preneoplasic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques,Viviana Teixeira; Dias,Cristina Maria Ganns Chaves; Sylvia do Carmo Castro FRANCESCHINI; Sabarense,Céphora Maria; Neuza Maria Brunoro COSTA; Leite,Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; Peluzio,Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of dietary omega-3 supplementation to reduce induced intestinal preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 58 11-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvergicus, albinus variety, Rodentia) were distributed into two groups: a control group (n=25) and an omega-3-treated group (n=28). Aberrant crypt foci were induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Tissue incorporation of the supplemented omega-3 fatty acids was...

  2. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  3. Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Jin; Arita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular benefits, sources and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John H; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Harris, William S

    2009-12-01

    The evidence for the cardioprotective nature of omega-3 fatty acids is abundant, and currently available data indicate that patients with known coronary heart disease should consume at least 1 g daily of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from either oily fish or fish-oil supplements, and that individuals without disease should consume at least 250-500 mg daily. However, this area of research poses two questions. Firstly, which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids-fish or fish-oil supplements? Secondly, are recommendations for omega-3 supplementation warranted in view of the rapid depletion of world fish stocks? The argument that eating fish is better than taking fish-oil supplements stems from the fact that several important nutrients, such as vitamin D, selenium, and antioxidants, are missing from the supplements. However, three major prevention trials have clearly indicated that omega-3 fatty acid capsules confer cardiovascular benefits and, therefore, that both are cardioprotective. Sustainable sources of omega-3 fatty acids will need to be identified if long-term cardiovascular risk reduction is to be achieved at the population level.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromson, Stewart; Gallagher, Iain J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee

    2015-11-19

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  9. [Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD). The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arr...

  11. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...

  12. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alexandra J

    2006-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are dietary essentials, and are critical to brain development and function. Increasing evidence suggests that a relative lack of omega-3 may contribute to many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review focuses on the possible role of omega-3 in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related childhood developmental disorders, evaluating the existing evidence from both research and clinical perspectives. Theory and experimental evidence support a role for omega-3 in ADHD, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and autism. Results from controlled treatment trials are mixed, but the few studies in this area have involved different populations and treatment formulations. Dietary supplementation with fish oils (providing EPA and DHA) appears to alleviate ADHD-related symptoms in at least some children, and one study of DCD children also found benefits for academic achievement. Larger trials are now needed to confirm these findings, and to establish the specificity and durability of any treatment effects as well as optimal formulations and dosages. Omega-3 is not supported by current evidence as a primary treatment for ADHD or related conditions, but further research in this area is clearly warranted. Given their relative safety and general health benefits, omega-3 fatty acids offer a promising complementary approach to standard treatments.

  14. Differentiating prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) from dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen; Collins, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    A reliable means of treating hyper-triglyceridemia is the use of large doses of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly fatty fish. This article is intended to review clinically relevant differences between dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3). PubMed and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2007 that contained the terms fish oil, fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, omega fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid. Articles discussing sources, recommended intake, and differences among various formulations of omega-3 fatty acids were selected for review. A limitation to this review is the lack of head-to-head clinical trials using P-OM3 and dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids. Many types of nonprescription dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are available; however, the efficacy, quality, and safety of these products are open to question because they are not regulated by the same standards as pharmaceutical agents. P-OM3 is the only omega-3 fatty acid product (Omacor capsules) approved by the US FDA available in the United States as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (> or = 500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients. P-OM3 can be used with confidence by practitioners who want to provide therapeutic doses of omega-3 fatty acids in a preparation that has been documented to be both safe and effective.

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids: a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, G; Franceschi, F; Bibbò, S; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-10-01

    The integrity of gastric barrier derives from the balance between defending and damaging factors. In particular, prostaglandins play a relevant role in the maintenance of gastric homeostasis and prevention of peptic disease, at different levels. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentanoic acid, are the precursors of the third series of prostaglandins (with anti-inflammatory properties), also reducing the formation of the second series of prostaglandins (pro-inflammatory ones). Such a pathophysiological rationale brought to the experimental application, both in animal models and, more recently, in humans, of omega-3 fatty acids against gastrointestinal damage. Omega-3 fatty acids have shown interesting results in preventing different types of gastric damage in mouse models. A large retrospective case-control study on patients taking both anti-thrombotic therapy and eicosapentanoic acid showed (although only at unadjusted analysis) an inverse correlation between consumption of eicosapentanoic acid and gastrointestinal injury. Prospective, well-designed, comparative studies are warranted to clarify if omega-3 fatty acids may represent, or not, a novel resort against gastrointestinal injury.

  17. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  18. Prevention of Sports Injuries by Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhn, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  20. Comparative cardiometabolic effects of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Oh, Pyung Chun; Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2013-09-10

    Even with the aggressive reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by statin therapy, a high residual risk of cardiovascular events remains substantially and attracts attention to the need for additional preventive therapies. Therefore, effective reductions of residual risk of cardiovascular disease have emerged as therapeutic targets. Fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids have been introduced to reduce triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have shown anti-atherosclerotic, vascular and metabolic effects. However, some effects are controversial and very recent randomized clinical trials report different results from the earlier ones. In this review, we address the vascular and metabolic effects and the results of recent clinical trials of fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids. We also compared their effects under modern guideline therapy regarding potential drugs to reduce a residual cardiometabolic risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in edible wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2004-01-01

    Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA), which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat. as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  2. Do we need 'new' omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids formulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    The therapeutic value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mainly (but not only) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), has been extensively studied in a wide variety of disease conditions, predominantly in cardiovascular disease. However, the significant difference in efficacy observed in various conditions with different dosages seems to be at least partly related to the large discrepancy in quality of the product and to the bioavailability of the omega-3 PUFA. The research of new sources (e.g., from arctic Krill oil) and pharmaceutical forms of omega-3 PUFA (e.g., omega-3 carboxylic acids) is needed in order to detect the one with the best bioavailability and efficacy, and with a parallel reduction in the production costs. There is also the need to understand if long-term PUFA supplementation could increase the efficacy of the already-available evidence-based therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and for the management of the diseases where the use of PUFA could have a possible improving effect.

  3. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in child development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osendarp Saskia JM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA are important constituents of the maturing brain and therefore considered crucial for brain development in utero and in early infancy. However, it is uncertain whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation can have beneficial, sustainable effects on visual or cognitive development. Beneficial effects on child cognitive function after supplementation with EPA and DHA during pregnancy and lactation were observed at 4 years of age, but not at 3, 6 months or 7 years. In term infants LCPUFA when given in relative high dosages, seems to improve visual acuity, but not cognitive function. Evidence for an effect of LCPUFA supplementation of preterm infants remains inconclusive. In children older than 2 years of age, epidemiological evidence suggests an association between psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders and omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance or brain function in school-aged children is not conclusive. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA are highly present in the maturing brain and are important for normal brain functioning and development. When provided in relative high dosages, n-3 LCPUFA may improve visual acuity in term infants. However, it remains unclear whether supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy, early infancy, and childhood can improve cognitive function.

  4. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  5. gamma-linolenic acid does not augment long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Hettema, Y; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    Augmentation of long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA omega 3) status can be reached by consumption of fish oil or by improvement of the conversion of a-linolenic acid (ALA) to LCPUFA omega 3. Since gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) might activate the rate-limiting Delta-6 desaturation, we

  6. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygenated metabolism in atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardant, Michel; Calzada, Catherine; Bernoud-Hubac, Nathalie; Lagarde, Michel; Véricel, Evelyne

    2015-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials have reported the health benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including a lower risk of coronary heart diseases. This review mainly focuses on the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids on some risk factors associated with atherothrombosis, including platelet activation, plasma lipid concentrations and oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Special focus is given to the effects of marine PUFA on the formation of eicosanoids and docosanoids, and to the bioactive properties of some oxygenated metabolites of omega-3 PUFA produced by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The antioxidant effects of marine omega-3 PUFA at low concentrations and the pro-oxidant effects of DHA at high concentrations on the redox status of platelets and LDL are highlighted. Non enzymatic peroxidation end-products deriving from omega-3 PUFA such as hydroxy-hexenals, neuroketals and EPA-derived isoprostanes are also considered in relation to atherosclerosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance".

  7. Heterologous Reconstitution of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kang, Han-Chul; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2015-01-01

    Reconstitution of nonnative, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana was undertaken. The introduction of three primary biosynthetic activities to cells requires the stable coexpression of multiple proteins within the same cell. Herein, we report that C22 VLC-PUFAs were synthesized from C18 precursors by reactions catalyzed by Δ(6)-desaturase, an ELOVL5-like enzyme involved in VLC-PUFA elongation, and Δ(5)-desaturase. Coexpression of the corresponding genes (McD6DES, AsELOVL5, and PtD5DES) under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter resulted in production of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (22:4 n-6) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) in Arabidopsis seeds. The contributions of the transgenic enzymes and endogenous fatty acid metabolism were determined. Specifically, the reasonable synthesis of omega-3 stearidonic acid (18:4 n-3) could be a useful tool to obtain a sustainable system for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in seeds of a transgenic T3 line 63-1. The results indicated that coexpression of the three proteins was stable. Therefore, this study suggests that metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce VLC-PUFAs is feasible.

  8. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  9. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgeniyevich Karateev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of a drug of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA in patients with early undifferentiated peripheral arthritis (UPA on the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, the induction of remission, the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, the immunological manifestations of the disease during a 12-week follow-up. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 40 patients with UPA and a symptom duration of less than 12 months, who took nonsteroidal anti-inflamma tory drugs (NSAIDs and omega-3 PUFA (Vitrum Cardio Omega-3 as one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks. A control group comprised 20 patients with UPA receiving therapy with NSAIDs for 3 months. The groups did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 in age (42.98±10.81 and 48.25±13.92 years, the duration of symptoms (6.73±2.81 and 5.95±2.54 months, the number of patients positive for rheumatoid factor [14 (35% and 7 (35%] and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide [9 (22.5% and 7 (35%] patients, the duration of morning stiffness (35.6±25.82 and 37.0±19.15 min, the number of swollen (3.08±1.39 and 3.30±1.21 and tender (3.63±1.63 and 3.85±1.69 joints, and DAS 28 (4.21±0.65 and 4.35±0.63. Results. The use of omega-3 PUFA did not affect significantly the incidence of RA and the use of DMARDs. Clinical remission and low DAS28 were considerably observed in the study group patients, but no statistical significance was achieved. The dose of NSAIDs, including on-demand drugs, was decreased in 22 (55% and 4 (20% patients in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.013. At 12 weeks, the study group showed signifi cant reductions in the number of tender joints, the duration of morning stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS 28, and interleukin 6 levels (p < 0.05; no significant changes were found in the control group. There were no significant differences in the frequency of undesirable events. Conclusion. Omega-3 PUFAs

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohns disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Angie

    2006-01-01

    Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  13. Changes in plasma and erythrocyte omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in response to intravenous supply of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with hepatic colorectal metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taan, Omer; Stephenson, James A.; Spencer, Laura; Pollard, Cristina; West, Annette L; Philip C. Calder; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are functionally the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Oral supply of these fatty acids increases their levels in plasma and cell membranes, often at the expense of the omega-6 PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid. This results in an altered pattern of lipid mediator production to one which is less pro-inflammatory. We investigated whether short term intravenous supply of omega-3 PUFAs co...

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life12

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer’s disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, includin...

  15. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND AGE-RELATED DISEASES: REALITIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiology is so high that in many countries omega-3 fatty acids are included into the treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases. This therapeutic class slows down oxidative stress and chronic inflammation processes, thereby providing a significant contribution to the complex treatment of hypertension. Besides, omega-3 fatty acids slow down the aging process and prevent the development of age-related diseases affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  16. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in health and disease: Part 1--cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Miraliakbari, Homan

    2004-01-01

    The omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have a wide range of beneficial effects in several human health conditions. Animal and in vitro studies have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids affect blood lipid profiles, cardiovascular health, membrane lipid composition, eicosanoid biosynthesis, cell signaling cascades, and gene expression. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that intake of omega-3 fatty acids from natural sources or supplements may influence the onset and progression of several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights some recent research findings that help advance our understanding of how omega-3 fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  17. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Angela V; Davis, Brenda C; Garg, Manohar L

    2013-08-19

    While intakes of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) are similar in vegetarians and non-vegetarians, intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in vegetarians and virtually absent in vegans. Plasma, blood and tissue levels of EPA and DHA are lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, although the clinical significance of this is unknown. Vegetarians do not exhibit clinical signs of DHA deficiency, but further research is required to ascertain whether levels observed in vegetarians are sufficient to support optimal health. ALA is endogenously converted to EPA and DHA, but the process is slow and inefficient and is affected by genetics, sex, age and dietary composition. Vegetarians can take practical steps to optimise conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, including reducing intake of linoleic acid. There are no official separate recommendations for intake of fatty acids by vegetarians. However, we suggest that vegetarians double the current adequate intake of ALA if no direct sources of EPA and DHA are consumed. Vegetarians with increased needs or reduced conversion ability may receive some advantage from DHA and EPA supplements derived from microalgae. A supplement of 200-300 mg/day of DHA and EPA is suggested for those with increased needs, such as pregnant and lactating women, and those with reduced conversion ability, such as older people or those who have chronic disease (eg, diabetes).

  18. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (psheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  19. The Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Bu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, the major component of fish oil, have been found against oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. And the potential of n-3 PUFAs in stroke treatment is attracting more and more attention. In this review, we will review the effects of n-3 PUFAs on stroke and mainly focus on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  20. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  1. Assessment of essential fatty acid and omega 3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20 : 3 omega 9 (Mead acid), 22 : 5 omega 6/20 : 4 omega 6 and 22 : 5 omega 6/22 : 6 omega 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Martini, IA; Woltil, HA; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Early suspicion of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) or omega3-deficiency may rather focus on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or long-chain PUFA (LCP) analyses than clinical symptoms. We determined cut-off values for biochemical EFAD, omega3-and omega3/22:6omega3 [docosahexaenoic

  2. Oral omega-3 fatty acids promote resolution in chemical peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Alexander C; Phillips, Brett E; Chacon, Miranda A; Brunke-Reese, Deborah; Kelleher, Shannon L; Soybel, David I

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that purified omega-3 fatty acids may attenuate acute inflammation and hasten the transition to healing. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with omega-3-rich fish oil (FO) would promote resolution of peritoneal inflammation through production of specific lipid mediators. C57/BL6 mice were given a daily 200-μL oral gavage of saline (CTL) or FO (1.0-1.5 g/kg/d docosahexaenoic acid and 1.3-2.0 g/kg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) for 7 d before chemical peritonitis was induced with thioglycollate. Peritoneal lavage fluid was collected before induction and at days 2 and 4 after peritonitis onset. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), Resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the composition of immune cell populations were examined in peritoneal lavage exudates. Cells harvested from the peritoneum were assessed for macrophage differentiation markers, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine secretion profiles (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα). The ratio of RvD1 to pro-inflammatory PGE2 and LTB4 was increased in the peritoneal cavity of FO-supplemented animals. FO induced a decrease in the number of monocytes in the lavage fluid, with no change in the number of macrophages, neutrophils, or lymphocytes. Macrophage phagocytosis and M1/M2 messenger RNA markers were unchanged by FO with the exception of decreased PPARγ expression. FO increased ex vivo TNFα secretion after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our findings provide evidence that nutraceutically relevant doses of FO supplements given before and during chemical peritonitis shift the balance of lipid mediators towards a proresolution, anti-inflammatory state without drastically altering the number or phenotype of local innate immune cell populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Various Tissues of Different Persian Gulf Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaee Nezhad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Lu, Lei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Xianchi; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing dramatically especially in developing countries like India. CVD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a growing awareness of the role of nutrients in the prevention of CVD. One specific recommendation in the battle against CVD is the increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have reported inverse associations of CVD with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation might exert protective effects on CVD. They exert their cardioprotective effect through multiple mechanisms. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy has shown promise as a useful tool in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. This review briefly summarizes the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  6. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  7. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction a...

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction: The EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guallar, E.; Aro, A.; Jiménez, F.J.; Martín-Moreno, J.M.; Salminen, I.; Veer, P. van 't; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Gömez-Aracena, J.; Martin, B.C.; Kohlmeier, L.; Kark, J.D.; Mazaev, V.P.; Ringstad, J.; Guillén, J.; Riemersma, R.A.; Huttunen, J.K.; Thamm, M.; Kok, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have potential antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, and antiarrhythmic properties, but their role in coronary heart disease remains controversial. To evaluate the association of omega-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue with the risk of myocardial infarction in men, a case-control study

  10. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disea

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  12. Using Caenorhabditis elegans to Uncover Conserved Functions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer L

    2016-02-02

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model organism to study functions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The ability to alter fatty acid composition with genetic manipulation and dietary supplementation permits the dissection of the roles of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in many biological process including reproduction, aging and neurobiology. Studies in C. elegans to date have mostly identified overlapping functions of 20-carbon omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in reproduction and in neurons, however, specific roles for either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids are beginning to emerge. Recent findings with importance to human health include the identification of a conserved Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis pathway, critical functions for cytochrome P450 derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the requirements for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in sensory neurons, and the importance of fatty acid desaturation for long lifespan. Furthermore, the ability of C. elegans to interconvert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids using the FAT-1 omega-3 desaturase has been exploited in mammalian studies and biotechnology approaches to generate mammals capable of exogenous generation of omega-3 fatty acids.

  13. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...

  14. High Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in fat-1 Mice Reduce Inflammatory Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; Hong, Jinpyo; Hsu, Tzung Min; Chung, Woosuk; Ko, Youngkwon; Lee, Wonhyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Lee, Sun Yeul

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as α-linolenic and linoleic acids, are essential fatty acids in mammals, because they cannot be synthesized de novo. However, fat-1 transgenic mice can synthesize omega-3 PUFAs from omega-6 PUFAs without dietary supplementation of omega-3, leading to abundant omega-3 PUFA accumulation in various tissues. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice to investigate the role of omega-3 PUFAs in response to inflammatory pain. A high omega-3 PUFA tissue content attenuated formalin-induced pain sensitivity, microglial activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and the phosphorylation of NR2B, a subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Our findings suggest that elevated omega-3 PUFA levels inhibit NMDA receptor activity in the spinal dorsal horn and modulate inflammatory pain transmission by regulating signal transmission at the spinal dorsal horn, leading to the attenuation of chemically induced inflammatory pain.

  15. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  16. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014.

  17. Vitamin E supplementation modulates the biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids in naturally aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Kottekkat, Anagha; Mathew, Shaji E; Illam, Soorya P; Suseela, Indu M; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are well-known class of nutraceuticals with established health benefits. Recently, the oxidation products of these fatty acids are gaining attention, as they are likely to disturb body redox balance. Therefore, the efficacy of omega-3 fats under conditions of diminished antioxidant status, such as aging, is always a concern. Present study assessed the effects of omega-3 fats (DHA and EPA) together with or without vitamin-E in naturally aged rats. It was found that in omega-3 fats alone consumed rats the lipid profile was improved, while in omega-3 fat with vitamin-E-consumed group (OMVE), the hepato protective and antioxidant properties were pronounced, especially the redox status of brain tissue. It is possible that vitamin-E might have reduced the peroxidation of omega-3 fats, thereby allowing their synergistic effects. Hence, the use of vitamin-E along with omega-3 fat may be beneficial under aged conditions.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Lalit; Tongia, Sudheer K; Pal, Veerendra S; Agrawal, Rajendra P; Nyati, Prem; Phadnis, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Forced swimming test is used to induce a characteristic behavior of immobility in rats, which resembles depression in humans to some extent. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids alone as well as compared it with the standard antidepressant therapy with fluoxetine in both acute and chronic studies. In both the studies, rats were divided into 4 groups and subjected to the following drug interventions - Group 1- control: Group 2- fluoxetine in dose of 10 mg/kg subcutaneously 23.5, 5 and 1 h before the test: Group 3- omega-3 fatty acids in dose of 500 mg/kg orally; Group 4- fluoxetine plus omega-3 fatty acids both. In acute study, omega-3 fatty acids were given in single dose 2 h prior to the test while in chronic study omega-3 fatty acids were given daily for a period of 28 days. All animals were subjected to a 15-min pretest followed 24 h later by a 5-min test. A time sampling method was used to score the behavioral activity in each group. The results revealed that in acute study, omega-3 fatty acids do not have any significant effect in forced swimming test. However, in chronic study, omega-3 fatty acids affect the immobility and swimming behavior significantly when compared with control (p climbing behavior and the efficacy of combination of omega-3 fatty acids and fluoxetine is significantly more than that of fluoxetine alone in changing the behavioral activity of rats in forced swimming test. It leads to the conclusion that omega-3 fatty acids have antidepressant activity per se, and the combination of fluoxetine and omega-3 fatty acids has more antidepressant efficacy than fluoxetine alone in forced swimming test in Wistar rats.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To review the relation between dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) and non-communicable diseases. Method Data were collected from scientific journals and conference publications, MEDLINE (1979-2002) and current content which included 68 prospective, cross-sectional, case control and dietary-intervention studies. Scientific paper selections were based on the association between ω-3 PUFA and non-communicable diseases. Results ω-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain ω-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. ω-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. Conclusions Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Güttler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, Norbert; Zheleva, Kirila; Parahuleva, Mariana; Chasan, Ridvan; Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Burgazli, Mehmet; Niemann, Bernd; Erdogan, Ali; Böning, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23346457

  2. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2016-03-02

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  3. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  4. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  5. Omacor and omega-3 fatty acids for treatment of coronary artery disease and the pleiotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in fish oil and they have been shown to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized de novo and must be consumed from dietary sources such as marine fish. It reduces fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. It also has beneficial effects in mortality reduction after a myocardial infarction. Omacor is a highly potent form of Omega-3 fatty acids that lowers plasma triglycerides. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who are refractory to statins, it helps augment triglyceride reduction. Omacor also increases high-density lipoprotein and decreases low-density lipoprotein levels. It is well tolerated with minimal adverse effects and no known interactions causing rhabdomyolysis. In high doses, Omacor has pronounced cardiovascular benefits with improvement of triglycerides and various lipid parameters. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to have beneficial effects on arrhythmias, inflammation, and heart failure. It may also decrease platelet aggregation and induce vasodilation. Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and stabilize plaques preventing plaque rupture leading to acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids may have antioxidant properties that improve endothelial function and may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic benefits. In this review, we sought to provide the current literature on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and the potent formulation Omacor in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  6. Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Novel Neurotherapeutic Targets for Cognitive Dysfunction in Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöchel, Christian; Voss, Martin; Grüter, Florian; Alves, Gilberto S; Matura, Silke; Sepanski, Beate; Stäblein, Michael; Wenzler, Sofia; Prvulovic, David; Carvalho, André F; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidences from preclinical as well as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a potential beneficial role of dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids for cognitive functioning. In this narrative review, we will summarize and discuss recent findings from epidemiological, interventional and experimental studies linking dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids to cognitive function in healthy adults. Furthermore, affective disorders and schizophrenia (SZ) are characterized by cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains. Cognitive dysfunction is closely related to impaired functioning and quality of life across these conditions. Therefore, the current review focues on the potential influence of omega-3 fatty acids on cognition in SZ and affective disorders. In sum, current data predominantly from mechanistic models and animal studies suggest that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could lead to improved cognitive functioning in SZ and affective disorders. However, besides its translational promise, evidence for clinical benefits in humans has been mixed. Notwithstanding evidences indicate that adjunctive omega-3 fatty acids may have benefit for affective symptoms in both unipolar and bipolar depression, to date no randomized controlled trial had evaluated omega-3 as cognitive enhancer for mood disorders, while a single published controlled trial suggested no therapeutic benefit for cognitive improvement in SZ. Considering the pleiotropic mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids, the design of well-designed controlled trials of omega-3 supplementation as a novel, domain-specific, target for cognitive impairment in SZ and affective disorders is warranted.

  7. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (pomega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: A Case for Omega-3 Index as a New Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) found in fish and fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, EPA and DHA) have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. Ecological and prospective cohort studies as well as randomized, controlled trials have supported the view that the effects of these FAs are clinically-relevant. They operate via several mechanisms, all beginning with the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cell membranes. From here, these omega...

  9. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-09-07

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular diseases: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ongoing long-term CV interventional outcome studies investigate high-dose, prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids. The results are expected to clarify the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing CV risk. The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are also important. Future clinical trials should also focus on the role of these anti-inflammatory mediators in human arteriosclerotic diseases as well as inflammatory diseases.

  11. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, J A; Bibiloni, M M; Sureda, A; Pons, A

    2012-06-01

    Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.

  12. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Amritpal S; Putman, Charles T; Mazurak, Vera C

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids.

  13. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids...... with altered PUFA content and looked at the effects on circulating omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status as a measure of overall omega-3 status. Supplemental oral administration of omega-3 DHA or reduction of RUTF omega-6 linoleic acid using high oleic peanuts improved DHA status, whereas increasing omega......-3 alpha-linolenic acid in RUTF did not. The results of these two small studies are consistent with well-established effects in animal studies and highlight the need for basic and operational research to improve fat composition in support of omega-3-specific development in young children as RUTF use...

  14. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.

  15. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  16. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Georgios A.; Konstantinos A. Christou; Panagiotis Korantzopoulos; Rizos, Evangelos C.; Nikas, Dimitrios N.; Goudevenos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search...

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid fo...

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha, Gregory A.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlig...

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha, Gregory A.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid fo...

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Katherine M; Sallis, Hannah M; Perry, Rachel; Ness, Andrew R; Churchill, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly debilitating, difficult to treat, has a high rate of recurrence, and negatively impacts the individual and society as a whole. One emerging potential treatment for MDD is n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs), also known as omega-3 oils, naturally found in fatty fish, some other seafood, and some nuts and seeds. Various lines of evidence suggest a role for n-3PUFAs in MDD, but the evidence is far from conclusive. Reviews and meta-analyses clearly demonstrate heterogeneity between studies. Investigations of heterogeneity suggest differential effects of n-3PUFAs, depending on severity of depressive symptoms, where no effects of n-3PUFAs are found in studies of individuals with mild depressive symptomology, but possible benefit may be suggested in studies of individuals with more severe depressive symptomology. Objectives To assess the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids) versus a comparator (e.g. placebo, anti-depressant treatment, standard care, no treatment, wait-list control) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group’s Specialised Registers (CCDANCTR) and International Trial Registries over all years to May 2015. We searched the database CINAHL over all years of records to September 2013. Selection criteria We included studies in the review if they: were a randomised controlled trial; provided n-3PUFAs as an intervention; used a comparator; measured depressive symptomology as an outcome; and were conducted in adults with MDD. Primary outcomes were depressive symptomology (continuous data collected using a validated rating scale) and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptomology (dichotomous data on remission and response), quality of life, and failure to complete studies. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by

  1. Resveratrol and Omega 3 fatty acid: Its implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhuti B Kakoti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review aimed at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factor associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties has been proven to be a significantly protective compound in restoring the normal cardiac health. A plethora of research also demonstrated the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, and their complications by omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish and fish oils. This review describes the potential cardioprotective role of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids in ameliorating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress.

  2. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five st...

  4. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  5. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive development. Multiple micronutrient interventions have shown to benefit mental performance of children, but a systematic evaluation of the evidence is currently lacking. The omega-3 fatty acid, -li...

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids' supplementation in Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhada, Scheine; Castro, Kamila; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Luft, Vivian Cristine

    2017-05-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegeneration disorder characterized by progressive impairments of memory, language, reasoning, and other cognitive functions. Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may act as a possible protection factor in AD. To evaluate the results available in the literature involving omega-3 fatty acids supplementation and its effect on cognitive function in AD patients. A systematic review of MEDLINE (from PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted in original intervention studies, controlled by placebo, that assessed the impact of supplementation or dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function, in humans with AD, without limitation for prime date of publication. Initial search resulted in 361 articles. Seven studies fully met the inclusion criteria. Most studies did not find statistically significant results for the omega-3 fatty acids supplementation compared to placebo, and those who show some benefit do it only in a few cognitive assessment scales. However, the effects of omega-3 fatty acids appear to be most effectively demonstrated in patients with very mild AD. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in mild AD corroborate epidemiological observational studies showing that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in disease onset, when there is slight impairment of brain function. Although some studies have shown changes in scales of cognitive function in more severe cases, they are not enough to support omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in the treatment of AD.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Shinto

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic disabling disease in the central nervous system in young to middle aged adults. Depression is common in multiple sclerosis (MS affecting between 50–60% of patients. Pilot studies in unipolar depression report an improvement in depression when omega-3 fatty acids are given with antidepressants. The objective of this study was to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, as an augmentation therapy, improves treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD in people with MS. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids at six grams per day over three months. The primary outcome was a 50% or greater improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. Thirty-nine participants were randomized and thirty-one completed the 3-month intervention. Improvement on MADRS between groups was not significantly different at the 3-month end point with 47.4% in the omega-3 fatty acid group and 45.5% in the placebo group showing 50% or greater improvement (p = 0.30. Omega-3 fatty acids as an augmentation therapy for treatment-resistant depression in MS was not significantly different than placebo in this pilot trial. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation at the dose given was well-tolerated over 3 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122954.

  9. Bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has caused greater attention about dietary intake of these fatty acids. Fatty fish is the major dietary source of these fatty acids. Because of the low intake of fish at many places, foods...... enriched with omega-3 LCPUFA can be good alternatives to improve the intake of these fatty acids. Effects of lipid structures and food matrices on bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA have been investigated. Short term studies showed that both lipid structure and food matrix affect the bioavailability...... of these fatty acids, whereas diverse results have been reported from long-term studies. Therefore more studies are encouraged to clarify the long-term effects....

  10. A computational search for lipases that can preferentially hydrolyze long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Barrow, Colin J; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2015-04-15

    Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is known to decrease the risk of major cardiovascular events. Lipases, a class of triacylglycerol hydrolases, have been extensively tested to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils, under mild enzymatic conditions. However, no lipases with preference for omega-3 fatty acids selectivity have yet been discovered or developed. In this study we performed an exhaustive computational study of substrate-lipase interactions by docking, both covalent and non-covalent, for 38 lipases with a large number of structured triacylglycerols containing omega-3 fatty acids. We identified some lipases that have potential to preferentially hydrolyze omega-3 fatty acids from structured triacylglycerols. However omega-3 fatty acid preferences were found to be modest. Our study provides an explanation for absence of reports of lipases with omega-3 fatty acid hydrolyzing ability and suggests methods for developing these selective lipases.

  11. Enrichment of foods with omega-3 fatty acids: A multidisciplinary challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Enrichment of foods with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) poses a multidisciplinary challenge to food industry and academia. Although our knowledge about possible health effects of omega-3 PUFA has increased tremendously during the last 30 years, there is still a lot to be learned...... about these healthy fatty acids. Moreover, consumer acceptance and lipid oxidation of omega-3 PUFA-enriched food are other major challenges that the food industry meet when developing omega-3-enriched foods. Two examples on multidisciplinary research projects to overcome some of these challenges...... are given in this article together with cases studies illustrating how lipid oxidation can be prevented in a range of different omega-3-enriched foods....

  12. Biotechnological production and applications of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, L.; Swaaf, de M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid composed of 22 carbon atoms and six double bonds. Because the first double bond, as counted from the methyl terminus, is at position three, DHA belongs to the so-called omega-3 group. In recent years, DHA has attracted much attention because

  13. Role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of patients with major depression disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rising number of studies have raised questions regarding the association of mental illness in a particular mood disorders such as depression with low intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Given all the side-effects that traditional antidepressants put patients at risk for, omega-3 is certainly a better alternative that might improve depressive symptoms and patient′s compliance to treatment by removing the stigma of psychiatric drugs. This study critically reviewed 12 relevant studies from PubMed published between 1992 - 2013 in order to determine whether omega-3 supplements or diet rich in fish were likely to show affectivity in reducing depressive symptoms. Most of the studies showed clear association between omega-3 and reduced depressive symptoms. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 and high fish consumption in reducing depression. Omega-3 fatty acids have also shown to be safe when used during pregnancy to prevent postpartum depression. Although some studies showed mixed results of positive findings, the use of omega-3 supplements could not be an absolute substitute of antidepressants due to limitation in their studies. Minority of the studies reviewed did not correlate omega-3 with the improvement of depressive symptoms for many reasons such as the healthy life-style of subjects, etc. Given the fact that depression has various causes, this puts the testing of omega-3 in a lot of bias due to several variables such as dose, formula, period administered as well as the candidates′ state of health. Further research is definitely warranted on a larger sample size with close follow-up using proper assessment tools. Omega-3 has shown to have minimal or no side-effects at all, which makes it important for mental health professional to at least ensure that patients diagnosed with depression have adequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids whether by supplementation or in their daily diet.

  14. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), Pomega-3 supplementation alone (-1.09μmol/L 95%CI: (-2.04, -0.13), P=.03). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation was associated with a modest reduction in homocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone.

  15. Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P

    1991-09-01

    Several sources of information suggest that man evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids of approximately 1 whereas today this ratio is approximately 10:1 to 20-25:1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in omega 3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Omega-3 fatty acids increase bleeding time; decrease platelet aggregation, blood viscosity, and fibrinogen; and increase erythrocyte deformability, thus decreasing the tendency to thrombus formation. In no clinical trial, including coronary artery graft surgery, has there been any evidence of increased blood loss due to ingestion of omega 3 fatty acids. Many studies show that the effects of omega 3 fatty acids on serum lipids depend on the type of patient and whether the amount of saturated fatty acids in the diet is held constant. In patients with hyperlipidemia, omega 3 fatty acids decrease low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol if the saturated fatty acid content is decreased, otherwise there is a slight increase, but at high doses (32 g) they lower LDL cholesterol; furthermore, they consistently lower serum triglycerides in normal subjects and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia whereas the effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) varies from no effect to slight increases. The discrepancies between animal and human studies most likely are due to differences between animal and human metabolism. In clinical trials eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the form of fish oils along with antirheumatic drugs improve joint pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; have a beneficial effect in patients with ulcerative colitis; and in combination with drugs, improve the skin lesions, lower the hyperlipidemia from etretinates, and decrease the toxicity of cyclosporin in patients with psoriasis. In various animal models omega 3 fatty acids decrease the number and size of tumors and increase the time

  17. Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Christophe, A; Delanghe, J; Altamura, C; Neels, H; Meltzer, H Y

    1999-03-22

    Depression is associated with a lowered degree of esterification of serum cholesterol, an increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 ratio and decreases in omega3 fractions in fatty acids (FAs) or in the red blood cell membrane. The aims of the present study were to examine: (i) serum phospholipid and cholesteryl ester compositions of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in major depressed patients vs. healthy volunteers; (ii) the relationships between the above FAs and lowered serum zinc (Zn), a marker of the inflammatory response in depression; and (iii) the effects of subchronic treatment with antidepressants on FAs in depression. The composition of the FAs was determined by means of thin layer chromatography in conjunction with gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations were assayed by enzymatic colorimetric methods. The oxidative potential index (OPI) of FAs was computed in 34 major depressed inpatients and 14 normal volunteers. Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI. In depression, there were significant and positive correlations between serum Zn and C20:5omega3 and C22:6omega3 fractions in phospholipids; and significant inverse correlations between serum Zn and the sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3, C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3, and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios in phospholipids. There was no significant effect of antidepressive treatment on any of the FAs. The results show that, in major depression, there is a deficiency of omega3 PUFAs and a compensatory increase in MUFAs and C22:5omega6 in

  18. Interaction Effect of 8-Week Aerobic Exercise and Omega-3 Fatty Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khedri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific evidence indicates the impact of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids - both –are for the improvement of the cardiovascular system .The purpose of this research was about studies interaction effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and omega- 3 fatty acids supplementation on plasma adiponectin concentration of elderly men.Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 male non-athletes aged were between 50 to 70 year age range of men aged the city of Genaveh. Statistical sample of 36 male non- athletes in the age range 50 to 70 years old randomly selected in four groups of nine persons, respectively, the first group: exercise supplemental omega-3, Group II: Exercise placebo group: supplementation with omega-3 groups quarter: placebo. Endurance exercise training program includes 24 sessions and 3 sessions per week, with duration and intensity was determined. (55-70% HRmax. Daily supplements of omega-3 fatty acids were 2 Capsule. Blood samples were taken after fasting 14 hours before the study and 48 hours after the last training session was conducted. The data Kolmogrov-Smirnov, t-test, One-Way Anova at significance level of p≤ 0.05 were analyzed in SPSS 17. Results: The results of research after 8 weeks showed that moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation, only increased in the exercise + omega-3 fatty acids group (7.8% that could not created a significant increase in plasma adiponectin concentration groups. Also in final of research did not show a significant difference between groups in compare after 8 weeks. Conclusion: The results showed that by aerobic exercise and use of omega-3 fatty acids and increase amounts of adiponectin and its anti boil property, perhaps maybe that, adiponectin by effect of its preservation has a great role in prevention and reduce of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Damitha De Mel; Cenk Suphioglu

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA...

  20. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms to produce omega-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Hu, Chuanjiong; Hu, Hanhua; Huang, Fenghong

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have received growing attention due to their significant roles in human health. Currently the main source of these nutritionally and medically important fatty acids is marine fish, which has not met ever-increasing global demand. Microorganisms are an important alternative source also being explored. Although many microorganisms accumulate omega-3 LC-PUFAs naturally, metabolic engineering might still be necessary for significantly improving their yields. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of microorganisms for production of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, including eicospentaenoic acid and docosohexaenoic acid. Both reconstitution of omega-3 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways and modification of existing pathways in microorganisms have demonstrated the potential to produce high levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the yields of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in host systems have been substantially limited by potential metabolic bottlenecks, which might be caused partly by inefficient flux of fatty acid intermediates between the acyl-CoA and different lipid class pools. Although fatty acid flux in both native and heterologous microbial hosts might be controlled by several acyltransferases, evidence has suggested that genetic manipulation of one acyltransferase alone could significantly increase the accumulation of LC-PUFAs. The number of oleaginous microorganisms that can be genetically transformed is increasing, which will advance engineering efforts to maximize LC-PUFA yields in microbial strains.

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids, gestation and pregnancy outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larqué, Elvira; Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Prieto-Sánchez, María Teresa; Koletzko, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    .... Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus...

  2. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids accelerate airway repair by activating FFA4 in club cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Park, Soo-Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Koh, Jung-Min; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-03-17

    A GPCR named FFA4 (also known as GPR120) was found to act as a GPCR for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its expression has been reported in lung epithelial club cells. The authors investigated whether supplementation of the omega-3 fatty acids benefits lung health. Omacor® (7.75 mg kg-1), clinically prescribed preparation of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4-knockout mice were utilized in a naphthalene-induced mouse model of acute airway injury (one injection of 30 mg kg-1, i.p.). Naphthalene injection induced complete destruction of bronchiolar epithelial cells within a day. Appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed after 21 days in control mice. It was found, however, that supplementation of omacor accelerated the recovery. The appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed between 7 and 14 days after naphthalene injury in omacor-treated mice. In isolated club cells, omega-3 fatty acids were found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration but to inhibit cell differentiation. Using pharmacological tools and FFA4-knockout mice, FFA4 was found to be responsible for omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation in vitro in club cells. Furthermore, accelerated recovery from naphthalene-induced airway injury in omacor-treated mice was not observed in FFA4-knockout mice in vivo. Present findings indicate that omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation of bronchiole epithelial cells through FFA4 is responsible for omacor-induced accelerated recovery from airway injury. Therefore, intermittent administration of omacor needs to be tested for acute airway injury, because omega-3 fatty acids stimulate proliferation but inhibits differentiation of club cells.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids moderate effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Regina L; Manuck, Stephen B; Bhattacharjee, Neha; Muldoon, Matthew F; Flory, Janine M; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-07-01

    Greater amounts of physical activity (PA) and omega-3 fatty acids have both been independently associated with better cognitive performance. Because of the overlapping biological effects of omega-3 fatty acids and PA, fatty acid intake may modify the effects of PA on neurocognitive function. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining whether the ratio of serum omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid levels would moderate the association between PA and executive and memory functions in 344 participants (Mean age=44.42 years, SD=6.72). The Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), serum fatty acid levels, and performance on a standard neuropsychological battery were acquired on all subjects. A principal component analysis reduced the number of cognitive outcomes to three factors: n-back working memory, Trail Making test, and Logical Memory. We found a significant interaction between PA and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid serum levels on Trail Making performance and n-back performance, such that higher amounts of omega-3 levels offset the deleterious effects of lower amounts of PA. These effects remained significant in a subsample (n=299) controlling for overall dietary fat consumption. There were no significant additive or multiplicative benefits of higher amounts of both omega-3 and PA on cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids might mitigate the effect of lower levels of PA on cognitive performance. This study illuminates the importance of understanding dietary and PA factors in tandem when exploring their effects on neurocognitive health.

  4. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supply in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold

    2008-05-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the developing fetus. Docosahexaenoic acid, the most important omega-3 fatty acid, is an important component of neural and retinal membranes, and rapidly accumulates in the brain during gestation and the postnatal period. Positive associations have been shown between maternal intake of fish, seafood and omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation and visual and cognitive development. The review focuses on new findings by both observational and interventional studies on the influence of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy or lactation on gestation length and birth weight, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, maternal depression and infant visual function and neural development. Omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. Observational and interventional studies indicate a significant association with prolonging gestation and reducing the risk of preterm delivery both in low-risk and in high-risk pregnancies. Further benefits have been suggested for intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and postpartum depression, but the evidence is inconclusive. Higher maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake both in pregnancy and lactation is associated with positive infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. Women of reproductive age should achieve an average dietary docosahexaenoic acid intake of at least 200 mg/day.

  5. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aggression: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Jamie M; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are important for a variety of mental health outcomes and have been shown to improve both mood and behaviors. However, there is little consensus on whether omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for reducing aggressive behaviors. The current study assesses the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and aggression. A total of 73 effect sizes were calculated among 40 studies involving 7173 participants from both intervention and observational research designs. Effect sizes were separately meta-analyzed for two-group comparison studies (SMD=0.20), pre-post contrast studies (ESsg=0.62), and associational studies (r=-0.06), in the fixed-effect model. Results from the random-effects model also suggest a range of effects of omega-3 fatty acids on reducing aggression (SMD=0.24; ESsg=0.82; r=-0.09). Patterns in the relationship between omega-3s and aggression were additionally observed. Moderator analyses indicated that the effect of omega-3s on aggression is conditioned by how aggressive behaviors are measured, such as through self-report or parent/teacher surveys.

  6. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzatello, Paola; Brignolo, Elena; De Grandi, Elisa; Bellino, Silvio

    2016-07-27

    A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.

  7. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bozzatello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.

  8. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  9. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  10. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cognitive function: are smaller dosages more beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakari AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdul-Razak Abubakari,1 Mohammad-Mahdi Naderali,2 Ebrahim K Naderali3 1School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, UK; 2Blue Coat School, Liverpool, UK; 3School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park Campus, Liverpool, UK Abstract: As longevity increases, so does the global prevalence of cognitive dysfunction. Numerous lifestyle and/or dietary interventions such as omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested to improve memory. Therefore, this study examined the consistency and strength of the impact of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids on overall cognitive function using systematic reviews and meta-analytic methods. Of 905 studies retrieved from all searches, 12 randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were differences between studies reporting outcomes for single memory function parameters. Subgroup analysis of doses used (low versus high indicated that subjects receiving low (<1.73 g/day doses of omega-3 fatty acids had a significant reduction in cognitive decline rate (-0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.01, -0.02 but there was no evidence for beneficial effects at higher doses (+0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.06, +0.14 compared with the placebo group. This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be beneficial in preventing memory decline at lower doses. Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, dietary fatty acids, omega-3, docosahexaenoic acid

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Jicha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gregory A Jicha, William R MarkesberyUniversity of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center and the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAbstract: Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA, the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, clinical studies, treatment

  13. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  14. Internet-based, randomized, controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for hyperactivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Hendren, Robert L; Zandi, Tara; Law, Kiely; Choi, Jae-Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Kalb, Luther; Nestle, Jay; Law, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We sought to examine the feasibility of a novel, Internet-based clinical trial design to evaluate the efficacy of this supplement. E-mail invitations were sent to parents of children aged 5 to 8 years enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network. All study procedures, including screening, informed consent, and collection of outcome measures took place over the Internet. The primary outcome measures were parent- and teacher-rated changes in hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-H). During the 6-week recruitment period, 57 children from 28 states satisfied all eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to 1.3 grams of omega-3 fatty acids or an identical placebo daily for 6 weeks. Outcome assessments were obtained from all 57 participants and 57 teachers, and the study was completed in 3 months. Children in the omega-3 fatty acid group had a greater reduction in hyperactivity (-5.3 points) compared to the placebo group (-2.6 points), but the difference was not statistically significant (1.9-point greater improvement in the omega-3 group, 95% CI = -2.2 to 5.2). Adverse events were rare and not associated with omega-3 fatty acids. Participant feedback was positive. Internet-based, randomized controlled trials of therapies in children with ASD are feasible and may lead to marked reductions in the time and cost of completing trials. A larger sample size is required to definitively determine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. Clinical trial registration information-Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Hyperactivity Treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01694667. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary omega-3 Fatty acids and psychiatry: mood, behaviour, stress, depression, dementia and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2005-01-01

    In view of the high omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is evident that these fats are involved in brain biochemistry, physiology and functioning; and thus in some neuropsychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Though omega-3 fatty acids (from fatty fish in the human diet) appear effective in the prevention of stress, their role as regulator of mood and of libido is a matter for discussion pending experimental proof in animal and human models. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression, as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their direct role in major depression, bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease) and schizophrenia is not yet established. Their deficiency can prevent the renewal of membranes, and thus accelerate cerebral ageing; none the less, the respective roles of the vascular component on one hand (where the omega-3's are active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself on the other, have not yet been clearly resolved. The role of omega-3 in certain diseases such as dyslexia and autism is suggested. In fact, omega-3 fatty acids participated in the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out one x-vivo cultured brain cells (1), then on in vivo brain cells(2), finally on physiochemical, biochemical, physiological, neurosensory, and behavioural parameters (3). These findings indicated that the nature of poly unsaturated fatty acids(in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (both premature and term) determines the visual, cerebral,and intellectual abilities, as described in a recent review (4). Indeed,the insufficient dietary supply of omega-3 fatty acids in today's French and occidental diet raises the problem of how to correct dietary habits so that the consumer will select foods that are genuinely

  16. Mitigation of hepatotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide through omega-3 fatty acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Varghese V; Paul, Mv Sauganth; Abhilash, M; Manju, Alex; Abhilash, S; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an effective drug in the treatment of leukaemia and many solid tumours. In clinical trials, arsenic therapy is closely associated with hepatic toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. A 4 mg/kg body weight (bw) of As(2)O(3) was orally administered to Wistar male rats for 45 days. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical tests, antioxidant assays and histopathological examinations. Arsenic accumulation was found in the liver tissue of rats treated with As(2)O(3). Hepatoprotective efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid was analysed by the combination therapy with As(2)O(3). In vivo studies revealed a significant rise in lipid peroxidation with concomitant decline in reduced glutathione, glutathione-dependant antioxidant enzymes and antiperoxidative enzymes in the liver tissue of rats treated with arsenic. The supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw with As(2)O(3) offers ameliorative effect against hepatocellular toxicity. Omega-3 fatty acid maintained hepatic marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation. The combination treatment clearly reduced the hepatic structural abnormalities such as haemorrhage, necrosis and cholangiofibrosis in the rats treated with arsenic. This study concludes that the omega-3 fatty acid might be useful for the protection against As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2012.

  17. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention a...

  18. The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for behaviour, cognition and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Alexandra J.

    2003-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that functional deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) of the omega-3 and omega-6 series may contribute to a wide range of developmental and psychiatric conditions, including dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, depression, bipolar disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum. These nutrients are essential to the development and function of the brain, but the omega-3 HUFA in particular (eicosap...

  19. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  20. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipa...

  1. The Multifaceted Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Hallmarks of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Stephenson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to have multiple beneficial antitumour actions that affect the essential alterations that dictate malignant growth. In this review we explore the putative mechanisms of action of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in cancer protection in relation to self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion, and how these will hopefully translate from bench to bedside.

  2. Genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru from lombok strait with fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrus; Sumitro, Sutiman Bambang; Utomo, Didik Huswo; Sartimbul, Aida; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Widodo, Nashi

    2012-01-01

    Lombok Strait has abundance of Sardine, Sardinella lemuru, which contains such high amount of omega-3 fatty acid (omega-3). However, the genetic relationship of S. lemuru with other commercial fish rich in omega-3 has not been widely studied yet. Studies on genetic proximity of S. lemuru with the other marine fish using 12S rRNA gene is very important in order to obtain genetic information of the Sardine to develop an appropriate strategy for future conservation of the fish in Lombok Strait. The aim of this study was to find out the genetic relationship of Sardinella lemuru living in Lombok Strait with the economically valuable fish and its correlation with omega-3 production. Sardinella lemuru were collected from Lombok Strait, the phylogenetic tree was done based on 12S rRNA gene through a neighbor-joining method to identify the relationship of Sardines and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acid. The phylogenetic tree showed that Sardinella lemuru is similar to Sardinella aurita and has a close similarity with Sardinella maderensis. However, the relationship did not correspond to omega-3 production. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that the production of omega-3 is not specifically based on the proximity of the species, but it is more associated with conserved domain of Δ6-desaturase. Nevertheless, detailed mechanisms still need to be elucidated.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.

  4. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n-3 fatty acids might be of benefit include obesity, Crohn's disease, ... and Child Health Foundation ..... http://www.sacn.gov.uk/pdfs/fics_sacn_advice_fish.pdf. 7. ... of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on ...

  5. Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest exists in the potential therapeutic value of dietary supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acids. Given the interplay between pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, and the less pro-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, it has been thought that the latter could play a key role in treating or preventing asthma. The purpose was to systematically review the scientific-medical literature in order to identify, appraise, and synthesize the evidence for possible treatment effects of omega-3 fatty acids in asthma. Methods Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Health, and, Dissertation Abstracts were searched to April 2003. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's of subjects of any age that used any foods or extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids as treatment or prevention for asthma. Data included all asthma related outcomes, potential covariates, characteristics of the study, design, population, intervention/exposure, comparators, and co interventions. Results Ten RCT's were found pertinent to the present report. Conclusion Given the largely inconsistent picture within and across respiratory outcomes, it is impossible to determine whether or not omega-3 fatty acids are an efficacious adjuvant or monotherapy for children or adults. Based on this systematic review we recommend a large randomized controlled study of the effects of high-dose encapsulated omega-3 fatty acids on ventilatory and inflammatory measures of asthma controlling diet and other asthma risk factors. This review was limited because Meta-analysis was considered inappropriate due to missing data; poorly or heterogeneously defined populations, interventions, intervention-comparator combinations, and outcomes. In addition, small sample sizes made it impossible to meaningfully assess the impact on clinical outcomes of co-variables. Last, few significant effects were found.

  6. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on orexigenic and anorexigenic modulators at the onset of anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo J B; Romanova, Irina V; Suzuki, Susumu; Chen, Chung; Ugrumov, Michael V; Sato, Tomoi; Goncalves, Carolina G; Meguid, Michael M

    2005-06-07

    In cancer anorexia, a decrease in food intake (FI) occurs concomitant with changes in orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic peptides such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and anorexigenic neurotransmitter serotonin. omega-3 Fatty acid (omega-3FA) inhibits cytokine synthesis, and delays tumor appearance, tumor growth, and onset of anorexia in tumor-bearing rats. We hypothesize that, in cancer anorexia, omega-3FA is associated with quantitative reversal of hypothalamic NPY, alpha-MSH, and serotonin receptor (5-HT(1B)-receptor) enhancing FI. Fischer rats were divided into: MCA tumor bearing fed chow (TB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (TB-omega-3FA) and controls: non-tumor bearing fed chow (NTB-Chow) or omega-3FA diet (NTB-omega-3FA). Rats were euthanized at anorexia and brains were removed for hypothalamic immunohistochemical study, using NPY, alpha-MSH, and 5-HT(1B)-receptor-specific antibodies and slides assessed by image analysis. Immunostaining specificity was controlled by omission of primary or secondary antibodies and pre-absorption test. At anorexia, FI decreased (P anorexia, concomitant with an increase in FI, were probably mediated by omega-3FA inhibition of tumor-induced cytokines.

  7. Comparative analysis of the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for hypertriglyceridaemia management in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Kim, H; Jeong, Y J; Yang, S J; Baik, S J; Lee, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Choi, I-Y; Yim, H W; Yoon, K-H

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the ability of statin monotherapy (ST group), omega-3 fatty acid monotherapy (OM_A group) and combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin (OM_S group), to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the electronic medical records of patients initially prescribed either a statin or omega-3 fatty acids between January, 2009 and December, 2013. We performed a comparative analysis of the change in cholesterol levels between baseline and an average of 3 months later. Data were extracted for 2071 patients. The average daily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester intake was 1689 mg, and 79-86% of the OM_A and OM_S groups were prescribed two omega-3 fatty acid capsules. At a baseline TG level of between 200 and 500 mg/dL, TG levels were reduced by 16 ± 2·8% in the ST group, 28 ± 2·8% in the OM_A group and 29 ± 2·3% in the OM_S group (P = 0·001 for ST group vs. OM_A and OM_S groups), with no difference between the OM_A and OM_S groups. At a baseline TG level ≥500 mg/dL, there was no difference in TG level reduction between the three groups (54 ± 7·3%, 55·8 ± 3·5% and 51·8 ± 6·8%, respectively, P = 0·851). Although omega-3 fatty acids are not considered the primary medication for hypertriglyceridaemia, the prescription of omega-3 fatty acids is justifiable if reduction in TG levels is judged to be necessary. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw

    2016-03-07

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Danielle; Block, Robert; Mousa, Shaker A

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 [(n-3)] fatty acids have been linked to healthy aging throughout life. Recently, fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have been associated with fetal development, cardiovascular function, and Alzheimer's disease. However, because our bodies do not efficiently produce some omega-3 fatty acids from marine sources, it is necessary to obtain adequate amounts through fish and fish-oil products. Studies have shown that EPA and DHA are important for proper fetal development, including neuronal, retinal, and immune function. EPA and DHA may affect many aspects of cardiovascular function including inflammation, peripheral artery disease, major coronary events, and anticoagulation. EPA and DHA have been linked to promising results in prevention, weight management, and cognitive function in those with very mild Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Fish Oil Microencapsulation as Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fortification Material for Cream of Crab Soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiara Putri Pramesti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in improvement of intelligent and health of human. Microencapsulation of fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids is an effort to maintain flavor, aroma, stability, and also to successfully transfer bioactive component from the fish oil as fortification material for foods or medicines. Improvement of instant crab cream soup enriched with fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acid has never been conducted before. The purpose of this research was to improve microencapsulation method for fish oil as source of omega-3 fatty acids as fortification material for instant cream of crab soup. Microencapsulation methods in this research are homogenization and spray drying. The results showed that the best microcapsule was obtained from homogenization treatment for 10 minutes with efficiency of 90.41±0.64%. The shape of the obtained microcapsule was spherical with average size of 6.52 μm, with induction time up to 26.09±0.01 hours. The best cream of crab soup formula was at fish oil microcapsule concentration of 3.30%, with 8.19% daily value of omega-3, inclusion 11.32% of EPA and DHA at serving size of 17.56 gram.

  11. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid production from enzyme saccharified hemp hydrolysate using a novel marine thraustochytrid strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Adarsha; Abraham, Reinu E; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly isolated marine thraustochytrid strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3, was used for omega-3 fatty acid production by growing on lignocellulose biomass obtained from local hemp hurd (Cannabis sativa) biomass. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, hemp was pretreated with sodium hydroxide to open the biomass structure for the production of sugar hydrolysate. The thraustochytrid strain was able to grow on the sugar hydrolysate and accumulated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). At the lowest carbon concentration of 2%, the PUFAs productivity was 71% in glucose and 59% in the sugars hydrolysate, as a percentage of total fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) levels were highest at about 49% of TFA using 6% glucose as the carbon source. SFAs of 41% were produced using 2% of SH. This study demonstrates that SH produced from lignocellulose biomass is a potentially useful carbon source for the production of omega-3 fatty acids in thraustochytrids, as demonstrated using the new strain, Schizochytrium sp. DT3.

  13. Coincidence of remission of postpartum Graves' disease and use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breese McCoy Sarah J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I developed Graves' Disease four months postpartum. After one year on propylthiouracil, I learned that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce inflammation associated with certain autoimmune disorders, although no investigations for thyroiditis have been reported. Within eight weeks of beginning flaxseed oil supplements, TSH levels normalized, but fell somewhat when flaxseed was decreased and PTU discontinued. During another pregnancy, plasma TSH normalized, but was again suppressed by four weeks postpartum, then undetectable by four months. This time, flaxseed supplementation alone coincided with TSH normalization. Omega-3 fatty acids should be investigated as a potential treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease.

  14. Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids: molecular bases of potential antioxidant actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Elena; Visioli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of investigation are being developed to assess the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely those of the omega 3 series, intake on oxidative stress. Keeping in mind that there might be a dose-response relation, in vivo and in vitro data strongly suggest that omega 3 fatty acids might act as anti- rather than pro-oxidant in several cells such as vascular cells, hence diminishing inflammation, oxidative stress, and, in turn, the risk of atherosclerosis and degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. THE USE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Malygin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antiarrhythmic effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias had been proven. The positive effect of the ω-3 PUFA on the risk of sudden arrhythmic death and overall mortality in the patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure had been also proven.

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: Pooling project of 19 cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. This study sought to evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid ...

  17. Effects of microencapsulation on bioavailability of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Yang, Mingshi; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulatio...... are equally efficient for providing these essential fatty acids as fish oil in long-term applications.......Increased research interest in the health benefits of fish oils and the wide publicity of these studies have led to the marketing and launch of a wide array of new and traditional food and beverage products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. This chapter focuses on the impact of microencapsulation...... and other factors on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils. To help understand the impact of microencapsulation on bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids, it presents a brief overview of encapsulation techniques and excipients used. Microencapsulation of fish oil improves its chemical...

  18. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids, lipid rafts, and T cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-08-15

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been shown in many clinical studies to attenuate inflammatory responses. Although inflammatory responses are orchestrated by a wide spectrum of cells, CD4(+) T cells play an important role in the etiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and obesity. In light of recent concerns over the safety profiles of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), alternatives such as bioactive nutraceuticals are becoming more attractive. In order for these agents to be accepted into mainstream medicine, however, the mechanisms by which nutraceuticals such as n-3 PUFA exert their anti-inflammatory effects must be fully elucidated. Lipid rafts are nanoscale, dynamic domains in the plasma membrane that are formed through favorable lipid-lipid (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated fatty acids) and lipid-protein (membrane-actin cytoskeleton) interactions. These domains optimize the clustering of signaling proteins at the membrane to facilitate efficient cell signaling which is required for CD4(+) T cell activation and differentiation. This review summarizes novel emerging data documenting the ability of n-3 PUFA to perturb membrane-cytoskeletal structure and function in CD4(+) T cells. An understanding of these underlying mechanisms will provide a rationale for the use of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of chronic inflammation.

  20. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.

  1. Fortification of foods with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important

  2. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Miyata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  3. Role of omega-3 fatty acids and their metabolites in asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Jun; Arita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are found naturally in fish oil and are commonly thought to be anti-inflammatory nutrients, with protective effects in inflammatory diseases including asthma and allergies. The mechanisms of these effects remain mostly unknown but are of great interest for their potential therapeutic applications. Large numbers of epidemiological and observational studies investigating the effect of fish intake or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adulthood on asthmatic and allergic outcomes have been conducted. They mostly indicate protective effects and suggest a causal relationship between decreased intake of fish oil in modernized diets and an increasing number of individuals with asthma or other allergic diseases. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM: protectins, resolvins, and maresins) are generated from omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA via several enzymatic reactions. These mediators counter-regulate airway eosinophilic inflammation and promote the resolution of inflammation in vivo. Several reports have indicated that the biosynthesis of SPM is impaired, especially in severe asthma, which suggests that chronic inflammation in the lung might result from a resolution defect. This article focuses on the beneficial aspects of omega-3 fatty acids and offers recent insights into their bioactive metabolites including resolvins and protectins.

  4. Exposure to omega-3 fatty acids at early age accelerate bone growth and improve bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Netta; Simsa-Maziel, Stav; Shahar, Ron; Schwartz, Betty; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are essential nutritional components that must be obtained from foods. Increasing evidence validate that omega-3 FAs are beneficial for bone health, and several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate their effects on bone, including alterations in calcium absorption and urinary calcium loss, prostaglandin synthesis, lipid oxidation, osteoblast formation and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. However, to date, there is scant information regarding the effect of omega-3 FAs on the developing skeleton during the rapid growth phase. In this study we aim to evaluate the effect of exposure to high levels of omega-3 FAs on bone development and quality during prenatal and early postnatal period. For this purpose, we used the fat-1 transgenic mice that have the ability to convert omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the ATDC5 chondrogenic cell line as models. We show that exposure to high concentrations of omega-3 FAs at a young age accelerates bone growth through alterations of the growth plate, associated with increased chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We further propose that those effects are mediated by the receptors G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and hepatic nuclear factor 4α, which are expressed by chondrocytes in culture. Additionally, using a combined study on the structural and mechanical bone parameters, we show that high omega-3 levels contribute to superior trabecular and cortical structure, as well as to stiffer bones and improved bone quality. Most interestingly, the fat-1 model allowed us to demonstrate the role of maternal high omega-3 concentration on bone growth during the gestation and postnatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Proposed profile of omega 3 fatty acids in enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz París, A; Marí Sanchis, A; García Malpartida, K; García Gómez, M C

    2012-01-01

    We review the international recommendations on oral intake of n-3 fatty acids and their content in the enteral nutrition formulas. Their metabolic actions depend on their metabolization to EPA and DHA. The activity of desaturases catalyzing this process increases with exercise, insulin, estrogens in the fertile women, and peroxisomal proliferators, whereas it decreases with fasting, protein and oligoelements deficiencies, age < 30 years, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, trans and saturated fatty acids, insulin deficiency, and stress hormones (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). Most of the guidelines recommend that 20-35% of the total energy comes from fat, being 7-10% saturated fats, 6-10% polyunsaturated, and 20% monounsaturated, in Spain. The recommendation for n-3 FA is 0.5-2 g/day or 0.5-2% of total caloric intake, with an upper limit of 3 g/day. For n-6 FA, 2.5-10% of total caloric intake, the n-6/n-3 ratio not being well established although most of the guidelines recommend 5:1. The EPA and DHA content should be at least 500 mg per day. Finally, the EPA/DHA ratio is 2:1 in most of them. Standard nutrition formulas present an appropriate fat content, although most of the products containing EPA and DHA exceed the limit of 3 g/day. Among the products with hyperprotein and/or concentrated, only of them contains EPA y DHA. Not all the formulas used for the frail elderly contain EPA or DHA, and in those containing them their concentration may be excessive and with a proportion very dissimilar to that of fish oil.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids: potential role in the management of early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, Gregory A; Markesbery, William R

    2010-04-07

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for brain growth and development. They play an important role throughout life, as critical modulators of neuronal function and regulation of oxidative stress mechanisms, in brain health and disease. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the major omega-3 fatty acid found in neurons, has taken on a central role as a target for therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A plethora of in vitro, animal model, and human data, gathered over the past decade, highlight the important role DHA may play in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including AD. Cross sectional and prospective cohort data have demonstrated that reduced dietary intake or low brain levels of DHA are associated with accelerated cognitive decline or the development of incipient dementia, including AD. Several clinical trials investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in AD have been completed and all failed to demonstrate its efficacy in the treatment of AD. However, these trials produced intriguing data suggesting that the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may depend on the stage of disease, other dietary mediators, and apolipoprotein E status.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Akadiri Yessoufou; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Adam Gbankoto; Yohana Mashalla; Kabirou Moutairou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...

  8. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the pathophysiology of depression has emerged from the observation that depressed patients had decreased levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (especially eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA in plasma, erythrocytes, or adipose tissue, as compared to healthy controls, a decrease which was not observed with n-6 PUFA. Suicide attempters have much lower levels of EPA and DHA in red blood cells than hospital controls. Recently, a decreased level of DHA has also been observed in the post-mortem brain cortex of patients with major depression. The fact that these changes were specific of the n-3 family suggests that a low n-3 PUFA status or intake predisposes to depression. International ecological studies show a strong negative correlation between apparent fish consumption and the prevalence of depression or of bipolar disorder, as well as between DHA content of maternal milk and the prevalence of postpartum depression. In cross-sectional studies in several countries, a higher risk of depression or of depressive symptoms has been found in subjects with a lower fish consumption. In a French cohort of adults, habitual fatty fish consumption or a higher n-3 PUFA intake were associated with a lower risk of depression, especially of recurrent depression. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to test the effects of long-chain n-3 PUFA in depressive or bipolar patients. EPA as an adjunct to a standard treatment appears to improve depressive patients or bipolar patients in depressive phase when given at the dose of 1-2 g/day, and fish oil prevents depressive recurrences in bipolar patients. Recently, a mixture of EPA plus DHA has proven efficiency in untreated depressive children. In summary, many epidemiological and clinical works in the last ten years have abundantly documented the existence of an association between a low n-3 PUFA intake or status and a

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling...

  10. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Bozzatello; Elena Brignolo; Elisa Grandi; Silvio Bellino

    2016-01-01

    A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and upd...

  11. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…

  12. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive d

  13. Balancing omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenna, J Thomas; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku;

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are a key component of a life-saving treatment for young children who present with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition in resource limited settings. Increasing recognition of the role of balanced dietary omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P...

  14. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Andrea; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Skibinski, Christine G; Thompson, Henry J; Santucci-Pereira, Julia; Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Russo, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  15. Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive

  16. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Manni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  17. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Lauretani, F.; BANDINELLI, S.; Benedetta, B.; Cherubini, A; Iorio, A. D.; Blè, A.; Giacomini, V.; Corsi, A.M.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest that both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on peripheral nerve function. Rats feed a diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes and improvement of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids levels predict accelerated decline of peripheral nerve function. Changes between baseline and t...

  18. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  19. Metabolites derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Touchette, Charles; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Tomaro, Leandro; Rousseau, Guy

    2015-12-15

    Although controversial, some data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are beneficial to cardiovascular diseases, and could reduce infarct size. In parallel, we have reported that the administration of Resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA, can reduce infarct size. The present study was designed to determine if the inhibition of two important enzymes involved in the formation of RvD1 from omega-3 PUFA could reduce the cardioprotective effect of omega-3 PUFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet rich in omega-3 PUFA during 10 days before myocardial infarction (MI). Two days before MI, rats received a daily dose of Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, PD146176, an inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase, both inhibitors or vehicle. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left coronary artery for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion while caspase-3, -8 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. Rats receiving inhibitors, alone or in combination, showed a larger infarct size than those receiving omega-3 PUFA alone. Caspase-3 and -8 activities are higher in ischemic areas with inhibitors while Akt activity is diminished in groups treated with inhibitors. Moreover, the study showed that RvD1 restores cardioprotection when added to the inhibitors. Results from this study indicate that the inhibition of the metabolism of Omega-3 PUFA attenuate their cardioprotective properties. Then, resolvins seem to be an important mediator in the cardioprotection conferred by omega-3 PUFA in our experimental model of MI.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: scientific evidence and biological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Marventano, Stefano; Malaguarnera, Michele; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Caraci, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries' diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Depression: Scientific Evidence and Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries’ diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.

  2. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homer S. Black

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC. Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase (COX pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  3. Potential Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2016-02-04

    Considerable circumstantial evidence has accrued from both experimental animal and human clinical studies that support a role for omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Direct evidence from animal studies has shown that omega-3 FA inhibit ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced carcinogenic expression. In contrast, increasing levels of dietary omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression, with respect to a shorter tumor latent period and increased tumor multiplicity. Both omega-6 and omega-3 FA are essential FA, necessary for normal growth and maintenance of health and although these two classes of FA exhibit only minor structural differences, these differences cause them to act significantly differently in the body. Omega-6 and omega-3 FA, metabolized through the lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, lead to differential metabolites that are influential in inflammatory and immune responses involved in carcinogenesis. Clinical studies have shown that omega-3 FA ingestion protects against UVR-induced genotoxicity, raises the UVR-mediated erythema threshold, reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) in UVR-irradiated human skin, and appears to protect human skin from UVR-induced immune-suppression. Thus, there is considerable evidence that omega-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of NMSC, especially in those individuals who are at highest risk.

  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and their Role in Central Nervous System - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysoczański, Tomasz; Sokoła-Wysoczańska, Ewa; Pękala, Jolanta; Lochyński, Stanisław; Czyż, Katarzyna; Bodkowski, Robert; Herbinger, Grzegorz; Patkowska-Sokoła, Bożena; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are crucial for our health and wellbeing; therefore, they have been widely investigated for their roles in maintaining human health and in disease treatment. Most Western diets include significant amount of saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and insufficient quantity of omega-3; however, the balance between omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, in particular, is essential for the formation of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipids to promote health and prevent disease. As our daily diet affects our health, this paper draws attention to unique representatives of the omega-3 fatty acid group: alpha-linolenic acid and its derivatives. Recently, this has been shown to be effective in treating and preventing various diseases. It has been confirmed that omega-3 PUFAs may act as therapeutic agents as well and their significant role against inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, has been described. Some of nutritional factors have been described as a significant modifiers, which can influence brain elasticity and thus, effect on central nervous system functioning. Therefore, appropriate dietary management appears to be a non-invasive and effective approach to counteract neurological and cognitive disorders.

  5. Rapid induction of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA) in Nannochloropsis sp. by UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpesh; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), provide substantial health benefits. As global fish stocks are declining and in some cases are contaminated with heavy metals, there is a need to find more sustainable land-based sources of these essential fatty acids. The oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been identified as a highly efficient producer of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, we present a new process to rapidly induce biosynthesis of essential fatty acids, including EPA in Nannochloropsis sp. BR2. Short exposure to UV-C at a dose of 100 or 250 mJ/cm(2) led to a significant increase in total cellular lipid contents when compared to mock-treated controls. A low dosage of 100 mJ/cm(2) also led to a twofold increase in total EPA content within 24 h that constituted 30% of total fatty acids and up to 12% of total dry weight at higher dosages. UV-C radiation may find uses as an easily applicable external inducer for large-scale production of omega-3 production from microalgae.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Musso, Giovanni; Scorletti, Eleonora; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata López, P; Ortega, R M

    2003-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the main causes of death in developed countries. Several factors are involved in its appearance and progress, among which nutrition enjoys a certain protagonism. Until recently, the dietetic criteria for preventing and controlling cardiovascular disease were mainly restrictive (at least in terms of energy and fat intake), but such advice is difficult to follow, and without careful monitoring can lead to deficiencies that might negatively affect quality of life and perhaps even life expectancy. Several investigations show that some components of the lipid fraction of the diet, such as omega-3 fatty acids, are beneficial with respect to cardiovascular disease, and these have become the centre of much attention. This paper reviews the results of some of these studies and evaluates the benefit of these fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease. The sources of omega-3 fatty acids, their recommended consumption, possible mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects are discussed.

  8. Cultural symbolism of fish and the psychotropic properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, L C; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Fish is a food with unique psychotropic properties. Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, rich in seafood, reduces depression, aggression and anger while improving mental well-being. We posit that symbols of fish have become linked to the emotional states induced by long-chain fatty acid by associative pairings, both conscious and unconscious. The limbic and hippocampal activity necessary for memory formation containing emotional content and the labeling of social context by cortical processes appears to be optimized by diets rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acid. In this critical literature survey, we find that fish have been culturally labeled as symbols of emotional well-being and social healing in religious and medical practices among independent cultures, for at least six millennia. This understanding of the perception of fish as a symbolically healing or purifying food can assist current messages improving public health.

  9. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3–8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (±4.8) points in the omega-3 group compared to 0.3 (±7.2) points in the placebo group (p = 0.40; effect size = 0.38). Correlations were found between decreases in f...

  10. RBC and WBC fatty acid composition following consumption of an omega 3 supplement: Lessons for future clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Oscar F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from increasing numbers of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that omega 3 fatty acids incorporated in cell culture media or in the diet of the animals can suppress the growth of cancers. When human clinical trials are initiated to determine the ability of omega 3 fatty acids to alter growth or response to chemotherapeutic interventions of cancers, it will be essential to determine the omega 3 intake of individuals in the trial to determine compliance with consumption of the supplement and to correlate with endpoints of efficacy. We wondered if the fatty acid composition of RBCs might accurately indicate incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids in the WBCs. In this report we determine and compare the changes in fatty acid compositions of red blood cells and white blood cells in response to consumption of three doses of an omega 3 fatty acid supplement. Results We found that the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in both red blood cells and white blood cells increased following consumption of the supplement. There was a linear, dose responsive increase in the fraction of omega 3 fatty acids in red blood cells but the increase in omega 3 in white blood cells was not linear. The magnitude of increase in omega 3 fatty acids was different between the two cell types. Conclusions Fatty acid analysis of red blood cells is a good measure of compliance with supplement consumption. However, fatty acid analysis of white blood cells is needed to correlate changes in fatty acid composition of white blood cells with other biochemical changes in the white blood cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00899353.

  11. Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic fatty acids – micromanaging cellular response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eVisioli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized de novo by mammals and need to be ingested either with the diet or through the use of supplements/functional foods to ameliorate cardiovascular prognosis. This review focus on the molecular targets of omega 3 fatty acids and CLA, as paradigmatic molecules that can be explored both as nutrients and as pharmacological agents, especially as related to cardioprotection. In addition, we indicate novel molecular targets, namely microRNAs that might contribute to the observed biological activities of such essential fatty acids.

  12. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients modulate fetal lipid metabolism: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that alterations in the mother's diet or metabolism during pregnancy has long-term adverse effects on the lipid metabolism in the offspring. There is growing interest in the role of specific nutrients especially omega-3 fatty acids in the pathophysiology of lipid disorders. A series of studies carried out in humans and rodents in our department have consistently suggested a link between omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid and micronutrients (vitamin B12 and folic acid) in the one carbon metabolic cycle and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism, hepatic transcription factors and DNA methylation patterns. However the association of maternal intake or metabolism of these nutrients with fetal lipid metabolism is relatively less explored. In this review, we provide insights into the role of maternal omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12 and their influence on fetal lipid metabolism through various mechanisms which influence phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, adiponectin signaling pathway and epigenetic process like chromatin methylation. This will help understand the possible mechanisms involved in fetal lipid metabolism and may provide important clues for the prevention of lipid disorders in the offspring.

  13. A Review of Nanoliposomal Delivery System for Stabilization of Bioactive Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, bioactive compounds are required in the design and production of functional foods, with the aim of improving the health status of consumers all around the world. Various epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated the salutary role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 22:6 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:5 n-3) in preventing diseases and reducing mortality from cardiovascular diseases. The unsaturated nature of bioactive lipids leads to susceptibility to oxidation under environmental conditions. Oxidative deterioration of omega-3 fatty acids can cause the reduction in their nutritional quality and sensory properties. Encapsulation of these fatty acids could create a barrier against reaction with harmful environmental factors. Currently, fortification of foods containing bioactive omega-3 fatty acids has found great application in the food industries of different countries. Previous studies have suggested that nano-encapsulation has significant effects on the stability of physical and chemical properties of bioactive compounds. Considering the functional role of omega-3 fatty acids, this study has provided a literature review on applications of nanoliposomal delivery systems for encapsulation of these bioactive compounds.

  14. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. (Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Mindrescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalin Mindrescu1,2,3, Rakesh P Gupta1,3, Eileen V Hermance1, Mary C DeVoe1, Vikas R Soma1, John T Coppola1,2, Cezar S Staniloae1,21Comprehensive Cardiovascular Center, Saint Vincent’s Hospital Manhattan, New York, NY, USA; 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3Rakesh P Gupta and Catalin Mindrescu contributed equally to this article.Background: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of statins plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on endothelial function and lipid profile in South Asians with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, a population at high risk for premature coronary artery disease.Methods: Thirty subjects were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg and omega-3-PUFAs 4 g or rosuvastatin 10 mg. After 4 weeks, omega-3-PUFAs were removed from the first group and added to subjects in the second group. All subjects underwent baseline, 4-, and 8-week assessment of endothelial function and lipid profile.Results: Compared to baseline, omega-3-PUFAs plus rosuvastatin improved endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDV: −1.42% to 11.36%, p = 0.001, and endothelial-independent vasodilation (EIV: 3.4% to 17.37%, p = 0.002. These effects were lost when omega-3-PUFAs were removed (EDV: 11.36% to 0.59%, p = 0.003. In the second group, rosuvastatin alone failed to improve both EDV and EIV compared to baseline. However, adding omega-3-PUFAs to rosuvastatin, significantly improved EDV (−0.66% to 14.73%, p = 0.001 and EIV (11.02% to 24.5%, p = 0.001. Addition of omega-3-PUFAs further improved the lipid profile (triglycerides 139 to 91 mg/dl, p = 0.006, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 116 to 88 mg/dl, p = 0.014.Conclusions: Combined therapy with omega-3-PUFAs and rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asian subjects with dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction.Keywords: omega-3 fatty acids, endothelial function, South Asians, dyslipidemia, rosuvastatin

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Could Alleviate the Risks of Traumatic Brain Injury – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathy R. Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells. BDNF improves the synaptic transmission by regulating synapsin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein. The brain tissue analysis of TBI models supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs showed significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid and protein oxidation, thereby promoting neuronal and glial cell survival. Thus, omega-3 FA intake could be considered as a therapeutic option to reduce the secondary neuronal damages initiated by TBI.

  17. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.

  18. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate large-scale systems organization in the rhesus macaque brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, David S; Kroenke, Christopher D; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function.

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Farnood, Farahnoosh; Noshad, Hamid; Lotfi, Mahsa; Gharekhani, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. The literature review was conducted in December 2015 and carried out by searching Scopus, Medline, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. The search terms were "kidney injury", "kidney failure", "chronic kidney disease", "end-stage renal disease", "dialysis", "hemodialysis", "peritoneal dialysis", "pruritus", "itch", "skin problems", "fish oil", "omega 3", "n-3 fatty acids", "polyunsaturated fatty acids", "docosahexaenoic acid", and "eicosapentaenoic acid". Four small studies investigating potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acids on symptoms of uremic pruritus were found. Among them, three small randomized controlled trials have shown a significant improvement in pruritus symptoms (evaluated by a standard questionnaire) in CKD patients who took omega-3 supplement compared to omega-6, omega-9, and placebo supplementation. Despite numerous limitations of the studies, it is worth noting that even minor reduction in itching symptoms may be clinically significant for CKD patients. Therefore, and considering multiple health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids in advanced CKD and negligible risk profile, omega-3 intake can wisely be applied to CKD patients with uremic pruritus.

  20. A combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids across two generations improves cardiometabolic variables in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-14

    Our earlier studies indicate that micronutrients (vitamin B12, folic acid) and omega-3 fatty acids especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are interlinked in one carbon cycle. The present study examines the effects of a sustained vitamin B12 deficiency/supplementation in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids across two generations on the pregnancy outcome and cardiometabolic profile [blood pressure, plasma lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), plasma/liver fatty acid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism] in the second generation adult Wistar rat offspring. Two generations of animals were fed the following diets: control; vitamin B12 deficient; vitamin B12 supplemented; vitamin B12 deficient diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented diets. Male offspring were sacrificed at 3 months of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency lowered the weight gain (p B12 supplementation showed weight gain, blood pressure and the fatty acid profile similar to the control. However, it increased (p B12 deficient group lowered the weight gain although the levels of cardiometabolic variables were comparable to the control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the presence of vitamin B12 improved the pregnancy outcome and all cardio-metabolic variables. Our study highlights the adverse effects of sustained vitamin B12 deficiency across two generations on the pregnancy outcome, fatty acid profile and blood pressure while a combined supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial.

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-08-31

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The biological mechanisms underlying omega-3 PUFAs'psychotropic effects are proposed and reviewed. Nutrition is a modifiable environmental factor that might be important in prevention medicine, which have been applied for many years in the secondary prevention of heart disease with omega-3 PUFAs. This review extends the notion that nutrition in psychiatry is a modifiable environmental factor and calls for more researches on prospective clinical studies to justify the preventive application of omega-3 PUFAs in daily practice.

  2. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on haemostatic functions in urocortin-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M

    2014-09-01

    Urocortin 1 (UCN1) decreases food intake. We investigated the effects of UCN1 and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on metabolic and coagulation parameters in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups; control, HFD, HFD with omega-3 FA, HFD with UCN1, and HFD with UCN1 and omega-3 FA. Food intake, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), fibrin degradation product (FDP), clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and platelet aggregation were measured. Food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, fibrinogen, platelet aggregation, PAI-1, and FDP increased while bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT decreased in HFD rats. UCN1 decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, bleeding and clotting times, PT, and aPTT and increased fibrinogen, PAI-1, FDP, and platelet aggregation in HFD rats. Omega-3 FA decreased food intake, BW, BMI, Lee index, platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and increased HDL and bleeding time in HFD rats. We concluded that UCN1 worsens the hypercoagulable state in HFD rats while omega-3 FA improve the insulin resistance and decrease the platelet aggregation in those rats.

  3. Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Pruritus: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes Panahi; Simin Dashti-Khavidaki; Farahnoosh Farnood; Hamid Noshad; Mahsa Lotfi; Afshin Gharekhani

    2016-01-01

    Uremic pruritus remains one of the most tormenting, frequent and potentially disabling problem in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, an area of substantial etiological interest with relation to uremic pruritus is the essential fatty acids deficiency. So we performed a literature review to elucidate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on uremic pruritus. This review evaluated all of the studies published in English language, focusing on the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids ...

  4. MyPyramid-omega-3 fatty acid nutrition education intervention may improve food groups and omega-3 fatty acid consumption in university middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wan-Ju J; Lewis, Nancy M

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on food groups and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption in middle-aged women. We hypothesized that participants who received educational materials about n-3 fatty acids would have a higher consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids than the MyPyramid group. The first phase of this study used the qualitative method to identify the beliefs and interests of middle-aged women about the topic of nutrition. Data were collected using semistructured individual interviews. Phase 2 was a quantitative study to assess the effectiveness of MyPyramid to improve dietary intake and self-efficacy after a 6-week online nutrition education intervention using a blog for university middle-aged female staff. The impact of n-3 fatty acid education on food consumption and self-efficacy was also assessed. Eight female staff (aged 45-65 years) in a Midwestern university participated in the interviews. Data were coded, and 3 themes emerged: "health," "lifestyle," and "availability." Eighty-eight middle-aged women participated in the intervention study and were randomized into either an intervention group or a control group. The overall consumption of the food groups was lower than the MyPyramid recommendation, except in the meat and beans group. There was a trend that participants were less certain to include n-3 fatty acids than whole grains in their diets. Using MyPyramid and supplementary information about n-3 fatty acids did not significantly affect participants' dietary consumption or self-efficacy to increase consumption from the food groups or to increase n-3 fatty acid consumption. Blog-based nutrition education is acceptable for this target population.

  5. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten H; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Cittadini, Achille; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer.

  6. Chemopreventive effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin in rats with bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Al-Tantawy, Samar M

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer remains a huge concern for the medical community because of its incidence and prevalence rates, as well as high percentage of recurrence and progression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin proved anti-inflammatory effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mechanism. However, their chemopreventive effect still remained to be examined and clarified. In this study, bladder cancer was induced in rats by the chemical carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: 2:3 w/w; 1200 mg/kg) and/or atorvastatin (6 mg/kg) were given orally daily to rats for eight consecutive weeks concomitantly with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine and continued for further 4 weeks after cessation of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine administration. The histopathological examination of rat bladder revealed the presence of tumors and the absence of apoptotic bodies in sections from N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine group, while tumors were absent and apoptotic bodies were clearly observed in sections from rat groups treated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, atorvastatin, or both drugs. The study of the molecular mechanisms illustrated downregulation of COX-2 and P53 (mutant) genes and suppression of transforming growth factor beta-1 and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in serum of rats of the three treated groups. This chemopreventive effect was confirmed by and associated with lower level of bladder tumor antigen in urine. However, the combined treatment with both drugs exhibited the major protective effect and nearly corrected the dyslipidemia that has been induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine. Collectively, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin, besides having anti-inflammatory properties, proved a chemopreventive effect against bladder cancer, which nominates them to be used as

  7. [Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and systemic lupus erythematosus: what do we know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of C reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the supplementation of these types of lipids may represent additional option treatment for chronic systemic diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematous and other rheumatic diseases. The role of these lipids has not been well established, yet. However, it seems there is a direct relationship between its intake and the decrease of the disease clinical manifestations as well as of the inflammatory status of the patients. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to present a thorough review on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with SLE. Bibliographic data set as the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) were searched using as key words: systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), antioxidants and diet. Manuscripts published up to September 2013 were included. There were 43 articles related to the topic, however only 15 pertained human studies, with three review articles and 12 clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  9. Jumping on the omega-3 bandwagon: distinguishing the role of long-chain and short-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchini, Giovanni M; Nichols, Peter D; Barrow, Colin; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) are almost unanimously recognized for their health benefits, while only limited evidence of any health benefit is currently available specifically for the main precursor of these fatty acids, namely α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). However, both the n-3 LC-PUFA and the short-chain C₁₈ PUFA (i.e., ALA) are commonly referred to as "omega-3" fatty acids, and it is difficult for consumers to recognize this difference. A current gap of many food labelling legislations worldwide allow products containing only ALA and without n-3 LC-PUFA to be marketed as "omega-3 source" and this misleading information can negatively impact the ability of consumers to choose more healthy diets. Within the context of the documented nutritional and health promoting roles of omega-3 fatty acids, we briefly review the different metabolic fates of dietary ALA and n-3 LC-PUFA. We also review food sources rich in n-3 LC-PUFA, some characteristics of LC-PUFA and current industry and regulatory trends. A further objective is to present a case for regulatory bodies to clearly distinguish food products containing only ALA from foods containing n-3 LC-PUFA. Such information, when available, would then avoid misleading information and empower consumers to make a more informed choice in their food purchasing behavior.

  10. Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Yakoob; Zaigham Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplementation with Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) has been demonstrated to elicit several effects ranging from decrease in blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic effect and decrease in inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder characterized by abdominal pain and irregular bowel habit. It is associated with visceral hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability and a low-grade mucosal inf...

  11. Omega 3 fatty acids on child growth, visual acuity and neurodevelopment

    OpenAIRE

    Campoy, C.; Escolano-Margarit, MV; Anjos, T.; Szajewska, H.; Uauy, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnant and lactating women and infants during postnatal life, on the visual acuity, psychomotor development, mental performance and growth of infants and children. Eighteen publications (11 sets of randomized control clinical trial [RCTs]) assessed the effects of the n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on neurodevelopment and growth, in the same subject...

  12. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toorang, Fatemeh; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids). Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA), which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes. A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation. Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity.

  13. Nutraceutical with Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Induces Autophagy in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Ali; Reinisalo, Mika; Petrovski, Goran; Sinha, Debasish; Olmiere, Céline; Karjalainen, Reijo; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-05-11

    Impaired autophagic and proteasomal cleansing have been documented in aged retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Omega-3 fatty acids and resveratrol have many positive homeostatic effects in RPE cells. In this work, ARPE-19 cells were treated with 288 ng of Resvega, containing 30 mg of trans resveratrol and 665 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, among other nutrients, with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 up to 48 h. Autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) were analyzed by Western blotting. Fluorescence microscopy with mCherry-GFP-LC3 plasmid was applied to study the autophagy flux, and cytoprotective effects were investigated with colorimetric MTT and LDH assays. Resvega induced autophagy by showing increased autolysosome formation and autophagy flux, and the change in the p62 and LC3 protein levels further confirmed the fluorescent microscopy results. Moreover, Resvega provided a clear cytoprotection under proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the potential of the nutraceuticals containing resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in the prevention of ARPE-19 cell damage.

  14. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A.; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A.; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M.; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C.; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02041520 PMID:27015634

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Modern Parenteral Nutrition: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Klek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous lipid emulsions are an essential component of parenteral nutrition regimens. Originally employed as an efficient non-glucose energy source to reduce the adverse effects of high glucose intake and provide essential fatty acids, lipid emulsions have assumed a larger therapeutic role due to research demonstrating the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on key metabolic functions, including inflammatory and immune response, coagulation, and cell signaling. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of omega-3 PUFA on inflammation and immune response result in meaningful therapeutic benefits in surgical, cancer, and critically ill patients as well as patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms of action through which omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA modulate the immune-inflammatory response and summarizes the current body of evidence regarding the clinical and pharmacoeconomic benefits of intravenous n-3 fatty acid-containing lipid emulsions in patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

  16. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amador-Licona

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  17. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Licona, Norma; Díaz-Murillo, Teresa A; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Pereyra-Nobara, Texar A; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Orozco-Aviña, Gustavo; Moreno-Martínez, Sandra C; Luna-Montalbán, Rafael; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals), and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55%) and AZT/3TC/EFV (15%) without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04), but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan Roger A; Garcia-Smith Randi; Bisoffi Marco; Conn Carole A; Trujillo Kristina A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determine...

  19. Fats in Mind : Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cognition and Behaviour in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine possible effects of omega-3 fatty acids on children’s cognition and behavior. Longitudinal as well as cross-sectional comparisons were made among children with typical development and children with ADHD /at risk developing ADHD. The specific purposes were to examine (1) breast-feeding in relation to cognition; (2) relation between long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in mothers breast-milk and children´s cognition; (3) effects of EPA suppleme...

  20. Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe William

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. Methods Blood samples (n = 2053 were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3 by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. The omega-3 levels were correlated with selected omega-6: omega-3 ratios including AA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6: EPA and AA:(EPA+DHA. Based on previously-published levels of omega-3 fatty acids considered to be in a 'lower risk' category for heart disease and related fatality, 'lower risk' categories for selected fatty acid ratios were estimated. Results Strong inverse correlations between the summed total of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and all four ratios (omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3, AA:EPA, AA:DHA, and AA:(EPA+DHA were found with the most potent correlation being with the omega-6:omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.96. The strongest inverse relation for the EPA+DHA levels in serum phospholipid was found with the omega-6: omega-3 ratio (R2 = 0.94 followed closely by the AA:(EPA+DHA ratio at R2 = 0.88. It was estimated that 95% of the subjects would be in the 'lower risk' category for coronary heart disease (based on total omega-3 ≥ 7.2% with omega-6:omega-3 ratios Conclusions Strong inverse correlations between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum (or plasma phospholipid and omega-6: omega-3 ratios are apparent based on this large database of 2053 samples. Certain fatty acid ratios may aid in cardiovascular disease-related risk assessment if/when complete profiles are not available.

  1. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  2. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  3. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  4. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success.

  5. NUTRITIONAL AND PROTECTIVE VALUES OF FISH – WITH EMPHSIS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the importance of fish as a life necessity in view of proteins, vitamins, micro and macro elements and in comparison with high valued necessities of warm-blooded animals (meat, milk and eggs. Most literature information is related to the chemical components of meat, nutritional and biological values. Numerous papers have shown the components of fatty acids in fats of the most important freshwater and sea fish. According the contents of FPA (eicosapentaen fatty acids, 20:5 3 and DHA (docosaheksacn fatty acids, 22:6 3 the meat of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichtis molitrix can be compared to that of the highest quality sea fish. In the last 20 years many authors mentioned the protective role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of heart attack, stroke, artherosclerosis, high blood pressure, psoriasis, thrombosis and arthritis.

  6. The implication of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in retinal physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar Niyazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal tissues such as the retina and the brain are characterized by their high content in phospholipids. In the retina, phospholipids can account for until 80% of total lipids and are mainly composed by species belonging to phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine sub-classes. Within fatty acids esterified on retinal phospholipids, omega-3 PUFAs are major components since docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can represent until 50% of total fatty acids in the photoreceptor outer segments. For long time, DHA is known to play a major role in membrane function and subsequently in visual processes by affecting permeability, fluidity, thickness and the activation of membrane-bound proteins. Today, more and more studies show that PUFAs from the omega-3 series may also operate as protective factors in retinal vascular and immuno-regulatory processes, in maintaining the physiologic redox balance and in cell survival. They may operate within complex systems involving eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinases. This new and emerging concept based on the interrelationship of omega-3 PUFAs with neural and vascular structure and function appears to be essential when considering retinal diseases of public health significance such as age-related macular degeneration.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid effects on biochemical indices following cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Sebastian N; Heller, Axel R

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that a high intake of saturated fat and/or animal fat increases the risk of colon and breast cancer. Laboratory and clinical investigations have shown a reduced risk of colon carcinogenesis after alimentation with omega-3 fatty acids, as found in fish oil. Mechanisms accounting for these anti-tumor effects are reduced levels of PGE(2) and inducible NO synthase as well as an increased lipid peroxidation, or translation inhibition with subsequent cell cycle arrest. Further, omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid is capable of down-regulating the production and effect of a number of mediators of cachexia, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha and proteolysis-inducing factor. In patients with advanced cancer, it is possible to increase energy and protein intake via an enteral or parenteral route, but this seems to have little impact on progressive weight loss. Fish oil administration improved patients' conditions in cancer cachexia and during radio- and chemotherapy. In patients undergoing tumor resection surgery we observed improvement of liver and pancreas biochemical indices when omega-3 fatty acids were administered. This paper is a review of recent developments in the field of nutrition in cancer patients with emphasis on the acute phase response following cancer surgery and the beneficial aspects of fish oil administration.

  8. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-06-11

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today's health epidemics.

  9. Use of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to Treat Inspissated Bile Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Woo Young; Cho, Min Jeng; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Inspissated bile syndrome (IBS) is a rare condition in which thick intraluminal bile, including bile plugs, sludge, or stones, blocks the extrahepatic bile ducts in an infant. A 5-week-old female infant was admitted for evaluation of jaundice and acholic stool. Diagnostic tests, including ultrasound sonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and a hepatobiliary scan, were not conclusive. Although the diagnosis was unclear, the clinical and laboratory findings improved gradually on administration of urodeoxycholic acid and lipid emulsion containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for 3 weeks. However, a liver biopsy was suggestive of biliary atresia. This finding forced us to perform intraoperative cholangiography, which revealed a patent common bile duct with impacted thick bile. We performed normal saline irrigation and the symptom was improved, the final diagnosis was IBS. Thus, we herein report that IBS can be treated with omega-3 PUFAs as an alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:28090475

  10. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.

  11. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibited Tumor Growth via Preventing the Decrease of Genomic DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qionglin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Guangzhao; Ge, Miaomiao; Gao, Yihua; Ye, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chunan; Cai, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Omge-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibited significant effect in inhibiting various tumors. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer role have not been fully demonstrated. The declination of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) was closely associated with poor prognosis of tumors. To explore whether omega-3 PUFAs influences on DNA methylation level in tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) rat model were constructed using N-methyl phosphite nitrourea and omega-3 PUFAs were fed to part of the rats during tumor induction. The PUFAs contents in the rats of 3 experimental groups were measured using gas chromatography and 5 mC level were detected by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that tumor incidence in omega-3 treated rats was much lower than in CRC model rats, which confirmed significant antitumor role of omega-3 PUFAs. Six PUFA members categorized to omega-3 and omega-6 families were quantified and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 PUFAs was remarkably lower in omega-3 PUFAs treatment group than in CRC model group. 5 mC content in omega-3 PUFAs treated rats was higher than in CRC model rats, suggesting omega-3 PUFAs promoted 5 mC synthesis. Therefore, omega-3 PUFAs probably inhibited tumor growth via regulating DNA methylation process, which provided a novel anticancer mechanism of omega-3 PUFAs from epigenetic view.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic

  13. Rosuvastatin, lycopene and omega-3 fatty acids: A potential treatment for systemic inflammation in COPD; a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that rosuvastatin, omega-3 fatty acids and lycopene have some anti-inflammatory effects systemically, but rosuvastatin may increase airway neutrophils, which would be undesirable in COPD patients, warranting further investigation.

  14. Data on gender and subgroup specific analyses of omega-3 fatty acids in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    This paper contains additional data related to the research article "Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography - The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study" (Kleber et al., in press) [1]. The data shows characteristics of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study according to tertiles of omega-3 fatty acids as well as stratified by gender. The association of proportions of omega-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte membranes with different causes of death is investigated with a special focus on modeling the association of EPA with mortality in a nonlinear way. Further, the association of omega-3 fatty acids with all-cause mortality adjusted for high-sensitive C-reactive protein as a marker of systemic inflammation is examined as well as the association of EPA with cause-specific death.

  15. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  16. Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2004-01-01

    Among various organs, in the brain, the fatty acids most extensively studied are omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3omega3) deficiency alters the structure and function of membranes and induces minor cerebral dysfunctions, as demonstrated in animal models and subsequently in human infants. Even though the brain is materially an organ like any other, that is to say elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively), for long it was not accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function. Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. First it was shown that the differentiation and functioning of cultured brain cells requires not only alpha-linolenic acid (the major component of the omega-3, omega3 family), but also the very long omega-3 and omega-6 carbon chains (1). It was then demonstrated that alpha-linolenic acid deficiency alters the course of brain development, perturbs the composition and physicochemical properties of brain cell membranes, neurones, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes (2). This leads to physicochemical modifications, induces biochemical and physiological perturbations, and results in neurosensory and behavioural upset (3). Consequently, the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for infants (premature and term) conditions the visual and cerebral abilities, including intellectual. Moreover, dietary omega-3 fatty acids are certainly involved in the prevention of some aspects of cardiovascular disease (including at the level of cerebral vascularization), and in some neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, as well as in dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease. Recent

  17. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of young children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mankad, Deepali; Dupuis, Annie; Smile, Sharon; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Lui, Toni; Genore, Lisa; Zaghloul, Dina; Iaboni, Alana; Marcon, Peggy Margaret A; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting more than 1% of children. It is characterized by social communication deficits and repetitive behaviors/restricted interests. In the absence of any medications known to improve core symptom domains, parents often use complementary alternative treatments, including omega-3 fatty acid supplements. Methods We conducted a 6-month, randomized, placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (1.5 g) vs p...

  18. Prostatic and dietary omega-3 fatty acids and prostate cancer progression during active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreel, Xavier; Allaire, Janie; Léger, Caroline; Caron, André; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Lamarche, Benoît; Julien, Pierre; Desmeules, Patrice; Têtu, Bernard; Fradet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    The association between omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids and prostate cancer has been widely studied. However, little is known about the impact of prostate tissue fatty acid content on prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that compared with the estimated dietary ω-3 fatty acids intake and the ω-3 fatty acids levels measured in red blood cells (RBC), the prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acid content is more strongly related to prostate cancer progression. We present the initial observations from baseline data of a phase II clinical trial conducted in a cohort of 48 untreated men affected with low-risk prostate cancer, managed under active surveillance. These men underwent a first repeat biopsy session within 6 months after the initial diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer, at which time 29% of the men had progressed from a Gleason score of 6 to a Gleason score of 7. At the first repeat biopsy session, fatty acid levels were assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and determined in the RBC and in the prostate tissue biopsy. We found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer progression when measured directly in the prostate tissue. Thus, this initial interim study analysis suggests that prostate tissue ω-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, may be protective against prostate cancer progression in men with low-risk prostate cancer.

  19. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products: considerations for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nadeem Tajuddin,1 Ali Shaikh,2 Amir Hassan2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Clinic of Endocrinology, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, which may increase residual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with elevated triglyceride (TG levels despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels with statin therapy. Prescription products containing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are an effective strategy for reducing TG levels. This article provides an overview of prescription OM3FAs, including relevant clinical data in patients with T2DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Prescription OM3FAs contain either combinations of DHA and EPA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A or EPA alone (icosapent ethyl. These products are well tolerated and can be used safely with statins. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that all prescription OM3FAs produce statistically significant reductions in TG levels compared with placebo; however, differential effects on LDL-C levels have been reported. Products containing DHA may increase LDL-C levels, whereas the EPA-only product did not increase LDL-C levels compared with placebo. Because increases in LDL-C levels may be unwanted in patients with T2DM and/or dyslipidemia, the EPA-only product should not be replaced with products containing DHA. Available data on the effects of OM3FAs in patients with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome support that these products can be used safely in patients with T2DM and have beneficial effects on atherogenic parameters; in particular, the EPA-only prescription product significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo B, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity CRP levels without increasing

  20. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  1. Protection against fine particle-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Hao, Lei; Liu, Ying-Hua; Chen, Chih-Yu; Pai, Victor J; Kang, Jing X

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter, such as through air pollution, has been linked to the increased incidence of chronic diseases. However, few measures have been taken to reduce the health risks associated with fine particle exposure. The identification of safe and effective methods to protect against fine particle exposure-related damage is urgently needed. We used synthetic, non-toxic, fluorescent fine particles to investigate the physical distribution of inhaled fine particles and their effects on pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice. Tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids were elevated via dietary supplementation or the fat-1 transgenic mouse model. Markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation were assessed. We discovered that fine particulate matter not only accumulates in the lungs but can also penetrate the pulmonary barrier and travel into other organs, including the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and testis. These particles induced both pulmonary and systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We also show that elevating tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids was effective in reducing fine particle-induced inflammation, whether as a preventive method (prior to exposure) or as an intervention (after exposure). These results advance our understanding of how fine particles contribute to disease development and suggest that increasing tissue omega-3 levels may be a promising nutritional means for reducing the risk of diseases induced by particle exposure. Our findings demonstrate that elevating tissue omega-3 levels can prevent and treat fine particle-induced health problems and thereby present an immediate, practical solution for reducing the disease burden of air pollution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Functions of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4 (GPR120) in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Dong-Soon

    2016-08-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are plentiful in fish oil, have been known for decades to be beneficial functional nutrients in different disease states. GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor for long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 PUFAs, and was recently renamed free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). Studies on FFA4-deficient mice and the development of specific pharmacological tools have started to unravel the functions of FFA4 associated with the actions of n-3 PUFAs in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation-related diseases. Here, the state of the art regarding the roles and functions of FFA4 and n-3 PUFA in macrophages are reviewed from the pharmacological perspective. In particular, the functions of n-3 PUFA on the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes of macrophages in different organs, such as, adipose tissues and liver, are discussed along with future research directions.

  3. KARAKTERISTIK MIKROKAPSUL MINYAK KAYA ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN LEMURU [Characteristics of Microcapsule of omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

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    Teti Estiasih 1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w on characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of omega-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging omega-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

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    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  5. Exploring omega-3 fatty acids, enzymes and biodiesel producing thraustochytrids from Australian and Indian marine biodiversity.

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    Gupta, Adarsha; Singh, Dilip; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Thyagarajan, Tamilselvi; Sonkar, Shailendra P; Mathur, Anshu S; Tuli, Deepak K; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2016-03-01

    The marine environment harbours a vast diversity of microorganisms, many of which are unique, and have potential to produce commercially useful materials. Therefore, marine biodiversity from Australian and Indian habitat has been explored to produce novel bioactives, and enzymes. Among these, thraustochytrids collected from Indian habitats were shown to be rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), together constituting 51-76% of total fatty acids (TFA). Indian and Australian thraustochytrids occupy separate positions in the dendrogram, showing significant differences exist in the fatty acid profiles in these two sets of thraustochytrid strains. In general, Australian strains had a higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than Indian strains with DHA at 17-31% of TFA. A range of enzyme activities were observed in the strains, with Australian strains showing overall higher levels of enzyme activity, with the exception of one Indian strain (DBTIOC-1). Comparative analysis of the fatty acid profile of 34 strains revealed that Indian thraustochytrids are more suitable for biodiesel production since these strains have higher fatty acids content for biodiesel (FAB, 76%) production than Australian thraustochytrids, while the Australian strains are more suitable for omega-3 (40%) production. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on vascular function and blood pressure: Relevance for cardiovascular outcomes.

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    Colussi, G; Catena, C; Novello, M; Bertin, N; Sechi, L A

    2017-03-01

    To overview the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on blood vessels and blood pressure (BP) and their relevance for cardiovascular prevention. The importance of omega-3 PUFA for the cardiovascular system has come under the spotlight during the last decades. These fatty acids are present in variable amounts in cell membranes of mammal species, and their content affects a variety of cellular functions. Evidence obtained in animal and human studies suggests that omega-3 PUFA affect many steps of the atherosclerotic process. In blood vessels, omega-3 PUFA improve endothelial function; promote vasodilatation through relaxation of smooth muscle cells; exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic actions; delay development of plaques and increase their stability; and decrease wall stiffening. Omega-3 PUFA might affect BP, and studies conducted with ambulatory monitoring suggest that supplementation with these fatty acids decreases the average 24-h BP levels. This effect on BP is related to the pretreatment membrane content of omega-3 PUFA, and this might explain some inconsistencies among intervention trials. Meta-analyses indicate that omega-3 PUFA have a mild but significant BP lowering effect. While encouraging results were initially obtained with the use of omega-3 PUFA supplements in secondary prevention trials, meta-analyses have not confirmed the ability of these fatty acids to decrease the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Omega-3 PUFA are associated with significant improvement in vascular function and lowering of BP. However, the evidence currently supporting the role of these fatty acids in cardiovascular prevention is weak and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. The effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression

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    Teruhisa Komori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17 and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal

  8. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review.

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    Balk, Ethan M; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Chung, Mei; Kupelnick, Bruce; Chew, Priscilla; Lau, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Greater fish oil consumption has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although the mechanisms are unclear. Plant-source oil omega-3 fatty acids (ALA) have also been studied regarding their cardiovascular effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of consumption of fish oil and ALA on commonly measured serum CVD risk factors, performing meta-analyses when appropriate. Combining 21 trials evaluating lipid outcomes, fish oil consumption resulted in a summary net change in triglycerides of -27 (95% CI -33, -20)mg/dL, in HDL cholesterol of +1.6 (95% CI +0.8, +2.3)mg/dL, and in LDL cholesterol of +6 (95% CI +3, +8)mg/dL. There was no effect of fish oil on total cholesterol. Across studies, higher fish oil dose and higher baseline levels were associated with greater reductions in serum triglycerides. Overall, the 27 fish oil trials evaluating Hgb A(1c) or FBS found small non-significant net increases compared to control oils. Five studies of ALA were inconsistent in their effects on lipids, Hgb A(1c) or FBS. Four studies investigating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on hs-CRP were also inconsistent and non-significant. The evidence supports a dose-dependent beneficial effect of fish oil on serum triglycerides, particularly among people with more elevated levels. Fish oil consumption also modestly improves HDL cholesterol, increases LDL cholesterol levels, but does not appear to adversely affect glucose homeostasis. The evidence regarding the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on hs-CRP is inconclusive, as are data on ALA.

  9. The utility of omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy: more than just a farmed tilapia!

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    Vera C. Terra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The epilepsies are one of the most common serious brain disorders and 20 to 30% of people developing epilepsy continue to have seizures and are refractory to treatment with the currently available therapies. Approximately one in a 1000 patients with chronic epilepsy will die suddenly, unexpectedly, and without explanation, even with post-mortem examination and this phenomenon is called sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP. Understanding the mechanisms underlying SUDEP may lead to the identification of previously unrecognized risk factors that are more amenable to correction. We discuss here the possible implications of omega-3 fatty acids consumption on SUDEP prevention.

  10. [Antioxidant activity of vegetable oils with various omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.

  11. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

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    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-15

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  12. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

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    Damitha De Mel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man.

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    Calder, Philip C

    2017-09-12

    Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are capable of partly inhibiting many aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonic acid, and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving mediators called resolvins, protectins and maresins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of EPA and DHA include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB so reducing expression of inflammatory genes and activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Animal experiments demonstrate benefit from EPA and DHA in a range of models of inflammatory conditions. Human trials demonstrate benefit of oral n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis and in stabilizing advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Intravenous n-3 fatty acids may have benefits in critically ill patients through reduced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving actions of EPA, DHA and their derivatives are of clinical relevance. © 2017 The Author

  14. Microencapsulated foods as a functional delivery vehicle for omega-3 fatty acids: a pilot study

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    David Robert M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that the ingestion of the omega-3 (N3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA positively benefit a variety of health indices. Despite these benefits the actual intake of fish derived N3 is relatively small in the United States. The primary aim of our study was to examine a technology capable of delivering omega-3 fatty acids in common foods via microencapsulation (MicroN3 in young, healthy, active participants who are at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, we randomized 20 participants (25.4 ± 6.2 y; 73.4 ± 5.1 kg to receive the double blind delivery of a placebo-matched breakfast meal (~2093 kJ containing MicroN3 (450–550 mg EPA/DHA during a 2-week pilot trial. Overall, we observed no differences in overall dietary macronutrient intake other than the N3 delivery during our treatment regimen. Post-test ANOVA analysis showed a significant elevation in mean (SE plasma DHA (91.18 ± 9.3 vs. 125.58 ± 11.3 umol/L; P

  15. Attitudes and intentions toward purchasing novel foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids.

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    Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G

    2005-01-01

    To identify the nature, strength, and relative importance of influences on intentions to consume foods that are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Two subsamples were surveyed via questionnaire: community members who responded to a local media advertisement (n = 79), and subjects in a dietary intervention trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 50). Using the TPB variables-intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control-questionnaire items were constructed to measure intention to consume omega-3-enriched novel foods. The results from subsamples did not differ and were combined for analysis. The determinants of intention defined in the TPB were investigated using multiple linear regressions. Regression analysis showed that the model was a significant determinant of intention (R2 = .725; P behavior are likely to come through a change in attitude, specifically in beliefs about the effectiveness of enriched products in achieving specific health benefits. Promoters of omega-3-enriched foods would be advised to direct their promotions toward changing the attitudes of consumers about the effectiveness of the functional ingredient.

  16. Expression and localization of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human term placenta.

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    Lager, S; Ramirez, V I; Gaccioli, F; Jansson, T; Powell, T L

    2014-07-01

    Fatty acids can function as signaling molecules, acting through receptors in the cytosol or on the cell surface. G-Protein Receptor (GPR)120 is a membrane-bound receptor mediating anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of the omega-3 fatty acid docohexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR120 dysfunction is associated with obesity in humans. Cellular localization of GPR120 and the influence of maternal obesity on GPR120 protein expression in the placenta are unknown. Herein we demonstrate that GPR120 is predominantly expressed in the microvillous membrane (MVM) of human placenta and that the expression level of this receptor in MVM is not altered by maternal body mass index (BMI).

  17. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

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    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status.

  18. The Current Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Atrial Fibrillation

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    Georgios A. Christou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main dietary source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA is fish, which contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In the present manuscript, we aimed to review the current evidence regarding the clinical role of n-3 PUFA in the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: A literature search based on PubMed listings was performed using “Omega-3 fatty acids” and “atrial fibrilation” as key search terms. Results: n-3 PUFA have been shown to attenuate structural atrial remodeling, prolong atrial effective refractory period through the prevention of reentry and suppress ectopic firing from pulmonary veins. Dietary fish intake has been found to have no effect on the incidence of AF in the majority of studies. Circulating DHA has been consistently reported to be inversely associated with AF risk, whereas EPA has no such effect. The majority of studies investigating the impact of n-3 PUFA supplementation on the incidence of AF following cardiac surgery reported no benefit, though most of them did not use n-3 PUFA pretreatment for adequate duration. Studies using adequate four-week pretreatment with n-3 PUFA before cardioversion of AF showed a reduction of the AF incidence. Conclusions: Although n-3 PUFA have antiarrhythmogenic properties, their clinical efficacy on the prevention of AF is not consistently supported. Further well-designed studies are needed to overcome the limitations of the existing studies and provide robust conclusions.

  19. Cost and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in Chinese ICU patients receiving parenteral nutrition

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    Wu GH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guo Hao Wu,1 Jian Gao,2 Chun Yan Ji,2 Lorenzo Pradelli,3 Qiu Lei Xi,1 Qiu Lin Zhuang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Nutrition, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background and objectives: Clinical evidence supports the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions in place of standard lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition (PN for intensive care unit (ICU patients, but uptake may be limited by higher costs. We compared clinical and economic outcomes for these two types of lipid emulsion in the Chinese ICU setting. Methods: We developed a pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model, based on efficacy data from an international meta-analysis and patient characteristics, resource consumption, and unit costs from a Chinese institutional setting. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Model predictive validity was assessed by comparing results with data observed in a patient subset not used in the modeling. Results: The model predicted that omega-3 PUFA-enriched emulsion (Omegaven® 10% fish oil emulsion would dominate standard lipid emulsions, with better clinical outcomes and lower overall health care costs (mean savings ~10,000 RMB, mainly as a result of faster recovery and shorter hospital stay (by ~6.5 days. The external validation process confirmed the reliability of the model predictions. Conclusion: Omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipid emulsions improved clinical outcome and decreased overall costs in Chinese ICU patients requiring PN. Keywords: omega-3 PUFA-enriched lipids, ICU patients, total costs, microsimulation, external validation, length of hospital stay

  20. Omega3 Fatty Acids Intake Versus Diclofenac in Osteoarthritis Induced in Experimental rats

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    Mohammed M. El-Seweidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OAis a degenerative joint disease, characterized by abnormal remodeling pattern of joints driven by inflammatory mediators within the affected joints. Its symptoms are many like pain, stiffness,and decreased function. Objective:The present study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3 fatty acids (F.As versus diclofenac, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in OA induced in rats Design: Intraarticular injection of monosodiumiodoacetate(MIA 24.6 mg/kg in 0.6 ml saline was used to induce OA. Diclofenac and omega-3 F. These were administered orally, daily for 21 days and after 24 hours of OA induction.Results:Osteoarthritis induction resulted in an increase in serum levels of IL-6(479.5%,TNF-α(545.5%, and CRP(754.2% along with IL-10 level decrease(70.3% as compared to normal group. Diclofenac intake demonstrated significant increase of IL-6 (24.9%,CRP (88.6%,and TNF-α(25.2% compared to the OA control group. Omega 3 FAs intake showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers along with IL-10 increase, in comparison toOA group.Both treatment demonstrated a significant increase in TIMP2 along with decreased MMP2 and MPO in comparison with OA control.Positive correlation of IL-6 with MPO(r = 0.7,P=0.002, and negative one with IL-10(r = 0.9,p<0.0001 and TIMP2 (r = -0.5,p<0.008 was observed.Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with MMP2(r = -0.5, p<0.007 and MPO (r=-0.8,p<0.0001.Conclusion:Data derived from biochemical and histopathological results, indicated that omega3 FAs may be expressed as a natural anti-inflammatory agent of a significant potential in OA with evident remarkable effect.

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids reduce myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow of mice and promote progenitor cell differentiation

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    Sollars Vincent E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega 3 fatty acids have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and promote differentiation in various cell types. The processes of cell survival, expansion, and differentiation are of key importance in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We investigated the role of omega 3 fatty acids in controlling the frequency of various myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Increased progenitor cell frequency and blocked differentiation are characteristics of hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage, such as myeloproliferative diseases and myeloid leukemias. Results We found that increasing the proportion of omega 3 fatty acids relative to the proportion of omega 6 fatty acids in the diet caused increased differentiation and reduced the frequency of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice. Furthermore, this had no adverse effect on peripheral white blood cell counts. Conclusion Our results indicate that omega 3 fatty acids impact hematopoietic differentiation by reducing myeloid progenitor cell frequency in the bone marrow and promoting progenitor cell differentiation. Further exploration of this discovery could lead to the use of omega 3 fatty acids as a therapeutic option for patients that have various disorders of hematopoiesis.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids (ῳ-3 fatty acids) in epilepsy: animal models and human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.

  3. TRIGLYCERIDES, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOME STUDIES: FOCUS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

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    Handelsman, Yehuda; Shapiro, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To provide an overview of the roles of triglycerides and triglyceride-lowering agents in atherosclerosis in the context of cardiovascular outcomes studies. We reviewed the published literature as well as ClinicalTrials.gov entries for ongoing studies. Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Epidemiologic data and recent genetic insights provide compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are three classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent. With regard to OM3FAs, the JELIS study showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced major coronary events in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients. Regarding other agents, extended-release niacin and fenofibrate are no longer recommended as statin add-on therapy (by some guidelines, though not all) because of the lack of convincing evidence from outcome studies. Notably, subgroup analyses from the outcome studies have generated the hypothesis that triglyceride lowering may provide benefit in statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia. Two ongoing OM3FA outcome studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are testing this hypothesis in high-risk, statin-treated patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 500 mg/dL. There is consistent evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway of atherosclerosis but inconsistent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes studies as to whether triglyceride-lowering agents reduce cardiovascular risk. Ongoing outcomes studies will determine the role of triglyceride lowering in statin-treated patients with high-dose prescription OM3FAs in terms of improved ASCVD outcomes. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

  4. The protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids on rat testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Zararsız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids on testicular tissue was aimed to investigate at biochemical levels.Materials and methods: Totally, 16 adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Rats in Group I were used as control and only saline was given by intragastric gavage. Rats in Group II, 400 mg/kg dose ω-3 fatty acids were given daily by intragastric gavage. At the end of the six-week experimental period, all rats were killed by decapitation. The testicular tissue specimens taken from animals, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, enzyme activities were measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, blood testosterone levels were examined.Results: In our study, ω-3 fatty acids in rats were given a statistically significant increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase a statistically significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels were determined when compared to control group. In addition, ω-3 fatty acids in rats given a statistically significant increase in blood testosterone levels were observed.Conclusion: We concluded that ω-3 fatty acid had favorable effects in rat testis tissue by preventing oxidative damage and increasing the level of testosterone.

  5. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Walton, Kathryn; Klingel, Shannon L; Harnett, Amber; Subedi, Sanjeena; Haines, Jess; Mutch, David M

    2017-03-06

    Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18-25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10(-4)) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden.It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor.Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD,a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches.In this review,major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described.n-3 PUFAs,besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension,hyperlipidemia,endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e.,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α,PPARγ,sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein],impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity.In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production,n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and of oxygen reactive species.Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies,both animal models and human intervention trials,showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements.Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans,well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration,with histological endpoints,are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA,as well as other therapies,for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil,flaxseeds,olive oil) which are typical foods

  7. Combination of omega-3 Fatty acids, lithium, and aripiprazole reduces oxidative stress in brain of mice with mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Pandiyan; Rajeshwaran, Krishnamoorthy; Shanthakumar, Janakiraman; Tamilselvan, Thangavel; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2014-09-01

    Manic episode in bipolar disorder (BD) was evaluated in the present study with supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in combination with aripiprazole and lithium on methylphenidate (MPD)-induced manic mice model. Administration of MPD 5 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally (i.p.) caused increase in oxidative stress in mice brain. To retract this effect, supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids 1.5 ml/kg (p.o.), aripiprazole 1.5 mg/kg bw (i.p.), and lithium 50 mg/kg bw (p.o) were given to mice. Omega-3 fatty acids alone and in combination with aripiprazole- and lithium-treated groups significantly reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in the brain. MPD treatment significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and they were restored by supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with aripiprazole and lithium. There is no remarkable difference in the effect of creatine kinase (CK) activity between MPD-induced manic model and the treatment groups. Therefore, our results demonstrate that oxidative stress imbalance and mild insignificant CK alterations induced by administration of MPD can be restored back to normal physiological levels through omega-3 fatty acids combined with lithium and aripiprazole that attributes to effective prevention against mania in adult male Swiss albino mice.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids improve psychomotor performance via mechanism not related to nitric acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs are essential polyunsaturated fats that protect the brain from cognitive impairment. It increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS and thereby increases the nitric acid (NO production. This study aimed to explore the effect of ω-3FAs on psychomotor performance and to relate this effect to the reactive nitrogen species. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq. Twenty healthy subjects, allocated randomly from medical college students, were participated in the single blind clinical trial. Participants were divided into two groups, each of ten subjects to receive either placebo or (ω-3FAs (750 mg single oral dose daily for 5 days. They were asked to perform psychomotor performance before and after 5 days of treatment, and venous blood was obtained for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO. ω-3FAs treated group was significantly different from placebo-treated group in reducing choice and motor reaction times as well as the critical flicker frequency threshold. The serum levels of NO and ONOO in ω-3FAs-treated group did not significantly differ from placebo-treated group. Short term supplementation of ω-3FAs improves the psychomotor performance in young healthy subjects via a mechanism not related to the production of nitric oxide production. Inflorescence is a panicle few flowered and fruit is a capsule. The data of the results obtained were presented and discussed.

  9. α-linolenic omega-3 fatty acid for stroke protection: from brain preconditioning paradigm to nutrition

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    Blondeau Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third leading cause of death, due to its high incidence, the severity of the insult, and lack of treatment options. The only therapeutic is restoration of cerebral blood flow achieved by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment, but only approximately 5% of patients receive it. In addition, therapeutics aimed at achieving neuroprotection by blocking the ischemic cascade, as identified in numerous preclinical studies, failed in clinical trials. This failure in translation from experimental models to clinical trials led to a re-evaluation of properties which would constitute the ‘‘best-in class’’ therapeutics to be used against stroke. Given that neuroprotection appears ineffective per se, an emerging direction is to identify therapies, probably combinatorial in nature, which protect the whole neurovascular unit and target timedependent neurotoxic mechanisms. Molecules that activate complex cellular signaling cascades that render the brain resistant to subsequent ischemia, known as preconditioners, offer a novel perspective in stroke protection. Preconditioning elicits complex endogenous neuroprotective responses that act by pleiotropic mechanisms to block death pathways, promote survival pathways and increase resistance. In addition to chemical preconditioners, natural/endogenous compounds such as adenosine, glutamate, lysophospholipids, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been demonstrated to be excellent preconditioners. Consequently, a major new concept in preconditioning to combat stroke is introduced, which is preconditioning achieved through supplementation of an essential item in diet or as a nutraceutical. Several epidemiologic studies suggested a beneficial effect of a seafood/omega-3-enriched diet in cerebral diseases, but the omega-3-induced protective mechanisms are still poorly identified. This review highlights how α-linolenic acid (ALA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid precursor

  10. Gastrointestinal bleeding after high intake of omega-3 fatty acids, cortisone and antibiotic therapy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Papamikos, Vasilios

    2014-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids exert a plethora of physiological actions including triglycerides lowering, reduction of inflammatory indices, immunomodulation, anti- thrombotic effects and possibly promotion of exercise performance. Their use is widespread and for commonly ingested doses their side- effects are minimal. We report a case of a 60 y amateur athlete who consumed about 20 g omega-3 fatty acids daily from supplements and natural sources for a year. After the intake of cortisone and antibiotics he presented duodenum ulcer and bleeding although he had no previous history of gastrointestinal problems. Although several animal data support gastro-protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the present case they were not able to prevent ulcer generation. The present observation may be explained by (i) the high dose of omega-3 fatty acids and their effect on bleeding, (ii) the fact that cortisone increases their oxidation and may render them proinflammatory, (iii) other antithrombotic microconstituents included in the consumed cod-oil and/or the diet of the subject and (iv) the differences in the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems of well- trained subjects. Further studies are needed to substantiate any possible interaction of cortisone and omega-3 fatty acids in wide ranges of intake.

  11. Does Short-Term Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Influence Brain Hippocampus Gene Expression of Zinc Transporter-3?

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    Nur Farhana Ahmad Sopian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been recognized to improve brain cognitive function. Deficiency leads to dysfunctional zinc metabolism associated with learning and memory impairment. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of short-term dietary omega-3 fatty acids on hippocampus gene expression at the molecular level in relation to spatial recognition memory in mice. A total of 24 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed a standard pellet as a control group (CTL, n = 6, standard pellet added with 10% (w/w fish oil (FO, n = 6, 10% (w/w soybean oil (SO, n = 6 and 10% (w/w butter (BT, n = 6. After 3 weeks on the treatment diets, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. The hippocampus gene expression was determined using a real-time PCR. The results showed that 3 weeks of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improved cognitive performance along with the up-regulation of α-synuclein, calmodulin and transthyretin genes expression. In addition, dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency increased the level of ZnT3 gene and subsequently reduced cognitive performance in mice. These results indicate that the increased the ZnT3 levels caused by the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids produced an abnormal zinc metabolism that in turn impaired the brain cognitive performance in mice.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids and risk of cognitive decline in the elderly: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hou, Wen-Shang; Li, Min; Tang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Evidence has demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids intake may be associated with age-related cognitive decline. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have drawn inconsistent conclusions. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between omega-3 fatty acids and risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (updated to December 2014) was performed. We retrieved six randomized controlled studies as eligible for our meta-analysis. Among these six studies, the duration time ranged from 3 to 40 months. The dose of omega-3 fatty acids (DHA + EPA) ranged from 400 to 1800 mg. The result of our meta-analysis expressed that omega-3 fatty acids statistically decrease the rate of cognitive decline in MMSE score (WMD = 0.15, [0.05, 0.25]; p = 0.003). In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated that omega-3 fatty acids may help to prevent cognitive decline in the elderly.

  13. Increased production of omega-3 fatty acids protects retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shanshan; Shi, Zhe; Su, Huanxing; So, Kwok-Fai; Cui, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Injury to the central nervous system causes progressive degeneration of injured axons, leading to loss of the neuronal bodies. Neuronal survival after injury is a prerequisite for successful regeneration of injured axons. In this study, we investigated the effects of increased production of omega-3 fatty acids and elevation of cAMP on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration after optic nerve (ON) crush injury in adult mice. We found that increased production of omega-3 fatty acids in mice enhanced RGC survival, but not axonal regeneration, over a period of 3 weeks after ON injury. cAMP elevation promoted RGC survival in wild type mice, but no significant difference in cell survival was seen in mice over-producing omega-3 fatty acids and receiving intravitreal injections of CPT-cAMP, suggesting that cAMP elevation protects RGCs after injury but does not potentiate the actions of the omega-3 fatty acids. The observed omega-3 fatty acid-mediated neuroprotection is likely achieved partially through ERK1/2 signaling as inhibition of this pathway by PD98059 hindered, but did not completely block, RGC protection. Our study thus enhances our current understanding of neural repair after CNS injury, including the visual system.

  14. Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-25

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders which are characterized by cognitive decline is increasing at an alarming rate and account for a significant proportion of the global disease burden. Evidences from human and animal studies indicate that neurocognitive development is influenced by various environmental factors including nutrition. It has been established that nutrition affects the brain throughout life. However, the mechanisms through which nutrition modulates mental health are still not well understood. It has been suggested that the deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids can have adverse effects on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Studies indicate a need for supplementation of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk of cognitive decline, although the results of intervention trials using these nutrients in isolation are inconclusive. In the present article, we provide an overview of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids, the possible mechanisms and the evidences through which vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids modulate mental health and cognition. Understanding the role of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on brain functioning may provide important clues to prevent early cognitive deficits and later neurobehavioral disorders.

  15. Qualitative analysis of hippocampal plastic changes in rats with epilepsy supplemented with oral omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysneiros, Roberta M; Ferrari, Danuza; Arida, Ricardo M; Terra, Vera C; de Almeida, Antonio-Carlos G; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A

    2010-01-01

    Studies have provided evidence of the important effects of omega-3 fatty acid on the brain in neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Previous data have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids lead to prevention of status epilepticus-associated neuropathological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats with epilepsy. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has resulted in extensive preservation of GABAergic cells in animals with epilepsy. This study investigated the interplay of these effects with neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The results clearly showed a positive effect of long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain plasticity in animals with epilepsy. Enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF levels and preservation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin were observed. Parvalbumin-positive cells were identified as surviving instead of newly formed cells. Additional investigations are needed to determine the electrophysiological properties of the newly formed cells and to clarify whether the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on brain plasticity are accompanied by functional gain in animals with epilepsy.

  16. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Sihag, Manvesh Kumar; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Sabikhi, Latha

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and characterize omega-3 dahi (Indian yoghurt) through fortification of microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP). Four different formulations of MFOP were fortified in dahi @ 1, 2 and 3 % levels and the level of addition was optimized on the basis of sensory scores. Dahi fortified at 2 % level was observed comparable to control, which was further studied for titratable acidity, syneresis, firmness, stickiness, oxidative stability (peroxide value), α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3) content and sensory attributes during 15d of storage. MFOP fortified dahi showed significantly (p syneresis after 12d of storage. However, peroxide value remained well below (~0.41) to the maximum permissible limit (5 meq peroxides/kg oil) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999). Gas-liquid chromatography profile showed ~21 % decrease in ALA content in fortified dahi after 15d of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that flaxseed oil microcapsules could be successfully incorporated in dahi; which could serve as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids.

  17. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, James; Anzalone, Deborah; Hilleman, Daniel; Catini, Julia

    2016-07-22

    Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®). At approved doses, all formulations substantially reduce triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels. DHA-containing formulations may also increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, this is not accompanied by increased non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to provide a better indication of cardiovascular risk in this patient population. Proposed mechanisms of action of OM3FAs include inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity, decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased hepatic β-oxidation. OM3CA bioavailability (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable concentration) is up to 4-fold greater than that of OM3FA ethyl esters, and unlike ethyl esters, the absorption of OM3CA is not dependent on pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All three formulations are well tolerated (the most common adverse events are gastrointestinal) and demonstrate a lack of drug-drug interactions with other lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins and fibrates. OM3FAs appear to be an effective treatment option for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce hepatic steatosis and consequently attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury following partial hepatectomy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Marsman; M. Heger; J.J. Kloek; S.L. Nienhuis; F.J.W. ten Kate; T.M. van Gulik

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) treatment of experimental steatosis and the consequent effect on ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Background: Fatty livers are more susceptible to IR injury and display decreased regenerative capacity. Consequently, restriction

  19. Chronic Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Treatment Variably Affects Cellular Repolarization in a Healed Post-MI Arrhythmia Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Vargas-Pinto, Pedro; Baine, Stephen H.; Sridhar, Arun; Li, Chun; Billman, George E.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the last 40 years omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to be anti-arrhythmic or pro-arrhythmic depending on the method and duration of administration and model studied. We previously reported that omega-3 PUFAs do not confer anti-arrhythmic properties and are pro-arrhythmic in canine model of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic omega-3 PUFA treatment in post-MI animals susceptible (VF+) or resistant (VF−) to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Methods: Perforated patch clamp techniques were used to measure cardiomyocyte action potential durations (APD) at 50 and 90% repolarization and short term variability of repolarization. The early repolarizing transient outward potassium current Ito was also studied. Results: Omega-3 PUFAs prolonged the action potential in VF− myocytes at both 50 and 90% repolarization. Short term variability of repolarization was increased in both untreated and treated VF− myocytes vs. controls. Ito was unaffected by omega-3 PUFA treatment. Omega-3 PUFA treatment attenuated the action potential prolongation in VF+ myocytes, but did not return repolarization to control values. Conclusions: Omega-3 PUFAs do not confer anti-arrhythmic properties in the setting of healed myocardial infarction in a canine model of SCD. In canines previously resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF−), omega-3 PUFA treatment prolonged the action potential in VF− myocytes, and may contribute to pro-arrhythmic responses. PMID:27378936

  20. Acne vulgaris, mental health and omega-3 fatty acids: a report of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Katherine

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition, one that is associated with significant psychological disability. The psychological impairments in acne include higher rates of depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal thoughts. Despite a paucity of clinical research, patients with skin conditions and/or mental health disorders are frequent consumers of dietary supplements. An overlap may exist between nutrients that potentially have both anti-acne and mood regulating properties; examples include omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, chromium, zinc and selenium. Here we report on five cases of acne treated with eicosapentaenoic acid and antioxidant nutrients. Self-administration of these nutrients may have improved inflammatory acne lesions and global aspects of well-being; the observations suggest a need for controlled trials.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation: a perspective on the challenges of evaluating efficacy in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a common underpinning of many diseases. There is a strong pre-clinical evidence base demonstrating the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for ameliorating inflammation and thereby reducing disease burden. Clinically, C-reactive protein (CRP) serves as both a reliable marker for monitoring inflammation and a modifiable endpoint for studies of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals. However, clinical omega-3 fatty acid supplementation trials have not replicated pre-clinical findings in terms of consistent CRP reductions. Methodological differences present numerous challenges in translating pre-clinical evidence to clinical results. It is crucial that future clinical nutrition research clearly distinguish between the reversal of established inflammation and preventing the development of inflammation. Future clinical studies evaluating the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to attenuate an excessive inflammatory response, may be advanced by employing new statistical approaches and utilizing models of induced inflammation, such as low-dose human endotoxemia.

  2. Immunomodulation by dietary long chain omega-3 fatty acids and the potential for adverse health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Jenifer I; Hord, Norman G; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Gurzell, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Recommendations to consume fish for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), along with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for long chain omega-3 fatty acids, may have had the unanticipated consequence of encouraging long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid [(eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] supplementation and fortification practices. While there is evidence supporting a protective role for EPA/DHA supplementation in reducing sudden cardiac events, the safety and efficacy of supplementation with LCω-3PUFA in the context of other disease outcomes is unclear. Recent studies of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in animal models of infectious disease demonstrate that LCω-3PUFA intake dampens immunity and alters pathogen clearance and can result in reduced survival. The same physiological properties of EPA/DHA that are responsible for the amelioration of inflammation associated with chronic cardiovascular pathology or autoimmune states, may impair pathogen clearance during acute infections by decreasing host resistance or interfere with tumor surveillance resulting in adverse health outcomes. Recent observations that high serum LCω-3PUFA levels are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation raise concern for adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of supplements and fortification of common food items with LCω-3PUFA, this review focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of the dietary LCω-3PUFAs, EPA and DHA, the mechanistic basis for potential negative health outcomes, and calls for biomarker development and validation as rational first steps towards setting recommended dietary intake levels.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids modify human cortical visual processing--a double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Isabelle; Crewther, David P; Pipingas, Andrew; Rowsell, Renee; Cockerell, Robyn; Crewther, Sheila G

    2011-01-01

    While cardiovascular and mood benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are manifest, direct neurophysiological evidence of their effects on cortical activity is still limited. Hence we chose to examine the effects of two proprietary fish oil products with different EPA:DHA ratios (EPA-rich, high EPA:DHA; DHA-rich) on mental processing speed and visual evoked brain activity. We proposed that nonlinear multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) would be sensitive to any alteration of the neural function induced by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, because the higher order kernel responses directly measure the degree of recovery of the neural system as a function of time following stimulation. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 18-34, with no known neurological or psychiatric disorder and not currently taking any nutritional supplementation, were recruited. A double-blind, crossover design was utilized, including a 30-day washout period, between two 30-day supplementation periods of the EPA-rich and DHA-rich diets (with order of diet randomized). Psychophysical choice reaction times and multi-focal nonlinear visual evoked potential (VEP) testing were performed at baseline (No Diet), and after each supplementation period. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, for stimulation at high luminance contrast, a significant reduction in the amplitude of the first slice of the second order VEP kernel response, previously related to activation in the magnocellular pathway, was observed. The correlations between the amplitude changes of short latency second and first order components were significantly different for the two supplementations. Significantly faster choice reaction times were observed psychophysically (compared with baseline performance) under the EPA-rich (but not DHA-rich) supplementation, while simple reaction times were not affected. The reduced nonlinearities observed under the EPA

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids modify human cortical visual processing--a double-blind, crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bauer

    Full Text Available While cardiovascular and mood benefits of dietary omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA are manifest, direct neurophysiological evidence of their effects on cortical activity is still limited. Hence we chose to examine the effects of two proprietary fish oil products with different EPA:DHA ratios (EPA-rich, high EPA:DHA; DHA-rich on mental processing speed and visual evoked brain activity. We proposed that nonlinear multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP would be sensitive to any alteration of the neural function induced by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, because the higher order kernel responses directly measure the degree of recovery of the neural system as a function of time following stimulation. Twenty-two healthy participants aged 18-34, with no known neurological or psychiatric disorder and not currently taking any nutritional supplementation, were recruited. A double-blind, crossover design was utilized, including a 30-day washout period, between two 30-day supplementation periods of the EPA-rich and DHA-rich diets (with order of diet randomized. Psychophysical choice reaction times and multi-focal nonlinear visual evoked potential (VEP testing were performed at baseline (No Diet, and after each supplementation period. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, for stimulation at high luminance contrast, a significant reduction in the amplitude of the first slice of the second order VEP kernel response, previously related to activation in the magnocellular pathway, was observed. The correlations between the amplitude changes of short latency second and first order components were significantly different for the two supplementations. Significantly faster choice reaction times were observed psychophysically (compared with baseline performance under the EPA-rich (but not DHA-rich supplementation, while simple reaction times were not affected. The reduced nonlinearities observed under the

  5. Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Leila; Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohamad; Fakurazi, Sharida; Muhammad, Sani Ismaila

    2014-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 10-15% of childbearing women. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids, which are components of fish oil, may attenuate depression symptoms. In order to examine this hypothesis, the animal model of postpartum depression was established in the present study. Ovariectomized female rats underwent hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) regimen and received progesterone and estradiol benzoate or vehicle for 23 days, mimicking the actual rat's pregnancy. The days after hormone termination were considered as the postpartum period. Forced feeding of menhaden fish oil, as a source of omega-3, with three doses of 1, 3, and 9g/kg/d, fluoxetine 15mg/kg/d, and distilled water 2ml/d per rat started in five postpartum-induced and one vehicle group on postpartum day 1 and continued for 15 consecutive days. On postpartum day 15, all groups were tested in the forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT), followed by a biochemical assay. Results showed that the postpartum-induced rats not treated with menhaden fish oil, exhibited an increase in immobility time seen in FST, hippocampal concentration of corticosterone and plasmatic level of corticosterone, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These depression-related effects were attenuated by supplementation of menhaden fish oil with doses of 3 and 9g/kg. Moreover, results of rats supplemented with menhaden fish oil were comparable to rats treated with the clinically effective antidepressant, fluoxetine. Taken together, these results suggest that menhaden fish oil, rich in omega-3, exerts beneficial effect on postpartum depression and decreases the biomarkers related to depression such as corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  7. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2012-05-21

    Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean) polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat) appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids, nutrient retention values, and sensory meat eating quality in cooked and raw Australian lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. The mean EPA+DHA content of the cooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties.

  9. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Elahe Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef-fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa-tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure-ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con-centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048 compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and omega-3 fatty acid exposure from fish consumption, and thyroid cancer among New York anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Bonner, Matthew R; Lindblad, William; Allegra, Joey; Shen, Ye; Vena, John E

    2016-03-01

    Fish from the Great Lakes contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which have been shown to disrupt endocrine function and mimic thyroid hormones, but they also contain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids that may offer protection against endocrine cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lake Ontario fish consumption and the estimated consumption of PCBs and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of thyroid cancer in a group of sport fishermen. Anglers from the New York State Angler Cohort Study were followed for cancer incidence from 1991-2008. Twenty-seven cases of incident thyroid cancer and 108 controls were included in the analyses. Total estimated fish consumption, estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption, and estimated PCB consumption from Lake Ontario fish were examined for an association with the incidence of thyroid cancer, while matching on sex, and controlling for age and smoking status. Results from logistic regression indicate no significant associations between fish consumption, short-term estimated omega-3 fatty acids, or estimated PCB consumption from Great Lakes fish and the development of thyroid cancer, but it was suggested that long-term omega-3 fatty acid from Great Lakes fish may be protective of the development of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, fish consumption, with the possible concomitant PCBs, from the Great Lakes does not appear to increase the risk of thyroid cancer in New York anglers. Further research is needed in order to separate the individual health effects of PCBs from omega-3 fatty acids contained within the fish.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk. Additionally, a random-effects model was used to estimate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of end-stage renal disease. Nine randomized controlled trials evaluating 444 patients with chronic kidney disease were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 76.8 months. Compared with no or low-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, any or high-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, respectively, was associated with a lower risk of proteinuria (SMD: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.10; p=0.004 but had little or no effect on the serum creatinine clearance rate (SMD: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.84; p=0.482 or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.42; p=0.296. However, this supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.99; p=0.047. In sum, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of end-stage renal disease and delays the progression of this disease.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Liu, Zuoliang; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk. Additionally, a random-effects model was used to estimate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of end-stage renal disease. Nine randomized controlled trials evaluating 444 patients with chronic kidney disease were included in the study. The follow-up duration ranged from 2 to 76.8 months. Compared with no or low-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, any or high-dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, respectively, was associated with a lower risk of proteinuria (SMD: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.10; p=0.004) but had little or no effect on the serum creatinine clearance rate (SMD: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.40 to 0.84; p=0.482) or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.42; p=0.296). However, this supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of end-stage renal disease (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.99; p=0.047). In sum, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with a significantly reduced risk of end-stage renal disease and delays the progression of this disease.

  13. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R; Cañón, J; Dunner, S

    2010-01-01

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) influence meat tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, and are beneficial to human health. The percentage of long-chain n-3 FAs in total FAs is termed the omega-3 index (O3I). It is thus of great interest to favor rising this index in bovine skeletal muscle, to obtain healthier, tastier, and more nutritive meat. This study was aimed to detect transcriptomic variations related to O3I in muscles in 15-month-old males of 4 Spanish cattle breeds raised under the same conditions. Through the analysis of extreme O3I phenotypes, 3 genes of interest (AANAT, UCP2 and AHA1) were identified. AANAT and UCP2 were strongly up-regulated, while AHA1 was repressed in animals with a high O3I. Moreover, gene expression differed between GDF8-null animal muscles (tested for nt821del11 and Q204X mutations) and the wild-type muscles for genes GDH1, IGF2R, FADS1, ASPH, and AIM1, all showing down-regulation in Asturiana de los Valles calves with muscle hypertrophy (GDF8-null). This shows that in GDF8-null animals other pathways are used for FA synthesis.

  14. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-01

    Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  16. Grocery store podcast about omega-3 fatty acids influences shopping behaviors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangia, Deepika; Palmer-Keenan, Debra M

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether listening to a podcast about omega-3 fatty acids (n-3s) while grocery shopping increased shoppers' awareness about and purchases of seafood and other foods rich in n-3s. Repeated-measures design with a convenience sample (n = 56) of grocery shoppers who listened to the podcast while shopping. Pre- and postintervention semistructured interviews were conducted. The Theory of Reasoned Action was the study's framework. Shoppers were primarily females (mean age, 41 ± 15.3 years). Their perceived ability to buy [t(55) = 6.27, P Podcasts may effectively communicate nutrition information. More research with a larger sample size is needed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on long-term changes in shopping behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular and metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids combined with fenofibrate in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kwang Kon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lee, Yonghee; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2016-10-15

    Effects of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) combined with fenofibrate are not yet investigated, compared with fenofibrate. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Fifty patients with hypertriglyceridemia in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 2g+fenofibrate 160mg (combination), or fenofibrate 160mg, respectively daily for 2months. Placebo, combination, and fenofibrate significantly decreased triglycerides by 7%, 41% and 30%, respectively and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio by 11%, 45% and 32%, respectively relative to baseline measurements (all Phypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Omega-3 N-acylethanolamines are endogenously synthesised from omega-3 fatty acids in different human prostate and breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I; Wahle, K W J; Cascio, M G; Smoum-Jaouni, R; Mechoulam, R; Pertwee, R G; Heys, S D

    2011-12-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell growth. We previously showed that N-acylethanolamine derivatives of n-3 (n-3-NAE) are endocannabinoids, which regulate cancer cell proliferation. These n-3-NAE are synthesised in certain cells/tissues, after supplementing with fatty acids, however, no one has assessed whether and to what extent this occurs in cancer cells. We determined levels of endogenous n-3-NAEs in hormone sensitive and insensitive prostate and breast cancer cells and subsequent effects on other endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), before and after supplementing with DHA and EPA fatty acids, using HPLC tandem mass spectrometry. This is the first study reporting that n-3-NAEs are synthesised from their parent n-3 fatty acids in cancer cells, regardless of tumour type, hormone status or the presence of fatty acid amide hydrolase. This could have important implications for the use of n-3 fatty acids as therapeutic agents in breast and prostate cancers expressing cannabinoid receptors.

  19. Omega-3脂肪酸与心血管疾病%Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程棣; 林琳; 杜瑞; 陆洁莉

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3系列多不饱和脂肪酸为人体自身不能合成的必需脂肪酸,对人体的作用与二十碳五烯酸(EPA)、二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)的生物活性密切相关.大量研究表明,omega-3脂肪酸具有改善心血管疾病的作用.然而近年来,部分人体研究得出了与此不同的结论.该文回顾了omega-3脂肪酸的主要食物来源、合成路径,并进一步探讨了其对于心血管危险因素的影响、对心血管疾病作用的临床证据及作用机制.

  20. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote liver regeneration after 90% hepatectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Dong Qiu; Sheng Wang; Yue Yang; Xiao-Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) administration on liver regeneration after 90% partial hepatectomy (PH) in METHODS:ω-3 PUFAs were intravenously injected in the ω-3 PUFA group before PH surgery.PH,sparing only the caudate lobe,was performed in both the control and the ω-3 PUFA group.Survival rates,liver weight/body weight ratios,liver weights,HE staining,transmission electron microscope imaging,nuclearassociated antigen Ki-67,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and signal transduction were evaluated to analyze liver regeneration.RESULTS:All rats in the control group died within 30 h after hepatectomy.Survival rates in the ω-3 PUFA group were 20/20 at 30 h and 4/20 1 wk after PH.Liver weight/body weight ratios and liver weights increased significantly in the ω-3 PUFA group.The structure of sinusoidal endothelial cells and space of Disse was greatly restored in the ω-3 PUFA group compared to the control group after PH.In the ω-3 PUFA group,interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly increased whereas IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were dramatically decreased.In addition,activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway were identified at an earlier time after PH in the ω-3 PUFA group.CONCLUSION:Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may prevent acute liver failure and promote liver regeneration after 90% hepatectomy in rats.

  1. Update on the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia – focus on free fatty acid forms of omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirillo A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Pirillo,1,2 Alberico Luigi Catapano2,3 1Center for the Study of Atherosclerosis, Bassini Hospital, Cinisello Balsamo, Italy; 2IRCCS Multimedica, Milan, Italy; 3Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Abstract: High levels of plasma triglycerides (TG are a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, often associated with anomalies in other lipids or lipoproteins. Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG, particularly at very high levels, significantly increases also the risk of acute pancreatitis. Thus, interventions to lower TG levels are required to reduce the risk of pancreatitis and cardiovascular disease. Several strategies may be adopted for TG reduction, including lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions. Among the available drugs, the most commonly used for HTG are fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (usually a mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA. These last are available under different concentrated formulations containing high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, including a mixture of EPA and DHA or pure EPA. The most recent formulation contains a free fatty acid (FFA form of EPA and DHA, and exhibits a significantly higher bioavailability compared with the ethyl ester forms contained in the other formulations. This is due to the fact that the ethyl ester forms, to be absorbed, need to be hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzymes that are secreted in response to fat intake, while the FFA do not. This higher bioavailability translates into a higher TG-lowering efficacy compared with the ethyl ester forms at equivalent doses. Omega-3 FFA are effective in reducing TG levels and other lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients as well as in high cardiovascular risk patients treated with statins and residual HTG. Currently, omega-3 FFA formulation is under evaluation to establish whether, in high cardiovascular risk

  2. Formulation and Physical, Chemical and Sensory Analysis of a Novel Flaxseed-enriched Milk-based Beverage to Deliver Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Clara Sueling

    2007-01-01

    An increased interest in functional beverages is occurring, and omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are one of the most commonly sought ingredients to fortify such beverages. Omega-3 FA produce beneficial health effects, likely due to their anti-inflammatory properties. The majority of current omega-3 FA-fortified products include marine-derived omega-3 FA sources, often producing undesired flavors due to lipid oxidation. Little research regarding incorporation of alpha-linolenic acid in functional ...

  3. Beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids in gestational diabetes: consequences in macrosomia and adulthood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Nekoua, Magloire P; Gbankoto, Adam; Mashalla, Yohana; Moutairou, Kabirou

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th) cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  4. Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes: Consequences in Macrosomia and Adulthood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughman, Scott D; Krupanidhi, Srirama; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2007-08-01

    Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example. Along with pollutants certain fish acquire high levels of EPA/DHA as predatory species. However, the origin of EPA/DHA in aquatic ecosystems is algae. Certain microalgae produce high levels of EPA or DHA. Now, organically produced DHA-rich microalgae oil is available. Clinical trials with DHA-rich oil indicate comparable efficacies to fish oil for protection from cardiovascular risk factors by lowering plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress. This review discusses 1) omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition and medicine; 2) omega-3s in physiology and gene regulation; 3) possible protective mechanisms of EPA/DHA in major diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and type 2 diabetes; 4) EPA and DHA requirements considering fish oil safety; and 5) microalgae EPA and DHA-rich oils and recent clinical results.

  6. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids, omega-3, human milk and supplementation; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  7. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Fish Oil and omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Non-melanoma Skin Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Yuen, Ng Pei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil is composed of various fatty acids among which omega-3 fatty acids are considered as most beneficial. The effects of fish oil on the activity of a topical anticancer drug, imiquimod, and the immunomodulatory activity of omega-3 fatty acids was investigated in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Imiquimod-fish oil mixture exhibited higher carcinoma cell growth inhibition and immunomodulatory activity than imiquimod alone, especially against squamous cell carcinoma cells. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibited growth inhibition of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and modulated the immune response. Omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil serve as inducers of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and as suppressors of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which not only depress tumor growth but also adequately control the inflammatory side effects of imiquimod. Thus, imiquimod administration with fish oil could be beneficial for inhibition of non-melanoma skin carcinoma cells but further in vivo studies are needed to understand their role in skin cancer.

  8. Omega 3 fatty acids supplementation has an ameliorative effect in experimental ulcerative colitis despite increased colonic neutrophil infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnalidis, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Orestis; Karamanavi, Elisavet; Ampas, Zafeiris; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Botsios, Dimitrios

    2011-10-01

    omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) colitis in rats appears to mimic nearly all of the morphological characteristics and lesion distributions of ulcerative colitis. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of omega 3 fatty acids in the treatment of experimental ulcerative colitis. thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned to group A or group B receiving 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for eight days. For the next eight days post-DSS, group A animals received tap-water, and group B animals were fed a nutritional solution containing high levels of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ProSure®, Abbott Laboratories, Zwolle, Netherlands) once per day, administrated with a orogastric feeding tube. animals fed an omega 3 rich diet exhibited a statistically significant increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, compared to animals drinking tap water, and a trend towards histopathological and clinical improvement, with the administration of omega 3 fatty acids ameliorating epithelial erosion by day 8 post-DSS, but no statistically significant difference was observed between group A and group B animals at 4 or 8 days post-DSS. Also, a statistically significant increase in neutrophil infiltration was observed, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity. our findings support a positive role of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis despite the increased colonic neutrophil infiltration. Further studies are needed in order to investigate the role of increased neutrophils in colonic mucosa.

  9. Fatty acid composition in major depression: decreased omega 3 fractions in cholesteryl esters and increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Cosyns, P; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H

    1996-04-26

    Recently, there were some reports that major depression may be accompanied by alterations in serum total cholesterol, cholesterol ester and omega 3 essential fatty acid levels and by an increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20: 5 omega 3, i.e., arachidonic acid/eicosapentaenoic, ratio. The present study aimed to examine fatty acid composition of serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids in 36 major depressed, 14 minor depressed and 24 normal subjects. Individual saturated (e.g., C14:0; C16:0, C18:0) and unsaturated (e.g., C18:1, C18:2, C20:4) fatty acids in phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fractions were assayed and the sums of the percentages of omega 6 and omega 3, saturated, branched chain and odd chain fatty acids, monoenes as well as the ratios omega 6/omega 3 and C20:4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 were calculated. Major depressed subjects had significantly higher C20:4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in both serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids and a significantly increased omega 6/omega 3 ratio in cholesteryl ester fraction than healthy volunteers and minor depressed subjects. Major depressed subjects had significantly lower C18:3 omega 3 in cholesteryl esters than normal controls. Major depressed subjects showed significantly lower total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesteryl esters and significantly lower C20:5 omega 3 in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids than minor depressed subjects and healthy controls. These findings suggest an abnormal intake or metabolism of essential fatty acids in conjunction with decreased formation of cholesteryl esters in major depression.

  10. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2016-09-22

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B; Steyn, F; Davies, P S W; Vitetta, L

    2013-12-01

    An increase in adiposity is associated with altered levels of biologically active proteins. These include the hormones adiponectin and leptin. The marked change in circulating concentrations of these hormones in obesity has been associated with the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Variations in dietary lipid consumption have also been shown to impact obesity. Specifically, omega-3 fatty acids have been correlated with the prevention of obesity and subsequent development of chronic disease sequalae. This review explores animal and human data relating to the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (marine lipids) on adiponectin and leptin, considering plausible mechanisms and potential implications for obesity management. Current evidence suggests a positive, dose-dependent relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and circulating levels of adiponectin. In obese subjects, this may translate into a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In non-obese subjects, omega-3 is observed to decrease circulating levels of leptin; however, omega-3-associated increases in leptin levels have been observed in obese subjects. This may pose benefits in the prevention of weight regain in these subjects following calorie restriction.

  12. DIETARY OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS MODIFIED THE ASSOCIATION OF PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH AIR POLLUTION IN ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous children's studies in North America and Germany have shown that ambient sulfate particles are associated with an increased prevalence of bronchitis and decreased lung function. We have now investigated the ability of dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty aci...

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids in cardiovascular diseases: Which actions and interactions modulate hemodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, Sara; Fava, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Increasing interest is focused on omega-3 fatty acids (FA) because of their potential beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular disease prevention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two major omega-3 FA, are mainly consumed through diet, particularly from fish and seafood intake, whereas alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. The hypothesis of a cardiovascular protective action of omega-3 FA derives mainly from observational studies, whereas the evidence from interventional studies is not always consistent. Nonetheless, clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate a positive action, at minimum on blood pressure (BP). Omega-3 FA may act through different biological pathways; however, in our review, we seek to revisit, most notably, the role of their metabolites via cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in hemodynamic modulation. We emphasize that the effect of omega-3 FA may depend on their balance with other dietary compounds, particularly omega-6 FA, which compete for the same pathways, thus modulating the production of metabolites. Furthermore, the biological activity of omega-3 FA might be better explained by the complex balance and interactions between a variety of nutrients and polymorphisms of genes implicated in specific metabolic pathways.

  14. Incorporation of a dietary omega 3 fatty acid impairs murine macrophage responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Bonilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beside their health benefits, dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA might impair host resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb by creating an immunosuppressive environment. We hypothesized that incorporation of n-3 PUFA suppresses activation of macrophage antimycobacterial responses and favors bacterial growth, in part, by modulating the IFNgamma-mediated signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Murine macrophage-like J774A.1 cells were incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA-conjugated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3 or BSA alone, activated with recombinant IFNgamma, and infected with a virulent strain (H37Rv of M. tuberculosis. The fatty acid composition of macrophage membranes was modified significantly by DHA treatment. DHA-treated macrophages were less effective in controlling intracellular mycobacteria and showed impaired oxidative metabolism and reduced phagolysosome maturation. Incorporation of DHA resulted in defective macrophage activation, as characterized by reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6 and MCP-1, and lower expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86. DHA treatment impaired STAT1 phosphorylation and colocalization of the IFNgamma receptor with lipid rafts, without affecting surface expression of IFNgamma receptor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that DHA reduces the ability of J774A.1 cells to control M. tuberculosis in response to activation by IFNgamma, by modulation of IFNgamma receptor signaling and function, suggesting that n-3 PUFA-enriched diets may have a detrimental effect on host immunity to tuberculosis.

  15. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving MTORC2 Signaling Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhifeng; Yang, Haiyuan; Wang, Ying; Ren, Jiafa; Dai, Yifan; Dai, Chunsun

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies showed the correlation between the deficiency of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), however, the role and mechanisms for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis remain obscure. In this study, NRK-49F cells, a rat kidney interstitial fibroblast cell line, were stimulated with TGFβ1. A Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 transgenic mouse model in which n-3 PUFAs are endogenously produced from n-6 PUFAs owing to the expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase were deployed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one member of n-3 PUFAs family, could suppress TGFβ1-induced fibroblast activation at a dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, DHA could largely inhibit TGFβ1-stimulated Akt but not S6 or Smad3 phosphorylation at a time dependent manner. To decipher the role for n-3 PUFAs in protecting against kidney fibrosis, fat-1 transgenic mice were operated with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO). Compared to the wild types, fat-1 transgenics developed much less kidney fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation accompanied by less p-Akt (Ser473), p-Akt (Thr308), p-S6 and p-Smad3 in kidney tissues at day 7 after UUO. Thus, n-3 PUFAs can attenuate fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis, which may be associated with the inhibition of mTORC2 signaling. PMID:28393852

  16. Omega-3 Fatty acids: anti-arrhythmic, pro-arrhythmic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schacky, C

    2012-01-01

    + DHA by use of the omega-3 index, EPA + DHA in red cell fatty acids. In populations with a high omega-3 index, SCD is rare. Intervention trials can become more effective by including a low omega-3 index into the inclusion criteria, thus creating a study population more likely to demonstrate an effect of EPA + DHA. This is especially relevant in case of rare endpoints, like new-onset AF or SCD.

  17. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alter Fatty Acid Composition of Lipids and CYP2E1 Expression in Rat Liver Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymchuk, Oksana; Shysh, Angela; Chashchyn, Mykola; Moibenko, Olexyi

    2016-07-21

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are used for the treatment and prevention of numerous pathologies in humans. As recently found, PUFAs play significantly protective roles in liver, cardiovascular system and kidney. They also are widely used in total parenteral nutrition. We evaluated the effect of omega-3 PUFA consumption on liver fatty acid composition and the expression of CYP2E1, one of the key enzymes in detoxification and prooxidant systems of liver cells. To estimate the oxidative stress in liver tissue, the antioxidant status and the level of lipid peroxidation were determined in a rodent model. Animals were divided into two groups: control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Epadol-containing omega-3 PUFA fish oil capsules were administered to Wistar rats within 4 weeks (0.1 mL/100 g b.w./day). The consumption of omega-3 PUFAs resulted in changes of fatty acid composition of liver tissue. A significant increase was detected in the α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid content (5.1-, 16-, and 1.3-fold, respectively, p omega-3:omega-6 ratio. Consumption of omega-3 PUFAs led to a 3-fold (p < 0.05) increase in CYP2E1 content, which could entail enhanced Nrf2 expression levels and increases in the HO-1 content in rat liver. The alteration in CYP2E1 expression did not have an impact on the level of lipid peroxidation and on the prooxidant/antioxidant balance.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  19. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erectile Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Atherosclerosis-induced Chronic Pelvic Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Dae Hee; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the omega-3 fatty acids help to improve erectile function in an atherosclerosis-induced erectile dysfunction rat model. A total of 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats at age 8 weeks were divided into three groups: Control group (n = 6, untreated sham operated rats), Pathologic group (n = 7, untreated rats with chronic pelvic ischemia [CPI]), and Treatment group (n = 7, CPI rats treated with omega-3 fatty acids). For the in vivo study, electrical stimulation of the cavernosal nerve was performed and erectile function was measured in all groups. Immunohistochemical antibody staining was performed for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α). In vivo measurement of erectile function in the Pathologic group showed significantly lower values than those in the Control group, whereas the Treatment group showed significantly improved values in comparison with those in the Pathologic group. The results of western blot analysis revealed that systemically administered omega-3 fatty acids ameliorated the cavernosal molecular environment. Our study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids improve intracavernosal pressure and have a beneficial role against pathophysiological consequences such as fibrosis or hypoxic damage on a CPI rat model, which represents a structural erectile dysfunction model.

  20. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Pas, Te Marinus F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptom

  1. Study on the use of omega-3 fatty acids as a therapeutic supplement in treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Balbás G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available G Márquez Balbás, M Sánchez Regaña, P Umbert MilletPsoriasis and Phototherapy Unit, Hospital Universitario Sagrat Cor, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Previous studies have suggested a benefit for patients with plaque psoriasis when omega-3 fatty acids are added to topical treatment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a nutritional complement rich in omega-3 fatty acids in patients with mild or moderate plaque psoriasis. Thirty patients were recruited, 15 of whom were given topical treatment with tacalcitol, forming the control group. The remaining 15 patients were given topical tacalcitol and 2 capsules of Oravex® daily. Three visits, the baseline, intermediate (week 4, and final (week 8, were held over an 8-week period. The main efficacy endpoints were the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI and Dermatological Life Quality Index (DLQI. A clear and significant improvement was observed in all the efficacy endpoints in both groups between the baseline visit and the end visit. This improvement was significantly greater in the group treated additionally with Oravex® than in the control group. Supplementary treatment with omega-3 fatty acids complements topical treatment in psoriasis, and makes a significant contribution to reducing PASI and NAPSI and improving DLQI; and to reducing scalp lesion and pruritus, erythema, scaling, and infiltration of the treated areas.Keywords: psoriasis, metabolic syndrome, vitamin D derivates, omega-3 fatty acids, tacalcitol

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  3. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Omega 3 and Omega 6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa-Caparrós, Esther; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2016-01-08

    A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular diseases has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese-overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Phogat, Hemant; Kaur, Avinash; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, tear film break up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) in patients with computer vision syndrome. Interventional, randomized, double blind, multi-centric study. Four hundred and seventy eight symptomatic patients using computers for more than 3h per day for minimum 1 year were randomized into two groups: 220 patients received two capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily (O3FA group) and 236 patients received two capsules of a placebo containing olive oil daily for 3 months (placebo group). The primary outcome measure was improvement in dry eye symptoms and secondary outcome measures were improvement in Nelson grade and an increase in Schirmer and TBUT scores at 3 months. In the placebo group, before dietary intervention, the mean symptom score, Schirmer, TBUT and CIC scores were 7.5±2, 19.9±4.7mm, 11.5±2s and 1±0.9 respectively, and 3 months later were 6.8±2.2, 20.5±4.7mm, 12±2.2s and 0.9±0.9 respectively. In the O3FA group, these values were 8.0±2.6, 20.1±4.2mm, 11.7±1.6s and 1.2±0.8 before dietary intervention and 3.9±2.2, 21.4±4mm, 15±1.7s, 0.5±0.6 after 3 months of intervention, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Lynne; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas; Dodge, Hiroko H; Woodward, William; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara; Waichunas, Dana; Bumgarner, Lauren; Bourdette, Dennis; Silbert, Lisa; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (ω-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (ω-3 + LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ω-3, or 3) ω-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ω-3 + LA and ω-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ω-3 + LA showed less decline in MMSE (p omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted.

  6. Omega-3 long chain fatty acid "bioavailability": a review of evidence and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    This review considers the bioavailability of different forms of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), including ethyl esters (EEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs). The retrieved studies include short-term and longer-term studies in humans, and a number of animal studies, which were highly heterogeneous in their design making it difficult to draw substantiated conclusions. The apparent bioavailability (as defined by the authors of these studies) seems to be lowest for the EE form and highest for the FFA form, whilst no conclusion can be made for TAG versus PL from human data. Animal studies suggest that there are substantial differences in the bioavailability of PL form of LC-PUFA compared with the TAG form. This apparent limited knowledge and understanding is fundamentally driven by methodological limitations of these studies. The major limitations with the studies to date include: (between studies) loose definition of the term "bioavailability", lack of standardisation of analytical methodology, and differences in which blood compartment was analysed; (within a study) failure to provide equal amounts the n-3 LC-PUFA of the different forms being compared, failure to provide the dose of n-3 LC-PUFA on a body weight basis, failure to measure fatty acid excretion, failure to control the total fat intake, and failure to adequately power the studies from a statistical point of view. This review has laid out a set of suggestions and criteria for conducting future studies on the bioavailability of different chemical forms of n-3 LC-PUFA.

  7. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Trigger Cell Cycle Arrest and Induce Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma LA-N-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Wing So; Wai Nam Liu; Kwok Nam Leung

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are dietary long-chain fatty acids with an array of health benefits. Previous research has demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of n-3 fatty acids on different cancer cell lines in vitro, yet their anti-tumor effects and underlying action mechanisms on human neuroblastoma LA-N-1 cells have not yet been reported. In this study, we showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exhibited time- and concentration-dependent anti-proliferative ...

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Qawasmi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and…

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Qawasmi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have demonstrated differences in omega-3 fatty acid composition in plasma and in erythrocyte membranes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with unaffected controls. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can alter central nervous system cell membrane fluidity and…

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids in high-risk cardiovascular patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielinski Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs have examined the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acids and have provided unexplained conflicting results. A meta-analysis of these RCTs to estimate efficacy and safety and potential sources of heterogeneity may be helpful. Methods The Cochrane library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify all interventional trials of omega-3 fatty acids compared to placebo or usual diet in high-risk cardiovascular patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention and safety. Meta-analyses were carried out using Bayesian random-effects models, and heterogeneity was examined using meta-regression. Results A total of 29 RCTs (n = 35,144 met our inclusion criteria, with 25 reporting mortality and 14 reporting restenosis. Omega-3 fatty acids were not associated with a statistically significant decreased mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.88, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] = 0.64, 1.03 or with restenosis prevention (RR = 0.89, 95% CrI = 0.72, 1.06, though the probability of some benefit remains high (0.93 and 0.90, respectively. However in meta-regressions, there was a >90% probability that larger studies and those with longer follow-up were associated with smaller benefits. No serious safety issues were identified. Conclusions Although not reaching conventional statistical significance, the evidence to date suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may result in a modest reduction in mortality and restenosis. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting these benefits as results were attenuated in higher quality studies, suggesting that bias may be at least partially responsible. Additional high quality studies are required to clarify the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Pilot study of omega-3 fatty acid supplements in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Iheanyi; Ibegbulam, Obike; Duru, Augustine; Ocheni, Sunday; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Umar, Garba; Asinobi, Isaac; Madu, Anazoeze; Okoye, Augustine; Nwagha, Tessy; Oguonu, Uche; Uamai, Ify; Agwu, Obineche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anike, Uche; Agu, Kingsley; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Herrada, Sagrario

    2011-07-01

    In a previous retrospective study, it was observed that the greater the amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood, the lesser the number of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) and the higher the steady state haemoglobin level. SCD causes ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation; which can be ameliorated by a metabolite of DHA that down-regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes. The objectives of this prospective pilot study were to evaluate the effects of DHA and EPA supplements in SCD, and test the hypothesis that these effects are mediated partly by reducing inflammation. Oral DHA and EPA supplements were given to 16 SCD patients for 6 months. We then compared pre- and post-supplementation values of number of crisis, steady state Hb, plasma unconjugated bilirubin and three indices of inflammation: plasma interleukin-6, blood neutrophil and platelet counts. There was a significant reduction in the plasma level of unconjugated bilirubin, and the number of sickle cell crisis; but not in the markers of inflammation. The pilot data suggest that DHA and EPA supplements reduce the number of crisis and steady state haemolysis in SCD; but provide no evidence that these effects are mediated by reducing inflammation.

  12. Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Lost in Translation?

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    Antigoni Z. Lalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA of marine origin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, have been long studied for their therapeutic potential in the context of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and glucose homeostasis. Glaring discordance between observations in animal and human studies precludes, to date, any practical application of n-3 PUFA as nutritional therapeutics against insulin resistance in humans. Our objective in this review is to summarize current knowledge and provide an up-to-date commentary on the therapeutic value of EPA and DHA supplementation for improving insulin sensitivity in humans. We also sought to discuss potential mechanisms of n-3 PUFA action in target tissues, in specific skeletal muscle, based on our recent work, as well as in liver and adipose tissue. We conducted a literature search to include all preclinical and clinical studies performed within the last two years and to comment on representative studies published earlier. Recent studies support a growing consensus that there are beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin sensitivity in rodents. Observational studies in humans are encouraging, however, the vast majority of human intervention studies fail to demonstrate the benefit of n-3 PUFA in type 2 diabetes or insulin-resistant non-diabetic people. Nevertheless, there are still several unanswered questions regarding the potential impact of n-3 PUFA on metabolic function in humans.

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids antagonize macrophage inflammation via activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.

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    Bingzhong Xue

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a key role in obesity-induced inflammation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA exert anti-inflammatory functions in both humans and animal models, but the exact cellular signals mediating the beneficial effects are not completely understood. We previously found that two nutrient sensors AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and SIRT1 interact to regulate macrophage inflammation. Here we aim to determine whether ω-3 PUFAs antagonize macrophage inflammation via activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway. Treatment of ω-3 PUFAs suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced cytokine expression in macrophages. Luciferase reporter assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays show that treatment of macrophages with ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibits LPS-induced NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, DHA also increases expression, phosphorylation and activity of the major isoform α1AMPK, which further leads to SIRT1 over-expression. More importantly, DHA mimics the effect of SIRT1 on deacetylation of the NF-κB subunit p65, and the ability of DHA to deacetylate p65 and inhibit its signaling and downstream cytokine expression require SIRT1. In conclusion, ω-3 PUFAs negatively regulate macrophage inflammation by deacetylating NF-κB, which acts through activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway. Our study defines AMPK/SIRT1 as a novel cellular mediator for the anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 PUFAs.

  14. Developmentally dependent and different roles of fatty acids OMEGA-6 and OMEGA-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourek, J; Mourek, J

    2011-01-01

    The developmentally-dependent differences in the biological significances and effects of PUFA-OMEGA-6 (namely of arachidonic acid) and PUFA-OMEGA-3 (namely of docosahexaenoic acid) are discussed. The clinical results as well as developmental experiences are indicating a hypothesis of the evolution...

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids, inflammatory status and biochemical markers of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariane Curado; Santos, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos; Telles, Rosa Weiss; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius Melo de; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Lanna, Cristina Costa Duarte

    2016-09-22

    Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group. The inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers at T0 and T1 in omega-3 group were compared using Wilcoxon test. U-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare variations of measured variables [ΔV=pre-treatment (T0) minus post-treatment (T1) concentrations] between groups. p<0.05 was considered significant. The median (interquartile range - IQR) of age was 37 (29-48) years old, of disease duration was 7 (4-13) years, and of SLEDAI-2K was 1 (0-2). The median (IQR) of variation in CRP levels between the two groups showed a decrease in omega-3 group while there was an increase in control group (p=0.008). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, leptin and adiponectin did not change after a 12 week treatment. Supplementation with omega-3 had no impact on serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, leptin and adiponectin in women with SLE and low disease activity. There was a significant decrease of CRP levels as well as evidence that omega-3 may impact total and LDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  17. Supplementation with the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: influence on the lipid composition and fatty acid profile of human milk

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    Eliana Aparecida Fagundes Queiroz Bortolozo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of supplementing the diet of women during pregnancy and lactation with fish oil containing the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, and its influence on the composition of human milk. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 women aged 18 to 38 years with appropriate dietary pattern, all of them healthy and nonsmokers. The intervention consisted of a daily supplementation with fish oil capsules that corresponded to a daily intake of 315mg of docosahexaenoic acid and 80mg of eicosapentaenoic acid during the third trimester of pregnancy and the first three months postpartum. The total fat content and fatty acid profile of their milk were determined by creamatocrit and gas chromatography. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and the significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the fat contents of the study (fish oil capsules and control (capsules containing corn starch as filler groups. However, the milk of women taking fish oil contained higher docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels 30 and 60 days after delivery. These results demonstrate that high omega-3 intake can influence its concentration in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period, it is appropriate for pregnant and breastfeeding women to supplement on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be done by adding fish oil to the regular diet.

  18. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol analogue isorhapontigenin versus omega-3 fatty acids in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Amr M

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Isorhapontigenin is a derivative of stilbene with chemical structure similar to resveratrol. The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with isorhapontigenin and omega-3 FA on rat model of isoproterenol-induced MI. Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups: normal, normal + isorhapontigenin, normal + omega-3 FA, MI, MI + isorhapontigenin, MI + omega-3 FA, and MI + isorhapontigenin + omega-3 FA. Serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)], cardiac troponin I (cTnI), inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6], and lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol (T.Ch), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), and phospholipids] as well as cardiac levels of malondialdehyde and anti-oxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase)] were measured in all rats. ECG and histopathological examination were performed. Isoproterenol caused a significant elevation of ST segment, decreased R wave amplitude, HDL, and anti-oxidants, and increased LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, triglycerides, T.Ch, LDL, and phospholipids. Omega-3 FA or isorhapontigenin significantly decreased the ST segment elevation, LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and phospholipids and increased R wave amplitude and anti-oxidants. The effects of combined omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin were more significant than either of them alone. Therefore, we conclude that omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin have a cardioprotective effect on rats with isoproterenol-induced MI through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

  19. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce plasminogen activator activity and DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoli, A N; Lavrentiadou, S N; Zervos, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Georgiadis, M P; Nikolaidis, E A; Botsoglou, N; Boscos, C M; Taitzoglou, I A

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect(s) of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on rabbit semen. Adult rabbit bucks were assigned to two groups that were given two diets, a standard diet (control) and a diet supplemented with ω-3 PUFA. Sperm samples were collected from all bucks with the use of an artificial vagina in 20-day intervals, for a total period of 120 days. The enrichment of membranes in ω-3 PUFA was manifested by the elevation of the 22:5 ω-3 (docosapentaenoic acid [DPA]) levels within 40 days. This increase in DPA content did not affect semen characteristics (i.e., concentration, motility and viability). However, it was associated with the induction of lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, as determined on the basis of the malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation was associated with DNA fragmentation in ω-3 PUFA-enriched spermatozoa and a concomitant increase in plasminogen activator (PA) activity. The effects of ω-3 PUFA on sperm cells were evident within 40 days of ω-3 PUFA dietary intake and exhibited peack values on day 120. Our findings suggest that an ω-3 PUFA-rich diet may not affect semen characteristics; however, it may have a negative impact on the oxidative status and DNA integrity of the spermatozoa, which was associated with an induction of PAs activity.

  20. Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from the By-product of Tuna Canning Processing

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    Teti Estiasih

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the optimization conditions for separation and purification of omega-3 (&omega-3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna canning processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion (urea to fatty acid ratio (X1 and crystallization time(X2 were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM and a model was developed. Optimization results showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y = 24.44X1+5.65X2-8.71XX1 2-0.19X22+1.171X1X2- 12.95. The maximum response was obtained at an urea to fatty acid ratio of 2.99:1 and a crystallization time of 23.64 h and predicted response of 90.44%. Analysis of variance showed that the urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected the response. Verification under optimal conditions showed that the purity of &omega-3 fatty acids was 89.64% and the enrichment was 2.85 fold. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. The urea crystallization process changed oil quality parameters including oxidation level (peroxide, anisidin, and totox values, Fe, Cu and P concentrations and moisture content and this were mostly due to the saponification process before urea crystallization.

  1. Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil via alternate solvent winterization and enzymatic interesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiong; Ba, Sai; Zhang, Hao; Wei, Yanyan; Lee, Jasmine Yiqin; Li, Tianhu

    2016-05-15

    Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil via alternate operation of solvent winterization and enzymatic interesterification was attempted. Variables including separation method, solvent, oil concentration, time and temperature were optimized for the winterization. Meanwhile, Novozyme 435, Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM were screened for interesterification efficiency under different system air condition, time and temperature. In optimized method, alternate winterization (0.1g/mL oil/acetone, 24h, -80°C, precooled Büchner filtration) and interesterification (Lipozyme TL IM, N2 flow, 2.5h, 40°C) successfully doubled the omega-3 fatty acid content to 43.20 mol%. (1)H NMR was used to determine omega-3 fatty acid content, and GC-MS to characterize oil product, which mainly contained DHA (15.81 mol%) and EPA (20.23 mol%). The proposed method offers considerable efficiency and reduce production cost drastically. Oil produced thereof is with high quality and of particular importance for the development of omega-3 based active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  2. Improvement of Semen Quality in Holstein Bulls during Heat Stress by Dietary Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

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    Hamid Gholami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family are importantfor sperm membrane integrity, sperm motility and viability. There are evidences to suggest thatdietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids affects reproduction in men and males ofdifferent animal species. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate changes in thequality parameters of Holstein bull semen during heat stress and the effect of feeding a source ofomega-3 fatty acids during this period.Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from 19 Holstein bulls during the expected time ofheat stress in Iran (June to September 2009. Control group (n=10 were fed a standard concentratefeed while the treatment group (n=9 had this feed top dressed with 100 g of an omega-3 enrichednutriceutical. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm production were evaluated onejaculates collected after 1, 5, 9 and 12 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, computer-assistedassessment of sperm motility, viability (eosin-nigrosin and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOSTwere conducted.Results: Heat stress affected sperm quality parameters by weeks five and nine of the study (p<0.05.Supplementation significantly increased total motility, progressive motility, HOST-positivespermatozoa and average path velocity in the fresh semen of bulls (p<0.05.Conclusion: Dietary omega-3 supplementation improved in vitro quality and motility parametersof fresh semen in Holstein bulls. However, this effect was not evident in frozen-thawed semen.

  3. Dietary Changes with Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Wistar Albino Rats with Hypercholesterolaemia

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    Shahida A Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid profile is a reasonably reliable parameter for the assessment of cardiovascular risk, besides the anthropometric measurements. Serum lipid dysfunctions in the HDL and LDL components are commonly observed in cardiac patients. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibit a hypolipidemic potential which could be exploited in preventing the onset of this alarmingly increasing problem globally. Aims: To evaluate and compare the effects of different sources of omega-3 fatty acids, on the lipid profile parameters in rats induced with hyperlipidaemia. Methods and material: In our present study, we supplemented omega-3 oils from the plant source as well as the fish source to hypocholesteraemia induced Wistar albino rats for a period of three months. Wistar albino rats were fed normal chow along with 1% cholesterol for a period of three months to induce hypocholesteraemia. To this 1% flax oil and 0.1% fish oil were mixed separately and fed to two groups of rats for another period of three months to check for hypolipidemic effects if any. Results and conclusions: A significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and glucose levels with increases in HDL levels in the flax oil as well as fish oil groups is observed. Also, a noticeable change though not significant was observed in the plasma triglyceride concentrations after the supplementation period. This significant hypolipemic effect by omega-3 fatty acids from both the sources, demonstrates their possible therapeutic use in patients with cardiac risk.

  4. Myocardial protection during elective coronary artery bypasses grafting by pretreatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Veljović Milić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite recent advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, cardioplegic cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB are still associated with myocardial injury. Accordingly, the efforts have been made lately to improve the outcome of CPB by glucose-insulinpotassium, adenosine, Ca2+-channel antagonists, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q10, diazoxide, Na+/H+ exchange inhibitors, but with an unequal results. Since omega-3 polyunsatutated fatty acids (PUFAs have shown remarkable cardioprotection in preclinical researches, the aim of our study was to check their effects in prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury in patients with CPB. Methods. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed with parallel groups. The patients undergoing elective CABG were randomized to receive preoperative intravenous omega-3 PUFAs infusion (n = 20 or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution infusion (n = 20. Blood samples were collected simultaneously from the radial artery and the coronary sinus before starting CPB and at 10, 20 and 30 min after the release of the aortic cross clamp. Lactate extraction/excretion and myocardial oxygen extraction were calculated and compared between the two groups. The levels of troponin I (TnT and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB were determined before starting CPB and 4 and 24 h postoperatively. Results. Demographic and operative characteristics, including CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, were similar between the two groups of patients. The level of lactate extraction 10 and 20 min after aortic cross-clamp time has shown negative values in the control group, but positive values in the PUFAs group with statistically significant differences (-19.6% vs 7.9%; p < 0.0001 and -19.9% vs 8.2%; p < 0.0008, respectively. The level of lactate extraction 30 minutes after reperfusion was not statistically different between the two groups (6.9% vs 4.2%; p < 0.54. Oxygen extraction in the

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during brain maturation reduces neuronal and behavioral plasticity in adulthood.

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    Harsharan Singh Bhatia

    Full Text Available Omega-3-fatty acid DHA is a structural component of brain plasma membranes, thereby crucial for neuronal signaling; however, the brain is inefficient at synthesizing DHA. We have asked how levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during brain growth would affect brain function and plasticity during adult life. Pregnant rats and their male offspring were fed an n-3 adequate diet or n-3 deficient diets for 15 weeks. Results showed that the n-3 deficiency increased parameters of anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus maze tests in the male offspring. Behavioral changes were accompanied by a level reduction in the anxiolytic-related neuropeptide Y-1 receptor, and an increase in the anxiogenic-related glucocorticoid receptor in the cognitive related frontal cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The n-3 deficiency reduced brain levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and increased the ratio n-6/n-3 assessed by gas chromatography. The n-3 deficiency reduced the levels of BDNF and signaling through the BDNF receptor TrkB, in proportion to brain DHA levels, and reduced the activation of the BDNF-related signaling molecule CREB in selected brain regions. The n-3 deficiency also disrupted the insulin signaling pathways as evidenced by changes in insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate (IRS. DHA deficiency during brain maturation reduces plasticity and compromises brain function in adulthood. Adequate levels of dietary DHA seem crucial for building long-term neuronal resilience for optimal brain performance and aiding in the battle against neurological disorders.

  6. New insights into the health effects of dietary saturated and omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorgeril Michel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Reducing dietary saturated fat and replacing it with polyunsaturated fat is still the main dietary strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases, although major flaws have been reported in the analyses supporting this approach. Recent studies introducing the concept of myocardial preconditioning have opened new avenues to understand the complex interplay between the various lipids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The optimal dietary fat profile includes a low intake of both saturated and omega-6 fatty acids and a moderate intake of omega-3 fatty acids. This profile is quite similar to the Mediterranean diet. On the other hand, recent studies have found a positive association between omega-6 and breast cancer risk. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids do have anticancer properties. It has been shown that certain (Mediterranean polyphenols significantly increase the endogenous synthesis of omega-3 whereas high intake of omega-6 decreases it. Finally, epidemiological studies suggest that a high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio may be the optimal strategy to decrease breast cancer risk. Thus, the present high intake of omega-6 in many countries is definitely not the optimal strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease and cancers. A moderate intake of plant and marine omega-3 in the context of the traditional Mediterranean diet (low in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids but high in plant monounsaturated fat appears to be the best approach to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in particular breast cancer.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Depressive Symptoms, and Cognitive Performance in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazereeuw, Graham; Herrmann, Nathan; Oh, Paul I.; Ma, David W.L.; Wang, Cheng Tao; Kiss, Alexander; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This trial investigated the efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment for improving depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) participating in cardiac rehabilitation. Patients with CAD aged 45 to 80 years were randomized to receive either 1.9-g/d n-3 PUFA treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, primary outcome) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were used to identify a depressive episode at baseline. Cognitive performance was measured using a standardized battery for vascular cognitive impairment. In 92 patients (age, 61.7 ± 8.7 y; 76% male, 40% depressed; HAM-D, 6.9 ± 5.9; BDI-II, 12.3 ± 10.9; n = 45 n-3 PUFA, n = 47 placebo), depression decreased (HAM-D, F3,91 = 2.71 and P = 0.049; BDI-II, F3,91 = 6.24 and P < 0.01), and cognitive performance improved (attention/processing speed, F1,91 = 5.57, P = 0.02; executive function, F1,91 = 14.64, P < 0.01; visuospatial memory, F1,91 = 4.01, P = 0.04) over cardiac rehabilitation. Omega-3 PUFA treatment increased plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (F1,29 = 33.29, P < 0.01) and docosahexaenoic acid (F1,29 = 15.29, P < 0.01) concentrations but did not reduce HAM-D (F3,91 = 1.59, P = 0.20) or BDI-II (F3,91 = 0.46, P = 0.50) scores compared with placebo. Treatment did not improve cognitive performance; however, n-3 PUFAs significantly increased verbal memory compared with placebo in a subgroup of nondepressed patients (F1,54 = 4.16, P = 0.04). This trial suggests that n-3 PUFAs do not improve depressive and associated cognitive symptoms in those with CAD. The possible benefits of n-3 PUFAs for verbal memory may warrant investigation in well-powered studies. PMID:27529771

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  9. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the proteome of high-density lipoprotein proteome

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    Burillo Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs have demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, however, the mechanisms by which they perform their cardiovascular protection have not been clarified. Intriguingly, some of these protective effects have also been linked to HDL. The hypothesis of this study was that ω-3 PUFAs could modify the protein cargo of HDL particle in a triglyceride non-dependent mode. The objective of the study was to compare the proteome of HDL before and after ω-3 PUFAs supplemented diet. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis in 6 smoker subjects HDL before and after a 5 weeks ω-3 PUFAs enriched diet has been performed. Results Among the altered proteins, clusterin, paraoxonase, and apoAI were found to increase, while fibronectin, α-1-antitrypsin, complement C1r subcomponent and complement factor H decreased after diet supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs. Immunodetection assays confirmed these results. The up-regulated proteins are related to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of HDL, while the down-regulated proteins are related to regulation of complement activation and acute phase response. Conclusions Despite the low number of subjects included in the study, our findings demonstrate that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation modifies lipoprotein containing apoAI (LpAI proteome and suggest that these protein changes improve the functionality of the particle.

  10. Effects on Serum Fractalkine by Diet and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention: Relation to Clinical Outcome

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    Kristian Laake

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Fractalkine is a chemokine associated with atherosclerosis. Increased serum levels have been reported in unstable coronary artery disease (CAD and to predict mortality in heart failure. Mediterranean-like diet and omega-3 fatty acids (n3-PUFA have documented cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. We have investigated the effect of Mediterranean-like dietary counseling and n-3 PUFA on serum fractalkine in an elderly population and its ability to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD. Materials and Methods. 563 men (age 64–75 yrs at high risk of CAD were randomized into a 2 × 2 factorial designed trial for 3-year dietary counseling and/or n-3 PUFA supplementation (2.4 g/d. Circulating levels of fractalkine were measured at baseline and at end of study. Clinical events were recorded after 3 years. Results. Fractalkine levels were significantly reduced in all groups from baseline to 3 years (P<0.001, all, but without between-group differences in changes. Fractalkine levels at baseline were not predictive for CVD events (n=68 or total mortality. Lower fractalkine levels were observed in smokers (P=0.019. Conclusions. Reduced levels of fractalkine from baseline to 3 years were observed, however, without any influence of Mediterranean-like diet or n-3 PUFA supplementation. Fractalkine levels at baseline were not predictive for later CVD events.

  11. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Michela; Grillo, Andrea; Losurdo, Pasquale; Panizon, Emiliano; Mearelli, Filippo; Cattin, Luigi; Barazzoni, Rocco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Role of Arginine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Wound Healing and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J Wesley; Supp, Dorothy M

    2014-11-01

    Significance: Only a few decades ago, the primary focus of nutritional supplementation was to prevent deficiencies of essential nutrients. It is now recognized that, at higher than essential levels, selected nutrients can have a pharmacologic effect to prevent or treat disease. Recent Advances: Two of the most important pharmaconutrients, arginine, and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil, have been shown to have profound effects on wound healing and infections. Critical Issues: Both arginine and fish oils have independent benefits, but the combination appears to be much more effective. This combination has been shown to affect outcomes involving wound healing and infections, as reviewed here, and can also affect incidence and outcomes in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, organ transplant rejection, and other inflammatory conditions. These possibilities have not yet progressed to widespread clinical application. Future Directions: The optimal combinations of immunonutrients, timing of administration, and the doses needed for best results need to be determined in preclinical and clinical studies. Also, the mechanisms involved in the administration of pharmaconutrients need to be established.

  13. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Structural and Functional Effects on the Vascular Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Zanetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Increasing evidence demonstrating a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on arterial wall properties is progressively emerging. We reviewed the recent available evidence for the cardiovascular effects of n-3 PUFA focusing on structural and functional properties of the vascular wall. In experimental studies and clinical trials n-3 PUFA have shown the ability to improve arterial hemodynamics by reducing arterial stiffness, thus explaining some of its cardioprotective properties. Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on endothelial activation, which are likely to improve vascular function. Several molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways influenced by n-3 PUFA can affect arterial wall properties and therefore interfere with the atherosclerotic process. Although the relative weight of different physiological and molecular mechanisms and the dose-response on arterial wall properties have yet to be determined, n-3 PUFA have the potential to beneficially impact arterial wall remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes by targeting arterial wall stiffening and endothelial dysfunction.

  14. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Antioxidant En¬zymes Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Fatemeh TOORANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a major cause of death. Oxidative stress mainly caused by hyperglycemia is the primary reason of related complications. Omega-3 fatty acids are prescribed in diabetes but the effect on antioxidant defense is controversial. This study investigated effects of omega-3 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity in type 2 diabetic patients.Methods: A randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial was performed on 90 type2 diabetic patients. The treatment group took, daily, three capsules of omega-3 for two mo, which totally provided 2714mg omega-3 (EPA=1548 mg, DHA=828 mg and 338 mg of other omega=3 fatty acids. Placebo contained 2100 mg sunflower oil (12% SFA, 65% linoleic acid, 23% MUFA, which is the main oil used in the study population. Food intakes, anthropometric and demographic characteristics, and therapeutic regimen data were recorded before and after the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken before and after the intervention to measure super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes.Results: A total of 81 subjects completed the study. Two study groups were similar as regards duration of diabetes, age and the enzymes at baseline. Energy and macro- and micronutrients intakes, weight and hypoglycemic agent consumption were similar in the two groups at baseline and did not change. Supplementation had no effect on antioxidant enzyme status. Glycated hemoglobin showed a significant reduction by supplementation.Conclusion: Daily supplementation of 2714 mg mega-3 for two mo results in a significant reduction in HbA1c level in type2 diabetic patients with no effects on antioxidant enzymes activity. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Omega-3 supplement, Antioxidant enzymes

  15. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Act as Inhibitors of the Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity.

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    Nicolai, Eleonora; Sinibaldi, Federica; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Laganà, Giuseppina; Basoli, Francesco; Licoccia, Silvia; Cozza, Paola; Santucci, Roberto; Piro, Maria Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to play a protective role in a wide range of diseases characterized by an increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. The recent finding that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert an anti-inflammatory effect in periodontal diseases has stimulated the present study, designed to determine whether such properties derive from a direct inhibitory action of these compounds on the activity of MMPs. To this issue, we investigated the effect exerted by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes that actively participate to the destruction of the organic matrix of dentin following demineralization operated by bacteria acids. Data obtained (both in vitro and on ex-vivo teeth) reveal that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids inhibit the proteolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes present in dentin. This observation is of interest since it assigns to these compounds a key role as MMPs inhibitors, and stimulates further study to better define their therapeutic potentialities in carious decay.

  16. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-06-23

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2). BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  17. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid accelerates disease progression in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Ping K Yip

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by loss of motor neurons that currently has no cure. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, have many health benefits including neuroprotective and myoprotective potential. We tested the hypothesis that a high level of dietary EPA could exert beneficial effects in ALS. The dietary exposure to EPA (300 mg/kg/day in a well-established mouse model of ALS expressing the G93A superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 mutation was initiated at a pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stage, and the disease progression was monitored until the end stage. Daily dietary EPA exposure initiated at the disease onset did not significantly alter disease presentation and progression. In contrast, EPA treatment initiated at the pre-symptomatic stage induced a significantly shorter lifespan. In a separate group of animals sacrificed before the end stage, the tissue analysis showed that the vacuolisation detected in G93A-SOD1 mice was significantly increased by exposure to EPA. Although EPA did not alter motor neurone loss, EPA reversed the significant increase in activated microglia and the astrocytic activation seen in G93A-SOD1 mice. The microglia in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 mice treated with EPA showed a significant increase in 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, a highly toxic aldehydic oxidation product of omega-3 fatty acids. These data show that dietary EPA supplementation in ALS has the potential to worsen the condition and accelerate the disease progression. This suggests that great caution should be exerted when considering dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplements in ALS patients.

  18. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-Operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) Trial – Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Marchioli, Roberto; Gardner, Tim; Ferrazzi, Paolo; O’Gara, Patrick; Latini, Roberto; Libby, Peter; Lombardi, Federico; Macchia, Alejandro; Page, Richard; Santini, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative atrial fibrillation/flutter (PoAF) commonly complicates cardiac surgery, occurring in 25–60% of patients. PoAF is associated with significant morbidity, higher long-term mortality, and increased healthcare costs. Novel preventive therapies are clearly needed. In experiments and short-term trials, seafood-derived long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence several risk factors that might reduce risk of PoAF. A few small and generally underpowered trials have evaluated effects of omega-3-PUFA supplementation on PoAF, with mixed results. The Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) trial is an appropriately powered, investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational trial to determine whether peri-operative oral omega-3-PUFA reduces occurrence of PoAF in 1,516 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Additional aims include evaluation of resource utilization, biologic pathways and mechanisms, postoperative cognitive decline, and safety. Broad inclusion criteria encompass a real-world population of outpatients and inpatients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Treatment comprises a total pre-operative loading dose of 8–10 g of omega-3-PUFA or placebo divided over 2–5 days, followed by 2 g/d until hospital discharge or post-operative day 10, whichever first. Based on anticipated 30% event rate in controls, total enrollment of 1,516 patients (758 per treatment arm) will provide 90% power to detect 25% reduction in PoAF. OPERA will provide invaluable evidence to inform biologic pathways, proof-of-concept that omega-3-PUFA influence cardiac arrhythmias, and potential regulatory standards and clinical use of this simple, inexpensive, and low-risk intervention to prevent PoAF. PMID:21742090

  19. Efficient production of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (sFat-1)-transgenic pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, DengKe; Zhang, Li; Zhou, YanRong; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Liu, Xiao; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Jian; Lin, AiXing; Dong, EnQiu; Wang, ShuChen; Xu, HouGang; Chen, HongXing

    2010-04-01

    Omega-3(omega-3) fatty acid desaturase transgenic pigs may improve carcass fatty acid composition. The use of transgenic pigs is also an excellent large animal model for studying the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease and cancer. Transgenic pigs carrying synthesized fatty acid desaturase-1 gene (sFat-1) from Caenorhabditis briggsae by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were produced for the first time in China. Porcine fetal fibroblast cells were transfected with a sFat-1 expression cassette by the liposome-mediated method. Transgenic embryos were reconstructed by nuclear transfer of positive cells into enucleated in vitro matured oocytes. A total of 1889 reconstructed embryos were transferred into 10 naturally cycling gilts. Nine early pregnancies were established, 7 of which went to term. Twenty-one piglets were born. The cloning efficiency was 1.1% (born piglets/transferred embryos). The integration of the sFat-1 gene was confirmed in 15 live cloned piglets by PCR and Southern blot except for 2 piglets. Expression of the sFat-1 gene in 12 of 13 piglets was detected with RT-PCR. The data demonstrates that an efficient system for sFat-1 transgenic cloned pigs was developed, which led to the successful production of piglets expressing the sFat-1 gene.

  20. [The essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3: from their discovery to their use in therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2008-04-01

    In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in unsaturated essential fatty acids as they form the framework for the organism's cell membranes, particularly the neurones in the brain, are involved in the energy-transformation process, regulate the information flows between cells. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also precursors of ''hormonal'' molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that raised levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids allows the cell membranes to develop with exactly the right flexibility and fluidity, to carry messages between neurones, that is a determining factor in physical and mental well-being and has a profound influence on all the body's inflammatory responses. The results of a number of scientific studies suggest that omega-3 acids contribute to measuring and restricting inflammatory symptoms, whereas omega-6 acids (and saturated fats) give free range to inflammatory responses and amplify allergic reactions. Today in the Western countries, the ratio of omega-3 acids to omega-6 in the diet is weighted 1:10 in favour of omega-6 to up to 1:25 in some areas, while for proper functioning a 4:1 ratio of omega-6 acids to omega-3 acids is generally considered the optimum. In addition, the type of diet followed in the Western countries is very rich in saturated fats like butter and animal fats, but because of an excessive supply of these less noble fats, the cell membranes lose flexibility and this can affect the way they work. An appropriate supplement can be an

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

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    Fatima Kasbi Chadli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA supplemented high fat diet (HFD. Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group were studied for 20 weeks: 1 control diet: Control, 2 HFD group: HF and 3 HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA: HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05 increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01 and cholesterol (p<0.001 with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001. Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001 and cholesterol (p<0.001 related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05 compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05 compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05 compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05 and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05. A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  2. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  3. Emerging importance of omega-3 fatty acids in the innate immune response: molecular mechanisms and lipidomic strategies for their analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Benjamin H; Megson, Ian L; Rossi, Adriano G; Whitfield, Phillip D

    2013-08-01

    The beneficial health properties of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have long been known and their metabolic dysfunction has been linked to a range of diseases including various inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their health benefits have remained unclear. Recent technological advances in lipidomic analytical strategies have resulted in the discovery of a range of bioactive mediators derived from EPA and DHA that possess potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties and that may be responsible, at least in part, for the beneficial effects observed. These mediators include resolvins, protectins and maresins, as well as EPA derivatives of classical arachidonic acid derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E3 . The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the biosynthetic pathways and biological properties of these omega-3 mediators, with a particular focus on the emerging importance of the counter-regulatory role of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids in the spatial and temporal regulation of the inflammatory response. It will also provide an insight into a range of lipidomic approaches, which are currently available to analyse these fatty acids and their metabolites in biological matrices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Generation and dietary modulation of anti-inflammatory electrophilic omega-3 fatty acid derivatives.

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    Chiara Cipollina

    Full Text Available Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs decrease cardiovascular risk via suppression of inflammation. The generation of electrophilic α,β-unsaturated ketone derivatives of the ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA in activated human macrophages is catalyzed by cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2. These derivatives are potent pleiotropic anti-inflammatory signaling mediators that act via mechanisms including the activation of Nrf2-dependent phase 2 gene expression and suppression of pro-inflammatory NF-κB-driven gene expression. Herein, the endogenous generation of ω-3 PUFAs electrophilic ketone derivatives and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated in human neutrophils. In addition, their dietary modulation was assessed through a randomized clinical trial.Endogenous generation of electrophilic omega-3 PUFAs and their hydroxy precursors was evaluated by mass spectrometry in neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects, both at baseline and upon stimulation with calcium ionophore. For the clinical trial, participants were healthy adults 30-55 years of age with a reported EPA+DHA consumption of ≤300 mg/day randomly assigned to parallel groups receiving daily oil capsule supplements for a period of 4 months containing either 1.4 g of EPA+DHA (active condition, n = 24 or identical appearing soybean oil (control condition, n = 21. Participants and laboratory technicians remained blinded to treatment assignments.5-lypoxygenase-dependent endogenous generation of 7-oxo-DHA, 7-oxo-DPA and 5-oxo-EPA and their hydroxy precursors is reported in human neutrophils stimulated with calcium ionophore and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Dietary EPA+DHA supplementation significantly increased the formation of 7-oxo-DHA and 5-oxo-EPA, with no significant modulation of arachidonic acid (AA metabolite levels.The endogenous detection of these electrophilic ω-3 fatty acid ketone derivatives supports the precept that the

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid is a potential preventive agent for recurrent colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Anita; Yu, Yingjie; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Woods, James; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G.; Patel, Aamil; Dyson, Gregory; Levi, Edi; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Majumdar, Adhip P.N.; Nangia-Makker, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contention that many malignancies, including sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), are driven by the self-renewing, chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs) underscoring the need for improved preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs/CSLCs. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), have been reported to inhibit the growth of primary tumors, but their potential as a preventive agent for recurring cancers is un-explored. The primary objectives of this investigation are to examine whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; one of the ω-3 PUFA) synergizes with FuOx (5-FU+Oxaliplatin), the backbone of colon cancer chemotherapy, and (b) whether EPA by itself or in combination with conventional chemotherapy prevents the recurrence of colon cancer via eliminating/suppressing CSCs/CSLCs. FuOx-resistant (chemo-resistant; CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were utilized for this study. While EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (a) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation and sphere-forming frequency, (b) increasing sphere disintegration, (c) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (d) decreasing pro-inflammatory metabolites in mice. Additionally, EPA + FuOx caused a reduction in CSC/CSLC population. The growth reduction by this regimen is the result of increased apoptosis as evidenced by PARP cleavage. Furthermore, increased pPTEN, decreased pAkt, normalization of β-catenin expression, localization and transcriptional activity by EPA suggests a role for PTEN/Akt axis and Wnt signaling in regulating this process. Our data suggest that EPA by itself or in combination with FuOx could be an effective preventive strategy for recurring CRC. PMID:25193342

  7. Considerations regarding neuropsychiatric nutritional requirements for intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M

    2009-01-01

    Adverse neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric outcomes have been established as signs of nutrient deficiencies and may be applicable to insufficient dietary intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs). Consider if statistical definitions for Daily Reference Intakes can be applied to n-3 HUFAs intakes during pregnancy for maternal and neurodevelopmental deficiencies. Data were prospectively collected from women during pregnancy and children up to age 8 years participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Statistical analyses took social and lifestyle factors into account. During pregnancy, n-3 HUFA intakes from seafood that putatively meet statistical definitions of an estimated average requirement ranged from 0.05 to 0.06 en% (111-139 mg/d/2000 Cal) for suboptimal fine motor control at 42 m and 0.065-0.08 en% (114-181 mg/d/2000 Cal) for suboptimal verbal IQ at age 8 years and 0.18-0.22 en% (389-486 mg/d/2000 Cal) for maternal depression at 32 weeks. Intakes of n-3 ranging from 0.2 to 0.41 en% (445-917 mg/d/2000 Cal) prevented both increased risk of maternal depression and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes for children among 97.5% of the population. No upper limit for safety was found. During pregnancy, a n-3 HUFA intake of 0.40 en% (900 mg/d/2000 Cal) from seafood is likely to meet the nutritional requirements for 97.5% of the mothers and children of this population. These considerations do not constitute DRI's for docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 HUFAs, but may contribute to their formulation.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid is a potential preventive agent for recurrent colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Anita; Yu, Yingjie; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Woods, James; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G; Patel, Aamil; Dyson, Gregory; Levi, Edi; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Majumdar, Adhip P N; Nangia-Makker, Pratima

    2014-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contention that many malignancies, including sporadic colorectal cancer, are driven by the self-renewing, chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSC/CSLC), underscoring the need for improved preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs/CSLCs. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), have been reported to inhibit the growth of primary tumors, but their potential as a preventive agent for recurring cancers is unexplored. The primary objectives of this investigation are (i) to examine whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; one of the ω-3 PUFA) synergizes with FuOx (5-FU+Oxaliplatin), the backbone of colon cancer chemotherapy, and (ii) whether EPA by itself or in combination with conventional chemotherapy prevents the recurrence of colon cancer via eliminating/suppressing CSCs/CSLCs. FuOx-resistant (chemoresistant; CR) colon cancer cells, highly enriched in CSCs, were used for this study. Although EPA alone was effective, combination of EPA and FuOx was more potent in (i) inhibiting cell growth, colonosphere formation, and sphere-forming frequency, (ii) increasing sphere disintegration, (iii) suppressing the growth of SCID mice xenografts of CR colon cancer cells, and (iv) decreasing proinflammatory metabolites in mice. In addition, EPA + FuOx caused a reduction in CSC/CSLC population. The growth reduction by this regimen is the result of increased apoptosis as evidenced by PARP cleavage. Furthermore, increased pPTEN, decreased pAkt, normalization of β-catenin expression, localization, and transcriptional activity by EPA suggests a role for the PTEN-Akt axis and Wnt signaling in regulating this process. Our data suggest that EPA by itself or in combination with FuOx could be an effective preventive strategy for recurring colorectal cancer.

  9. Impact of Omega-3 Supplementation with Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Neuronal Cell Fatty Acid Status

    OpenAIRE

    Densel, Owen

    2016-01-01

    A method of treating retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in the free acid form has been developed in order to examine impacts of such supplementation on fatty acid composition of cells and on functional outcomes. Through Bovine Serum Albumin: ALA conjugation, an ALA treatment media was created and compared to the stock media which contained no detectible amounts of ALA. Results from fatty acid analysis of the control cells (n=3) and ALA-sup...

  10. Effect of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in rats: A multigeneration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are important nutrients required for neuronal functioning. We have demonstrated the beneficial effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on brain neurotrophins and cognition in the first and second generation offspring. However, there is a need to examine if the effects are sustained in the third generation offspring. This study reports the effects of vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation across three consecutive generations on brain neurotrophins like brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); nerve growth factor (NGF) and cognitive performance in the third generation male offspring. Three successive generations of Wistar rats were assigned the following groups throughout pregnancy, lactation and adulthood: i) Control, ii) vitamin B12 deficient (BD), iii) vitamin B12 deficient + omega-3 fatty acid (BDO), iv) vitamin B12 supplemented (BS) and v) vitamin B12 supplemented + omega-3 fatty acid (BSO). The BD group demonstrated lower (p B12 supplementation showed comparable BDNF levels in the hippocampus while their levels were lower in the cortex as compared to the control (p B12 and omega-3 fatty acid showed higher (p B12 and omega-3 fatty acids in improving brain development.

  11. Do Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids Have a Therapeutic Role in Children and Young People with ADHD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Derbyshire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a debilitating behavioural disorder affecting daily ability to function, learn, and interact with peers. This publication assesses the role of omega-3/6 fatty acids in the treatment and management of ADHD. Methods. A systematic review of 16 randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Trials included a total of 1,514 children and young people with ADHD who were allocated to take an omega-3/6 intervention, or a placebo. Results. Of the studies identified, 13 reported favourable benefits on ADHD symptoms including improvements in hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention, visual learning, word reading, and working/short-term memory. Four studies used supplements containing a 9 : 3 : 1 ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid : docosahexaenoic acid : gamma linolenic acid which appeared effective at improving erythrocyte levels. Supplementation with this ratio of fatty acids also showed promise as an adjunctive therapy to traditional medications, lowering the dose and improving the compliance with medications such as methylphenidate. Conclusion. ADHD is a frequent and debilitating childhood condition. Given disparaging feelings towards psychostimulant medications, omega-3/6 fatty acids offer great promise as a suitable adjunctive therapy for ADHD.

  12. Recent findings on the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and statins, and their interactions: do statins inhibit omega-3?

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    de Lorgeril Michel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3, whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occurred: most patients in recent RCTs are no longer n-3 deficient and the vast majority are now treated with statins. Recent RCTs testing n-3 against arrhythmias suggest that n-3 reduce the risk only in patients not taking a statin. Other recent RCTs in secondary prevention were negative although, in a post-hoc analysis separating statin users and non-users, non-significant protection of n-3 was observed among statin non-users whereas statin users had no effect. Recent RCTs testing statins - after the implementation of the New Clinical Trial Regulation in 2007 - are negative (or flawed suggesting that the lack of effect of n-3 cannot be attributed to a parallel protection by statins. Finally, statins favor the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6, which in turn inhibits n-3 and, contrary to n-3, they increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. Thus, n-3 and statins are counteractive at several levels and statins appear to inhibit n-3.

  13. Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae

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    Royah Vaezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4 from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15. These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in marine microalgae.

  14. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Peter R. C.; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate n...

  15. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Anja; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. The classical treatment of ADHD where stimulant medication is used has revealed severe side effects and intolerance. Consequently, the demand to search for alternative treatment has increased rapidly. When comparing levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in ADHD patients with those in age-matching controls, lower levels are found in ADHD patients' blood. ω-3 PUFAs are essential nutrients and necessary for a proper brain function and development. Additionally, there are strong indications that ω-3 PUFA supplements could have beneficial effects on ADHD. However, the results of ω-3 PUFA supplementation studies show a high variability. Therefore, we reviewed recent studies published between 2000 and 2015 to identify effective treatment combinations, the quality of design, and safety and tolerability of ω-3-containing food supplements. We searched the databases MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science with keywords such as "ADHD" and "ω-3/6 PUFA" and identified 25 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results of these ω-3 PUFA studies are contradictory but, overall, show evidence for a successful treatment of ADHD symptoms. Tolerability of the given supplements was high, and only mild side effects were reported. In conclusion, there is evidence that a ω-3 PUFA treatment has a positive effect on ADHD. It should be added that treatment could be more effective in patients with mild forms of ADHD. Moreover, the dosage of stimulant medication could be reduced when used in combination with ω-3 PUFA supplements. Further studies are necessary to investigate underlying mechanisms that can lead to a reduction of ADHD symptoms due to ω-3 PUFA treatments and also to determine the optimal concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs, whether used as single treatment or in combination with other medication.

  16. Are There the Antiarrhythmic Effects of Omega3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiosurgical Patients?

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    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to test the hypothesis that the perioperative use of omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3PUFA as intravenous infusion will reduce the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF in patients with coronary heart disease operated on under extracorporeal circulation.Subjects and methods. A doubleblind prospective controlled study was conducted in 39 patients who were randomized into two groups: 1 18 patients were infused with ω3PUFA (Omegaven, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, beginning before inducing anesthesia in a dose of 200 mg/kg/day within the first 24 hours and 100 mg/kg/day on days 2 to 7 postsurgery; 2 21 received placebo (Intralipid, Fresenius Kabi, Germany in the equivalent dose. The primary end point was freedom from POAF during 2 months after surgery. POAF was examined using a subcutaneously implanted continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring device (Reveal XT, Medtronic, USA. Monitoring readings were taken on day 10 at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery.Results. POAF was observed in 4 (19% patients in the placebo group and in 5 (27.8% in the ω3PUFA group on days 10 postsurgery (p=0.88. During 2year followup, POAF was revealed in 5 (27.8% patients in the control group and in 6 (35.3% in the ω3PUFA group (p=0.9. The duration of POAF was associated with the risk of rehospitalizations for decompensated heart failure (regression coefficient, 0.24; standard error, 0.02; p<0.0001; R2=0.74.Conclusion. The results of the study do not support the efficiency of perioperatively using ω3PUFA to prevent POAF

  17. Comparison of 4 % icodextrin and omega 3 Fatty acids in prevention of peritoneal adhesions.

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    Karakas, Dursun Ozgur; Yigitler, Cengizhan; Gulec, Bulent; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Ipcioglu, Osman Metin; Akin, Mehmet Levhi

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are major concerns in abdominal surgery. In this experimental study, the effects of 4 % icodextrin and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) on prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions were evaluated. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. After laparotomy, serosal abrasion was carried out by cecal brushing. Intraperitoneally 3 cm(3) 0.9 % NaCl, 3 cm(3) 4 % icodextrin, and 200 mg/kg ω-3 FAs for each group were applied, and then the abdomen was closed. All subjects sacrificed 10 days postoperatively. Macroscopic and histopathological cellular reactions as a function of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, histiocyte, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were assessed and hydroxyproline levels were measured in all three groups and compared using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA tests when appropriate. Macroscopically, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin reduced adhesion formation but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.253). Histopathological examination revealed that there was no statistical significance in terms of giant cell, lymphocyte/plasmocyte, neutrophil, ICAM-1, and PECAM-1 scores; however, both ω-3 FAs and 4 % icodextrin were found to be prone to reduce fibrosis (P = 0.047), whereas in the ω-3 FA group, histiocytic reaction was significantly increased (P = 0.001), and hydroxyproline levels were significantly lower than other groups (P = 0.044). In this study, ω-3 FAs were found to be superior to 4 % icodextrin with the lower hydroxyproline level and greater histiocytic reaction. Considering these results, ω-3 FAs can be a promising agent in the prevention of adhesion formation.

  18. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

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    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  19. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

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    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  20. Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…

  1. Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mats; Ostlund, Sven; Fransson, Gunnar; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess omega 3/6 fatty acids (eye q) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The study included a randomized, 3-month, omega 3/6 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 75 children and adolescents (8-18 years), followed by 3 months with omega 3/6 for all. Investigator-rated ADHD…

  2. Pancreatic islet function in omega-3 fatty acid-depleted rats : Alteration of calcium fluxes and calcium-dependent insulin release

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Oguzhan, Berrin; Louchami, Karim; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Portois, Laurence; Carpentier, Yvon; Malaisse, Willy-Jean; Herchuelz, André; Sener, Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Considering the insufficient supply of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids often prevailing in Western populations, this report deals mainly with alterations of Ca2+ fluxes and Ca2+-dependent insulin secretory events in isolated pancreatic islets from omega-3-depleted rats. In terms of Ca-45(2+) handling, the islets from omega-3-depleted rats, compared with those from normal animals, displayed an unaltered responsiveness to an increase in extracellular K+ concentration, a lower inf...

  3. Evidence for chronic omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid deficiency in Palaeolithic hominins in Europe at the emergence of cannibalism

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    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    At the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic (M/UP) transition in Western Europe, hominins depended mostly on terrestrial mammals for subsistence, being pointed out that reliance on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) would have promoted declines in human population densities during that period. Food-composition tables have been compiled for hominins at the M/UP transition, listing protein, fat, energy, different omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid concentrations. These data were used to compute the regular relations between fatty and lean tissues of the main hunted food-animals to meet hominin energy needs. Then, with daily protein intake considered critical, the optimal contribution of the different omega-3 fatty acids from different hunted species to hominin diets were computed. Several faunal assemblages from different human sites at different M/UP periods were used to assess the overall daily intake of the various omega-3 fatty acid classes. The results of the calculations made in this work are quite clear; hominins at the M/UP transition had a deficit of both omega-3 fatty acids and ascorbic acid. Data on human organs summarized here are also conclusive: these contain such nutrients in amounts much higher than reached in the corresponding mammal organs consumed, and thus could have been alternative sources of those nutrients for Palaeolithic hominins. Therefore, nutritional cannibalism detected at such times could have had the function of alleviating these deficits. The evolutionary advantages gained by the consumption of the various omega-3 fatty acids of human origin are also discussed.

  4. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 fatty acids and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in the OPERA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H Y; Marchioli, Roberto; Silletta, Maria G; Macchia, Alejandro; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David S; Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Latini, Roberto; Albert, Christine; Brown, Nancy J; Lamarra, Mauro; Favaloro, Roberto R; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-10-21

    Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) demonstrated antiarrhythmic potential in experimental studies. In a large multinational randomized trial (OPERA), perioperative fish oil supplementation did not reduce the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) in cardiac surgery patients. However, whether presupplementation habitual plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA, or achieved or change in n-3 PUFA level postsupplementation are associated with lower risk of PoAF is unknown. In 564 subjects undergoing cardiac surgery between August 2010 and June 2012 in 28 centers across 3 countries, plasma phospholipid levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured at enrollment and again on the morning of cardiac surgery following fish oil or placebo supplementation (10 g over 3 to 5 days, or 8 g over 2 days). The primary endpoint was incident PoAF lasting ≥ 30 seconds, centrally adjudicated, and confirmed by rhythm strip or ECG. Secondary endpoints included sustained (≥ 1 hour), symptomatic, or treated PoAF; the time to first PoAF; and the number of PoAF episodes per patient. PoAF outcomes were assessed until hospital discharge or postoperative day 10, whichever occurred first. Relative to the baseline, fish oil supplementation increased phospholipid concentrations of EPA (+142%), DPA (+13%), and DHA (+22%) (P < 0.001 each). Substantial interindividual variability was observed for change in total n-3 PUFA (range = -0.7% to 7.5% after 5 days of supplementation). Neither individual nor total circulating n-3 PUFA levels at enrollment, morning of surgery, or change between these time points were associated with risk of PoAF. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) across increasing quartiles of total n-3 PUFA at enrollment were 1.0, 1.06 (0.60 to 1.90), 1.35 (0.76 to 2.38), and 1.19 (0.64 to 2.20); and for changes in n-3 PUFA between enrollment and the morning of surgery were 1.0, 0.78 (0.44 to 1

  5. Dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse tissue studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, Peter; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hanrieder, Jörg; Kuda, Ondrej; Kopecky, Jan; Bryhn, Morten

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with considerable health benefits, including the prevention of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, incorporation of the main omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), at the systemic level has been found to be more efficient when these fatty acids are supplied in the form of marine phospholipids compared to triglycerides. In this work, the uptake of omega-3 fatty acids and their incorporation in specific lipids were studied in adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver tissues of mice given high-fat diets with or without omega-3 supplements in the form of phospholipids or triglycerides using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The results demonstrate significant uptake of EPA and DHA, and the incorporation of these fatty acids in specific lipid molecules, in all three tissue types in response to the dietary omega-3 supplements. Moreover, the results indicate reduced concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and depletion of lipids containing AA in tissue samples from mice given supplementary omega-3, as compared to the control mice. The effect on the lipid composition, in particular the DHA uptake and AA depletion, was found to be significantly stronger when the omega-3 supplement was supplied in the form of phospholipids, as compared to triglycerides. TOF-SIMS was found to be a useful technique for screening the lipid composition and simultaneously obtaining the spatial distributions of various lipid classes on tissue surfaces.

  6. TRP channels, omega-3 fatty acids, and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration: from the cell membrane to intracellular cross-links

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    M. Leonelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential channels family (TRP channels is a relatively new group of cation channels that modulate a large range of physiological mechanisms. In the nervous system, the functions of TRP channels have been associated with thermosensation, pain transduction, neurotransmitter release, and redox signaling, among others. However, they have also been extensively correlated with the pathogenesis of several innate and acquired diseases. On the other hand, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids have also been associated with several processes that seem to counterbalance or to contribute to the function of several TRPs. In this short review, we discuss some of the remarkable new findings in this field. We also review the possible roles played by n-3 fatty acids in cell signaling that can both control or be controlled by TRP channels in neurodegenerative processes, as well as both the direct and indirect actions of n-3 fatty acids on TRP channels.

  7. Omega 3/6 Fatty Acids for Reading in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in 9-Year-Old Mainstream Schoolchildren in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…

  8. Omega 3/6 Fatty Acids for Reading in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in 9-Year-Old Mainstream Schoolchildren in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…

  9. The effects on boar sperm quality of dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differ among porcine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Barrera, Xavier; Coll, David; Bonet, Sergi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to shed light on the relationship between boar sperm quality and dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which has been reported inconsistently in the literature. With this aim, such effects were evaluated and compared among three different porcine breeds: Duroc, Large-White, and Pietrain. Animals were randomly separated into two groups and fed either with a control diet or with a diet supplemented with omega-3. Sperm quality of these boar (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm viability, acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and osmotic resistance of spermatozoa) was assessed every week for a 26-week period. Supplementing boar's diet with omega-3 did not affect ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm viability, and acrosome and mitochondrial sheath integrity. In contrast, supplemented diet positively affected both sperm morphology in Large-White and Pietrain breeds and the osmotic resistance of Pietrain spermatozoa. No effects were seen for the same sperm parameters in Duroc breed. These breed-differences in boar fed with the supplemented diet could explain the contradictions in literature and might be related with differences in the composition of plasma membrane among breeds reported by other authors. Because no harmful effects were observed in the three evaluated breeds, but positive effects in Large-White and Pietrain boar, we can conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be added to boar's diet at the levels used in this study to improve their sperm quality. More research is, however, needed to determine how these fatty acids differently affect the morphology and the osmotic resistance of the spermatozoa in these breeds.

  10. Heterotrophic Production of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Trophically Converted Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

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    Mary L. Hamilton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. The effects of glucose concentrations on growth and LC-PUFA production of wild type and transformed strains cultivated in the light and dark were studied. The highest omega-3 LC-PUFAs accumulation was observed in cultures grown under mixotrophic conditions in the presence of 1% glucose (up to 32.2% of total fatty acids, TFA. Both DHA and EPA are detected at high levels in the neutral lipids of transgenic cells grown under phototrophic conditions, averaging 36.5% and 23.6% of TFA, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for P. tricornutum to be developed as a viable commercial strain for both EPA and DHA production under mixo- and heterotrophic conditions.

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Early Prevention of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disease: A Focus on Alzheimer’s Disease

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    J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the leading cause of dementia and the most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Furthermore, AD has provided the most positive indication to support the fact that inflammation contributes to neurodegenerative disease. The exact etiology of AD is unknown, but environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute, such as advancing age, family history, presence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, and poor diet and lifestyle. It is hypothesised that early prevention or management of inflammation could delay the onset or reduce the symptoms of AD. Normal physiological changes to the brain with ageing include depletion of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and brains of AD patients have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels. DHA supplementation can reduce markers of inflammation. This review specifically focusses on the evidence in humans from epidemiological, dietary intervention, and supplementation studies, which supports the role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in AD in its early stages. Longer term trials with long chain omega-3 supplementation in early stage AD are warranted. We also highlight the importance of overall quality and composition of the diet to protect against AD and dementia.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids control productions of superoxide and nitrogen oxide and insulin content in INS-1E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano, M F; Leonelli, M; Curi, R; R Carpinelli, A

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. Dietary depletion of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in rats. Herein, the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on pancreatic beta cell redox state and function were investigated. INS-1E insulin-secreting cells were incubated with EPA and DHA in combination with palmitic acid, and productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and insulin were measured. The involvement of the NADPH oxidase complex in ROS production and expression of the antioxidant enzymes was also investigated. After incubation for 1 or 48 h, productions of superoxide (by hydroethidine method), nitric oxide (by 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate-DAF-2DA assay), insulin (by radioimmunoassay), and expressions (by western blot analysis) of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) and gp91(PHOX) were measured. EPA and DHA reduced superoxide production after 1-h incubation. After 48 h, palmitic acid reduced superoxide production that was normalized by EPA treatment. Palmitic acid increased NO production that was reverted by EPA and DHA. Palmitic acid increased insulin secretion after 48 h, whereas both omega-3 fatty acids increased intracellular insulin content. EPA and DHA enhanced GPx-1 expression as well as gp91(PHOX) glycosylated form. In conclusion, EPA and DHA increased intracellular insulin content and antioxidant enzymatic defense capacity and decreased pro-oxidant generating activities that are associated with maintenance of pancreatic beta cell redox state in response to palmitic acid.

  13. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 on polycystic ovary syndrome induced rats under diet

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    Elaheh Ouladsahebmadarek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old. It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. This study aimed to confirm the role of nutrition containing omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acid on control of experimental PCO induced by estradiol-valerat in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats (n=40 were allocated into control (n=10 and test groups (n= 30, test group was subdivided into 3 groups: G1, received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily; G2 and G3 groups were induced PCO by single injection of estradiol-valerate (16 mg/kg/IM. Group 3 received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily and low carbohydrate feeding for 60 subsequent days; on sixtieth day 5 ml blood samples and ovarian tissues of all rats in the group were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analysis. Results: Catalase, GPX (Glutathione peroxidase, SOD (Superoxide dismutase in groups that received omega-3showed higher levels, but MDA (malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased (P

  14. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Rombaldova, Martina; Janovska, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-01-15

    Mutual interactions between adipocytes and immune cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) are involved in modulation of lipid metabolism in the tissue and also in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which counteract adverse effects of obesity. This complex interplay depends in part on in situ formed anti- as well as pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, but cell types engaged in the synthesis of the specific mediators need to be better characterized. We used tissue fractionation and metabolipidomic analysis to identify cells producing lipid mediators in epididymal WAT of mice fed for 5 weeks obesogenic high-fat diet (lipid content 35% wt/wt), which was supplemented or not by omega-3 PUFA (4.3 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 14.7 mg docosahexaenoic acid per g of diet). Our results demonstrate selective increase in levels of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in WAT in response to omega-3, reflecting either their association with adipocytes (endocannabinoid-related N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine) or with stromal vascular cells (pro-resolving lipid mediator protectin D1). In parallel, tissue levels of obesity-associated pro-inflammatory endocannabinoids were suppressed. Moreover, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which could be isolated using magnetic force from the stromal vascular fraction, are not the major producers of protectin D1 and that omega-3 PUFA lowered lipid load in ATMs while promoting their less-inflammatory phenotype. Taken together, these results further document specific roles of various cell types in WAT in control of WAT inflammation and metabolism and they suggest that also other cells but ATMs are engaged in production of pro-resolving lipid mediators in response to omega-3 PUFA.

  15. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Frank E; McGraw, Joseph E; Jensen, Brittany J; Bishop, Sydney S; Lokken, James P; Dorff, Kellen J; Ripley, Michael P; Munro, James B

    2015-10-23

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  18. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

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    Tushar Ranjan Moharana

    Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid obtained from Nannochloropsis oceanica cultures grown under low urea protect against Abeta-induced neural damage

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Ying-Jang

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Moreover, it has been reported that oxidative stress is involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Recently, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) have been reported to protect against AD. However, these omega-3 fatty acids are frequently obtained from fish oil and may contain heavy metals. In this study, we utilized Nann...

  20. Reduced bone breakage and increased bone strength in free range laying hens fed omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlton, John F; Wilkins, Lindsay J; Toscano, Michael J; Avery, Nick C; Knott, Lynda

    2013-02-01

    The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the immediate precursors to a number of important mediators of immunity, inflammation and bone function, with products of omega-6 generally thought to promote inflammation and favour bone resorption. Western diets generally provide a 10 to 20-fold deficit in omega-3 PUFAs compared with omega-6, and this is thought to have contributed to the marked rise in incidence of disorders of modern human societies, such as heart disease, colitis and perhaps osteoporosis. Many of our food production animals, fed on grains rich in omega-6, are also exposed to a dietary deficit in omega-3, with perhaps similar health consequences. Bone fragility due to osteoporotic changes in laying hens is a major economic and welfare problem, with our recent estimates of breakage rates indicating up to 95% of free range hens suffer breaks during lay. Free range hens housed in full scale commercial systems were provided diets supplemented with omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, and the skeletal benefits were investigated by comparison to standard diets rich in omega-6. There was a significant 40-60% reduction in keel bone breakage rate, and a corresponding reduction in breakage severity in the omega-3 supplemented hens. There was significantly greater bone density and bone mineral content, alongside increases in total bone and trabecular volumes. The mechanical properties of the omega-3 supplemented hens were improved, with strength, energy to break and stiffness demonstrating significant increases. Alkaline phosphatase (an osteoblast marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) both showed significant increases with the omega-3 diets, indicating enhanced bone turnover. This was corroborated by the significantly lower levels of the mature collagen crosslinks, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline, lysyl pyridinoline and histidinohydroxy-lysinonorleucine, with a corresponding significant shift in the mature

  1. Antiarrhythmogenic effect of omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in a patient treated with Omacor after a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction

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    Andrey Ardashev

    2014-02-01

    The patient agreed to add omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation (1 g/day to his treatment regimen. Pacemaker analyses 3 months later demonstrated no NSVT and only 215 PVBs daily. In more than 1 year of follow-up, the patient has remained well and has had no further ventricular arrhythmias. We conclude that omega-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation may be beneficial in post-MI patients with pacemakers who develop ventricular arrhythmias.

  2. Physiological functions of iso-type short-chain fatty acid and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids containing oil in obese OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Furuya, Kenta; Nagai, Toshiharu; Ichioka, Kenji; Tokairin, Shigeru; Iida, Yasuhiro; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that tissues of porpoise contain unique structured-lipids as combination of iso-valeric acid (iso-C5:0) and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 PUFAs). It is well known that omega3 PUFAs have lipid-lowering effects in animal and human studies. Although branched chain fatty acids have been interested in their unique functions, there is no data concerning the effect of iso-C5:0 on lipid metabolism. In this study we investigated the effect of structured-lipids from porpoise adipose tissue (porpoise oil) on lipid metabolism in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. For 4 weeks, rats were fed semisynthetic diets containing either 10% corn oil or 5% corn oil plus 5% porpoise oil. After feeding period, the porpoise oil diet significantly alleviated hepatic triglyceride accumulation compared with the control diet in OLETF rats. Although serum triglyceride level increased, serum level of adiponectin that can protect liver function and alleviate abnormalities of lipid and glucose metabolism increased in rats fed porpoise oil diet. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest that porpoise oil feeding prevents the development of fatty liver disease through the enhancement of lipoprotein secretion and increase of adiponectin production in obese rats.

  3. Alpha-Linolenic Acid: An Omega-3 Fatty Acid with Neuroprotective Properties—Ready for Use in the Stroke Clinic?

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    Nicolas Blondeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA is plant-based essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that must be obtained through the diet. This could explain in part why the severe deficiency in omega-3 intake pointed by numerous epidemiologic studies may increase the brain’s vulnerability representing an important risk factor in the development and/or deterioration of certain cardio- and neuropathologies. The roles of ALA in neurological disorders remain unclear, especially in stroke that is a leading cause of death. We and others have identified ALA as a potential nutraceutical to protect the brain from stroke, characterized by its pleiotropic effects in neuroprotection, vasodilation of brain arteries, and neuroplasticity. This review highlights how chronic administration of ALA protects against rodent models of hypoxic-ischemic injury and exerts an anti-depressant-like activity, effects that likely involve multiple mechanisms in brain, and may be applied in stroke prevention. One major effect may be through an increase in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a widely expressed protein in brain that plays critical roles in neuronal maintenance, and learning and memory. Understanding the precise roles of ALA in neurological disorders will provide the underpinnings for the development of new therapies for patients and families who could be devastated by these disorders.

  4. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

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    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  5. Cardiac mortality is associated with low levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the heart of cadavers with a history of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattipakorn, Nipon; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Petsophonsakul, Petnoi; Suwannahoi, Padiphat; Mahakranukrauh, Pasuk; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2009-10-01

    The benefits of omega-3 (ie, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) and omega-6 (ie, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid [AA]) fatty acids on reducing cardiac mortality are still debated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues are associated with low cardiac mortality in Thai cadavers. One hundred fresh cadavers were examined in this study. The cause of death, history of coronary heart disease (CHD), and fish consumption habits were obtained from death certificates, cadaver medical record profiles, and a questionnaire to a person who lived with the subject before death. In each cadaver, biopsies of cardiac tissues were taken from the interventricular septum for measurement of fatty acid. Of the 100 cadavers (average age, 69 +/- 13 years), 60 were men. The frequency of fish consumption was directly associated with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in heart tissues (P fatty acids. However, in cadavers with a history of CHD, high levels of omega-3 and omega-6, particularly DHA and AA, were associated with low cardiac mortality (P fatty acids in heart tissues. Although omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are not associated with cardiac mortality in the overall studied population, their low levels (especially DHA and AA) in heart tissues are associated with high cardiac mortality in cadavers with a history of CHD.

  6. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids versus 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy to sertraline in controlling suicidal ideation in patients with depression: A comparative study

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    Jyoti Prakash Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan have been gaining attention as promising alternative treatment for depressive illness. These agents are given as as add on treatment to conventional antidepressant drugs. The present study was carried out to evaluate efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids versus 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy in controlling suicidal ideation in depressive patients on sertraline.Methods: This was a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study conducted in department of Psychiatry. Ninety treatment naïve patients (18-65 years age were divided into 3 groups of 30 each. Group I: Sertraline, Group II: Sertraline plus omega-3 fatty acids, Group III: Sertraline plus 5-hydroxytryptophan. Suicidal ideations were assessed with Beck’s scale for suicidal ideation (BSI at weeks 0, 4 and 8. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (SPSS version 20.0. Post hoc analysis was done using Bonferroni test.Results: Baseline parameters in patients of all groups were comparable. Administration of sertraline resulted in reduction of Beck’s scale for suicidal ideation scores as compared to baseline. Addition of omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan also showed reduction in BSI scores. Effect of sertraline monotherapy was more as compared to omega-3 fatty acids or 5-hydroxytryptophan as add on therapy, which was statistically significant (p value < 0.05.Conclusion: Both omega-3 fatty acids and 5-hydroxytryptophan produce significant effect in controlling suicidal ideations in patients with depression.

  7. Modulating effects of omega-3 fatty acids and pioglitazone combination on insulin resistance through toll-like receptor 4 in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraky, Salma M; Abdel-Rahman, Noha; Eissa, Laila A

    2017-06-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) plays important roles in innate immunity. Changes in the reduction-oxidation balance of tissues can lead to a pro-inflammatory state and insulin resistance. An action thought to be mediated by TLRs. Omega-3 fatty acids and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists as pioglitazone are used for decreasing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of combining omega -3 fatty acid with pioglitazone on type 2 diabetes, and the modifying effects on TLR-4. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by combination of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (35mg/kg). Diabetic rats were treated with omega-3 fatty acids (10% W/W diet), pioglitazone (20mg/kg), and their combination for 4 weeks. Omega-3 fatty acids and the combination treatment significantly decreased TLR-4 activation. Omega-3 fatty acids, pioglitazone, and their combination significantly decreased TLR-4 mRNA expression, hepatic malondialdehyde, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels, compared to diabetic group. Pioglitazone and the combination significantly decreased blood glucose levels and improved insulin resistance. In conclusion, combining omega-3 fatty acids with pioglitazone showed potential effects in lowering blood glucose levels and improving lipid profile and insulin resistance. Such effects are mediated through modulation of TLR-4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in cancer therapy. Does eicosapentanoic acid influence the radiosensitivity of tumor cells?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manda, Katrin; Kriesen, Stephan; Hildebrandt, Guido [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Fietkau, Rainer; Klautke, Gunther [Univ. Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) can enhance the radiosensitivity of different human tumor cell lines. Materials and Methods: Colon adenocarcinoma cells HT-29, and two glioblastoma multiforme tumor cells T98G and U251 were cultured under standard conditions. Cell growth was observed during administration with different concentrations of EPA, using it as the free fatty acid dissolved in ethanol or bound to bovine serum albumin. To investigate the influence of EPA (free and bound) on radiosensitivity, tumor cells were pretreated 30 minutes or 24 hours prior to irradiation with the fatty acid. Cell survival was measured by colony-forming assays. Results: When combined with irradiation, incubation with EPA was found to result in enhanced radiosensitivity with substantial variation: while there was strong radiosensitization for HT-29 and U251 cells, almost no effect for T98G cells was observed. A marked radiosensitization was clearly dependent on the treatment schedule. Conclusion: The observations suggest that EPA is not only a nutritional adjuvant but also may be a potential candidate to enhance the efficacy of irradiation on human cancer cells. (orig.)

  9. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen-Taipale, Anna Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Turunen, Anu W; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Verkasalo, Pia K

    2010-05-07

    High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492) and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265). Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day) in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01), and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month) in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05). This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  10. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liisa Suominen-Taipale

    Full Text Available High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492 and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265. Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day and independent frequency questions (times/month. Dietary intake (g/day and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01, and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05. This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  11. Arachidonic acid-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes are targets of {omega}-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cosima; Markovic, Marija; Blossey, Katrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Fischer, Robert; Dechend, Ralf; Konkel, Anne; von Schacky, Clemens; Luft, Friedrich C; Muller, Dominik N; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2010-10-22

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protect against cardiovascular disease by largely unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that EPA and DHA may compete with arachidonic acid (AA) for the conversion by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, resulting in the formation of alternative, physiologically active, metabolites. Renal and hepatic microsomes, as well as various CYP isoforms, displayed equal or elevated activities when metabolizing EPA or DHA instead of AA. CYP2C/2J isoforms converting AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) preferentially epoxidized the ω-3 double bond and thereby produced 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) from EPA and DHA. We found that these ω-3 epoxides are highly active as antiarrhythmic agents, suppressing the Ca(2+)-induced increased rate of spontaneous beating of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, at low nanomolar concentrations. CYP4A/4F isoforms ω-hydroxylating AA were less regioselective toward EPA and DHA, catalyzing predominantly ω- and ω minus 1 hydroxylation. Rats given dietary EPA/DHA supplementation exhibited substantial replacement of AA by EPA and DHA in membrane phospholipids in plasma, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and pancreas, with less pronounced changes in the brain. The changes in fatty acids were accompanied by concomitant changes in endogenous CYP metabolite profiles (e.g. altering the EET/EEQ/EDP ratio from 87:0:13 to 27:18:55 in the heart). These results demonstrate that CYP enzymes efficiently convert EPA and DHA to novel epoxy and hydroxy metabolites that could mediate some of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of dietary ω-3 fatty acids.

  12. HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIK MINYAK IKAN UNTUK PRODUKSI ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 MENGGUNAKAN LIPASE DARI Aspergillus niger [Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fish Oil for Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Using Lipase Derived from Aspergillus niger

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    Sapta Raharja*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil is the source of important fatty-acid, especially polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA omega-3, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Lipase catalysis activity of Aspergillus niger is low when it is used in fish oil hydrolysis. The activity of the lipase can be increased by adding organic solvent such as hexane into the media. This research aimed to determine temperature, pH and amount of water which produce the highest degree of hydrolysis of fish oil in the presence of hexane. Correlation between the highest degree of hydrolysis and the amount of omega-3 fatty acid was also investigated. The variables used in this research were temperatures (25-65 oC, pH (5-9, and water addition (1-5 %v/v. The highest degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of fish oil in the media without hexane was 28.07 % that was reached at 45oC and pH 5. In the presence of hexane, the highest degree of hydrolysis was 75.12 % which was reached at 5% water addition, temperature 45oC, and pH 5. GC-MS analysis showed that omega-3 fatty acid content especially EPA and DHA increased along with increase in the degree of hydrolysis. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acid produced without hexane addition was 18.42 % with EPA amounted to 12,17% and DHA 0,86%. Meanwhile omega-3 fatty acid content in the presence of hexane reached 21.93 % with EPA amounted to 17.75 % and DHA 1.21 %.

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to modulate the painful symptoms associated to cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Raquel D S; Costa, Kesiane M; Nicoletti, Natália F; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Campos, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP.

  14. FRACTIONATION OF FATTY ACID OMEGA 3, 6 AND 9 FROM SNAIL (Achatina fulica) USING COLOUM CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Haryadi, Winarto; Triono, Sugeng

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of fat from snail has been carried out by Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether solvent. Fatty product from extraction was transesterificated in BF3/methanol solvent for an hour by reflux procedure, then extracted by n-hexane to produce methyl ester fatty acid. Free water fatty acid methyl ester was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Fatty acid ester was separated from its fractions use column chromatography in n-hexane, n-hexane:dietil eter (2:1 v/v), d...

  15. Towards the Industrial Production of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from a Genetically Modified Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Hamilton

    Full Text Available The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can accumulate up to 30% of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and, as such, is considered a good source for the industrial production of EPA. However, P. tricornutum does not naturally accumulate significant levels of the more valuable omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Previously, we have engineered P. tricornutum to accumulate elevated levels of DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA by overexpressing heterologous genes encoding enzyme activities of the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway. Here, the transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 has been investigated for the scalable production of EPA and DHA. Studies have been performed at the laboratory scale on the cultures growing in up to 1 L flasks a 3.5 L bubble column, a 550 L closed photobioreactor and a 1250 L raceway pond with artificial illumination. Detailed studies were carried out on the effect of different media, carbon sources and illumination on omega-3 LC-PUFAs production by transgenic strain Pt_Elo5 and wild type P. tricornutum grown in 3.5 L bubble columns. The highest content of DHA (7.5% of total fatty acids, TFA in transgenic strain was achieved in cultures grown in seawater salts, Instant Ocean (IO, supplemented with F/2 nutrients (F2N under continuous light. After identifying the optimal conditions for omega-3 LC-PUFA accumulation in the small-scale experiments we compared EPA and DHA levels of the transgenic strain grown in a larger fence-style tubular photobioreactor and a raceway pond. We observed a significant production of DHA over EPA, generating an EPA/DPA/DHA profile of 8.7%/4.5%/12.3% of TFA in cells grown in a photobioreactor, equivalent to 6.4 μg/mg dry weight DHA in a mid-exponentially growing algal culture. Omega-3 LC-PUFAs production in a raceway pond at ambient temperature but supplemented with artificial illumination (110 μmol photons m-2s-1 on a 16:8h light:dark cycle, in

  16. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia.

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    Kurtys, E; Eisel, U L M; Verkuyl, J M; Broersen, L M; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory properties acting on specific inflammatory pathways. We hypothesized that combining nutrients acting on converging anti-inflammatory pathways may lead to enhanced anti-inflammatory properties as compared to the action of a single nutrient. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of combinations of nutrients based on the ability to inhibit the LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 from BV-2 cells. Results show that omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A and D can individually reduce the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by BV-2 cells. Moreover, we show that vitamins A, D and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic) at concentrations where they individually had little effect, significantly reduced the secretion of the inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, when they were combined. The conclusion of this study is that combining different nutrients acting on convergent anti-inflammatory pathways may result in an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy.

  17. Marine omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids: From mechanisms to clinical implications in heart failure and arrhythmias.

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    Glück, Tobias; Alter, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic implications of marine omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in cardiovascular disease are still discussed controversially. Several clinical trials report divergent findings and thus leave ambiguity on the meaning of oral omega-3 therapy. Potential prognostic indications of HUFA treatment have been predominantly studied in coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation and heart failure of various origin. It is suspected that increased ventricular wall stress is crucially involved in the prognosis of heart failure. Increased wall stress and an unfavorable myocardial remodeling is associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias by stretch-activated membrane ion channels. Integration of HUFA into the microenvironment of cardiomyocyte ion channels lead to allosteric changes and increase the electrical stability. Increased ventricular wall stress appears to be involved in the local myocardial as well as in the hepatic fatty acid metabolism, i.e. a cardio-hepatic syndrome. Influences of an altered endogenous HUFA metabolism and an inverse shift of the fatty acid profile was underrated in the past. A better understanding of these interacting endogenous mechanisms appears to be required for interpreting the findings of recent experimental and clinical studies. The present article critically reviews major studies on basic pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment effects in clinical trials.

  18. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action.

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    Poudyal, Hemant; Panchal, Sunil K; Diwan, Vishal; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiological, human, animal, and cell culture studies show that n-3 fatty acids, especially α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. EPA and DHA, rather than ALA, have been the focus of research on the n-3 fatty acids, probably due to the relatively inefficient conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA in rodents and humans. This review will assess our current understanding of the effects and potential mechanisms of actions of individual n-3 fatty acids on multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Evidence for pharmacological responses and the mechanism of action of each of the n-3 fatty acid trio will be discussed for the major risk factors of metabolic syndrome, especially adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, hypertension, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Metabolism of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids as well as the interactions of n-3 fatty acids with nutrients, gene expression, and disease states will be addressed to provide a rationale for the use of n-3 fatty acids to reduce the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid and gamma-linolenic acid on acne vulgaris: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

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    Jung, Jae Yoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Hong, Jong Soo; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Mi Sun; Jang, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun

    2014-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and histological changes induced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid in acne vulgaris. A 10-week, randomised, controlled parallel dietary intervention study was performed in 45 participants with mild to moderate acne, which were allocated to either an omega-3 fatty acid group (2,000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), a γ-linoleic acid group (borage oil containing 400 mg γ-linoleic acid), or a control group. After 10 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid or γ-linoleic acid supplementation, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly. Patient subjective assessment of improvement showed a similar result. Heamatoxylin & eosin staining of acne lesions demonstrated reductions in inflammation and immunohistochemical staining intensity for interleukin-8. No severe adverse effect was reported. This study shows for the first time that omega-3 fatty acid and γ-linoleic acid could be used as adjuvant treatments for acne patients.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tomio

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX-knockout (KO and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress