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Sample records for oman

  1. Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Oman is on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations between Oman and the US. The population is estimated at 1.3 million; the annual growth rate is 3%. The infant mortality rate is estimated to be 50/1000 with a life expectancy of 48 years. Oman is located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Its land borders with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates remain undefined, and the border with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen is in dispute. About 1/3 of the population live in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; more than 1/2 live in small towns, primarily in the interior. Ethnic groups include Arab, Baluchi, Zanzibari, and Indian. At least 200,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom (180,000) are guest workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, as well as from Egypt, Jordan, and the Philippines. Except for a brief period of Persian rule, the Omanis have remained independent since 1650. The sultanate has no constitution, legislature, or legal political parties. The judicial system is based mainly on the Koranic laws and the oral teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. In November 1981, the sultan formed the Consultative Council for the State in an effort to increase public participation in the government. When Oman declined as an entrepot for arms and slaves in the mid-19th century, much of its former prosperity was lost, and the economy relied almost exclusively on agriculture, camel and goat herding, fishing, and traditional handicrafts. Oil was first discovered in the interior in 1964. With the fall in oil prices in the early 1980s, revenue declined slightly before resuming an upward trend based on additions to production from the new fields. By late 1985, production rose to just over 500,000 barrels/day. The government is undertaking many development projects to modernize the economy and further improve the

  2. Spotlight: Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, F

    1997-05-01

    Halfway through 1997, Oman had a population of 2.3 million growing via natural increase at a rate of 3.4% annually. Birth and death rates in the country are 38 and 4 per 1000 population, respectively. Oman encompasses 82,030 sq. miles. 27 infants die in Oman per 1000 live births, the average woman bears 6.2 children, and life expectancy is 69 and 73 years for men and women, respectively. 97% of ever-married women know of at least one contraceptive method, and the rate of contraceptive prevalence among married women increased from 9% in 1987 to 28% in 1995, 21% of which is modern methods. The oil boom of the 1970s brought wealth to Oman, driving per capita gross national product from $370 in 1973 to $6200 in 1982. The economy is based largely upon the government-controlled petroleum industry, which accounts for 80% of revenues. Two-thirds of the world's crude petroleum shipped by sea passes by Oman through the Strait of Hormuz, giving Oman disproportionately large geopolitical importance. Foreigners largely from India, Pakistan, and the Philippines comprise more than half of the country's labor force. More than 80% of primary school-age children are enrolled in school, with increasing numbers of Omani women also attending school.

  3. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  4. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  5. The Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  6. Karst in Wadi Bani Khalid, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ramadan

    2017-04-01

    There are several important in Oman. The main aquifer is surficial aquifer and fractured rocks. In fact, the geology of Oman is complex whichmake the hydraulic continuity of bedrock is limited and formaing localized aquifers. caves in Oman are varying types and length, size and geographic formations. Many caves and valleys founded in Oman. Wadi Bani Khalid hosts complex network of fractured rock. Karst in Wadi Bani Kalid made upof Limestone(Calcium, which is dissolve in water.A rain water pass through the rock it is erode the rock and form caves. The cave located in Miqil. The karst was formed in Calcium Carbonate rocks.

  7. The Oman Water Challenge: Wettskills 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the State Visit of HM Queen Beatrix to Oman Prof. Dr. Ruud J. Schotting, Sultan Qaboos Chair of Quantitative Water Management at Utrecht University/ Roosevelt Academy, was invited to Oman to assist with the Wetskills competition. The Academic Chair is an initiative of the Netherl

  8. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... States--Oman Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Interim rule...'') entered into the U.S.--Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The stated objectives of the...

  9. Toward prevention of Hemoglobinopathies in Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Suha Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies (HBP) are the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder in Oman. Carriers are usually asymptomatic but carrier couples are at 25% risk of getting a severely affected child. Public health authorities have focused not only on state of the art management and patient care but

  10. Emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, K; Filatenko, A. A.; Alkhanjari, S.; Al-Maskri, A.; Bürkert, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Emmer (Triticum dicoccon ) was collected recently in northern Oman. The material was analyzed morphologically and phenologically. It belongs to the Asiatic emmers (subsp. asiaticum) and not to the Ethiopian ones (subsp. abyssinicum), distributed in Ethiopia and Yemen, as originally expected. The determination of the material resulted in var. haussknechtianum and var. aeruginosum.

  11. Toward prevention of Hemoglobinopathies in Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Suha Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies (HBP) are the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder in Oman. Carriers are usually asymptomatic but carrier couples are at 25% risk of getting a severely affected child. Public health authorities have focused not only on state of the art management and patient care but a

  12. A mobile application to screen for autism in Arabic-speaking communities in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jonathan Klein

    2015-03-01

    Funding: Funding sources included Information Technology Authority (Oman, ASM Technologies (Oman, Sultan Qaboos University through Strategic Project SR/MED/FMCO/11/01 (Oman, and the Fulbright US Student Program (USA.

  13. The Challenges of Green Construction in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayisha Powmya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oman has seen rapid growth in construction industry with the blooming of many new infrastructure projects. The conventional way of approaching construction projects in the past makes introducing sustainable construction a major challenge. The country has a sound environmental law, however, the effectiveness of its implementation is unclear.Green or sustainable concept is still new to Omani people and as such many initiatives to promote the concept are necessary. In line with the green development of its neighboring countries, Oman should act fast to be at par with them. This paper explores the progress of green construction in the industryto understand how far this concept has penetrated the industry. A survey has been conducted among construction practitioners in Oman focusing on the current progress and barriers of implementation.A total of 12 barriers of implementation have been identified of which the lack of demand for green construction and lack of pressure by government are the top two.The findings suggest that many more efforts are necessary to push green construction to the forefront and the government should play a major role in this development.

  14. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... ``Parties'') entered into the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of... have more free trade agreements like the OFTA. Conclusion Accordingly, CBP believes that the interim...

  15. Measuring Oman’s Food Security Outlook for Crisis Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    National Food Security Plan, http://www.qnfsp.gov.qa/about-us (accessed December 2, 2013). 14 Corazon Aragon, Flordeliza Lantican, and Eden Piadozo...Nations. April 2007. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Counprof/oman/oman.htm (accessed March 2, 2015). Aragon, Corazon , Flordeliza Lantican, and

  16. Leadership for Sustainability Perceptions in Higher Education Institutions in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sadiq; Albarwani, Thuwayba

    2015-01-01

    This study explores leadership in higher education institutions in Oman where education for sustainability issues are a high priority. The Vice-chancellor of the premier university Sultan Qaboos University, Qaboos Sultanate of Oman, and his four senior management team members answer the following question: What are the concrete steps which have…

  17. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman; 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Al-Bulushi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system.

  18. Growth Strategies of Mobile Virtual Network Operators in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr N.P. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oman telecom market consists of five Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs and two Mobile Network Operators (MNOs. MVNOs have also sealed their deals with MNOs, technology providers, advertising and marketing agencies, SIM and re-charge coupon distribution channels. All the five MVNOs in Oman have already launched their operations and are providing services. The article is an attempt to understand many facets of MVNO business in Oman. The article discusses the present status of operations of MVNOs, their growth in Oman and w orld, their tariff plans, SIM card distribution channels and marketing strategies to survive in a highly competitive Omani telecom market. A set of propositions are also identified related to success of MVNOs which are proved either true or false using secondary data collected from various sources. The article concluded in the form of synthesis of data and possible new future strategies for MVNOs in Oman.

  19. The Assets of Knowledge Society in Oman: People and ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Al Hadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress has been considered as driver of overall development in the world and a lot of countries have adopted a diversified economic growth model such as Oman. Oman is a Middle Eastern country with an economy that relies heavily on Oil. As part of its 2020 vision aiming at sustaining social and economic growth and development, Oman has been seeking to develop a Knowledge Society (KS. This paper focuses on people and ICT as important and vital assets and resources to successfully develop a KS. The main objectives of this paper are the following:  To investigate the role of people and ICT in developing the Knowledge Society in Oman  To propose a framework on how to involve people in developing KS in Oman  To identify how to align the development of the Knowledge Society with the human resource development in Oman The main research method used in this paper is interview. Also, secondary sources such as books and online journals are utilized to get the maximum understanding of the topic of the research. The results of this project are expected to show how Oman KS project affects the development of human resources, their life and their work. Moreover, the finding of this project shows that for Oman to develop KS, there are certain areas that have to be considered such as ICT infrastructure and training of human resources. The development of human capacity is essential in developing the KS in Oman. The main concern is to focus on the development of education as it is the key investment in humans. This paper seeks to develop a framework for involving people in KS development and aligning KS development to go along with human resources development.

  20. Souks féminins en Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Beaudevin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Les trois souks féminins de la Sharqiyya omanaise sont des marchés hebdomadaires d’apparition relativement récente (années 1980 et 1990 et réservés aux femmes, tant pour l’achat que pour la vente ; par ailleurs, les produits proposés ne concernent que l’éco-nomie domestique, les enfants ou les atours féminins. Il s’agit ici de fournir une première approche de ces marchés – rares dans le monde arabe – replacés dans le contexte géographique, politique et social du Sultanat d’Oman. Leur étude permet d’éclairer la position des femmes dans la société patriarcale et dans l’économie omanaises, notamment à travers la comparaison avec les souks habituels, presque exclusivement masculins, en Oman comme ailleurs.

  1. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  2. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  3. Reception Marking Establishment of China-Oman Friendship Association,Oman-China Friendship Association And China-Oman Friendly Exchange Fund Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2007-01-01

    <正>On June 28,the CPAFFC and the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) jointly held a grand reception celebrating the establishment of the China-Oman Friendship Association (COFA),the Oman-China Friendship Association (OCFA) and the China-Oman Friendly Exchange Fund (COFEF). Tomur Dawamat,president of the CAFA,Yang Fuchang,president of the COFA,Abdullah Saleh Al Saadi,Omani ambassador to China,Mhd Kheir Al-Wadi,dean of the diplomatic corps of Arab countries in China,and Feng Zuoku,vice president of the CPAFFC and chairman of the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development (CFFPD),attended and spoke at the reception.

  4. Public schools’ characteristics and teacher turnover in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairuddin Idris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are the backbone of the educational systems and their turnover may threaten the whole educational system in any country. In Oman, teacher turnover is a neglected area of study and this article may help in shedding some light on teacher turnover phenomenon in Oman. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of school characteristics (e.g., school size, gender, time-shift, education type, and school location on the turnover intentions of teachers in public schools in Oman. Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from 214 public schools in Oman. 142 schools from all educational regions in Oman were participated in this study. Data analyses tools for this study were descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, in addition to independents t-test and analysis of variance. The study revealed that teacher intentions to transfer to other schools are influenced by almost all the studied school characteristics. Policy makers and human resource recruiters in Ministry of Education should be aware of teachers’ preferences for certain schools to avoid teachers’ shortage in non-preferred schools. Further studies about the influence of school time-shift and teachers’ intentions to quit or transfer are needed to affirm the results in this study. This is the first study about the influence of school characteristics on teacher turnover in public schools in Oman. Thus, the value of this study stems from the uniqueness of this study which may serve as an eye opening indicator about teacher turnover in Oman.

  5. Oman Traditional Date Palms: Production and Improvement of Date Palms in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marshudi, AS.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Date production in the world is confined to a small number of countries, most of them being Arab. However, date industry in the Arab world is not yet fully developed and concerted efforts are still needed to fully utilize the tremendous date tree potential as a commodity that can be consumed in the local market or processed for export. Date palm cultivation is one of the most important agricultural activities in Oman. It occupies more than 82% of total fruit crop area and about 42% of total agricultural land. Not only is domestic demand met, but a surplus for export is also generated.Tremendous development has occurred in the production and distribution of dates during the last two decades. However, the contribution of dates to total agriculture exports was found to be low. This paper presents date palm crop in terms of its traditional practice and economic development in Oman. Results show that the quality of dates produced has not yet met approved standards and, therefore, the return to producers is not maximized.

  6. Intensification of upwelling along Oman coast in a warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, V.; Ajayamohan, R. S.; Valsala, V.; Sandeep, S.

    2016-07-01

    The oceanic impact of poleward shift in monsoon low-level jet (MLLJ) is examined using a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Two sets of downscaling experiments were conducted using ROMS with boundary and initial conditions from six CMIP5 models. While outputs from the historical run (1981-2000) acts as forcing for the first, the second uses RCP8.5 (2080-2099). By comparing the outputs, it is found that Oman coast will experience an increase in upwelling in tune with MLLJ shift. Consistent with the changes in upwelling and zonal Ekman transport, temperature, salinity, and productivity show significant changes near the Oman coast. The changes in MLLJ causes the coastal wind to angle against the Oman coast in such a fashion that the net upwelling increases in the next century and so does the marine productivity. This study contrasts the general view of weakening of upwelling along the Arabian coasts due to the weakening of monsoon winds.

  7. Profiling Oman education data using data visualization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalawi, Sultan Juma Sultan; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd; Jamil, Jastini Mohd

    2016-10-01

    This research works presents an innovative data visualization technique to understand and visualize the information of Oman's education data generated from the Ministry of Education Oman "Educational Portal". The Ministry of Education in Sultanate of Oman have huge databases contains massive information. The volume of data in the database increase yearly as many students, teachers and employees enter into the database. The task for discovering and analyzing these vast volumes of data becomes increasingly difficult. Information visualization and data mining offer a better ways in dealing with large volume of information. In this paper, an innovative information visualization technique is developed to visualize the complex multidimensional educational data. Microsoft Excel Dashboard, Visual Basic Application (VBA) and Pivot Table are utilized to visualize the data. Findings from the summarization of the data are presented, and it is argued that information visualization can help related stakeholders to become aware of hidden and interesting information from large amount of data drowning in their educational portal.

  8. Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis; First case report from Oman and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Al-Maani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB is a rare fungal infection with few reported cases worldwide. We report here the first case diagnosed in Oman in a previously healthy 5-year-old Omani female child who had been thought initially to have an abdominal malignancy. The case was referred to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in July 2012. She was treated successfully with surgical resection and prolonged antifungal therapy (voriconazole. Physicians, including clinicians, radiologists and pathologists, should have a high index of suspicion for GIB when a patient presents with an abdominal mass and fever.

  9. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  10. Recreational Value of an Oasis in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim; Mbaga, Msafiri; Fouzai, Ayoub; Al-Shaqsi, Saif

    2011-07-01

    Increasing demand for water to develop non-agricultural activities is causing water to be diverted to high-value uses at the expense of irrigation. However, agriculture provides a flow of amenities in the desert environment which are not either accounted or paid. Oases are spread all over the globe and are threatened for various reasons among which is the high pressure of demand for fresh water. This paper estimates the recreation use value of an oasis. The paper is based on the Misfat Al-Abryeen oasis in Oman, a man-made area of streams and woodland. The travel cost method is used through an on-site questionnaire distributed to 230 visitors. Around 75% of visitors to the oasis also visited other historical or ecological sites during the same day-trip. The econometric model is estimated using negative binomial regression with endogenous stratification. The average consumer surplus, or benefit, from visiting Misfat Al-Abryeen is estimated at US 104.74 per individual per trip. The total social benefit from this oasis is estimated at 366,590 per year. These results underscore the importance of the role played by irrigated agriculture in the provision of amenity services for the tourism sector in a desert environment. The sustainability of the irrigation activity depends on the recognition of the recreation role of oases and the transfer of part of these benefits to the farmers who maintain the irrigation system. The implementation of an entrance fee to the oasis might increase farmers' profit by 6-21%.

  11. Barriers to Adopting Technology for Teaching and Learning in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Senaidi, Said; Lin, Lin; Poirot, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the perceived barriers to adopting information and communication technologies (ICT) in Omani higher education. One hundred faculty members from four different departments at the College of Applied Sciences in Oman participated in the study. The participants took a survey, which was developed based on the Western literature.…

  12. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  13. Immigrants and health system challenges to TB control in Oman

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    Fochsen Grethe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past three decades, Oman has made significant progress in controlling TB within it's borders. However, the national TB control program elimination target has yet to be reached. This study aims to explore the perceived roles played by the immigrant population and the private health sector in relation to TB control in Oman. Methods We conducted seventeen interviews with different health care providers. The verbatim transcripts were processed using content analysis. Results Three main themes emerged. Firstly the threat of repatriation faced by underprivileged expatriates, secondly the criticized and forgotten private health sector as a key player and thirdly the user and provider barriers faced by Omani patients in the Omani public health system. Conclusions The study has identified some of the challenges and barriers to TB control in Oman. These challenges are mainly related to unintended negative consequences arising from the current repatriation policy of immigrants and to and the lack of involvement of the private sector in TB control. TB control strategies designed to address these challenges are needed, for Oman to reach its TB elimination targets.

  14. Educational Assessment Profile of Teachers in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said; Alnabhani, Hilal; Alkalbani, Muna

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on a previous pilot study conducted by Alkharusi, Aldhafri, Alnabhani, and Alkalbani (2012) to explore educational assessment attitudes, competence, knowledge, and practices of in-service teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. The present study extends the previous pilot study by surveying a larger sample of in-serivce teachers…

  15. Oman: The Present in the Context of a Fractured Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    an end to illiteracy , slavery, tribalism, and oppression of women. The party once again opened its ranks to non-Marxist members. 221 Under Sultan...Air Force. (Released) 67 Barrett: Oman be an Ibadi Muslim. The article goes on to state that the Sultan must be an adult , born of legitimate Muslim

  16. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  17. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  18. Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    Administrations have tended not to criticize Oman’s relatively close relations with Iran. Oman has a tradition of cooperation with Iran dating back...interdenominational Christian); the Hindu Mahajan Temple; and the Anwar al-Ghubairia Trading Co. Muscat (for the Sikh community). The government

  19. Burnout and Work Stress among Disability Centers Staff in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to maximize the potential of children with disabilities in Oman. The establishment of Al-Wafaa centers of disabilities served as a channel to help families secure a variety of services provided to children with different disabling conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the burnout of staff working in…

  20. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Theileria annulata in Oman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Al-Hamidhi

    Full Text Available Theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus Theileria, is a common disease of livestock in Oman. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. Since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in Oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to T. annulata in cattle.Blood samples were collected from cattle from four geographically distinct regions in Oman for genetic analysis of the Theileria annulata population. Ten genetic markers (micro- and mini-satellites representing all four chromosomes of T. annulata were applied to these samples using a combination of PCR amplification and fragment analysis. The resultant genetic data was analysed to provide a first insight into the structure of the T. annulata population in Oman.We applied ten micro- and mini-satellite markers to a total of 310 samples obtained from different regions (174 [56%] from Dhofar, 68 [22%] from Dhira, 44 [14.5%] from Batinah and 24 [8%] from Sharqia. A high degree of allelic diversity was observed among the four parasite populations. Expected heterozygosity for each site ranged from 0.816 to 0.854. A high multiplicity of infection was observed in individual hosts, with an average of 3.3 to 3.4 alleles per locus, in samples derived from Batinah, Dhofar and Sharqia regions. In samples from Dhira region, an average of 2.9 alleles per locus was observed. Mild but statistically significant linkage disequilibrium between pairs of markers was observed in populations from three of the four regions. In contrast, when the analysis was performed at farm level, no significant linkage disequilibrium was observed. Finally, no significant genetic differentiation was seen between the four populations, with most pair-wise FST values being less than 0.03. Slightly higher FST values (GST' = 0.075,

  1. A Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data in Muscat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, S.; Belabbassi, L.; Du Vall, K.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Lighthouse designed and installed a real-time cabled ocean observing system off the northern coast of the Sultanate of Oman in 2005 and a second system, farther to the south, existed as autonomous moorings from 2005-2009 and was upgraded to a real-time cabled system in early 2010. Since 2005 Lighthouse has operated and maintained those systems to produce a wealth of data on a poorly understood region of the global oceans. The systems record data hourly on current velocities over a range of depths, and temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at the depth of the sensor; the northern system also collects seismic and bottom pressure (tsunami detection) information continuously. Processing codes for all data have been developed and honed over the years in cooperation with oceanographers from Texas A&M University. As a joint and complementary effort, ocean circulation and tsunami impact models have been developed for the regional waters near Oman. In Oman, our work is coordinated through the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. From the beginning, Lighthouse has intended to transition data processing and analysis over to the Sultanate. To facilitate this transition, we propose to establish a Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data located in Muscat, Oman that may also serve as a regional oceanographic data depository and research center. Main activities to be carried out include: marine data processing and management, training of Omani professionals in data processing and analysis, facilitating regional and international collaboration by hosting workshops or short courses, and employing the models for research purposes. The center would work with the newly-established Hazard Monitoring Center to develop modeled now- and forecast products for marine operations and safety. The goal is to house, in a single location, datasets and models that will help Oman manage and maintain its marine environment and resources for generations to come.

  2. Something stirring under the Still Waters  of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Valéri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quelque chose troublant les eaux calmes d’Oman. Reprise en main ou revitalisation de la Monarchie ?Alors que le sultanat d’Oman recherche des alternatives à un modèle économique fondé sur la seule rente pétrolière (nationalisation des emplois, diversification des ressources économiques, etc., les réponses apportées par le pouvoir aux timides voix discordantes entendues depuis 2005, ainsi qu’aux pressions exercées par les États-Unis sur les régimes de la région dans le cadre de la « guerre contre le terrorisme », témoignent d’une évolution de la pratique de gouvernement. En cherchant à consolider sa légitimité personnelle et le lien direct qu’il entretient avec la population, le sultan Qabous souhaite effacer les doutes émis en Oman et à l’étranger sur son éventuelle prise de distance avec les affaires politiques.Changes in governing practices in Oman are indicated by a number of recent developments: on the one hand the regime is attempting to diversify the economy away from its complete dependence on oil revenues (through Omanisation of the labour force and a diversification of economic activities;  on the other, the authorities’ reaction to the timidly dissenting voices which have emerged since 2005 reflects their response to the USA’s political pressures on the Gulf regimes within the framework of its ‘war against terrorism’.  While seeking to consolidate his personal legitimacy and his direct link with his people, Sultan Qabous wants to wipe out any doubts about his possible withdrawal from politics.

  3. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  4. INTERNET FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: EVIDENCE FROM SAUDI ARABIA AND OMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Basuony, Mohamed A. K.; Ehab K. A. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and characteristics of voluntary internet disclosures by listed companies in Saudi Arabia and Oman. This paper uses archival data from listed companies on Tadawul Stock Exchange and Muscat Securities Market. Mann-Whitney test is used to examine the differences in disclosure characteristics between the two countries. The results reveal that a number of disclosure characteristics that differ significantly between the two countries. Also, this s...

  5. Development of blood transfusion service in Sultanate of Oman

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    Joshi Sanmukh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sultanate of Oman is geographically situated in south-west of Asia, having common borders on western side by the land with United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen and with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the east and the north respectively. The country enjoys one of the best health care facilities including blood transfusion services in the region. Study design: Information was collected through informal personal interviews, digging out the past records, and the report presentations at various forums. Results: A modest start by providing blood units through import, the country is now self-reliant on procuring blood units from voluntary non-remunerate blood donors within the sultanate. A steady growth of blood banks is witnessed in every aspect of blood banking including blood collection, blood processing and supply. Various modalities are adapted in promoting voluntary blood donation programme. Conclusion: Sultanate of Oman has created one of the best blood transfusion services in the region in providing safe blood for transfusion through voluntary donation, a use of blood components and irradiating blood products.

  6. Human Impacts on Coral Reefs in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jufaili, S.; Al-Jabri, M.; Al-Baluchi, A.; Baldwin, R. M.; Wilson, S. C.; West, F.; Matthews, A. D.

    1999-08-01

    A rapid assessment survey of the coral reefs of the Sultanate of Oman was conducted by the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Environment during the first half of 1996. The survey revealed new information on the distribution pattern of corals in Oman and identified impacts, threats and potential threats to coral communities for the purpose of preparation of a National Coral Reef Management Plan (Phase One of the implementation of a National Coastal Zone Management Plan). Impacts on coral reefs in Oman were found to be attributable to both natural and human causes, resulting in significant and widespread degradation. Damage resulting from fisheries activities was the most commonly recorded human impact, with the most severe effects. Other human impacts resulted from coastal construction, recreational activities, oil pollution and eutrophication. Predation of corals by Acanthaster planci, damage caused by storms, coral diseases and temperature-related stress were the most commonly recorded natural impacts to coral reefs. Further minor natural impacts were attributable to siltation, rock falls and predation by a corallivorous gastropod (Drupella sp.). Significant differences between different areas of the country were found in terms of human impacts on coral reefs and these were related to coastal demography and human activity. Eighty per cent of sites studied were recorded to have been affected by human impacts to some degree. Impacts attributable to fisheries activities were found at 69% of the sites. Lost or abandoned gill nets were found to affect coral reefs at 49% of sites throughout Oman and accounted for 70% of all severe human impacts. Lost gill nets were also found to have a negative affect on fisheries resources and other marine wildlife. Observations of the behaviour of gill nets on coral reefs suggested a predictable pattern of damage over time and a significant increase in damage intensity during storms. Fishing nets were found to act selectively

  7. GWDC Wins the Lekhwair Drilling Contract on a Lump Lump Sum Basis in Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ GWDC (Great Wall Drilling Company Ltd.) has become the first Chinese drilling contractor to win a contract on a lump sum basis in PDO (Petroleum Development Oman) to carry out a major strategic drilling campaign in Lekhwair, Oman. The Lekhwair Drilling Campaign Contract was signed in August, 2005 following acceptance of the award by PDO.

  8. English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate, from a student perspective, how English communication skills are taught in Oman's schools and higher education institutions. Previous research has documented the lack of communicative ability in English among school and higher education graduates in Oman (Al-Issa, 2007; Moody, 2009). However, the reasons…

  9. Solar electricity prospects in Oman using GIS-based solar radiation maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastli, Adel [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 33, Al-Khodh, Muscat-123 (Oman); Charabi, Yassine [Department of Geography, College of Arts, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 42, Al-Khodh, Muscat-123 (Oman)

    2010-02-15

    This paper discusses solar power prospects in Oman. First, the geographic and topographic information about Oman are presented. The methodology of producing solar radiation maps using GIS tools is then discussed. The results obtained show very high potential of solar radiation over all the lands of Oman during the whole year. A slope analysis has allowed calculating the yearly electricity generation potential for different Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies such as the parabolic trough, parabolic dish, tower, and concentrated PV. For instance if only 10% of the land of Oman with a slope less than 1% is considered an exploitable land for the parabolic trough CSP technology, then the total calculated potential of yearly electricity generation would be about 7.6 million GWh, which is many multiples of (680 times) the current generation supply in Oman which was about 11,189 GWh in 2007. (author)

  10. Incidence and perception of nursing students' academic incivility in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jansi; Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; van der Colff, Jacoba

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of incivility in nursing education is increasing in most countries and it is affecting the culture of safety and the teaching-learning processes. Despite reports of increasing trends, little is known about nursing students' academic incivility in the Middle East. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions and extent of academic incivility among nursing students (NS) and nursing faculty members (NF) in a university based undergraduate nursing program in Oman. A quantitative cross sectional survey was used to explore NS academic incivility from the perspective of NS and NF in a public university in Oman. Data was obtained from a sample of 155 NS and 40 NF using the Incivility in Nursing Education Survey. There was agreement between NS and NF on the majority of behaviors perceived to be disruptive. The incidence of NS academic incivility was moderate. The most common uncivil behaviors were acting bored or apathetic in class, holding conversations that distract others in class, using cell phones during class, arriving late for class, and being unprepared for class. There were significant differences between NF and NS perceived incidence of uncivil behaviors such as sleeping in class (p = 0.016); not paying attention in class (p = 0.004); refusing to answer direct questions (p = 0.013); leaving class early (p = 0.000); cutting or not coming to class (p = 0.024); and creating tension by dominating class discussions (p = 0.002). Student academic incivility is moderately present in nursing education in Oman, and this may have implications in terms of the future of the profession and patient care. There is need for more streamlined policies and strategies to curtail the incidence of academic incivility and to maintain safe and effective learning environments.

  11. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

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    Matllooba Al-Zadjali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically.

  12. Natural gas opens up a new era for Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi-Aad, Naji

    1996-05-01

    Oman, currently seeking to diversify its hydrocarbon industry, away from dependence on oil, is currently planning to exploit its huge reserves of natural gas. Three projects are described. The first involves the construction of a regional gasline to the emirate of Ras al-Khaimah. The second two projects are export based. The first entails producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) for export by sea to markets in the Far East. The last project includes pumping natural gas to India via a marine pipeline through the Arabian Sea. (UK)

  13. Geochemical variability of copper and iron in Oman margin sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    : Microchem. J.: 91(1); 2009; 111-117 Geochemical variability of copper and iron in Oman Margin sediments R. ALAGARSAMY * Chemical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C... in the upper 100 mm. The Mn 5 distribution in core 12687#8 (Fig. 3d) showed a similar distribution to that observed for copper. As determined by sequential leaching, however, there was no detectable non-detrital Mn observed in core 12687#10 (only Mn 5...

  14.  Incidence of Stomach Cancer in Oman and the Other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Sharples

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Stomach cancer is the most common cancer among males in Oman and the second most frequent among females from 1997 to 2007. Reports have suggested the rate is higher in Oman than in the other GCC countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of stomach cancer in Oman and to explore the apparent differences in the incidence of stomach cancer between Oman and the other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries.Methods: Data were obtained from the Omani National Cancer Registry (1997 - 2007 and from Gulf Centre for Cancer Registration reports (1998 - 2004.Results: The annual average age-adjusted incidence rates for stomach cancer in Oman were 10.1 per 100,000 for males and 5.6 per 100,000 for females between 1997 and 2007. The age-adjusted incidence varied by region within Oman, and the incidence rate was higher in Oman than in most other GCC countries between 1998 and 2004.Conclusion: Further investigation of the completeness and accuracy of cancer registration is essential for exploration of variations in stomach cancer rates in the GCC countries.

  15. Oman talouden tuokio - askel kohti myyntiä : case Liedon Säästöpankki

    OpenAIRE

    Saloranta, Saara-Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Oman talouden tuokio on Säästöpankkien oman neuvottelukonseptin nimitys. Se toteutetaan erillisellä Taloudenhallinta sovelluksella, mihin syötetään muun muassa asiakkaan tulot, menot, varallisuus ja velat. Sovelluksen avulla saadaan kokonaiskuva asiakkaan taloudellisesta tilanteesta ja voidaan näin esitellä juuri hänelle sopivia tuotteita ja palveluita. Sovellus tukee myyntityötä, sekä auttaa myös asiakasta hahmottamaan oman taloudellisen tilanteensa. Myyntityö on oma taitolajinsa. Siinä ...

  16. Relatives' advice and health care-seeking behaviour in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam

    2009-12-01

    It has been well established that pathways to care are considerably modified by local, social and psychological characteristics as well as the doctor-patient relationship. Scant attention has been paid to the role of family advice in care-seeking. In Omani society, traditional family values and a collective mindset are the norm rather than the exception. This paper examines how family advice affects the trajectory of care seeking. During 2006-2007, data was collected through face-to-face interviews among a randomised sample of patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. This study enrolled a total of 493 patients. The association between the advice of family members as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. The data suggest that the advice of family members in care-seeking is strongly associated with gender, education, history of chronic illness, previous exposure to traditional medicine, and health education, as well as the history of immunisation. These findings suggest that the advice of family members remains a strong catalyst for care-seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care-seeking leading to underutilisation of services or otherwise are discussed.

  17. Celiac Disease in Oman: A Tertiary Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfiq Taki Al-Lawati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of encounter of celiac disease in Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman.Methods: Retrospective study of records of all adult and pediatric patients in Royal Hospital from the period of 1/4/2006 to 31/3/2012. Data regarding symptoms, anthropometry of the patients, haemoglobuin levels, liver and thyroid functions were retrieved. Diagnosis of celiac disease was established based on combination of serological detection of anti tissues transglutaminase (tTG or anti endomysial antibodies (EMA with duodenal biopsy.Results: Only 9 children were identified in the hospital during the period of study. Two children were identified by screening protocol for Insulin Dependent Diabetes Melitus (IDDM and one child from short stature workup. Six children presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Four children were severely wasted and stunted. No adult patients were identified with celiac disease. Anaemia was noted in 3 children and none had deranged thyroid functions.Conclusion: Celiac disease is infrequently encountered in Royal Hospital and might be under diagnosed. The low rate of celiac disease in children with IDDM might indicate a different genetic composition. Awareness about celiac disease and family screening should be implemented in Oman.

  18. Adolescents and Adults with Congenital Heart Diseases in Oman

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    Asim Al-Balushi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study was to examine the spectrum, demographics, and mortality rate among adolescents and adults with congenital heart diseases (CHD in Oman. Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from the Royal Hospital, Muscat, electronic health records for all patients with a diagnosis of CHD aged 13 years and above. Data was analyzed according to the type of CHD and in-hospital mortality was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: A total of 600 patients with CHD were identified, among them 145 (24% were aged 18 years or below. The median age was 24 years. The majority of patients had a simple form of CHD. Atrial and ventricular septal defects together constituted 62.8% of congenital heart diseases. Most patients were clustered in Muscat (32% and the Batinah regions (31.1% of Oman. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and Fontan had shorter survival time than recorded in the published literature. Conclusion: Mostly simple forms of CHD in younger patients was observed. The survival rate was significantly shortened in more complex lesions compared to simple lesions. A national data registry for CHD is needed to address the morbidities and mortality associated with the disease.

  19. Anemia in pregnancy at South Sharqiya health centers, Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    Despite the improvement in some indicators of maternal health, the rate of anemia in pregnancy in South Sharqiya Region, Oman was not satisfactory. The aim of this work was to study the correlates of anemia in pregnancy and its outcomes at the ANC clinics in South Sharqiya health centers. A health facility-based follow up study was designed in 1998. In randomly selected 5 health centers representing all wilayats of South Sharqiya Region, Oman, a form for monthly data collection from the ANC registers was used to follow up 852 pregnant women till their pregnancies ended. Hemoglobin estimation was done four times monthly apart for pregnant women and data was entered into the computer using EPI info program. The data of 852 pregnant females was analyzed where 43.6% of the sample were anemic. Logistic Regression showed that mother age and weight were significantly associated with anemia in pregnancy. Follow up of pregnant anemic women was not satisfactory. Anemic pregnant women showed response to iron supplement and folic acid received. No significant association between anemia in pregnancy whatever its grade and LBW or still birth. The follow-up system of anemia in pregnancy should be stricter. Good dietary history has to be taken from pregnant females for better nutritional education and to rule out unhealthy nutritional practices.

  20. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard assessment for Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussain, I. W.; Deif, A.; El-Hady, S.; Toksoz, M. N.; Al-Jabri, K.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Toubi, K. I.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic hazard assessment for Oman is conducted utilizing probabilistic approach. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed within a logic tree framework. An earthquake catalogue for Oman was compiled and declustered to include only independent earthquakes. The declustered catalogue was used to define seismotectonic source model with 26 source zones that characterize earthquakes in the tectonic environments in and around Oman. The recurrence parameters for all the seismogenic zones are determined using the doubly bounded exponential distribution except the seismogenic zones of Makran subduction zone which were modeled using the characteristic distribution. The maximum earthquakes on known faults were determined geologically and the remaining zones were determined statistically from the compiled catalogue. Horizontal ground accelerations in terms of geometric mean were calculated using ground-motion prediction relationships that were developed from seismic data obtained from the shallow active environment, stable craton environment, and from subduction earthquakes. In this analysis, we have used alternative seismotectonic source models, maximum magnitude, and attenuation models and weighted them to account for the epistemic uncertainty. The application of this methodology leads to the definition of 5% damped seismic hazard maps at rock sites for 72, 475, and 2475 year return periods for spectral accelerations at periods of 0.0 (corresponding to peak ground acceleration), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 sec. Mean and 84th percentile acceleration contour maps were represented. The results also were displayed as uniform hazard spectra for rock sites in the cities of Khasab, Diba, Sohar, Muscat, Nizwa, Sur, and Salalah in Oman and the cities of Abu Dhabi and Dubai in UAE. The PGA across Oman ranges from 20 cm/sec2 in the Mid-West and 115 cm/sec2 at the northern part for 475 years return period and between 40 cm/sec2 and 180 cm/sec2 for 2475 years

  1. First record of Atractoscion aequiden (Sciaenidae from the Arabian Sea Coasts of Oman and Acanthopagrus catenula (Sparidae from the Oman Sea (Gulf of Oman, northwestern Indian Ocean (Teleostei, Sciaenidae, Sparidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Atractoscion aequidens from the Arabian Sea coasts of Oman and Acanthopagrus catenula from waters around City of Muscat on the Sea of Oman is reported based on one (671 mm in SL and ten specimens (111-257 mm SL, respectively. This account represents the second record of A. aequidens in the northern Indian Ocean and the northernmost record of A. catenula in the same ocean. Morphometric and meristic data are provided for the two species and compared with those from specimens collected from other parts of the world. The southern distribution of A. catenula is corrected in this report.

  2. Diversity and origin of Moho in the northern Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S.

    2009-04-01

    We are planning the 21st-Century Mohole on the ocean floor to observe the in-situ Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity) by drilling. There has been a controversy about the petrological nature of the Moho, which is defined seismically, although we almost agree on that typical oceanic Moho is represented by gabbro/peridotite boundaries. The Oman ophiolite, which is a slice of a kind of oceanic lithosphere, is a good place for us to understand (1) diversity, if any, and (2) origin of the Moho possibly formed at a spreading center. The peridotite section beneath the layered gabbro has been serpentinized to various degrees, irrespective of the distance from the gabbro. In addition, chrysotile/lizardite, a low-T serpentine is far predominant over antigorite. This strongly indicates that the Moho as a serpentinization front cannot be found from the Oman ophiolite. Gabbro/peridotite transition represents the Moho in the Oman ophiolite as generally believed. The gabbro/peridotite (dunite) boundaries can be classified into two types, gabbor-in-dunite and dunite-in-gabbro. In the former type, gabbros appear as intrusive bands or sills in dunite (or wehrlite) around the transition zone, and the transition is relatively gradual. In the latter type, the dunite (or wehrlite) (= "late-intrusive") is intrusive to the crustal rocks (up to the base of sheeted dike complex), and the local gabbro/dunite transition is sharp. Some of the late-intrusive dunites (wehrlites) contain primary amphiboles. In addition, a dunite/wehrlite body with gabbroic bands (= within-crust dunite/wehrlite) was found within the layered gabbro, and possibly obscures the Moho. Clinopyroxenes in the dunites/wehrlites in contact with gabbros are quite similar in trace-element characteristics, possibly being in equilibrium with MORB. Hydrous nature of the involved magma is also suggested. Only one tectonic setting, a back-arc environment where MORB-like hydrous magmas are available, is necessary for formation of the

  3. First report of Albizia lebbeck dieback caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Ba-Omar, Taher

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 Albizia lebbeck trees at Sultan Qaboos University campus wilted and died. The symptoms were dieback of large branches due to infection by Scytalidium dimidiatum. The fungus has also infected Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum. This is the first report of the fungus in Oman and on A. lebbeck, T. populnea, D. regia and P. petrocarpum. The strain of this fungus has not been found to cause human disease in Oman.

  4. Influence of monsoon upwelling on the planktonic foraminifera off Oman during Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    foraminifer species mass accumulation rates (flux), coiling direction, test size and isotopic values primarily based on the results from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723A (18°03N, 57°37E, water depth 808m) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea... Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723A from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma Fluctuations of the sinistral morphotype fluxes of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma follow closely the variation in the upwelling index in being higher...

  5. Screening for Anti-Cancer Compounds in Marine Organisms in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Dobretsov; Yahya Tamimi; Al-Kindi, Mohamed A.; Ikram Burney

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Marine organisms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and industry; however, few bioactive compounds have been isolated from organisms inhabiting the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This study aimed to isolate and screen the anti-cancer activity of compounds and extracts from 40 natural products of marine organisms collected from the Gulf of Oman. Methods: This study was carried out between January 2012 and December ...

  6. Reconstruction of domestic marine fisheries catches for Oman (1950-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Khalfallah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic marine fisheries in Oman are increasingly viewed as the eventual economic alternative to the soon to be depleted oil reserves. This has galvanized the Omani government to invest in the management of its marine living resources. This study aims to provide a better estimation of Oman's domestic marine fisheries catches that can be used to improve fisheries management in the country. Using the catch reconstruction approach, total domestic marine fisheries catches by Oman are estimated for the time period 1950-2015, including reported and previously unreported large-scale and small-scale commercial catches, subsistence, and recreational catches, as well as major discards. Catches from the Omani exclave, Musandam, are estimated separately, given this governorate’s geographical separation from the rest of Oman. Reconstructed total catches increased from around 64,000 t∙year-1 in the 1950s to over 200,000 t·year-1 in the 2000s, which are overall 1.2 times the landings reported by the FAO on behalf of Oman. Fish stocks need to be sustainably managed to allow long-term economic viability. This cannot be done without the improvement of fisheries statistical systems around the world, including in Oman.

  7. A Study of Educational Reform & Teacher Training in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Salim Saif Al Jardani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Training plays an important part in supporting educational reform in Oman. This report looks at the effectiveness of the 2005 Primary Teachers’ Course (PRIT for cycle 1 (grades 1-4 in preparing and supporting English teachers in implementing the new national curriculum. A number of key issues are identified, such as the importance of training courses and their need to focus on teachers’ requirements and interests. The need to update the course and introduce more activity types and modes of input is discussed. The article ends with suggestions for ways to continue supporting teachers in implementing the new curriculum. These include an on-going system of support where the trainer develops links with supervisors and senior teachers, and also the development of self-assessment and small-scale classroom-based research strategies, with which teachers can investigate their own practice. Keywords: Training courses, Primary, English teachers

  8. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiří; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, Katarína; Al-Zadjali, Said; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-04-15

    In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying.

  9. Scientific Drilling in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Juerg; Kelemen, Peter; Teagle, Damon; Coggon, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Samail ophiolite in Oman, a block of oceanic crust and upper mantle that was thrusted onto the Arabian continent ~100 million years ago and subsequently tilted and eroded, is an excellent field laboratory to explore rock forming processes that occurred near the surface down to 20 km depth in the Earth's interior. The exposure of these rocks to surface conditions provides a large reservoir of chemical potential energy that drives rapid reactions, heat generation, expansion and cracking. The Oman Drilling Project will address long-standing questions regarding mantle melting, melt transport and crystallization of lavas at ocean spreading ridges to form ocean crust, determine the nature and extent of chemical interactions between the oceans and newly formed oceanic crust, improve our understanding of CO2 and H2O uptake via weathering to form hydrated minerals and carbonates including reaction-driven cracking mechanisms as well as explore serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystem. With funding from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), U.S. NSF, NASA, IODP, Sloan Foundation and Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft in place, we will address these objectives via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid and microbiological sampling, and hydrological measurements in a series of newly drilled boreholes. Preliminary surveys showed that active low-T alteration of upper mantle rocks is an ongoing process. Dissolved hydrogen and methane concentrations in fluid samples collected in existing boreholes are up to 1.3 and 8 mmol/l, respectively [1]. Regarding the physical, chemical and biological processes related to near surface alteration of mantle rocks, a multi-borehole test site will be established in the southern massif of the Samail ophiolite. This test site will facilitate in-situ studies of water-rock-microbe interactions. Technical details and potential opportunities will be discussed.

  10. Traditional medicine in Oman: Its role in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Barwani Badar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present three patients with ocular disease who developed a range of complications following use of traditional medications. Settings and Design: Case series Methods: Three patients who were examined in the Ophthalmic department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Sultanate of Oman between 2003 and 2004, seeking care following use of traditional medicines and or healing practices for various ophthalmic problems described below. Results: The first patient was a computer professional with a chalazion; the patient used a plant extract from ′Calotropis procera′ as a part of the treatment. He developed corneal edema with decrease in vision in his left eye following application of the plant extract. Treatment with topical steroids and antibiotics resulted in a complete clinical and visual recovery. The second patient developed a fungal corneal ulcer (dermatophyte - Trichophyton mentagrophyte after sustaining injury with an animal tail to the right eye and used honey for pain relief prior to presentation. She responded poorly to anti-fungal treatment, underwent a penetrating keratoplasty with recurrence of infection in the graft that resulted in a vascularized corneal scar. The third patient was a five-year-old child who was treated with ′wasam′ on the occiput for intraocular inflammation following bilateral uncomplicated cataract extraction. Following this treatment the topical steroid was discontinued. The "Wasam" treatment indirectly resulted in exacerbation of the intraocular inflammation and secondary glaucoma and poor vision as well as ′Wasam ulcers′ on the occiput. Despite treatment of the intraocular inflammation, the visual outcome was poor. Conclusion: Traditional medicine in Oman is sought by many for variable reasons. Lack of evidence-based scientific data on its safety or efficacy does not deter the Omanis from flocking the traditional healers. However, when applied in the treatment of ocular diseases

  11. Scientific Drilling in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Samail ophiolite in Oman, a block of oceanic crust and upper mantle that was thrusted onto the Arabian continent ~100 million years ago and subsequently tilted and eroded, is an excellent field laboratory to explore rock forming processes that occurred near the surface down to 20 km depth in the Earth's interior. The exposure of these rocks to surface conditions provides a large reservoir of chemical potential energy that drives rapid reactions, heat generation, expansion and cracking. The Oman Drilling Project will address long-standing questions regarding mantle melting, melt transport and crystallization of lavas at ocean spreading ridges to form ocean crust, determine the nature and extent of chemical interactions between the oceans and newly formed oceanic crust, improve our understanding of CO2 and H2O uptake via weathering to form hydrated minerals and carbonates including reaction-driven cracking mechanisms as well as explore serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystem. With funding from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), U.S. NSF, NASA, IODP, Sloan Foundation and Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft in place, we will address these objectives via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid and microbiological sampling, and hydrological measurements in a series of newly drilled boreholes. Preliminary surveys showed that active low-T alteration of upper mantle rocks is an ongoing process. Dissolved hydrogen and methane concentrations in fluid samples collected in existing boreholes are up to 1.3 and 8 mmol/l, respectively [1]. Regarding the physical, chemical and biological processes related to near surface alteration of mantle rocks, a multi-borehole test site will be established in the southern massif of the Samail ophiolite. This test site will facilitate in-situ studies of water-rock-microbe interactions. Technical details and potential opportunities will be discussed. [1] Paukert A. PhD Thesis, Columbia University, New York

  12. Identification of upwelling areas in the Oman Sea Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Satellite-derived sea-surface temperature, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) sea-level anomalies (SLAs), modeled wind data, and hydrodynamic data from World Ocean Database were used to characterize the upwelling along the Oman Sea coasts during 2002 - 2012. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) shows the first mode affected by upwelling processes, which represents a biannual variability. In addition, the SST shows the upwelling front moving offshore with the development of Southwest (SW) Monsoon in early June. SST shows the persistence of cold upwelling waters for nearly a month after the end of the SW Monsoon within the bays along the Oman coast. TOPEX/POSEIDON SLAs indicate that with the onset of the SW Monsoon, a 30-cm drop in height is observed along the Oman coast associated the presence of the cool upwelled waters. This drop in height sets up a horizontal pressure gradient and results in a compensating along-shore, northeastward flowing, geostrophic current (East Arabian Current) during the SW Monsoon. Similarly, the altimeter data slow an offshore decrease in height during the Northeast (NE) Monsoon, indicating a seasonal reversal in direction of the East Oman Currents with flow to the southwest. The following upwelling characteristics are identified for the Oman upwelling zone: 1- Upwelling zones have seen along Oman and Pakistan coasts and in the western coasts, like Iran, persistent upwelling zones are not available. 2- Upwelling zones along Oman coasts are more persistent and developed than in Pakistan coastal area. 3- Upwelling in the Oman and East Pakistan coasts starts with SW-Monsoon and will developed in the mid-August, adjusted with summer cooling. 4- Along Oman Sea, upwelling zones were developed between Rasal-Haddad and the southern bay. Mean SST during SW-Monsoon is about 22 °C. 5-Waters with temperature about 23°C were upwelled from depth 50-75 m along Oman coasts, and about 50 m along Pakistan coasts. 6

  13. The clumped isotopic record of Neoproterozoic carbonates, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K. D.; Eiler, J. M.; Fischer, W. W.; Osburn, M. R.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Huqf Supergroup of the Sultanate of Oman records several important events in latest Precambrian time, including two glaciations in the Abu Mahara Group (ca. 725 - isotope excursion in the Nafun Group (ca. isotopic excursions, hypothesized to record perturbations of the surficial Earth carbon cycle or post-depositional diagenetic processes. Rigorous interpretation of these records requires a more thorough assessment of diagenetic processes. To better understand the significance and cause of these large amplitude isotopic excursions, we employed carbonate clumped isotope thermometry. This method allows us to estimate the absolute temperature of carbonate precipitation, including recrystallization, based on the temperature dependent abundance of carbonate ions containing both 13C and 18O. These estimates are accompanied by a measurement of carbonate δ18O, which in conjunction with temperature, can be used to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the fluid from which the carbonate precipitated. We analyzed stratigraphically constrained samples from a range of paleoenvironments with differing burial histories (1 - >10km maximum burial depth) to constrain the temperature and fluid composition of recrystallization. Clumped isotope temperatures from Huqf Supergroup samples range from 35-175°C. The isotopic composition of the fluid these rocks equilibrated with ranges from -3.7 to 15.7% VSMOW. This large range in temperature and fluid composition separates into distinct populations that differ systematically with independent constraints on petrography, stratigraphy and burial history. The data indicate the Abu Mahara, Nafun and Ara groups have unique diagenetic histories. In central Oman, the post-glacial Abu Mahara cap dolostone shows high temperature, rock buffered diagenesis (Tavg = 176°C; δ18Ofluid = 15% VSMOW), the Nafun Group generally experienced lower temperature, fluid buffered diagenesis (Tavg = 69°C; δ18Ofluid = 1% VSMOW) and the Ara Group

  14. 76 FR 78313 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam... United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe, provided for in... of India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec....

  15. Research Program: Biological ground water survey of the Sultanate of Oman. List of sampling stations March-April 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vermeulen, Jan J.; Mutey Al Nofli, Abdul

    1997-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is an arid country, forming the south-eastern margin of the Arabian peninsula, with coast lines on the Gulf of Oman in the north-east and the Arabian Sea in the south-east. In the interior, it is bordered on the Emirates in the north-west, Saudi-Arabia in the west, and Yemen in

  16. 77 FR 37711 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... detailed scope language, see 77 FR 19635, April 2, 2012. For further information concerning the conduct of... COMMISSION Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam...-fair-value imports from India, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Vietnam of circular welded...

  17. Research Program: Biological ground water survey of the Sultanate of Oman. List of sampling stations March-April 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vermeulen, Jan J.; Mutey Al Nofli, Abdul

    1997-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is an arid country, forming the south-eastern margin of the Arabian peninsula, with coast lines on the Gulf of Oman in the north-east and the Arabian Sea in the south-east. In the interior, it is bordered on the Emirates in the north-west, Saudi-Arabia in the west, and Yemen in

  18. Structure and variability of the Oman coastal low-level jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Ranjha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, reanalysis and regional atmospheric modelling was used to resolve the climatology and mesoscale structure, spatial variability and temporal characteristics of the Oman coastal low-level jet (CLLJ. The limited area model COAMPS® was used at a 6-km horizontal resolution for a 5-month period (May–September during 2009. Analysis of high-resolution model fields reveals the mesoscale structure of the Oman CLLJ, clearly distinguishing it from the large-scale South Asia monsoon circulation farther offshore, and from the previously identified Findlater (or Somali jet, which occurs at a higher altitude. The Oman CLLJ is closer to the coast and spreads northeastward along the coast of Oman, clearly interacting with the coastal topography and headlands. It has a very strong annual cycle, related to the South Asia monsoon, with July exhibiting the highest CLLJ frequency of occurrence (around 80% and highest wind speeds (around 27 ms−1, and May and September being the transition months. The southerly location of the Oman CLLJ, along with the very strong inland summer heating in the Arabian Peninsula, affects its diurnal cycle, with highest number of occurrences early in the morning, whereas the highest wind speeds occur during late afternoon, setting this CLLJ apart from other coastal jets in mid-latitude areas along eastern boundary currents.

  19. Oman's coral reefs: A unique ecosystem challenged by natural and man-related stresses and in need of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, J A; Coles, S; van Lavieren, H; Taylor, O; Looker, E; Samimi-Namin, K

    2016-04-30

    Oman contains diverse and abundant reef coral communities that extend along a coast that borders three environmentally distinct water bodies, with corals existing under unique and often stressful environmental conditions. In recent years Oman's reefs have undergone considerable change due to recurrent predatory starfish outbreaks, cyclone damage, harmful algal blooms, and other stressors. In this review we summarize current knowledge of the biology and status of corals in Oman, particularly in light of recent stressors and projected future threats, and examine current reef management practices. Oman's coral communities occur in marginal environmental conditions for reefs, and hence are quite vulnerable to anthropogenic effects. We recommend a focus on developing conservation-oriented coral research to guide proactive management and expansion of the number and size of designated protected areas in Oman, particularly those associated with critical coral habitat.

  20. Nutritional practices of athletes in oman: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Kilani, Hashem A; Al-Busafi, Majid S

    2013-09-01

    Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  1. Changing Trends of Breast Cancer Survival in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyam Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, with elevated incidence in developing countries. This retrospective study included all 122 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2003 to December 2008 in the Sultanate of Oman. Age at presentation was 47.41 years (SD±12.88, with one-third of patients younger than 40 years. The majority of patients presented with stage III (41.2% and IV (18.2% breast cancer. T size (=.023, skin involvement (=.003, and stage at presentation (=.004 were significantly associated with overall survival. Skin involvement at presentation (=.003, T size (=.09, lymph node status (=.013, and stage (=.003 were strong predictors of relapse-free survival. Patients had a 5-year survival of 78%, compared to 64% of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1996 and 2002 identified in our previously published study. Thus, despite Omani breast cancer patients continuing to present with advanced breast cancer, survival rates have significantly improved.

  2. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris.

  3. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms.

  4. On-site digital heritage inventory development at Bat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Miki, T.; Kuronuma, T.; Oguchi, T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the on-site development of a local-scale digital heritage inventory (DHI) of the Bronze Age site at Bat in the interior of Oman. The goal of this inventory project was to share geospatial and archaeological information of tombs and other built structures with researchers and government agents to conduct cultural heritage management, scientific research, outreach, and education. To this end, the Bat Digital Heritage Inventory (BatDHI) was compiled at the local office by incorporating previous survey records, which were concurrently crosschecked and updated by ground-truth surveys. The current version of the BatDHI was implemented using a combination of a network-access-ready database application, open source geographical information system, and web-based map engine. This system assisted both fieldwork and management works including decision making and planning. This inventory project exemplified a transdisciplinary research, in which researchers and societal stakeholders collaborated for co-design of research agendas, co-production of knowledge, and co-dissemination of outcomes.

  5. Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, Alicia M; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, Peter A; Herrera, Rene J

    2008-03-01

    Arabia has served as a strategic crossroads for human disseminations, providing a natural connection between the distant populations of China and India in the east to the western civilizations along the Mediterranean. To explore this region's critical role in the migratory episodes leaving Africa to Eurasia and back, high-resolution Y-chromosome analysis of males from the United Arab Emirates (164), Qatar (72) and Yemen (62) was performed. The role of the Levant in the Neolithic dispersal of the E3b1-M35 sublineages is supported by the data, and the distribution and STR-based analyses of J1-M267 representatives points to their spread from the north, most likely during the Neolithic. With the exception of Yemen, southern Arabia, South Iran and South Pakistan display high diversity in their Y-haplogroup substructure possibly a result of gene flow along the coastal crescent-shaped corridor of the Gulf of Oman facilitating human dispersals. Elevated rates of consanguinity may have had an impact in Yemen and Qatar, which experience significant heterozygote deficiencies at various hypervariable autosomal STR loci.

  6. Low-temperature peridotite hydration in the shallow subsurface in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.; Templeton, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Samail Ophiolite in Oman contains over 10 trillion tons of peridotite undergoing hydration and carbonation reactions at low temperature [1]. The active coupling between subsurface hydrology, geochemistry and microbiology will soon be accessible via targeted drilling by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program and the Sloan Foundation, among others. In advance, we collected hyperalkaline fluids with millimolar concentrations of H2 and CH4 from 300-meter deep groundwater monitoring wells to characterize low-temperature reaction pathways in the aquifer. We are also conducting low-temperature serpentinization experiments (40°C, 55°C, 100°C) with crushed dunite and harzburgite from Oman to identify rock-derived energy sources for microorganisms. We are measuring H2 production (up to 400nmol/g), aqueous chemical changes and production of acetate and formate (40-80μM). The aqueous geochemical data from Oman fluids and experiments is coupled with detailed mineralogical investigation of natural samples (XRD, QEMSCAN and synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of Fe speciation) to identify the operative reaction pathways. The Oman fluids are rich in dissolved H2, but there is an absence of magnetite formation associated with this; instead, we observe extensive serpentine. We are currently investigating the possibility that H2 production is associated with oxidized, Fe3+ in low temperature serpentine. We have enriched stable cultures of methanogenic organisms from deep fluids from site NSHQ04 (pH 10.5, ~1.44 μm/mL CH4). This exciting discovery points to the possibility of deep subsurface life in Oman subsisting under energetic and C limitation. Quantifying the extent of in-situ methanogenesis will be critical to future investigations of microorganisms inhabiting the Oman aquifer to fully understand subsurface carbon cycling and the potential of microbes to control peridotite weathering rates, CH4 production, and carbonate formation. 1

  7. The practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman: prevalence, trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2012-09-01

    The practice of consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in most Arab and the Middle Eastern countries, including Oman, but due to a paucity of population-based data in the past there is a dearth of information about its form and dynamics in Oman. Recent national-level surveys allow this gap to be filled. This paper examines the prevalence, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriages in Oman using data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. The results indicate a very high prevalence of consanguineous marriage in Oman, as more than half (52%) of marriages are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. The study observed various patterns of consanguinity, some of them common with other Arab nations, and some unique in nature. Women's age at marriage, employment, place of childhood residence and geographical region appear to be significant determinants of consanguineous marriages. Consanguineous marriage shows a strong association with marital stability, early age at marriage and early-age childbearing. There has been no appreciable change in the prevalence of consanguineous unions in Oman over the last four decades despite massive socioeconomic development and modernization. However, recent marriage cohorts show slight declining trends. The results suggest that consanguinity is likely to remain stable in the future or decline at a slow rate. Specific health education and genetic counselling should be followed in line with WHO recommendations to minimize the negative health consequences of consanguinity for child health.

  8. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Oman; Results from two decades of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad A. Al-Lawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus over the past two decades in Oman, particularly in terms of its prevalence and incidence. In addition, the study sought to estimate the future incidence of diabetes in Oman. Methods: Three national and three regional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2010 were analysed to obtain the age-adjusted prevalence and undiagnosed proportion of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among Omani subjects aged ≥20 years. Diabetes mellitus registers and published studies were used to determine incidence rates of both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM in Oman. Linear regression was used to determine trends and projections for diabetes in 2050. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM in Oman varied from 10.4% to 21.1%, while the highest prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was found in males (35.1%. In comparison to men, higher incidence rates of T2DM were found in women (2.7 cases compared to 2.3 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. No significant trends were observed for the prevalence or incidence of T2DM in both genders. Undiagnosed T2DM was more common in men (range: 33–68% than women (range: 27–53%. The results of this study show that by 2050, there will be an estimated 350,000 people with T2DM living in Oman (a 174% increase compared to estimates for 2015. Conclusion: Health authorities need to prioritise diabetes prevention and control in order to prevent or delay long-term complications and avert a potential epidemic of diabetes in Oman.

  9. Health workforce development planning in the Sultanate of Oman: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Basu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oman's recent experience in health workforce development may be viewed against the backdrop of the situation just three or four decades ago, when it had just a few physicians and nurses (mostly expatriate. All workforce categories in Oman have grown substantially over the last two decades. Increased self-reliance was achieved despite substantial growth in workforce stocks. Stocks of physicians and nurses grew significantly during 1985–2007. This development was the outcome of well-considered national policies and plans. This case outlines how Oman is continuing to turn around its excessive dependence on expatriate workforce through strategic workforce development planning. Case description The Sultanate's early development initiatives focused on building a strong health care infrastructure by importing workforce. However, the policy-makers stressed national workforce development for a sustainable future. Beginning with the formulation of a strategic health workforce development plan in 1991, the stage was set for adopting workforce planning as an essential strategy for sustainable health development and workforce self-reliance. Oman continued to develop its educational infrastructure, and began to produce as much workforce as possible, in order to meet health care demands and achieve workforce self-reliance. Other policy initiatives with a beneficial impact on Oman's workforce development scenario were: regionalization of nursing institutes, active collaboration with universities and overseas specialty boards, qualitative improvement of the education system, development of a strong continuing professional development system, efforts to improve workforce management, planned change management and needs-based micro/macro-level studies. Strong political will and bold policy initiatives, dedicated workforce planning and educational endeavours have all contributed to help Oman to develop its health workforce stocks and gain

  10. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

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    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  11. GIS assessment of large CSP plant in Duqum, Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charabi, Yassine [Department of Geography, College of Arts, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 42, Al-Khodh, Muscat 123 (Oman); Gastli, Adel [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 33, Al-Khodh, Muscat 123 (Oman)

    2010-02-15

    This paper discusses solar power prospects in Wilayat Duqum in Oman. First, the geographic and topographic information about the selected region is presented. The methodology of producing solar radiation map for Duqum using GIS tools is then presented. The results obtained show very high potential of solar radiation over Wilayat Duqum during the whole year. A slope analysis has allowed calculating the yearly electricity generation potential for different concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies such as the parabolic trough, parabolic dish, tower, and concentrated PV. Based on the development plan of the Duqum region, and the topologies of the land areas in the region, it is suggested that, for the CSP technologies requiring large amount of water for washing the mirrors, the selected area is a flat land (slope < 1%) located proximity to the sea ({proportional_to}2 km) inside a total industrial area of around 50 km{sup 2}, hence, allowing easy future expansion of the plant. It was proposed to start with a 100 MW power plant which is expected to consume about 2.4 km{sup 2} of flat land for the parabolic trough CSP technology. The total calculated potential of yearly electricity generation would be about 2.3 TWh. If half of the selected land (0.5 x 50 km{sup 2}) is reserved for future expansion of the plant, the total future capacity can attain 1 GW of electric power. The selected area can also accommodate in the future different types of CSP technologies as they mature with time. (author)

  12. Injuries, Violence, and Bullying Among Middle School Students in Oman

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    Richard P. Peyton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Injuries account for a substantial proportion of the burden of disease in adolescents globally. This paper describes injury rates and associated exposures, and risk behaviors in Oman’s 2010 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS. Methods: This study used complex samples analysis to examine nationally-representative data from 1 606 students in grades eight, nine, and 10 who participated in the 2010 Oman GSHS. Results: In total, 34.0% of the students reported having at least one injury in the past year that caused at least one full day abscence from usual activities or required medical treatment. The most common injury type reported was a broken bone or dislocated joint. The most common injury cause was falling. Additionally, 38.4% of the students reported being bullied in the past month, 38.8% reported being physically attacked in the past year, and 47.6% reported being in physical fights. Both injured boys and girls reported experiencing significantly more bullying, fights, and attacks (odds ratio > 2 than their non-injured classmates, even though only 9.6% of injured students reported that their most serious injury in the past year was the result of an assault, and students reporting assaults did not have significantly higher odds of exposure to these types of peer violence. More than half of the bullied students reported that the most frequent type of peer victimization they experienced was being made fun of with sexual jokes, comments, or gestures. Sexual bullying was the most common type of bullying reported by girls and boys. Conclusions: Promoting healthier peer relationships may help to reduce injuries in this age group as well as reducing the harmful effects of bullying.

  13. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

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    Mostafa I. Waly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman.Methods: This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat.Conclusion: Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  14. Underlying Factors Behind the Low Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Oman; Sociocultural perspective

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    Allal Ouhtit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological surveys from various countries indicate an increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, leading researchers to debate whether there are now ‘more affected’ or ‘more detected’. The epidemiology of ASD in developing countries, such as Oman, has generally indicated a lower prevalence compared to developed countries in the West. In Oman, the prevalence is low; however, this article highlights some of the factors that could contribute to the appearance of a low ASD rate: cross-cultural variations in the presentation of distress; a lack of reliable biological markers for diagnosing ASD, and a lack of health services for children with ASD, thus limiting the number of participants in epidemiological surveys. While the defining features of ASD have yet to be established, pilot studies in Oman indicate a substantial number of children with these disorders. Therefore, it is important that these discrepancies be addressed and the need for appropriate services for this patient population in Oman be highlighted.

  15. English Language Teaching Reform in Sultanate of Oman: The Case of Theory and Practice Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Ali S.; Al-Bulushi, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    Sultanate of Oman is one out of many developing countries around the world which have valued English as a very important international language and a tool for achieving multiple purposes. When His Majesty the Sultan came to power in 1970, the government accepted English as the only official foreign language and allocated huge budgets and resources…

  16. New hybodontiform and neoselachian sharks from the Lower Triassic of Oman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koot, Martha B.; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Orchard, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs are reported for the first time from Lower Triassic deposits in Oman. The well-preserved remains consist of isolated teeth, dermal denticles and fin spines, recovered from conodont residues. The low-palaeolatitude sections consist of Lopingian-Olenekian shallow and pelagic carbonate...

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  18. A Field Guide for Continued Study of the Arabic Language in Yemen and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, David Lawrence

    A set of materials for independent study of Arabic is designed for Peace Corps volunteers working in Oman and Yemen who have had Arabic language training but need additional skills. It establishes guidelines for independent study and working with a tutor, helps check language performance, and provides grammatical information for reference. The…

  19. Rapid emplacement of young oceanic lithosphere: argon geochronology of the oman ophiolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, B R

    1994-09-01

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of emplacement-related metamorphic rocks beneath the Samail ophiolite in Oman show that cooling to lithosphere must have been adjacent to the ophiolite during spreading and then been thrust beneath the ophiolite almost immediately afterward.

  20. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  1. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  2. The Implications of Implementing a "Flexible" Syllabus for ESL Policy in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The education system in general and ELT in particular are rigidly controlled in the Sultanate of Oman, which gives teachers little room to supplement the mandated textbook. This article, hence, discusses ideologies about the "flexible" ELT syllabus and the role of the teacher's professionalism in the syllabus implementation process. One…

  3. Progress in Developing a National Quality Management System for Higher Education in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Martin; Razvi, Salim; Goodliffe, Tess; Al-Habsi, Fakhriya

    2009-01-01

    The post-secondary education sector in Oman consists of a complex suite of public and private institutions, in a number of distinct segments, offering local and foreign programmes developed through their respective quality assurance systems. The Omani higher education quality management system is undergoing significant advances to address this…

  4. The Effect of Peer Teaching on Mathematics Academic Achievement of the Undergraduate Students in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkarim, Ra'ed; Abuiyada, Reem

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of peer teaching on mathematics academic achievement of the undergraduate students in Oman. The sample of this study composed of (32) undergraduate female students enrolled in the course, "Mathematics for Social Sciences I" in Mathematics and Sciences Unit in Dhofar University in spring semester 2014-2015.…

  5. School Gardening in Oman: A Pilot Project with Grade 7 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusaidi, Abdulla; Al-Yahyai, Rashid; Taylor, Subhashni; Taylor, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is beginning to experience a rapid increase in what are termed "lifestyle diseases," most notably diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These appear to be linked to increasing poor dietary habits, particularly an increase in the consumption of "junk" foods and a more sedentary lifestyle, amongst the…

  6. Les Stenasellidae (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota Anophtalmes) des eaux souterraines du sultanat d’Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magniez, Guy J.; Stock, Jan H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of four new species of Stenasellus (Aselloidea: Stenasellidae) from the underflow of temporary streams (wadis) in northern part of Oman Sultanate. S. vermeuleni n.sp. (11.2 mm or more) and S. messanai n.sp. (7.7 mm or more) are probably karstic water species, accidentally or locally

  7. Diversity and distribution of winter phytoplankton in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, Igor; Saburova, Maria; Al-Yamani, Faiza

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of the phytoplankton (diversity, composition, and cell abundance) was described in relation to local environmental conditions across the Arabian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Sea of Oman based on data of ROPME cruise of winter 2006. The 376 phytoplankton taxa identified in these waters represented a diverse composition of species with a prevalence of dinoflagellates and diatoms. Three peaks in the phytoplankton abundance were recorded throughout the studied area associated with diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms in the central and northwestern part of the Arabian Gulf and in the Sea of Oman and the adjacent waters. The studied area was divided into three main regions by cluster analysis based on differences in the phytoplankton composition and concentration. The Sea of Oman and the Strait of Hormuz were occupied by highly abundant, strongly diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage. The Arabian Gulf was divided into two main regions along a diagonal northwest-southeast axis, with rather diatom-dominated phytoplankton assemblage off the south and along the Iranian coast but with flagellate-dominated phytoplankton of the north and along the Arabian coast. The distance-based linear modeling revealed a significant relationship between the phytoplankton composition and water masses as indexed by salinity. Our results demonstrated that abundance and composition of winter phytoplankton were related to water circulation pattern in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman.

  8. A System Evaluation Theory Analyzing Value and Results Chain for Institutional Accreditation in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquibut, Rene Ymbong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to apply the system evaluation theory (SET) to analyze the institutional quality standards of Oman Academic Accreditation Authority using the results chain and value chain tools. Design/methodology/approach: In systems thinking, the institutional standards are connected as input, process, output and feedback and leads to…

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity: Revisiting incidence and risk factors from Oman compared to other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaida Soriano Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: ROP is still commonly encountered in neonatal practice in Oman and other countries. Early GA, low BW, and prolonged oxygen therapy continue to be the main risk factors associated with the occurrence of ROP in our setting. In addition, an important preventable risk factor identified in our cohort includes clinical or proven late-onset sepsis.

  10. Can Mission Predict School Performance? The Case of Basic Education in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Ismail, Omer Hashim

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the relationship between the mission statements and performance of Basic Education Schools in Oman. The process of mission statement framing was also investigated. A sample of 161 school mission statements was randomly collected from the Ministry of Education school mission portal database representing…

  11. Tsunami Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk assessment for the coast of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; MArtínez, Jara; Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Fernandez, Felipe; Medina, Raúl; Al-Yahyai, Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, and causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructures around the world. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of new methodologies in this field. This work presents the methodology that has been followed for developing the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment for the coast of Oman, including maps containing the results of the process. Oman is located in the south eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula and of the Arabian plate, in front of the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ), which is the major source of earthquakes in the eastern border of the Arabian plate and Oman (Al-Shaqsi, 2012). There are at least three historical tsunamis assigned to seismic origin in the MSZ (Heidarzadeh et al., 2008; Jordan, 2008). These events show the high potential for tsunami generation of the MSZ, being one of the most tsunamigenic zones in the Indian Ocean. For the tsunami hazard assessment, worst potential cases have been selected, as well as the historical case of 1945, when an 8.1 earthquake generated a tsunami affecting the coast of Oman, and prompting 4000 casualties in the countries of the area. These scenarios have been computationally simulated in order to get tsunami hazard maps, including flooding maps. These calculations have been carried out at national and local scale, in 9 municipalities all along the coast of Oman, including the cities of Sohar, Wudam, Sawadi, Muscat, Quriyat, Sur, Masirah, Al Duqm, and Salalah. Using the hazard assessment as input, this work presents as well an integrated framework for the tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment carried out in the Sultanate of Oman. This framework considers different dimensions (human, structural) and it is developed at two different spatial resolutions, national and local scale. The national

  12. Geographical Clustering of Juvenile Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus within the Sultanate of Oman

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    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While SLE is found worldwide, there is diversity in clinical presentation of the disease according to geographical variations. The aim of this study is to describe geographical distributions of childhood onset SLE within Oman to identify geographical clustering and to compare the demographic, clinical, and immunological characteristics of this cluster against the rest of Oman.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital charts of 104 consecutive children with childhood onset SLE who were seen in pediatric rheumatology centers in the Sultanate of Oman over a 15-year period between 1995 and 2010.Results: Geographical clustering of childhood onset SLE was identified in Sharqiya region, which constituted 41% (n=43 of all cases in Oman. This cohort of patients had characteristic disease features which consisted of significantly more boys affected with SLE compared to the rest of the country (42% versus 15%; p=0.002. These children also tended to be younger (10.3 versus 16.5 years; p=0.001, diagnosed at an earlier age (6.4 versus 9.4 years; p<0.001 with a stronger family history of SLE (58% versus 33%; p=0.010. These children also had increased incidence of mucocutanous changes (81% versus 62%; p=0.036 and decreased hematological abnormalities (30% versus 51%; p=0.036.Conclusion: We identified geographical clustering of childhood onset SLE to Sharqiya region in Oman which is associated with unique demographical and clinical features. Whether increased prevalence of disease in this region is due to geographical, environmental, ethnic or genetic factors is yet to be determined. However, it is likely to be interplay of known and other unrecognized factors.

  13. Oman metamorphic sole formation reveals early subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Plunder, Alexis; Ildefonse, Benoît; Yamato, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500m thick tectonic slices welded beneath most of the large-scale ophiolites. They typically show a steep inverted metamorphic structure where the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization increase upward (from 500±100°C at 0.5±0.2 GPa to 800±100°C at 1.0±0.2 GPa), with isograds subparallel to the contact with the overlying ophiolitic peridotite. The proportion of mafic rocks in metamorphic soles also increases from the bottom (meta-sediments rich) to the top (approaching the ophiolite peridotites). These soles are interpreted as the result of heat transfer from the incipient mantle wedge toward the nascent slab (associated with large-scale fluid transfer and possible shear heating) during the first My of intra-oceanic subduction (as indicated by radiometric ages). Metamorphic soles provide therefore major constraints on early subduction dynamics (i.e., thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology along the nascent slab interface). We present a detailed structural and petrological study of the metamorphic sole from 4 major cross-sections along the Oman ophiolite. We show precise pressure-temperature estimates obtained by pseudosection modelling and EBSD measurements performed on both the garnet-bearing and garnet-free high-grade sole. Results allow quantification of the micro-scale deformation and highlight differences in pressure-temperature-deformation conditions between the 4 different locations, showing that the inverted metamorphic gradient through the sole is not continuous in all locations. Based on these new constraints, we suggest a new tectonic-petrological model for the formation of metamorphic soles below ophiolites. This model involves the stacking of several homogeneous slivers of oceanic crust leading to the present-day structure of the sole. In this view, these thrusts are the result of rheological contrasts between the sole and the peridotite as the plate interface progressively cools down

  14. Partitioning and speciation of trace metal diagenesis in differing depositional environments in the sediments of the Oman margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; Wolff, G.A; Chester, R.

    Organic-rich sediment samples collected from a transect within, and below, the Oman Margin oxygen minimum zone (OMZ)were analysed using a sequential leaching technique to characterise the diagenetic behaviour and speciation of Mn and Fe...

  15. Low-frequency variations in primary production in the Oman upwelling zone associated with monsoon winds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Xiaomei; ZHAN Haigang; WEI Xing

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen-year satellite-derived data are used to investigate the temporal variability of net primaryproduction (NPP) in the Oman upwelling zone and its potential forcing mechanisms.The NPP in the Oman upwelling zone is characterized by an abnormal decrease during El Ni(n)o events.Such an NPP decrease may be related to El Ni(n)o-driven anomalous summertime weak wind.During the summer following El Ni(n)o,the anomalous northeasterly wind forced by southwest Indian Ocean warming weakens the southwest monsoon and warms the Arabian Sea.The abnormal wind weakens the coastal Ekman transport,offshore Ekman pumping and horizontal advection,resulting in reduced upward nutrient supply to the euphotic zone.A slightly declining trend in NPP after 2000 associated with a gradual decrease in surface monsoon winds is discussed.

  16. Development of bioclimatic chart for passive building design in Muscat, Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Azri, N. A.; Zurigat, Y. H.; Al-Rawahi, N. Z. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)], email: analazri@squ.edu.om, email: bzurigat@squ.edu.om, email: calrawahi@squ.edu.om

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the rising concerns about the environment it is important to incorporate sustainable designs into buildings. Using passive thermal strategies in a sustainable solution whose performance depends on the local climatic conditions. Bioclimatic charts can be used to select the best passive thermal strategy, however the charts are only available for sea level and it is time-consuming to use it manually. The aim of this paper is to present the development of a chart for Muscat, Oman. This chart has been developed using Muscat's typical meteorological year data and MATLAB. It was found that the climate in Muscat is hot-humid and that high thermal mass is an efficient strategy for 4 months of the year when evaporative cooling is not efficient because of the high humidity. A bioclimatic chart for Muscat was developed herein along with a calculation tool which can build a bioclimatic chart for any part of Oman.

  17. Major challenges in developing a successful e-government: A review on the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Sarrayrih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The technological development has turned the government policies and strategies toward e-government. The e-government is considered the primary tool to facilitate the access of the citizens to various services. Thus, the government plans and subsidies shall reach the public through e-government portals. Some of the developed countries had sufficiently integrated the e-government technology whereas others are still under development. In this respect, we have reviewed and studied the major challenges faced by the Sultanate of Oman in the process of developing and implementing the e-government. We have also analyzed secondary data to identify the level of e-government acceptance in the Sultanate of Oman. We have suggested a model, which the government may apply in order to develop and implement its own successful e-government.

  18. New species of Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Sharqiyah Sands in northeastern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-12-06

    A new species of gecko of the genus Stenodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from the dune desert of Al Sharqiyah Sands in northeastern Oman. Stenodactylus sharqiyahensis sp. nov. is characterized morphologically by its small size, snout shape, webbing between fingers not very extended, relatively short limbs, and scalation. It is genetically distinct in the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear MC1R gene from Stenodactylus arabicus to which it has previously been referred. The new species seems to have a restricted distribution confined to the Sharqiyah Sands, which remain isolated from other sand deserts in Arabia. In addition, the data presented herein confirm new locality records for Stenodactylus arabicus in the easternmost limit of its distribution range in western central Oman

  19. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  20. Factors Affecting M-commerce Adoption in Oman using Technology Acceptance Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jafar Naqvi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in mobile technologies has influenced many countries to adopt mobile services in their private and public organizations including Oman. M-commerce services are growing rapidly with the exponential growth of mobile devices, technologies and networks. Hence, many business organizations private or public use them to improve revenue, reduce costs, maintain their competitive edge and achieve a level of high efficiency. Although there were many M-commerce services introduced, it was hard to find evidence of any study conducted to determine their successes or failures. This study is an attempt to explore the factors affecting the adoption of M-commerce services in Oman using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM approach.

  1. Tsunami hazard assessment along Diba-Oman and Diba-Al-Emirates coasts

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    El-Hussain Issa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami is among the most devastating natural hazards phenomenon responsible for significant loss of life and property throughout history. The Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates are among the Indian Ocean countries that were subjected to one confirmed tsunami in November 27, 1945 due to an Mw 8.1 earthquake in Makran Subduction Zone. In this study, we present preliminary deterministic tsunami hazard assessment for the coasts of Diba Oman and Diba Al-Emirates, which are located on the western coast of the Oman Sea. The tsunami vulnerability of these cities increases due to the construction of many critical infrastructures and urban concentration along their coasts. Therefore, tsunami hazard assessment is necessary to mitigate the risk on the socio-economic system and sustainable developments. The major known source of tsunamis able to impact both coasts of Oman and United Arab Emirates is the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ which extends for approximately 900 km. The deterministic approach uses specific scenarios considering the maximum credible earthquakes occurring in the MSZ and computes the ensuing tsunami impact in the coasts of the study area. The maximum wave height graphs and inundation maps are obtained for tsunami scenarios caused by 8.8 earthquake magnitude in eastern MSZ and 8.2 magnitude from western MSZ. The Mw8.8 eastern MSZ causes a maximum inundation distance of 447 meters and a maximum flow depth of 1.37 meter. Maximum inundation distance larger than 420 meters occurs due to the Mw8.2 western MSZ scenario. For this scenario, numerical simulations show a maximum flow depth of about 2.34 meters.

  2. External Ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus Ovis: A Case Report from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhassan, Abdelhameed A.

    2010-01-01

    Human myiasis has been reported from various regions in the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly oestrus ovis from Wadi Alhawasna, North Batina, Oman. A 9-years-old boy presented with symptoms of acute conjunctivitis. Five larvae were removed from his eye and sent for identification. The patient recovered completely after removal of the larvae. PMID:28845217

  3. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  4. A NEW SYRINGOTHYRIDID GENUS (SPIRIFERINIDA, BRACHIOPODA FROM THE EARLY PERMIAN OF INTERIOR OMAN

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    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the Syringothyrididae (Spiriferinida are a significant component of the Early Permian brachiopod faunas, even if usually subordinate in number of specimens, except for the Interior of Oman, where they dominate the faunal assemblage. A new genus Pachycyrtella - with type-species P. omanensis n. sp. - is here established in order to include gondawanan species - previously assigned to the genus Cyrtella - characterized by high and apsacline to orthocline ventral interarea, thick umbo and deep dorsal median furrow. 

  5. E-Voting Risk and Risk Management Evaluation using Analytical Hierarchy Process: The Case of Oman

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    Amry, F. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold; to investigate the risks involving with e-voting and to evaluate the risk management of policy of e-voting. In the country of Oman, the Ministry of Interior (MOI has already implemented an e-voting system making use of the e-Authentication technique, which uses the existing National ID Card to authenticate citizens for voting. This new e-voting system will give solutions that shall allow all citizens to come to election points and get authenticated through their National ID Card before proceeding to the vote. The solution shall be hosted within the current National ID System, taking advantage of the electronic authentication of the cards while enhancing these capabilities with functions specific to the election process, ensuring election rights and introducing vote timestamp storage in the cards. However; review and observation within Ministry of Interior (MOI of Oman concluded that there is no documented Risk Management Plan that can foresee risks, estimate impacts, and define responses to issues relating with risks involving voting process in the country of Oman. In the context of e-voting systems, risk management is regarded as the characterization of the e- Voting System in Oman; this consists of defining the system for the risk assessment. This is the assessment of system elements, such as hardware, software, system interfaces, data and information, personnel actions, and the mission of the e- Voting system. This is followed by the Identification Threat Sources, Vulnerability Identification, Controls Analysis, Threat Likelihood, performance of impact Analysis and risk level. It is then followed by the Development of Risk Mitigation Strategies and finally the documentation of Results.

  6. Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow Water Dynamics in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman Dr. Cheryl Ann Blain Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...of a circulation model for the Arabian Gulf and connecting waters that realistically predicts the complex, 3-D circulation and mixing patterns in the...forcings in the region, a strong evaporative flux, seasonal wind forcing, and freshwater river discharge. Not only are realistic current fields sought but

  7. Abrupt environmental and climatic change during the deposition of the Early Permian Haushi limestone, Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Michael; Angiolini, Lucia; Leng, Melanie; Brewer, T. S.; Berra, F.; F. Jadoul; G. Gambacorta; Verna, V.; Al Beloushi, B.

    2008-01-01

    During the late Sakmarian (Early Permian), the Haushi limestone was deposited in a shallow embayment of the Neotethys Ocean covering what is now north Oman and parts of southeast Saudi Arabia. The sea persisted through the late Sakmarian, but by the time of the deposition of the ?Artinskian Middle Gharif Member, limestone deposition had ceased and generally arid fluvial and minor lacustrine palaeonvironments in a low accommodation space setting had become established. Analysis of three subsur...

  8. Screening for Anti-Cancer Compounds in Marine Organisms in Oman

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    Sergey Dobretsov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Marine organisms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and industry; however, few bioactive compounds have been isolated from organisms inhabiting the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This study aimed to isolate and screen the anti-cancer activity of compounds and extracts from 40 natural products of marine organisms collected from the Gulf of Oman. Methods: This study was carried out between January 2012 and December 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Fungi, bacteria, sponges, algae, soft corals, tunicates, bryozoans, mangrove tree samples and sea cucumbers were collected from seawater at Marina Bandar Al-Rowdha and Bandar Al-Khayran in Oman. Bacteria and fungi were isolated using a marine broth and organisms were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. Compounds were identified from spectroscopic data. The anti-cancer activity of the compounds and extracts was tested in a Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7 cell line breast adenocarcinoma model. Results: Eight pure compounds and 32 extracts were investigated. Of these, 22.5% showed strong or medium anti-cancer activity, with malformin A, kuanoniamine D, hymenialdisine and gallic acid showing the greatest activity, as well as the soft coral Sarcophyton sp. extract. Treatment of MCF-7 cells at different concentrations of Sarcophyton sp. extracts indicated the induction of concentration-dependent cell death. Ultrastructural analysis highlighted the presence of nuclear fragmentation, membrane protrusion, blebbing and chromatic segregation at the nuclear membrane, which are typical characteristics of cell death by apoptosis induction. Conclusion: Some Omani marine organisms showed high anti-cancer potential. The efficacy, specificity and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer compounds from Omani marine organisms on various cancer models should be investigated in future in vitro and in vivo studies.

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Third Molar Impaction: A retrospective study of radiographs in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Anqudi, Samira M.; Salim Al-Sudairy; Ahmed Al-Hosni; Abdullah Al-Maniri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of third molar impaction in patients between 19‒26 years old attending Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: The study reviewed 1,000 orthopantomograms (OPGs) of patients attending the Oral Health Department of SQUH between October 2010 and April 2011. Patients were evaluated to determine the prevalence of third molar impaction, angulation, level of eruption and associ...

  10. OMAN - A Management Architecture for P2P Service Overlay Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorese, Adriano; Simões, Paulo; Boavida, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In a world where networking services are increasingly being provided by service overlay networks, management of these services at overlay level is becoming crucially important. This paper presents an architecture for services management in P2P Service Overlay Networks (SON). The architecture, named OMAN, takes into account the formation of the P2P SON comprising several different service providers belonging to several different network domains. It uses P2P mechanisms t...

  11. Quality Research in Higher Education Institutions in Oman: Some Views of Teacher Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic research remains a prime source of knowledge and innovation for higher education institutions (HEIs that strive to grow, expand and develop their academic reputations and standards. Yet, research informs teaching practices, shapes social changes and it has financial outcomes for HEIs. Therefore, it is imperative to develop institutional policies and strategies for promoting and sustaining quality research in HEIs in Oman. There are a number of international frameworks and models which have been developed to measure research quality in HEIs around the world. For example, bibliometrics were used to assess research quality in HEIs in the UK because bibliometric data can provide a number of component variables. An appropriate bibliometric model may include components such as output volume, diversity of outputs, citation volume, journal impact factor and average citations per publication, etc. Moreover, other popular examples of models for assessing research quality are Multidimensional Research Assessment Matrix (MRAM used in Europe and the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise (RAE. However, neither of the above mentioned models is adopted by HEIs in Oman. Thus, the current study is an attempt to explore some institutional, international, logistic and pragmatic factors that impact academic research and publication quality, review popular international research quality assessment models and explore the possibility of applying them in the Omani context. To achieve the study objectives, 20 teacher researchers were surveyed and the findings and recommendations were presented. Keywords: Quality Research, HEIs in Oman, International Models, Factors, Teacher Researchers' Views

  12. Hadrosauroid Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman.

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    Eric Buffetaut

    Full Text Available Fragmentary post-cranial remains (femora, tibia, vertebrae of ornithischian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman are described and referred to hadrosauroids. The specimens come from the Al-Khod Conglomerate, of latest Campanian to Maastrichtian age, in the north-eastern part of the country. Although the fragmentary condition of the fossils precludes a precise identification, various characters, including the shape of the fourth trochanter of the femur and the morphology of its distal end, support an attribution to hadrosauroids. With the possible exception of a possible phalanx from Angola, this group of ornithopod dinosaurs, which apparently originated in Laurasia, was hitherto unreported from the Afro-Arabian plate. From a paleobiogeographical point of view, the presence of hadrosauroids in Oman in all likelihood is a result of trans-Tethys dispersal from Asia or Europe, probably by way of islands in the Tethys shown on all recent paleogeographical maps of that area. Whether hadrosauroids were widespread on the Afro-Arabian landmass in the latest Cretaceous, or where restricted to the « Oman island » shown on some paleogeographical maps, remains to be determined.

  13. Repository of mutations from Oman: The entry point to a national mutation database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Anna; Hamza, Nishath; Al Harasi, Salma; Al Lawati, Fatma; Gibbons, Una; Al Alawi, Intesar; Kobus, Karoline; Hassan, Suha; Mahir, Ghariba; Al Salmi, Qasim; Mons, Barend; Robinson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a rapidly developing Muslim country with well-organized government-funded health care services, and expanding medical genetic facilities. The preservation of tribal structures within the Omani population coupled with geographical isolation has produced unique patterns of rare mutations. In order to provide diagnosticians and researchers with access to an up-to-date resource that will assist them in their daily practice we collated and analyzed all of the Mendelian disease-associated mutations identified in the Omani population. By the 1 st of August 2015, the dataset contained 300 mutations detected in over 150 different genes. More than half of the data collected reflect novel genetic variations that were first described in the Omani population, and most disorders with known mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. A number of novel Mendelian disease genes have been discovered in Omani nationals, and the corresponding mutations are included here. The current study provides a comprehensive resource of the mutations in the Omani population published in scientific literature or reported through service provision that will be useful for genetic care in Oman and will be a starting point for variation databases as next-generation sequencing technologies are introduced into genetic medicine in Oman. PMID:26594346

  14. Hadrosauroid Dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffetaut, Eric; Hartman, Axel-Frans; Al-Kindi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentary post-cranial remains (femora, tibia, vertebrae) of ornithischian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of the Sultanate of Oman are described and referred to hadrosauroids. The specimens come from the Al-Khod Conglomerate, of latest Campanian to Maastrichtian age, in the north-eastern part of the country. Although the fragmentary condition of the fossils precludes a precise identification, various characters, including the shape of the fourth trochanter of the femur and the morphology of its distal end, support an attribution to hadrosauroids. With the possible exception of a possible phalanx from Angola, this group of ornithopod dinosaurs, which apparently originated in Laurasia, was hitherto unreported from the Afro-Arabian plate. From a paleobiogeographical point of view, the presence of hadrosauroids in Oman in all likelihood is a result of trans-Tethys dispersal from Asia or Europe, probably by way of islands in the Tethys shown on all recent paleogeographical maps of that area. Whether hadrosauroids were widespread on the Afro-Arabian landmass in the latest Cretaceous, or where restricted to the « Oman island » shown on some paleogeographical maps, remains to be determined.

  15. Trends in petroleum production in newly rising Arab oil producing countries (Syria, Oman, and Yemen). Shinko Arab san'yukoku (Syria Oman Yemen) no sekiyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S. (The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the trends and future prospects of petroleum production in the newly rising oil producing countries: Syria, Oman, and Yemen. Syria, who has been depending on petroleum for its domestic energy demand, now plans to lay stress on natural gas development and utilization. Although the country is blessed with petroleum and gas resources, the energy demand and supply is in off-balance. Discussions on realistic measures aimed at complete utilization of energy resources are required to realize good demand and supply balance and expansion in petroleum export. Oman is a petroleum dependent country whose national revenue is accounted for by earning from petroleum at about 80%. If the nation succeeds in promoting natural gas introduction as a substitute energy, it may be able to suppress the growth of domestic petroleum demand, and export of more LNG may be expected as planned. Yemen needs to expand petroleum export to obtain foreign currencies required for its economic reconstruction. Therefore, it plans to cope with the domestic energy demand increase by converting fuels into natural gas. An LNG export plan has been surfaced recently. 6 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Hydrocarbon generation and migration induced by ophiolite obduction: The carbonate platform under the Semail Ophiolite, Jebel Akhdar, Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Arne; Littke, Ralf; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    Oman's Semail Ophiolite, as largest ophiolite on earth, fascinated geologists for more than hundred years. It spans over 350 km in a NW-SE orientation and is dominating the northern landscape of Oman. After overthrusting of this oceanic crust onto the passive continental margin of Arabia, updoming of the area during Alpine orogeny exposed the margin sediments which are now easily accessible at the surface. Within the Oman Mountains different canyons provide access to 1,400 m of lithology accumulated through the last 300 My, containing hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. These sedimentary rocks offer unique possibilities to analyze the temperature and pressure evolution of sedimentary basins influenced by large scale overthrusts. Understanding the evolution of the overthrusted sedimentary basin is the key to entrapped reservoirs. Hence, it is essential to understand the thermal and tectonic history of the Oman Mountains to elaborate the interplay of overthrusting and ophiolite induced burial of the overridden sedimentary basin. Therefore, we linked structural modelling of the northern Oman Mountains with petrographic analysis and basin modelling. Thermal history was reconstructed using various maturity parameters (e.g. vitrinite and solid bitumen reflectance, Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material, fluid inclusion measurements), while reconstruction of the structural history was based on field mapping and stress field restorations. Presented results were summarized and integrated in a numerical basin model of the area.

  17. O gênero Garapita Oman (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae com descrições de quatro novas espécies The genus Garapita Oman (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae with descriptions of four new species

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    Keti Maria Rocha Zanol

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Garapita Oman is redescribed and four new species are described, G. (G. guajarensis sp. nov., G. (G. sinopia sp. nov., G. (G. computa sp. nov., from Brazil and G. (G. paraguaiensis sp. nov. from Paraguay. A new combination is established, G. (G. clitellaria (Osborn, 1923, comb. nov. and G. (G. pulchripennis Linnavuori, 1959 is considered a new synonym. The male of G. (G. clitellaria, up to now unknown, is described. G. (G. garbosa Oman, 1936 is reported for the first time in Brazil; G. (Chlamydopita aurea Linnavuori, 1959 is redescribed and illustrated.

  18. Low-temperature hydration, oxidation and hydrogen production from Oman peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H. M.; Mayhew, L.; Templeton, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Peridotite in the shallow subsurface undergoes hydration and oxidation (serpentinization) during reactions with percolating fluids, generating hydrogen gas and releasing magnesium, iron, and calcium into solution. In the presence of fluids enriched in dissolved carbon dioxide, extensive precipitation of carbonate minerals occurs. This reaction has large-scale implications for mitigating climate change by providing a stable, geological carbon repository. The Samail Ophiolite in Oman contains large quantities of ultramafic rocks that are currently undergoing serpentinization at low temperatures (30°C) and forming carbonate minerals. The production of hydrogen gas provides an electron donor for subsurface chemolithoautotrophic life which can contribute to carbon cycling in the subsurface as microorganisms utilize carbon dioxide as an inorganic carbon source. Serpentinization reactions require the oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) to reduce water to H2, but the mechanisms of hydrogen generation in low-temperature systems is poorly characterized. To address this question, we conducted low temperature (100°C) water-rock reactions with Oman peridotite, measured H2 and characterized the speciation of Fe-bearing minerals before and after water-rock interaction using micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (μXANES) spectra obtained from Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The experimental water-rock reactions produce H2 at a pH of 9, which corresponds with observations of ultrabasic springs in the Samail ophiolite and the presence of H2 in these spring waters. Significant hydrogen production occurs for two and a half months of reaction, peaking at 400 nmol/gram of reacted peridotite and then steadily decreases with time. These maximum values of hydrogen production from Oman peridotite are greater than observed by our laboratory and others during aqueous alteration of San Carlos peridotite and isolated pyroxenes and olivines (e.g. Mayhew et al. 2013 [1]). The

  19. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  20. A survey of community members' perceptions of medical errors in Oman

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    Al-Waily Ahmed M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors have been the concern of providers and consumers of health care services. However, consumers' perception of medical errors in developing countries is rarely explored. The aim of this study is to assess community members' perceptions about medical errors and to analyse the factors affecting this perception in one Middle East country, Oman. Methods Face to face interviews were conducted with heads of 212 households in two villages in North Al-Batinah region of Oman selected because of close proximity to the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU, Muscat, Oman. Participants' perceived knowledge about medical errors was assessed. Responses were coded and categorised. Analyses were performed using Pearson's χ2, Fisher's exact tests, and multivariate logistic regression model wherever appropriate. Results Seventy-eight percent (n = 165 of participants believed they knew what was meant by medical errors. Of these, 34% and 26.5% related medical errors to wrong medications or diagnoses, respectively. Understanding of medical errors was correlated inversely with age and positively with family income. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that a one-year increase in age was associated with a 4% reduction in perceived knowledge of medical errors (CI: 1% to 7%; p = 0.045. The study found that 49% of those who believed they knew the meaning of medical errors had experienced such errors. The most common consequence of the errors was severe pain (45%. Of the 165 informed participants, 49% felt that an uncaring health care professional was the main cause of medical errors. Younger participants were able to list more possible causes of medical errors than were older subjects (Incident Rate Ratio of 0.98; p Conclusion The majority of participants believed they knew the meaning of medical errors. Younger participants were more likely to be aware of such errors and could list one or more causes.

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: Revisiting incidence and risk factors from Oman compared to other countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Zenaida Soriano; Al-Mulaabed, Sharef Waadallah; Bataclan, Flordeliz; Montemayor, Cheryl; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Zuhaibi, Sanaa; Al-Waili, Huda; Al-Wahibi, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and the maternal/neonatal risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, compared to other countries. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of premature neonates born with gestational age (GA) 24–32 weeks at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, from January 2007 to December 2010. Maternal and neonatal in-hospital course was retrieved. The incidence of ROP was reported. Risk factors analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistics. Results: A total of 171 neonates (57% males, 43% females) were included for analysis. The incidence of ROP (any stage) was 69/171 (40.4%). Infants with ROP had significantly lower GA (27.7±2 weeks) compared to non-ROP group (30.2±1.7 weeks), P patent ductus arteriosus, seizures, and number of blood transfusions. There was no significant difference in maternal characteristics between the ROP and non-ROP groups except that mothers of infants with ROP were found to be significantly younger. Logistic regression analysis revealed early GA, low BW, duration of Oxygen therapy, and late-onset clinical or proven sepsis as independent risk factors. Conclusion: ROP is still commonly encountered in neonatal practice in Oman and other countries. Early GA, low BW, and prolonged oxygen therapy continue to be the main risk factors associated with the occurrence of ROP in our setting. In addition, an important preventable risk factor identified in our cohort includes clinical or proven late-onset sepsis. PMID:28298861

  2. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service.

  3. Trends in the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease among Adults with Diabetes in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Al-Lawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate trends in the estimated 10-year risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD among adults with diagnosed diabetes in Oman. In addition, the effect of hypothetical risk reductions in this population was examined. Methods: Data from 1,077 Omani adults aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes were collected and analysed from three national surveys conducted in 1991, 2000 and 2008 across all regions of Oman. The estimated 10-year CVD risk and hypothetical risk reductions were calculated using risk prediction algorithms from the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE, Diabetes Epidemiology Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe (DECODE and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH risk tools. Results: Between 1991 and 2008, the estimated 10-year risk of CVD increased significantly in the total sample and among both genders, regardless of the risk prediction algorithm that was used. Hypothetical risk reduction models for three scenarios (eliminating smoking, controlling systolic blood pressure and reducing total cholesterol identified that reducing systolic blood pressure to ≤130 mmHg would lead to the largest reduction in the 10-year risk of CVD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion: The estimated 10-year risk for CVD among adults with diabetes increased significantly between 1991 and 2008 in Oman. Focused public health initiatives, involving recognised interventions to address behavioural and biological risks, should be a national priority. Improvements in the quality of care for diabetic patients, both at the individual and the healthcare system level, are required.

  4. Impacts of human-related practices on Ommatissus lybicus infestations of date palm in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; Andrew, Nigel R; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB) (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS), geographically weighted regression (GRW), and exploratory regression (ER) were applied to (a) model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b) predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman. Firstly, we extracted row spacing and palm tree density information from remote sensed satellite images. Secondly, we collected data on irrigation practices and management by using a simple questionnaire, augmented with spatial data. Thirdly, we conducted our statistical analyses using all possible combinations of values over a given set of candidate variables using the chosen predictive modelling and regression techniques. Lastly, we identified the combination of human-related practices that are most conducive to the survival and spread of DB. Our results show that there was a strong correlation between DB infestations and several human-related practices parameters (R2 = 0.70). Variables including palm tree density, spacing between trees (less than 5 x 5 m), insecticide application, date palm and farm service (pruning, dethroning, remove weeds, and thinning), irrigation systems, offshoots removal, fertilisation and labour (non-educated) issues, were all found to significantly influence the degree of DB infestations. This study is expected to help reduce the extent and cost of aerial and ground sprayings, while facilitating the allocation of

  5. Persianorchestia, a new talitrid genus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitridae) from Gulf of Oman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Lowry, Jim; Hekmatara, Maryam

    2017-03-02

    A new genus and species, Persianorchestia nirvana gen. et sp. nov., is described from the south coast of Iran along the Gulf of Oman. The new genus is characterized by large eyes, gnathopod 1 posterior margin of carpus and propodus each with lobe covered in palmate setae, smooth posterior margin on dactylus of male gnathopod 2, a slender dactylus on pereopod 5, uropod 1 outer ramus without marginal robust setae and with apical spear-shaped setae on the rami of uropods 1 and 2. Persianorchestia is most similar to Pseudorchestoidea Bousfield, 1982.

  6. The urban heat island of a tropical coastal city: the case of Muscat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat, the capital of the Sultanate of Oman (23° 25'N and 57°00 E), it extended along a coastline that runs around 200 km along the Gulf of Oman. By virtue of its position astride the Tropic of Cancer, Muscat city is located in an arid environment with scanty rainfall, and a dry, hot climate with high evaporation rate. The study area is exposed regularly to sea breeze circulation during day time, while very weak land breeze turning to calm conditions at night. The city is situated in complex and varying topography; the Mountains and hills of the eastern Hajar chain border the city from the south and west and, sometimes, they join the sea in the form of rough slopes and coarse cliffs particularly alongside the eastern coastal fringe. Muscat city witnessed a spectacular socioeconomic development since 1970, stimulated by oil exploration and production. The primacy given to the capital triggered an unprecedented demographic rush. The new developments led to the growth of population size from 56 to 236 thousand in one decade (1970-1980) with an enormous annual growth rate of 12.3 %. This sustained growth raised the population of Muscat to more than 549 thousand in 1993 to 796 thousand in 2007 constituting, thus, 27 % of the total population in Oman. Most of Muscat built-up area is characterized by a high sky-view factor, even in the city centre, except for the CDB area of Riwi, where some of the buildings are over ten stories high. The old city of Muscat and Mutrah is extremely compact with very low sky-view factor. The buildings are two to three stories high. The streets are narrow and cut deep canyons through the old city. The street net work is irregular which increases the mutual shading by buildings. The specific attributes of Muscat, has motivated the elaboration of a multidisciplinary research in sultan Qaboos University (Sultanate of Oman), about the urban climate and air pollution in Muscat city: Multi-scale approach. This paper presents the results of the

  7. Impacts of human-related practices on Ommatissus lybicus infestations of date palm in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M.; Andrew, Nigel R.; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB) (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS), geographically weighted regression (GRW), and exploratory regression (ER) were applied to (a) model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b) predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman. Firstly, we extracted row spacing and palm tree density information from remote sensed satellite images. Secondly, we collected data on irrigation practices and management by using a simple questionnaire, augmented with spatial data. Thirdly, we conducted our statistical analyses using all possible combinations of values over a given set of candidate variables using the chosen predictive modelling and regression techniques. Lastly, we identified the combination of human-related practices that are most conducive to the survival and spread of DB. Our results show that there was a strong correlation between DB infestations and several human-related practices parameters (R2 = 0.70). Variables including palm tree density, spacing between trees (less than 5 x 5 m), insecticide application, date palm and farm service (pruning, dethroning, remove weeds, and thinning), irrigation systems, offshoots removal, fertilisation and labour (non-educated) issues, were all found to significantly influence the degree of DB infestations. This study is expected to help reduce the extent and cost of aerial and ground sprayings, while facilitating the allocation of

  8. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  9. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine organisms as heavy metal bioindicators in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozadeh, E; Malek, M; Rashidinejad, R; Nabavi, S; Karbassi, M; Ghayoumi, R; Ghorbanzadeh-Zafarani, G; Salehi, H; Sures, B

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, cadmium and lead concentrations were compared in barnacles, ghost shrimps, polychaetes, bivalves, and sediment from ten different locations along the intertidal zone of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The results revealed significant differences in the heavy metal concentrations between the organisms with barnacles showing, by far, the highest metal concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor of Cd in different animals follows this pattern with barnacles>bivalves>polychaetes>ghost shrimps, while the pattern for Pb was barnacles>polychaetes>bivalves>ghost shrimps. In most of the stations, sediments showed the lowest lead and cadmium concentrations. Therefore, it is concluded that barnacles with Pb concentrations between 0.17 and 2,016.1 μg/g and Cd concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 147.1 μg/g are the best organisms to be employed in monitoring programs designed to assess pollution with bioavailable metals in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

  11. Motivating teachers in the developing world: Insights from research with English language teachers in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    According to some commentators, targets set by the international community for bringing education to all children in developing countries are threatened by a teacher motivation crisis. For this crisis to be addressed, challenges to the motivation of teachers in such contexts need to be understood from perspectives both theoretical and comparative. Thus an analysis is required of the changes that have taken place particularly in countries whose education systems have developed rapidly in recent decades. Case studies of motivated teacher behaviour in such national contexts might be of relevance to educational reformers. Drawing upon the tenets of self-determination theory (SDT), this article begins by discussing the nature of the reported teacher motivation crisis in the developing world more generally. It then focuses on the Sultanate of Oman, highlighting recent historical developments there. Having thus set the scene, the author considers the extent to which negative environmental influences on teacher motivation in Oman have been addressed and then looks for evidence of intrinsic motivation in case studies of Omani English teachers. Returning to the developing world more generally, conclusions focus on how teachers' psychological needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness can be met through educational policies that reduce negative influences on teacher motivation and provide both inspiring professional development opportunities and work environments characterised by respect.

  12. Maternal and Fetal Outcomes of Triplet Gestation in a Tertiary Hospital in Oman

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    Maryam Al-Shukri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the fetal and maternal outcomes of triplet gestation and to report on the maternal characteristics of those pregnancies in a tertiary care centre in Oman. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of all triplet pregnancies delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between January 2009 and December 2011. Results: Over the three-year study period, there were 9,140 deliveries. Of these, there were 18 triplet pregnancies, giving a frequency of 0.2%. The mean gestational age at delivery was 31.0 ± 3.0 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1,594 ± 460 g. The most common maternal complications were preterm labour in 13 pregnancies (72.2%, gestational diabetes in 7 (39% and gestational hypertension in 5 (28%. Of the total deliveries, there were 54 neonates. Neonatal complications among these included hyaline membrane disease in 25 neonates (46%, hyperbilirubinaemia in 24 (43%, sepsis in 18 (33% and anaemia in 8 (15%. The perinatal mortality rate was 55 per 1,000 births. Conclusion: The maternal and neonatal outcomes of triplet pregnancies were similar to those reported in other studies.

  13. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: an African middle stone age industry in Southern Arabia.

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    Jeffrey I Rose

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry--the late Nubian Complex--known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.

  14. Women's autonomy, education and employment in Oman and their influence on contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Riyami, Asya; Afifi, Mustafa; Mabry, Ruth M

    2004-05-01

    Since 1970 political and economic changes have brought about great improvements in health and education in Oman, and since 1994 the government has provided free contraceptives to all married couples in primary health care centres. Despite rapid socio-economic development, the fertility rate was 4.2 in 2001. The aim of this study was to define baseline data on ever-married women's empowerment in Oman from a national study in 2000, analyse the correlates of women's empowerment and the effect of empowerment on unmet need for contraception. Two indicators of empowerment were used: women's involvement in decision-making and freedom of movement. Bivariate analysis was used to link these measures and their proxies, education and employment status, with use of a family planning method. Education was a key indicator of women's status. Unmet contraceptive need for women exposed to pregnancy was nearly 25%, but decreased significantly with educational level and paid employment. While empowered women were more likely to use contraception, women's education was a better predictor of "met need" than autonomy, as traditional factors and community influence remain strong. For nearly half the 1,830 women in the study, the husband decided whether contraception was used. Fewer than 1% were using contraception before their first child as women are expected to have a child within the first year of marriage.

  15. Evidence for early irrigation at Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before the advent of farming villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desruelles, Stéphane; Fouache, Eric; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher; Murray, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Decades of archaeological research in southeastern Arabia (Oman and the UAE) have provided a good understanding of the evolution of human societies in this arid region, with the transition from mobile pastoralism to settled agricultural villages occurring at the start of the Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE). The delayed adoption of farming, ceramics, mudbrick architecture, metallurgy, and other technologies until the start of the 3rd millennium BCE has been a particularly salient feature of this region relative to its neighbours in Mesopotamia, southern Iran, and northwestern South Asia. However, recent geoarchaeological research at the World Heritage Site of Bat, situated within the Wadi Sharsah valley in northwest Oman, has provided evidence of irrigation practices that have been dated to the early-mid 4th millennium BCE. While direct evidence of farming from this early period remains elusive, the presence of irrigated fields at this time raises new questions about the supposedly mobile pastoralist groups of the Arabian Neolithic and the beginning of farming practices in the region.

  16. Etiology, development and reaction of muskmelon to vine decline under arid conditions of Oman

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    Qais Saif Al-MAWAALI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muskmelon vine decline is considered the most important factor limiting muskmelon production in Oman. This study was conducted to characterize incidence, development, causal agents and response of muskmelon cultivars to this disease. A survey showed that incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 15% (mean 5% in spring 2011, 1 to 80% (mean 18% in autumn 2011 and 0 to15% (mean 10% in spring 2012. Isolations from 168 affected plants yielded Pythium aphanidermatum (56% of diseased plants sampled, Fusarium spp. (46%, Monosporascus cannonballus (27%, Rhizoctonia solani (22% and Macrophomina phaseolina (1%. In pathogenicity tests, R. solani, M. cannonballus and P. aphanidermatum were found to be pathogenic to muskmelon. In another experiment over three seasons, M. cannonballus, P. aphanidermatum and R. solani were consistently isolated from muskmelon plants on a weekly basis from 14 days after sowing until the end of the season. However, symptom development only began with the onset of fruiting, which suggests that fruiting stress may be a factor in vine decline disease development. Field assessment of 11 muskmelon cultivars showed that ‘Shahd F1’ was one of the cultivars least susceptible to vine decline and was relatively high yielding. This is the first record of M. cannonballus as a causal agent of muskmelon vine decline in Oman.

  17. Monsoon triggered formation of Quaternary alluvial megafans in the interior of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, Ingo; Matter, Albert; Preusser, Frank; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk

    2009-09-01

    A vast bajada consisting of coalescing low-gradient (veneer of weakly cemented Quaternary gravels. A combination of remote sensing, lithological analyses and luminescence dating is used to interpret the complex aggradation history of the Quaternary alluvial fans from the interior of Oman in the context of independent regional climate records. From satellite imagery and clast analysis four fans can be discerned in the study area. While two early periods of fan formation are tentatively correlated to the Miocene-Pliocene and the Early Pleistocene, luminescence dating allows the distinction of five phases of fan aggradation during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. These phases are correlated with pluvial periods from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 through 3, when southern Arabia was affected by monsoonal precipitation. It is concluded that the aggradation of the alluvial fans was triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production during arid periods and high rainfall with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during strong monsoon phases. However, the lack of fine-grained sediments, bioturbation and organic material implies that although the Quaternary fans are sourced by monsoonal rains they formed in a semi-arid environment. Thus, it appears that, in contrast to the Oman Mountains, the interior was not directly affected by monsoonal precipitation.

  18. The Impact of Materials and Maintenance Considerations during the Design Stage of Public Buildings in Oman

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    Al Rubaiey S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of architects and civil engineers in the Sultanate of Oman regarding building maintenance during the design of public buildings. This exploratory and descriptive study used a qualitative approach, drawing data from focus groups in particular, to develop a rich and in-depth description of the designers’ building maintenance experiences. Structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants from architecture and civil engineering fields, from which, the interviewees shared the viewpoint that maintenance functions entirely separate from the design and construction process itself, but that it is, in fact, an integral part of the design process and post-occupancy stage. The designer should plan for sufficient maintenance for the whole building life cycle. However, some elements are more difficult to maintain in Oman than in other regions such as roofs, facades and the substructure of buildings. The results showed that salt is the most challenging environmental factor that could cause building defects. This was followed by solar heat, moisture from below ground and, lastly, rain. Most of these defects occurred during the buildings’ post-occupancy phase and were related to inappropriate or poor design. The results also suggested that deficiencies caused by thermal expansion came in the form of cracks, followed by paint decay, dampness, and staining.

  19. Visual function of children with visual and other disabilities in Oman: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogri, Urmi; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al Harby, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the visual functioning of the children with special needs in Oman between 2009 and 2012. We present the methods of assessing different visual functions, outcomes, and interventions carried out to improve their functioning. Methods: Optometrists assessed visual functions of children of “Day care centres” in Oman. Experts further assessed them and provided low vision care. Ocular movements, refractive corrections, near, distance, contrast color, motion, field of vision, and cognitive visual function test results were noted. Feedback to caregivers was given to improve visual functioning of these children. Results: We grouped 321 participants, (196 [61.1%] boys, age range of 3–18 years) into 61; Down syndrome (DS), 72 with intellectual disabilities (IDs), 67; hearing impaired and 121 with other conditions. Refractive error and lag of accommodation were 26 (42.6%) and 14 (22.6%) among children with DS. Contrast sensitivity was impaired in 8 (12.7%) among hearing impaired children. Defective distant and near vision was in 162 (70%) and 104 (42%) of our cohort. Children with ID were most difficult to assess. Children in a group of other disabilities had a higher proportion of impaired visual functioning. They were given low vision aids (telescopes [22], filters [7], and magnifiers [3]) in large numbers compared to those in other groups. Conclusions: Visual functioning of children with other disabilities show great variation and difficult to group. The care, therefore, should be at individual level. All visual functions cannot be assessed at one time. PMID:28112128

  20. Emerging Burden of Frail Young and Elderly Persons in Oman; For whom the bell tolls?

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    Hamed Al-Sinawi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements in health and an increased standard of living in Oman have led to a reduction in environment-related and infectious diseases. Now the country is experiencing an epidemiological transition characterised by a baby boom, youth bulge and increasing longevity. Common wisdom would therefore suggest that Omanis will suffer less ill health. However, a survey of literature suggests that chronic non-communicable diseases are unexpectedly becoming common. This is possibly fuelled by some socio-cultural patterns specific to Oman, as well as the shortcomings of the ‘miracle’ of health and rapid modernisation. Unfortunately, such new diseases do not spare younger people; a proportion of them will need the type of care usually reserved for the elderly. In addition, due to their pervasive and refractory nature, these chronic non-communicable diseases seem impervious to the prevailing ‘cure-oriented’ health care system. This situation therefore calls for a paradigm shift: a health care system that goes beyond a traditional cure-orientation to provide care services for the chronically sick of all ages.

  1. Sero-Survey of Equine Infectious Anemia in the Sultanate of Oman during 2007-2009

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    Mohammed Body, Abdulmajeed Al-Rawahi, M. Hammad Hussain*, Khalisa Al-Lamki, Saif Al-Habsy, Mahir Almaawali and Qais Abdullah Alrawahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a fatal and relapsing infectious disease of equines caused by the lentivirus of Retroviridae family which occurs world-wide. It tends to become an inapparent infection if death does not result from the acute clinical attack. The virus persists in infected animals for life and can be detected by serological tests like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID tests. Keeping in view the importance of EIA, a sero-survey and passive surveillance was designed to establish the status of EIA in Oman. For the current study, ELISA was carried out on 331 random horse serum samples collected from all over Oman and 262 serum samples submitted from race horses. Four (0.67% out of total 593 serum samples were found positive on ELISA. These samples were further tested by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test for the confirmation and were found negative. Based on the analysis of the samples, it can be assumed that the horse population in the Sultanate was free of the disease during the study period (2007-2009.

  2. Cytogenetic studies of 1232 patients with different sexual development abnormalities from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Intisar; Goud, Tadakal Mallana; Al-Harasi, Salma; Rajab, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytogenetic findings in Omani patients who had been referred for suspicion of sex chromosome abnormalities that resulted in different clinical disorders. Furthermore, it sought to examine the frequency of chromosomal anomalies in these patients and to compare the obtained results with those reported elsewhere. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 1232 cases with variant characteristics of sexual development disorders who had been referred to the cytogenetic department, National Genetic Centre, Ministry of Health, from different hospitals in the Sultanate of Oman between 1999 and 2014. The karyotype results demonstrated chromosomal anomalies in 24.2% of the cases, where 67.5% of abnormalities were identified in referral females, whereas only 32.6% were in referral males. Of all sex chromosome anomalies detected, Turner syndrome was the most frequent (38.2%) followed by Klinefelter syndrome (24.9%) and XY phenotypic females (16%). XXX syndrome and XX phenotypic males represented 6.8% and 3.8% of all sex chromosome anomalies, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of patients referred with various clinical suspicions of chromosomal abnormalities revealed a high rate of chromosomal anomalies. This is the first broad cytogenetic study reporting combined frequencies of sex chromosome anomalies in sex development disorders in Oman.

  3. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

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    Maha M. Al-Khaduri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factors, delivery, and obstetric complications were collected. Results: Dystocia was significantly associated with older maternal age, higher parity, larger BMI, diabetes, and previous record of dystocia. In addition, dystocia was associated more with vacuum and forceps deliveries. Routine traction (51% was the most used manoeuvre. Among dystocia cases, 13% were associated with fetal complications of which Erb’s Palsy was the most prevalent (79%. Conclusion: Our finding of significant associations with risk factors lays out the ground to develop a predictability index for shoulder dystocia, which would help in making it preventable. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the obtained results.

  4. Childhood systemic lupus erythematosus in Sultanate of Oman: demographics and clinical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdwani, R; Rizvi, S G; El-Nour, I

    2008-07-01

    There is a worldwide variation in the incidence of childhood manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, which may be related to environmental, genetic and geographical factors. The aim of the study is to describe for the first time the clinical and immunological characteristics of childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus at diagnosis in the Sultanate of Oman. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 50 children with systemic lupus erythematosus fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria between 1990 and 2006. There were 42 girls and eight boys. The mean age of disease onset was low at 8.6 years (SD 3.1). The female:male ratio was 5.3:1. The most frequent clinical manifestations at initial diagnosis were: articular (76%), cutaneous (70%), haematological (68%) and renal (64%) dominated by class IV nephritis, pulmonary (26%), neuropsychiatric (18%) and cardiac (10%). A positive antinuclear antibody (>1:80) was present in 94% at diagnosis. Positive anti-double stranded DNA was present in 82% and low complement levels were present in 84% at diagnosis. This is the first review of childhood onset systemic lupus erythematosus in the Sultanate of Oman.

  5. Portrayal of fuzzy recharge areas for water balance modelling - a case study in northern Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, A.; Schütze, N.; Schmitz, G. H.

    2012-06-01

    The research project IWAS Oman aims at implementing integrated water resources management (IWRM) to a pilot area in Al Batinah, Oman. This requires - amongst others - a realistic assessment of groundwater recharge to the alluvial aquifer which obviously has to be based upon the extension of recharge areas. In this context, the subsequent investigation focuses on the role of vagueness as regards the portrayal of the areas that provide water for particular aquifers. For that purpose, concepts of fuzziness in spatial analysis are applied to describe possible extents of recharge areas. In general, any water assessment is based on clearly delineated boundaries. However, in many cases, aquifer recharge areas are not clearly defined due to the nature of the study area. Hence, surfaces indicating a gradual membership to the recharge area of a particular aquifer are used in this investigation. These surfaces, which are based on available qualitative information, visualise a potential range of spatial extension. With regard to water balance calculations, functional relationships in tabular form are derived as well. Based on a regionalisation approach providing spatially distributed recharge rates, the corresponding recharge volume is calculated. Hence, this methodology provides fuzzy input data for water balance calculations. Beyond the portrayal of one singular aquifer recharge area, this approach also supports the complementary consideration of adjacent areas.

  6. Structural and stratigraphic controls on the origin and tectonic history of a subducted continental margin, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C. J.; Miller, J. McL.

    2007-03-01

    Eclogites and blueschists exposed in Saih Hatat, Oman, record the subduction and exhumation of continental crustal material beneath the Cretaceous Semail Ophiolite during ophiolite obduction. The eclogite-bearing lower plate, originally part of Oman's distal continental margin, is exposed in two tectonic windows through the less metamorphosed upper plate by a previously mapped low angle, high strain, décollement structure. A major tectonic break, currently poorly exposed, records the juxtaposition of the highest pressure eclogites and garnet blueschists against lower pressure epidote-blueschists. The subsequent exhumation of the entire lower plate to mid crustal levels is marked by a pervasive shearing event associated with a regional greenschist facies overprint. The décollement truncates structures and the metamorphic field gradient in the lower plate, but does not significantly truncate structures or stratigraphy in the upper plate. It is not responsible for the exhumation of the high pressure rocks to mid-crustal levels. Most of the displacement across this structure was accommodated during continuing convergence after the subduction system had ceased to be active, and post ophiolite emplacement onto the platform carbonate sequences. A revised tectonic model is presented which accounts for the structural, geochronological and metamorphic observations.

  7. Quality of Diabetes Care in Primary Health Centres in North Al-Batinah of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Zadjali, Najat; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of diabetic care provided in primary health care settings in Oman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of randomly selected 500 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending 6 primary care diabetic clinics in the north Al-Batinah region of Oman from January to December 2010. Nine standards on the quality of diabetes care were audited. Results: The mean age of the sample was 51±13 years, ranging from 15 to 87 years; the majority (61%) were females. The mean duration of DM was 4±3 years, ranging from 1 to 18 years. Seventy-seven percent of the patients attended diabetic clinics at least 4 times per year. Of the 9 assessed diabetic standards, HbA1c was documented in 33% of the patients, body mass index in 12%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 40%, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio in 28%, creatinine in 63% and blood pressure (BP) in 96%. Optimal control among the documented indicators was noted in 32, 21, 25, 85, 95 and 19%, respectively. Twenty percent of the patients had their ECGs done while only 39% of the patients had foot examination. No patient had attained control in all of HbA1c., BP and LDL-C. Conclusion: There is a gap between the recommended DM care guidelines and current practice with consequent poor quality of care in these patients. PMID:25024774

  8. EVIDENCE OF A GUADALUPIAN AGE FOR THE KHUFF FORMATION OF SOUTHEASTERN OMAN: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian succession of the Huqf area (Sultanate of Oman represents a mega-sequence comprising the fluvial terrigenous Gharif Formation and the overlying marine Khuff Formation. The Khuff Fm. is subdivided into four members and is composed of marls and bioclastic limestones. The Khuff Fm. yields a rich fauna of brachiopods, conodonts, foraminifers, bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and cephalopods. The brachiopod fauna of the Khuff Fm. includes strophomenids, productids, orthids and terebratulids. The associated conodont fauna includes Hindeodus excavatus Behnken, Merrilina sp., M. praedivergens Kozur & Mostler, and Sweetina n. sp. (systematic descriptions of conodonts are given in the Paleontological Appendix. Foraminifers are represented by species of Miliolina and Rotaliina. The Khuff Fm. is given a Wordian age, based on brachiopods and conodonts. The depositional environment of the Khuff Fm. of southeastern Oman corresponds to the outer shelf of a large carbonate platform covering most of the Arabian Platform. The Khuff Fm. is interpreted as a major transgressive-regressive cycle related to differential subsidence. 

  9. Application of time-domain electromagnetic method in mapping saltwater intrusion of a coastal alluvial aquifer, North Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Abdalla, Osman

    2015-04-01

    One-third of the population of Oman depends on the groundwater extracted from the alluvium deposits located along the coast of the Gulf of Oman. However, groundwater depletion and seawater intrusion constitute major challenges along the coastal water accumulations in Oman. The objective of this study is to locate the extent of seawater intrusion and to map the shallow alluvial aquifer in the region, where water accumulates from the rain or the flooding at AlKhod dam. In order to assess the effect of groundwater infiltration, which recharges the aquifer and fights the seawater invasion, a quantitative approach for the groundwater quality and distribution is required to provide reasonable knowledge on the spatial distribution of the aquifers, their thickness and the type of sediments. When groundwater wells and their subsurface geologic and electrical logs are not available or not deep enough, surface geophysical surveys can be considered due to their low cost and short acquisition time. The application of time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method in Al-Khod area, Oman has proven to be a successful tool in mapping the fresh/saline water interface and for locating the depth of fresh water aquifer. The depths and inland extents of the saline zone were mapped along three N-S TDEM profiles. The depths to the freshwater table and saline interface calculated from TDEM closely match the available well data.

  10. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  11. Variation in Socio-Economic Burden for Caring of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Oman: Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Fahdi, Samiya; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver's variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1)…

  12. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  13. LOAD FORECASTING FOR POWER SYSTEM PLANNING AND OPERATION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AT AL BATINAH REGION OMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUSSEIN A. ABDULQADER

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Load forecasting is essential part for the power system planning and operation. In this paper the modeling and design of artificial neural network for load forecasting is carried out in a particular region of Oman. Neural network approach helps to reduce the problem associated with conventional method and has the advantage of learning directly from the historical data. The neural network here uses data such as past load; weather information like humidity and temperatures. Once the neural network is trained for the past set of data it can give a prediction of future load. This reduces the capital investment reducing the equipments to be installed. The actual data are taken from the Mazoon Electrical Company, Oman. The data of load for the year 2007, 2008 and 2009 are collected for a particular region called Al Batinah in Oman and trained using neural networks to forecast the future. The main objective is to forecast the amount of electricity needed for better load distribution in the areas of this region in Oman. The load forecasting is done for the year 2010 and is validated for the accuracy.

  14. Repository of mutations from Oman: The entry point to a national mutation database [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajab, A. (Anna); Hamza, N. (Nishath); Al Harasi, S. (Salma); Al Lawati, F. (Fatma); Gibbons, U. (Una); Al Alawi, I. (Intesar); Kobus, K. (Karoline); Hassan, S. (Suha); Mahir, G. (Ghariba); Al Salmi, Q. (Qasim); B. Mons (Barend); Robinson, P. (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Sultanate of Oman is a rapidly developing Muslim country with well-organized government-funded health care services, and expanding medical genetic facilities. The preservation of tribal structures within the Omani population coupled with geographical isolation has produced unique pat

  15. Gravimetric monitoring of the first field-wide steam injection in a fractured carbonate field in Oman - A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.; Ditmar, P.; Vossepoel, F.; Arts, R.; Al-Kindy, F.; Klees, R.

    2015-01-01

    Gas-Oil Gravity Drainage is to be enhanced by steam injection in a highly fractured, low permeability carbonate field in Oman. Following a successful pilot, field-wide steam injection is being implemented, first of this type in the world. A dedicated monitoring program has been designed to track cha

  16. Population Structure, Abundance and Movement of Whale Sharks in the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P.; Jaidah, Mohammed Y.; Bach, Steffen; Lee, Katie; Jabado, Rima W.; Rohner, Christoph A.; March, Abi; Caprodossi, Simone; Henderson, Aaron C.; Mair, James M.; Ormond, Rupert; Pierce, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17.52, P 9 m individuals were visually assessed as pregnant. Connectivity among sharks sighted in Qatari, Omani and UAE waters was confirmed by individual spot pattern matches. A total of 13 identified sharks were re-sighted at locations other than that at which they were first sighted, including movements into and out of the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. Maximum likelihood techniques were used to model an estimated combined population for the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman of 2837 sharks ± 1243.91 S.E. (95% C.I. 1720–6295). The Al Shaheen aggregation is thus the first site described as being dominated by mature males while the free-swimming pregnant females are the first reported from the Indian Ocean. PMID:27362839

  17. The potential of geotourism to meet the challenges of geoconservation in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepert, A.; Zacke, A.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geoconservation as well as the concept of geological heritage has been understood as a new challenge for geological research in the last decades. Traditionally, the approach to geology has been more often linked to the exploitation of resources rather than to preservation of sites of geological value. In many countries the protection of geological sites is connected to the protection of biodiversity. The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. During Late Cretaceous large parts of former Tethyan oceanic crust were obducted onto the Arabian plate to form one of the world's best exposed and best studied ophiolites (Searle and Cox, 1999). The Semail Ophiolite might be the best known example of Oman's geological heritage. However, the country offers far more geological features which are spectacular or unique. To name just a few, there are e.g. Neoproterocoic glacial sediments (Allen, 2007); surface piercing salt-domes (Al Siyabi and Newall, 2005); huge sand-deserts (Goudie et al., 1999); a mountain-range 3000 m high with spectacular canyons as Wadi Nakhr (Kusky et al., 2005); as well as outcropping Moho (Boudier and Nicolas, 1995). As the country is located in the arid to semiarid climatic zone, soil-development is very limited as is vegetation cover. Therefore the geology is easy accessible - a fact that attracts more and more geosciences students to study geology in the field, as well as tourists to enjoy the spectacular scenery. However, concerning the whole field of nature conservation, Oman just started facing the fact of increasing destruction of landscapes including endangering of biodiversity. The country's economic development mainly took place within the last 40 years. Large infrastructure projects are under construction to meet the needs of ongoing development of land and resources. As a consequence thereof geological heritage is in danger of being destroyed due to lack of awareness. The aim of this study is to

  18. Orogenesis of the Oman Mountains - a new geodynamic model based on structural geology, plate reconstructions and thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Arne; Virgo, Simon; von Hagke, Christoph; Ralf, Littke; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    Ophiolite obduction is an integral part of mountain building in many orogens. However, because the obduction stage is usually overprinted by later tectonic events, obduction geodynamics and its influence on orogenesis are often elusive. The best-preserved ophiolite on Earth is the Semail Ophiolite, Oman Mountains. 350 km of ophiolite and the entire overthrusted margin sequence are exposed perpendicular to the direction of obduction along the northeastern coast of the Sultanate of Oman. Despite excellent exposure, it has been debated whether early stages of obduction included formation of a micro-plate, or if the Oman Mountains result from collision of two macro-plates (e.g. Breton et al., 2004). Furthermore, different tectonic models for the Oman Mountains exist, and it is unclear how structural and tectonic phases relate to geodynamic context. Here we present a multidisciplinary approach to constrain orogenesis of the Oman Mountains. To this end, we first restore the structural evolution of the carbonate platform in the footwall of the Semail ophiolite. Relative ages of nine structural generations can be distinguished, based on more than 1,500 vein and fault overprintings. Top-to-S overthrusting of the Semail ophiolite is witnessed by three different generations of bedding confined veins in an anticlockwise rotating stress field. Rapid burial induced the formation of overpressure cells, and generation and migration of hydrocarbons (Fink et al., 2015; Grobe et al., 2016). Subsequent tectonic thinning of the ophiolite took place above a top-to-NNE crustal scale, ductile shear zone, deforming existing veins and forming a cleavage in clay-rich layers. Ongoing extension formed normal- to oblique-slip faults and horst-graben structures. This was followed by NE-SW oriented ductile shortening, the formation of the Jebel Akhdar anticline, potentially controlled by the positions of the horst-graben structures. Exhumation in the Cenozoic was associated with low angle normal

  19. Report A, chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17 April 1972 to 17 March 1978 (NODC Accession 7900091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE and other platforms in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17...

  20. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  1. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Khalil S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults ...

  2. GIS-based assessment of combined CSP electric power and seawater desalination plant for Duqum - Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastli, Adel [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 33, Al-Khodh, Muscat-123 (Oman); Charabi, Yassine [Department of Geography, College of Arts, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 42, Al-Khodh, Muscat-123 (Oman); Zekri, Slim [Department of Natural Resource Economics, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. 34, Al-Khodh, Muscat-123 (Oman)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the potential of implementing combined electric power and seawater desalination plant using concentrated solar power technologies for Wilayat Duqum in Oman. Duqum is going through a considerable urban, touristic and industrial expansion and development. GIS solar radiation tools are used to select the most appropriate site for the plant location. There are basically two different options to combine concentrated solar electric power with seawater desalination. The first option is to combine a CSP plant with a thermal desalination unit, exploiting the exhaust heat of the steam cycle to drive a thermal desalination unit. The second option is to exploit only the electricity output of the CSP plant with a reverse osmosis desalination unit. The paper deals with both options and shows where each of the concepts has advantages considering local conditions: the quality of the input water, the demand of freshwater and/or potable water, social and economic aspects, the environment and others. (author)

  3. First record of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843 (Family Lethrinidae from southern Oman, Western Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A single specimen (285 mm SL of Gymnocranius griseus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843 was collected from Salalah, Arabian Sea coast of Oman. It is the first record of this species from the Omani waters. It shows specific characters: deep body (2.17 times SL; evenly convex dorsal and ventral profile of head; ventral part of body profile straight; lower edge of eye slightly above a line from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin fork; eye relatively large, its diameter about equal to or slightly larger than preorbital and interorbital widths; mouth relatively small, posterior part of jaws reaching to about level of anterior nostrils; 3 pair and 1 pair of slender canines at front of upper and lower jaw, respectively, other teeth villiform, becoming conical on lateral sections. The specimen was identified as G. griseus as these characters fit the diagnostic description of Carpenter & Allen (1989.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the surface water and sediments of Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Homira; Mehdinia, Ali; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, the concentrations and distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water and surface sediments from the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea, were investigated in May (premonsoon) and December (postmonsoon) 2012. The concentrations of PAHs in the surface water samples ranged from 1.7 to 2.8ngl(-1) and from 0.04 to 59.6ngl(-1) in pre- and postmonsoon, respectively. In general, the PAH levels of the water samples from Chabahar Bay were higher in postmonsoon than in premonsoon (p<0.05). The concentrations of PAHs in the sediment samples varied from undetectable levels to 92.8ngg(-1) d.w. in both seasons. The seasonal comparison of the results in sediment samples showed that the overall concentration of PAH compounds was higher in the postmonsoon season (p<0.05).

  5. Geochemical bioenergetics during low-temperature serpentinization: An example from the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, Peter A.; Hoehler, Tori; Shock, Everett L.

    2017-07-01

    Various classes of microbial and biomolecular evidence from global studies in marine and continental settings are used to identify a set of reactions that appear to support microbial metabolism during serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Geochemical data from serpentinizing ecosystems in the Samail ophiolite of Oman are used to evaluate the extent of disequilibria that can support this set of microbial metabolisms and to provide a ranking of potential metabolic energy sources in hyperalkaline fluids that are direct products of serpentinization. Results are used to construct hypotheses for how microbial metabolism may be supported in the subsurface for two cases: ecosystems hosted in rocks that have already undergone significant serpentinization and those hosted by deeper, active serpentinization processes.

  6. Biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)], E-mail: Elshafie@squ.edu.om; AlKindi, Abdulaziz Yahya [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Busaidi, Sultan [Oman Refinery Company Laboratories, LLC, P.O. Box 3568 Ruwi PC112 (Oman); Bakheit, Charles [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Albahry, S.N. [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)

    2007-11-15

    Ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of Oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. The abilities of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (C13-C18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. Significant differences were found in the utilization of C15, C16, C17 and C18 by the three fungi. Similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass produced by the three fungi growing on C13, C17, C18 and crude oil. The correlation coefficient of biomass and oil utilization was not statistically significant for Aspergillus niger, significant for Aspergillus terreus and highly significant for P. chrysogenum.

  7. Evaluating greywater reuse potential for sustainable water resources management in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Prathapar, Sanmugan; Harrasi, Ali Al

    2008-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of greywater availability in Muscat Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman, to establish a methodology for greywater quantity estimation, to test greywater quality in order to assess reuse potential, and to examine public acceptance for reuse.Total fresh water consumption and greywater generation from different household sources were measured by water meters in five selected households during summer and winter. Additionally, a survey was designed and conducted in five administrative areas of Muscat Governorate, with the objective of testing a methodology for estimating greywater generation potential in these areas. Collected data were compared with that used by the Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water, Sultanate of Oman. The survey covered a total of 169 houses and 1,365 people. Greywater samples were collected and analyzed from showers, laundries, kitchens and sinks in some of these households to determine their water quality parameters. Statistical analysis results indicated that there is no significant variance in the total fresh water consumption between data used by the ministry and those measured and estimated during this study, highlighting the applicability of the tested method. The study concluded that the average per capita greywater generation rate is 151 Lpcd. Greywater production ranged from 80 to 83% of the total fresh water consumption and most of the greywater is generated from showers. Further, 55 to 57% of the greywater generated in a typical Omani household originated from the shower, 28 to 33% originated from the kitchen, 6 to 9% originated from laundry, and 5 to 7% originated from sink, which constitutes approximately 81% of the total fresh water consumption. The physical, chemical, and biological analyses of the grab samples revealed that greywater contains significant levels of suspended solids, inorganic constituents, total organic carbon, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands, total Coliforms

  8. Allergic Rhinitis and Associated Comorbidities: Prevalence in Oman with Knowledge Gaps in Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Abri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Allergic rhinitis (AR is a global health problem and its impact on health related quality of life for patients is substantial, and the economic impact often underestimated. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Oman is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of AR and associated co-morbidities among adults in Oman. Its secondary objective was to identify knowledge gaps in the literature with the aim of directing future research. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study of patients who presented to the outpatient otolaryngology clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital with nasal symptoms between June 2010 and June 2011 was conducted. Results: A total of 887 patients were seen with nasal complaints. Among them 127 patients were diagnosed with non-infective rhinitis, the mean age of presentation was 27 years. AR was noted in 48% of patients, and non-allergic rhinitis in 52%. The prevalence of AR was 7%, with females being more affected than males, and age ranging from 18 to 51 years. Prevalence of perennial AR was 84% compared to seasonal AR which was 16%. The most common perennial antigens were house dust mites (80% followed by cockroaches (67%. All patients diagnosed with seasonal AR were found to be sensitive to Russian thistle. The prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with AR was 34%. Conclusion: The prevalence of AR in the adult population presenting with nasal symptoms was found to be 7%, with associated chronic rhinosinusitis present in a third of these patients. However, there appears to be substantial knowledge gaps regarding the association of other comorbidities, like otitis media, bronchitis and bronchial asthma, the long-term outcomes of medical management, and indication of surgical intervention in patients with AR. Future research in AR among Omani patients should aim to address these issues.

  9. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent.

  10. Mammography performance in Oman: Review of factors influencing cancer yield and positive predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taif, Sawsan; Tufail, Fatma; Alnuaimi, Ahmed Sameer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess mammography performance in Oman by estimating the breast cancer rate and the positive predictive value (PPV) with the influence of some variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted on mammograms done in one of the three main breast imaging centers in Oman between January 2008 and July 2012. Diagnostic and screening groups were identified and assessed separately. Rate of abnormal mammograms, rate of breast cancer and the PPV were estimated according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) score, presence of breast lump and patient's age. Total of 653 mammograms were included, 254 diagnostic and 399 screening. Abnormal mammograms (BIRADS 4 and 5) form 31.9% of the diagnostic examinations compared with 6.8% of screening examinations. Breast cancer was present in 17.9% of the diagnostic compared with 1.0% of the screening group. The PPV of BIRADS 5 was 94.1%, and for BIRADS 4 was 37.1 and 26.7% for diagnostic and screening studies. Overall PPV for abnormal mammograms was 65.2% in the diagnostic and 26.7% in the screening group. Mammography PPV shows positive association with age (P = 0.039) while presence of breast lump has no significant effect on the PPV (P = 0.38). BIRADS 5 score was found to have a high cancer yield making it a strong predictor of cancer. Different results were obtained in the diagnostic compared with screening mammography with higher rates of abnormal mammograms and breast cancer. Mammography performance should be better in the older women. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Determination of Heavy Metals in the Common Smokeless Tobacco Afzal in Oman

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    Nawal Al-Mukhaini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Afzal is an illegally sold smokeless tobacco product (STP commonly used by youths and teenagers in Oman. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of Afzal, also commonly known as sweekah, as it is believed to contain many carcinogens and toxic components. In particular, Afzal’s heavy metal content includes cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb and nickel (Ni. Methods: This study was conducted between March and June 2013. Three samples of Afzal were first dried and then ground to form a homogenous powder. The powder was digested prior to the heavy metal analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS. Results: Afzal was shown to have high levels of all heavy metals except for Ni and Pb, which were detected in quantities below acceptable international limits. The concentrations of the tested metals were 15.75 μg/g, 1.85 μg/g, 1.62 μg/g and 1.57 μg/g for Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni, respectively. The estimated daily intake of heavy metals from Afzal was below the maximum permissible limit accepted by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization, except for Cr and Ni which were found to be dangerously elevated when compared with international standards. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Afzal contains a number of heavy metals that may cause health problems. Therefore, urgent regulation of the illegal sale of Afzal is needed at the national level in Oman along with a campaign to address public health education and awareness of Afzal and its health risks.

  12. Characterisation of Nicotine and Cancer-Enhancing Anions in the Common Smokeless Tobacco Afzal in Oman

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    Nawal M. Al-Mukhaini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Afzal is a common smokeless tobacco product (STP available illegally in Oman. This study aimed to assess pH and moisture levels and determine cancer-enhancing factors in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and December 2013. A package of Afzal was purchased from a single provider and divided into samples. The pH and moisture content of the samples were measured according to the protocols of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse nicotine levels and ionexchange chromatography (IC was used to determine concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, chloride, fluoride, bromide, sulphate and phosphate anions. Results: The samples had an alkaline pH of 10.46 with high levels of total (48,770.00 μg per g of STP [μg/g] and unionised (48,590.00 μg/g nicotine. The concentration of nitrate (8,792.20 μg/g was alarmingly high. The chloride concentration (33,170.80 μg/g showed a surge on IC chromatography. The moisture content percentage was 52.00%. Conclusion: The moisture content percentage and chloride concentration of Afzal was consistent with those of other STPs. In contrast, nitrite, sulphate and phosphate concentrations were below reported levels of other STPs. All anion concentrations were below the maximum daily limit set by international health organisations. However, the high concentrations of nitrite, nitrate and nicotine and the elevated alkaline pH observed in the analysed Afzal samples suggest that STP users will face health risks as a result of their use.

  13. Analysis of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Common Smokeless Tobacco Afzal in Oman

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    Nawal Al-Mukhaini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a lack of awareness regarding the carcinogenicity of Afzal, an illegal smokeless tobacco product (STP widely used among the Omani youth. Previous research has shown that certain types of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs are associated with oral and lung cancers. This study therefore aimed to assess levels of four common TSNAs in a randomly selected sample of Afzal. Methods: This study was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman, between April and September 2013. A random sample of Afzal was analysed for four types of TSNAs using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The four types of TSNAs analysed were 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN, N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT and N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB. As a reference product, a sample of laboratory-manufactured American moist snuff (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA was also used to confirm the accuracy and precision of the analysis. Results: The analysis revealed total TSNA levels of 3.573 μg/g in the Afzal sample. Mean levels of NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB were 1.205, 1.015, 0.809 and 0.545 μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Levels of the two most abundant TSNAs (NNN and NNK found in the Afzal sample exceeded international regulatory limits. Afzal users therefore need to be educated regarding the potential health risks associated with their STP use. Stricter implementation of current legislation is recommended to reduce the availability and usage of Afzal in Oman.

  14. Depositional Architecture of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Siliciclastic Barik Formation; Al Huqf Area, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Early Paleozoic siliciclastics sediments of the Haima Supergroup are subdivided into a number of formations and members based on lithological characteristics of various rock sequences. One of the distinct sandstone sequence, the Barik Formation (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) of the Andam Group is a major deep gas reservoir in central Oman. The sandstone bodies are prospective reservoir rocks while thick shale and clay interbeds act as effective seal. Part of the Barik Formation (lower and middle part) is exposed in isolated outcrops in Al Huqf area as interbedded multistoried sandstone, and green and red shale. The sandstone bodies are up to 2 meters thick and can be traced laterally for 300 m to over 1 km. Most of sandstone bodies show both lateral and vertical stacking. Two types of sandstone lithofacies are identified on the basis of field characteristics; a plane-bedded sandstone lithofacies capping thick red and green color shale beds, and a cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies overlying the plane-bedded sandstone defining coarsening upward sequences. The plane-bedded sandstone at places contains Cruziana ichnofacies and bivalve fragments indicating deposition by shoreface processes. Thick cross-bedded sandstone is interpreted to be deposited by the fluvial dominated deltaic processes. Load-casts, climbing ripples and flaser-bedding in siltstone and red shale indicate influence of tidal processes at times during the deposition of the formation. This paper summarizes results of a study carried out in Al Huqf area outcrops to analyze the characteristics of the sandstone-body geometry, internal architecture, provenance and diagenetic changes in the lower and middle part of the formation. The study shows build-up of a delta complex and its progradation over a broad, low-angle shelf where fluvial processes operate beside shoreface processes in a vegetation free setting. Keywords: Andam Group, Barik Formation, Ordovician sandstone, Al Huqf, Central Oman,

  15. Provenance of the heavy metals in sand sediments of the Oman Sea (Sistan and Baluchestan district

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    Maryam Soleimani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mineral composition of source rock is one of the most important factors for concentration and distribution of heavy metals in sediments. Therefore, study on distribution of these elements and the related minerals in sediments provides information about natural origin of elements. Moreover, the interpretation of origin and distribution of sandy sediments is considerably enhanced by mineralogical and geochemical studies of these sediments. The main objective of this research is to evaluate distribution of Zn, Cu, Sr, Cd, Fe and Mn in sand sediments of the Oman Sea, their relationship with mineral composition of the sediments and also determining their provenance. Materials and Methods Sampling of surface sediments of the Oman Sea was performed in 16 sampling stations. Heavy minerals and rock fragments of the sediments in fine and coarse sand sizes respectively were qualitatively and quantitatively studied by polarizing microscope (Folk, 1974; Pettijohn et al., 1981; Tucker, 1988. Concentration of the heavy metals were also analyzed by AAS method (Mico et al., 2008. Result Mineralogical composition of the studied sediments contain quartz, feldspars and heavy minerals in their order of abundances. The rock fragments consist of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic in their order of frequencies as well. The concentrations of the studied heavy metals (in ppm in the sediments are Cd (1.42, Cu (9.99, Zn (36.72, Sr (181.18, Mn (377.33 and Fe (20247.55 in their order of abundances. Distribution of the Zn concentration generally shows decreasing trend from west of the study area to the Guatr Bay. The concentrations of Zn and Cu show close relationship with the frequencies of biotite and muscovite. The Cu concentration also shows positive correlation with the Zn and Fe concentrations. Distribution of the Sr and Cd concentrations is similar to variation of the calcium carbonate content. The Cd and Sr concentrations also show positive correlation

  16. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

    One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux

  17. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Oman

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    I.S. Al-Abaidani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV. The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman.

  18. Preparing and Conducting Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Oman Medical Specialty Board R1-R4 Residents

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    Hamed Al Sinawi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE has been a common tool of assessment in both undergraduate and postgraduate medicine, and has been reported to have both higher reliability and validity over the oral exam. In addition, another advantage is that it reduces luck by standardizing both examiners and patients. This article describes our experience in organizing and conducting an OSCE for Oman Medical Specialty Board residents in Psychiatry.

  19. A Call for More Diploma Nurses to Attain a Baccalaureate Degree: Advancing the nursing profession in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Joy K. Kamanyire; Susan Achora

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare needs of the Omani population are evolving, particularly with regards to changes in disease complexity, advances in technology and the enhanced delivery of healthcare services. Nurses now need to adapt to a fundamental shift in the provision of patient-centred care. In line with lifelong learning goals, registered nurses in Oman at the diploma level should seek to obtain a more advanced qualification, for instance a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, to ensure they pos...

  20. Evaluation of the 2006–2008 Food Crisis on Household Welfare: The Case of the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Houcine Boughanmi; Ahmed Al Shamakhi; Msafiri Mbaga; Hemesiri Kotagama

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of high food prices during the 2006–2008 food crisis period on the welfare of households in the Sultanate of Oman. The welfare impacts of price changes are estimated using the Hicksian compensating variation (CV) methodology. The compensating variation was estimated for 4 different income household groups as well as two location groups (urban-rural). Results suggest that all household groups suffered welfare losses due to the food crisis. ...

  1. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case–control study

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    Al-Farsi OA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Omar A Al-Farsi,1 Yahya M Al-Farsi,1,2 Marwan M Al-Sharbati,3 Samir H Al-Adawi31Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Behavioural Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. Keywords: stress, anxiety, depression, caregivers, autism, Oman

  2. The March 11, 2002 Masafi, United Arab Emirates Earthquake: Insights into the Seismotectonics of the Northern Oman Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Fowler, A; Al-Amri, A; Al-Enezi, A

    2005-04-26

    A moderate (M{approx}5) earthquake struck the northeastern United Arab Emirates (UAE) and northern Oman on March 11, 2002. The event was felt over a wide area of the northern Emirates and was accompanied by smaller (felt) events before and after the March 11 main shock. The event was large enough to be detected and located by global networks at teleseismic distances. We estimated focal mechanism and depth from broadband complete regional waveform modeling. We report a normal mechanism with a slight right-lateral strike-slip component consistent with the large-scale tectonics. The normal component suggests relaxation of obducted crust of the Semail Ophilite (specifically, the Khor Fakkan Block) while the right-lateral strike-slip component of the mechanism is consistent with shear across the Oman Line. Felt earthquakes are rare in the region, however no regional seismic network exists in the UAE to determine local seismicity. This event offers a unique opportunity to study the active tectonics of the region as well as inform future studies of seismic hazard in the UAE and northern Oman.

  3. Repository of mutations from Oman: The entry point to a national mutation database [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rajab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sultanate of Oman is a rapidly developing Muslim country with well-organized government-funded health care services, and expanding medical genetic facilities. The preservation of tribal structures within the Omani population coupled with geographical isolation has produced unique patterns of rare mutations. In order to provide diagnosticians and researchers with access to an up-to-date resource that will assist them in their daily practice we collated and analyzed all of the Mendelian disease-associated mutations identified in the Omani population. By the 1st of August 2015, the dataset contained 300 mutations detected in over 150 different genes. More than half of the data collected reflect novel genetic variations that were first described in the Omani population, and most disorders with known mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. A number of novel Mendelian disease genes have been discovered in Omani nationals, and the corresponding mutations are included here. The current study provides a comprehensive resource of the mutations in the Omani population published in scientific literature or reported through service provision that will be useful for genetic care in Oman and will be a starting point for variation databases as next-generation sequencing technologies are introduced into genetic medicine in Oman.

  4. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in the Sultanate of Oman: clinical and immunological comparison between familial and non-familial cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdwani, R; Hira, M; Al-Nabhani, D; Al-Zakwani, I

    2011-03-01

    Consanguineous marriage is quite prevalent in the Sultanate of Oman, with up to 45% of marriages being consanguineous. The aim of this study was to determine demographic, clinical and serological characteristics between familial and non-familial cases of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a highly consanguineous region such as Oman. Hospital medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 44 consecutive children with juvenile SLE seen at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, 16 with familial SLE and 28 with non-familial SLE. All the children included in the study were Omani, diagnosed before 13 years of age, and fulfilled the 1982 revised ACR criteria. Analyses were performed using descriptive statistics. There were largely no significant differences in the clinical and serological manifestations between the two cohorts. However, the familial SLE group was associated with worse SLEDAI score at onset of diagnosis compared with the non-familial cohort (12 vs. 17; p = 0.003) suggesting a greater severity of disease in the familial group. Even though the rate of familial SLE is higher in Oman (36%) compared with the Western world (10-12%), it appears that familial and non-familial SLE cases are in fact similar disease entities in both the West and the Middle Eastern countries.

  5. Solar Cooker Study under Oman Conditions for Late Evening Cooking Using Stearic Acid and Acetanilide as PCM Materials

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    Nagaraj Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an alternative source of nonrenewable energy in Oman. Sultanate of Oman government showed initiation into utilization of solar energy for domestic applications. Conversion of solar radiation into useful heat is the simplest application of solar energy, in which it can be used for late evening cooking. In this context, present work highlighted the design and development of solar cooker for Oman climatic conditions. The current work signifies usage of solar cooker for late evening cooking using stearic acid and acetanilide as phase change materials (PCM. Solar cooker parts are developed in-house and connected to water heating system compounded with evacuated tubes solar collector and storage tank. The circumference of cooker unit is incorporated with spiral stainless steel heat exchanger and annulus area of the pot is filled with PCM material. PCM releases heat at late evening and effective cooking up to 7:30 PM is noticed. The experimental results indicated the cooker efficiency of 30% and collector efficiency of 60–65% during the study. Overall, experiments showed satisfactory performance on the developed cooker.

  6. High rates of denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in arid biological soil crusts from the Sultanate of Oman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abed, Raeid M M; Lam, Phyllis; De Beer, Dirk;

    2013-01-01

    Using a combination of process rate determination, microsensor profiling and molecular techniques, we demonstrated that denitrification, and not anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), is the major nitrogen loss process in biological soil crusts from Oman. Potential denitrification rates were 584...... that nitrogen loss via denitrification is a dominant process in crusts from Oman, which leads to N 2 O gas emission and potentially reduces desert soil fertility. © 2013 International Society for Microbial Ecology.......Using a combination of process rate determination, microsensor profiling and molecular techniques, we demonstrated that denitrification, and not anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), is the major nitrogen loss process in biological soil crusts from Oman. Potential denitrification rates were 584....... Strikingly, N 2 O gas was emitted at very high potential rates of 387±143 and 31±6 μmol N m -2 h -1 from the cyanobacterial and lichen crust, respectively, with N 2 O accounting for 53-66% of the total emission of nitrogenous gases. Microsensor measurements revealed that N 2 O was produced in the anoxic...

  7. Molecular Characterization of the 16S rRNA Gene of Phytoplasmas Detected in Two Leafhopper Species Associated with Alfalfa Plants Infected with Witches' Broom in Oman

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    A.J. Khan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Two leafhopper species, Austroagallia avicula and Empoasca sp., were consistently found in alfalfa fields infected with witches’ broom phytoplasma (OmanAlfWB in the Al-Batinah, Dakhliya, North and South Sharqiya, Muscat, and Al-Bureimi regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas from both leafhoppers were detected by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and the spacer region in direct PCR using P1/P7 primer pairs. Comparative RFLP profiles of the amplified rRNA gene and the spacer region from leafhopper phytoplasmas and from 20 phytoplasma controls yielded patterns referable to phytoplasmas belonging to the peanut witches’ broom group (16SrII group. In particular, extensive RFLP analyses with the endonucleases HpaII, Tru9I, Tsp509I, and RsaI indicated that the phytoplasmas in A. avicula and Empoasca sp. were identical but showed some differences from OmanAlfWB; however, RFLP patterns obtained with TaqI showed the OmanAlfWB and the phytoplasmas from the two leafhoppers to be identical. Direct PCR products amplified from phytoplasma leafhopper DNA using the P1/P7 primer pair were cloned and sequenced yielding 1758 bp and 1755 bp products from A. avicula and Empoasca sp. respectively; the homology of these sequences with OmanAlfWB and papaya yellow crinkle phytoplasmas was more than 98%. A phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene and spacer region sequences from 44 phytoplasmas revealed that the phytoplasmas from the leafhoppers clustered with OmanAlfWB, papaya yellow crinkle, and gerbera phyllody phytoplasmas, all belonging to 16SrII group, but were distinct from lime witches’ broom phytoplasma, the most commonly found phytoplasma in the Sultanate of Oman.

  8. Satellite views of the massive algal bloom in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman during 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shujie; Gong, Fang; He, Xianqiang; Bai, Yan; Zhu, Qiankun; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman locate at the northwest of the Arabian Sea, with the total area more than 50,0000 km2. The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed subtropical sea with high water temperature, extremely high salinity, and an average depth of 50 meters. By the Strait of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf is connected to the Gulf of Oman which is significantly affected by the monsoonal winds and by water exchange between the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Algal blooms occurred frequently in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and some of them are harmful algal blooms which may lead to massive fish death and thereby serious economic loss. Due to the widely spatial coverage and temporal variation, it is difficult to monitoring the dynamic of the algal bloom based on in situ measurement. In this study, we used the remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to investigate a massive algal bloom event in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman during 2008-2009. The time series of MODIS-derived chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a) indicated that the bloom event with high Chl-a concentration ( 60 percent higher than corresponding climatological data) appeared to lasting more than 8 months from autumn of 2008 to spring of 2009. In addition, the bloom was widespread from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and neighboring open ocean. The MODIS-derived net primary production (NPP) collected from MODIS showed the same trend with Chl-a. Multiple forces including upwelling, dust deposition was taken into account to elucidate the mechanisms for the long-lasting algal bloom. The time series chlorophyll concentration of the Persian Gulf emerges a significant seasonal pattern with maximum concentrations seen during the winter time and lowest during the summer. It also indicated slight disturbances occurred in June (May/July) and December (November/ January) in some years. The sea surface temperature and water

  9. Modern water/rock reactions in Oman hyperalkaline peridotite aquifers and implications for microbial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Matter, Jürg M.; Kelemen, Peter; Ellison, Eric T.; Conrad, Mark E.; Fierer, Noah; Ruchala, Tyler; Tominaga, Masako; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2016-04-01

    The Samail ophiolite in Oman is undergoing modern hydration and carbonation of peridotite and may host a deep subsurface biosphere. Previous investigations of hyperalkaline fluids in Oman have focused on fluids released at surface seeps, which quickly lose their reducing character and precipitate carbonates upon contact with the O2/CO2-rich atmosphere. In this work, geochemical analysis of rocks and fluids from the subsurface provides new insights into the operative reactions in serpentinizing aquifers. Serpentinite rock and hyperalkaline fluids (pH > 10), which exhibit millimolar concentrations of Ca2+, H2 and CH4, as well as variable sulfate and nitrate, were accessed from wells situated in mantle peridotite near Ibra and studied to investigate their aqueous geochemistry, gas concentrations, isotopic signatures, mineralogy, Fe speciation and microbial community composition. The bulk mineralogy of drill cuttings is dominated by olivine, pyroxene, brucite, serpentine and magnetite. At depth, Fe-bearing brucite is commonly intermixed with serpentine, whereas near the surface, olivine and brucite are lost and increased magnetite and serpentine is detected. Micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals at least two distinct generations of serpentine present in drill cuttings recovered from several depths from two wells. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis of the lizardite shows a strong tetrahedral Fe coordination, suggesting a mixture of both Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the serpentine. Magnetite veins are also closely associated with this second generation serpentine, and 2-10 μm magnetite grains overprint all minerals in the drill cuttings. Thus we propose that the dissolved H2 that accumulates in the subsurface hyperalkaline fluids was evolved through low temperature oxidation and hydration of relict olivine, as well as destabilization of pre-existing brucite present in the partially serpentinized dunites and harzburgites. In particular, we hypothesize

  10. Seismic wave velocity of rocks in the Oman ophiolite: constraints for petrological structure of oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, S.; Akizuki, R.; Arima, M.; Tatsumi, Y.; Arai, S.

    2010-12-01

    Evaluation of rock velocities and comparison with velocity profiles defined by seismic refraction experiments are a crucial approach for understanding the petrological structure of the crust. In this study, we calculated the seismic wave velocities of various types of rocks from the Oman ophiolite in order to constrain a petrological structure of the oceanic crust. Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) have reported experimental elastic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite under oceanic crust-mantle conditions (6-430 MPa). However, in their relatively low-pressure experiments, internal pore-spaces might affect the velocity and resulted in lower values than the intrinsic velocity of sample. In this study we calculated the velocities of samples based on their modal proportions and chemical compositions of mineral constituents. Our calculated velocities represent the ‘pore-space-free’ intrinsic velocities of the sample. We calculated seismic velocities of rocks from the Oman ophiolite including pillow lavas, dolerites, plagiogranites, gabbros and peridotites at high-pressure-temperature conditions with an Excel macro (Hacker & Avers 2004, G-cubed). The minerals used for calculations for pillow lavas, dolerites and plagiogranites were Qtz, Pl, Prh, Pmp, Chl, Ep, Act, Hbl, Cpx and Mag. Pl, Hbl, Cpx, Opx and Ol were used for the calculations for gabbros and peridotites. Assuming thermal gradient of 20° C/km and pressure gradient of 25 MPa/km, the velocities were calculated in the ranges from the atmospheric pressure (0° C) to 200 MPa (160° C). The calculation yielded P-wave velocities (Vp) of 6.5-6.7 km/s for the pillow lavas, 6.6-6.8 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6.9-7.5 km/s for the gabbros and 8.1-8.2 km/s for the peridotites. On the other hand, experimental results reported by Christensen & Smewing (1981, JGR) were 4.5-5.9 km/s for the pillow lavas, 5.5-6.3 km/s for the dolerites, 6.1-6.3 km/s for the plagiogranites, 6

  11. The Effect of Obesity on Pregnancy and its Outcome in the Population of Oman, Seeb Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakmani, Fatma M.; Al-Fadhil, Faiza A.; Al-Balushi, Lamia H.; Al-Harthy, Norah A.; Al-Bahri, Zakiya A.; Al-Rawahi, Naama A.; Al-Dhanki, Manal S.; Masoud, Imrana; Afifi, Nahal; Al-Alawi, Aisha; Padmakumar, Harikumar; Kurup, Padmamohan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The World Health Organization estimated that in 2011 worldwide 1.6 billion adults were overweight, and 400 million were obese. The obesity epidemic is a documented phenomenon and Oman is no exception. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on pregnancy and its prenatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods A prospective cohort study was carried out among pregnant Omani women attending antenatal clinics in their first trimester in the Seeb province of Muscat, Oman. Results A total of 700 pregnant women were enrolled in the study and were categorized according to their body mass index: 245 (35%) were normal weight, 217 (31%) were overweight, and 238 (34%) were obese. The relative risk (RR) of cesarean section among obese women compared to women of normal weight was 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.2) and of overweight women was 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.3). The risk of elective cesarean section increased to 7.5 (95% CI 1.7–32.8) in obese women and was statistically significant in the obese group. In this study, 100 women (15.7%) developed gestational diabetes (11.8% of normal weight women, 17.8% of overweight women, and 17.9% of obese women). Miscarriages were more common among obese women 11.9% (n = 27) compared to the normal weight and overweight groups (6.7% and 9.4%, respectively). There was a weak yet statistically significant correlation between birth weight and body mass index. The risk of macrosomia was significantly higher in obese women compared to normal weight women. To evaluate the sensitivity of the oral glucose challenge test (OGCT), the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was measured in 203 participants (29%) who had a normal OGCT result. It was found that 14.5% of overweight women and 13.5% of normal weight women had an abnormal OGTT result even when their OGCT result was normal. Conclusions Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section (especially elective cesarean), gestational hypertension

  12. Relationship between karstification and burial dolomitization in Permian platform carbonates (Lower Khuff - Oman)

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    Beckert, Julia; Vandeginste, Veerle; John, Cédric M.

    2016-08-01

    Large breccia fabrics associated with karst constitute an important structure in massive limestone successions. The dimensions and shapes of breccia structures are controlled by the initial fracture pattern of the limestone and preferential pathways of the karstifying fluids, but subsequently breccia fabrics can also govern the migration of later fluids. Therefore, breccias are highly relevant features to capture for reservoir characterisation. Outcrop analogues for Lower Khuff units in the Middle East present in the Central Oman Mountains reveal brecciated fabrics up to 10s of metres in diameter. These brecciated units are closely associated with dolomite bodies of late diagenetic origin. Based on an integrated set of data, the breccias are interpreted as collapsed karst cavities either formed by meteoric or hypogenic fluids. The exact origin of the fluids could not be constrained due to an overprint by later dolomitizing fluids. Based on the composition of the clasts and matrix in the breccias, two dolomitization events are interpreted to have affected the succession, one prior to (early diagenetic [ED] dolomite) and one after brecciation (late diagenetic [DT2] dolomite). Dolomite of shallow burial origin (ED dolomite) was only observed as clasts within breccia and is much more frequent than late diagenetic (medium to deep burial) dolomite clasts. Thus, the timing of the brecciation and collapse is assumed to postdate shallow burial early diagenetic dolomitization. Late diagenetic replacive dolomite (DT2 dolomite) forms 90% of the matrix in the breccia fabrics with the exception of a small area that was not affected by dolomitization, but is rarely present as clasts. Stable isotope measurements [δ18O: - 2.5‰ to - 6‰ VPDB and δ13C: 2.9‰ to 4.8‰ VPDB] suggest a burial origin for the late diagenetic dolomite potentially with the participation of hydrothermal fluids. The dolomitized matrix indicates a migration of late dolomitizing fluids subsequent to or

  13. Some hematological and biochemical parameters of different goat breeds in Sultanate of Oman "A preliminary study"

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    Shahab Al-Bulushi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Sultanate of Oman, goats are considered as one of the most important livestock in which there are many breeds of goat such as Batinah, Jabali, Dhofari, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam. Little hematological and biochemical information is known on Omani goat breeds; therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine reference baseline data regarding hematological and biochemical values of different Omani goat breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy animals of different Omani goat breeds (Jabali, Jabal Al-Akhdar, Sahrawi, and Sahrawi Musandam were selected randomly from different areas in Sultanate of Oman. The blood samples were collected from the jugular vein into two tubes for blood hematology and biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was applied by using GraphPad Prism 7 software to calculate the minimum and maximum values to determine the range, mean, standard deviation of the mean and the p value. Results: No statistically significant variation in most hematological and biochemical parameters was found among the Omani goat breeds. The results of blood hematology revealed that the mean white blood cells (14.6±3.32 x103/μL, and the percentage of neutrophils in Omani goats (60.87±8.46% were higher than that in most goat breeds. Higher values of red blood cells (12.8±1.28 x106/μL, hemoglobin (10.4±1.92 g/dl, hematocrit (38.29±4.06%, and lower values of mean corpuscular HGB concentration (27.05±3.5 g/dl were observed in Omani goat breeds comparing to that in the other goat breeds. Lower values of total bilirubin (0.22±0.03 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen (14.62±2.66 mg/dl, and cholesterol (48.58±19.05 mg/dl were found in Omani goat breeds when compared to that of the other goat breeds. Conclusion: The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the different Omani goat breeds. This study is considered as preliminary study which can be used as a reference for further

  14. Magmatic Diversity of the Wehrlitic Intrusions in the Oceanic Lower Crust of the Northern Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R.; Adachi, Y.; Miyashita, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Oman ophiolite extends along the east coast of Oman, and is the world's largest and best-preserved slice of obducted oceanic lithosphere. The magmatic history of this ophiolite is complex and is generally regarded as having occurred in three stages (MOR magmatism, subduction magmatism and intraplate magmatism). Wehrlitic intrusions constitute an important element of oceanic lower crust of the ophiolite, and numerous intrusions cut gabbro units in the northern Salahi block of this ophiolite. In this study area, we identified two different types of wehrlitic intrusions. One type of the intrusions mainly consists of dunite, plagioclase (Pl) wehrlite and mela-olivine (Ol) gabbro, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol followed by the contemporaneous crystallization of Pl and clinopyroxene (Cpx). This type is called "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and has similar mineral compositions to host gabbros (Adachi and Miyashita 2003; Kaneko et al. 2014). Another type of the intrusions is a single intrusion that crops out in an area 250 m × 150 m along Wadi Salahi. This intrusion consists of Pl-free "true" wehrlite, in which the crystallization sequence is Ol and then Cpx. The forsterite contents (Fo%) of Ol from the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions and "true" wehrlitic intrusions have ranges of 90.8-87.0 (NiO = 0.36-0.13 wt%) and 84.7 (NiO = 0.31 wt%), respectively. Cr numbers (Cr#) of Cr-spinel from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions show higher Cr# value of 0.85 than those of the "ordinary" wehrlitic intrusions (0.48-0.64). But the former is characterized by very high Fe3+ values (YFe3+ = 0.49-0.68). Kaneko et al. (2014) showed that the "ordinary" ubiquitous type has similar features to MOR magmatism and the depleted type in the Fizh block (Adachi and Miyashita 2003) links to subduction magmatism. These types are distinguished by their mineral chemistries (TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx). The TiO2 and Na2O contents of Cpx from the "true" wehrlitic intrusions have 0

  15. Half a Century of Oman Ophiolite Studies: SSZ or MOR, the Arc Disposal Problem

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    Gregory, R. T.; Gray, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Samail Ophiolite, one of the largest and best exposed ophiolite complexes, is a Tethyan ophiolite obducted in the Late Cretaceous onto the formerly passive Arabian platform as Arabia began its most recent >1000 km northward migration towards a Miocene collision with Eurasia. The Oman Mountains, northeastern Arabian Peninsula have yet to collide with Eurasia; present uplift and form of the mountains also date to the Miocene. In addition to the scientific scrutiny of the ophiolite complex, the geologic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the ophiolite are abundant with no consensus on the obduction mechanism or its original tectonic setting. The crustal thickness of the ophiolite is comparable to thicknesses observed for "normal" mid-ocean ridges. Largely on the basis of structural and paleomagnetic arguments, some workers have attributed its origin to Pacific-type fast spreading ridges and complex micro plate geometries. Indeed the lower pillow lava sequences and much of the gabbroic crust have isotope and geochemical signatures consistent with a MORB source. However, because of the geochemistry of the upper pillow lavas, the ophiolite is most often characterized as a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite, i.e. it sits in the hanging wall of some large tectonic structure for part of its history. In the absence of a preserved arc, the SSZ designation has little explanatory power only being a declaration of allochthony or about chemical properties of the mantle source. That associated continental shelf and oceanic crustal sections have suffered either clockwise or counterclockwise PT time trajectories requires some type of nascent subduction and hanging wall thrust transport of the young ridge crest. The widespread Late Cretaceous obduction of Tethyan oceanic crust and mantle over thousands of kilometers strike length is a problem for SSZ models (arc, forearc, back arc etc.) because arc initiation results in thick crust on short time scales, none of which

  16. The Effect of Obesity on Pregnancy and its Outcome in the Population of Oman, Seeb Province

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    Fatma M. Al-Hakmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The World Health Organization estimated that in 2011 worldwide 1.6 billion adults were overweight, and 400 million were obese. The obesity epidemic is a documented phenomenon and Oman is no exception. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on pregnancy and its prenatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out among pregnant Omani women attending antenatal clinics in their first trimester in the Seeb province of Muscat, Oman. Results: A total of 700 pregnant women were enrolled in the study and were categorized according to their body mass index: 245 (35% were normal weight, 217 (31% were overweight, and 238 (34% were obese. The relative risk (RR of cesarean section among obese women compared to women of normal weight was 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.2–3.2 and of overweight women was 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.3. The risk of elective cesarean section increased to 7.5 (95% CI 1.7–32.8 in obese women and was statistically significant in the obese group. In this study, 100 women (15.7% developed gestational diabetes (11.8% of normal weight women, 17.8% of overweight women, and 17.9% of obese women. Miscarriages were more common among obese women 11.9% (n = 27 compared to the normal weight and overweight groups (6.7% and 9.4%, respectively. There was a weak yet statistically significant correlation between birth weight and body mass index. The risk of macrosomia was significantly higher in obese women compared to normal weight women. To evaluate the sensitivity of the oral glucose challenge test (OGCT, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was measured in 203 participants (29% who had a normal OGCT result. It was found that 14.5% of overweight women and 13.5% of normal weight women had an abnormal OGTT result even when their OGCT result was normal.  Conclusions: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section (especially elective cesarean, gestational

  17. Two new ductile microscopic shear sense indicators from the Oman Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Andreas; Mattern, Frank; Pracejus, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The new shear sense indicators were observed in two different tectonic settings. The first one occurs in mylonitized Jurassic limestone on the northern flank of the Jebel Akhdar Dome (eastern Oman Mountains) and is associated with top-to-the-NNE extension. The second one was discovered in mylonitized plagiogranite (trondhjemite) with vertical to subvertical foliation and strike-slip deformation within harzburgite of the Semail Ophiolite in Wadi Fizh (northwestern Oman Mountains). The carbonate mylonite displays shear planes, in thin, flat and parallel laminations with a compositional aspect as there are alternations between pure calcite laminae and dark laminae of accumulated limestone impurities (iron compounds, clay). Despite the fact that the carbonate mylonite is associated with extension, the shear sense criterion is linked to top-to-the-NNE microthrusts, involving shortening of the dark laminae. The thrusts form an acute angle in relation to the lamination. Thrusting between segments of these, microthrusts created pull-aparts whose voids remained temporarily open cavities but were eventually filled with drusy calcite cement. The shear sense is revealed by (1) the shortening and related imbrication of the thrust laminae, (2) the pull-apart structures and (3) drag folds at either end of the microthrusts. The shear is also confirmed by independent ductile and brittle macroscopic shear sense criteria in the same outcrop, such as drag folds, Riedel shears and mineral steps. These new shear sense fabrics measure approximately 0.5mm in width and 1mm in length. The mylonitized granite contains large (2mm long axis) plagioclase porphyroclasts. We encountered a rotated plagioclase crystal whose twin lamellae have been dragged by the rotational motion during high-temperature conditions. Drag folds occur on either end of the lamellae/crystal. As a result an "S" shape is produced by counterclockwise rotation and sinistral shear, respectively. The observed shear sense is

  18. The thermal state of the Arabian plate derived from heat flow measurements in Oman and Yemen

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    Rolandone, Frederique; Lucazeau, Francis; Leroy, Sylvie; Mareschal, Jean-Claude; Jorand, Rachel; Goutorbe, Bruno; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of the Afar plume and the rifting of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden affect the present-day thermal regime of the Arabian plate. However, the Arabian plate is a Precambrian shield covered on its eastern part by a Phanerozoic platform and its thermal regime, before the plume and rifting activities, should be similar to that of other Precambrian shields with a thick and stable lithosphere. The first heat flow measurements in the shield, in Saudi Arabia, yielded low values (35-44 mW/m2), similar to the typical shields values. Recent heat flow measurements in Jordan indicate higher values (56-66 mW/m2). As part of the YOCMAL project (YOung Conjugate MArgins Laboratory), we have conducted heat flow measurements in southern and northern Oman to obtain 10 new heat flux values in the eastern Arabian plate. We also derived 20 heat flux values in Yemen and Oman by processing thermal data from oil exploration wells. The surface heat flux in these different locations is uniformly low (45 mW/m2). The heat production in samples from the Dhofar and Socotra Precambrian basement is also low (0.7 µW/m3). Differences in heat flow between the eastern (60 mW/m2) and the western (45 mW/m2) parts of Arabia reflect differences in crustal heat production as well as a higher mantle heat flux in the west. We have calculated a steady state geotherm for the Arabian platform that intersects the isentropic temperature profile at a depth of about 150 km, consistent with the seismic observations. Seismic tomography studies of the mantle beneath Arabia also show this east-west contrast. Seismic studies have shown that the lithosphere is rather thin, 100 km or less below the shield and 150 km below the platform. The lithospheric thickness for the Arabian plate is 150 km, and the progressive thinning near the Red Sea, caused by the thermal erosion of the plume material, is too recent to be detected at the surface. The Afar plume mostly affects the base of the Arabian lithosphere along

  19. An Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System for Continuous and Sustainable Cold Supply in Oman

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    Winterleitner, G.; Schütz, F.; Huenges, E.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the GeoSolCool research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is the development of an innovative and sustainable cooling system in combination with an aquifer thermal energy storage system in northern Oman. An integral part of this project is the design of a subsurface aquifer reservoir system for storage of thermal energy through hot water injection. An accurate characterisation of potential storage horizons is thus essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area, 40 km west of Muscat is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We used a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES development phase, including geological fieldwork dovetailed with remote sensing analyses, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting. First results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate sequence. The alluvial fan system is a more than 300 m thick, coarse clastic (mainly gravels and sandstones) succession of coalesced individual fans. Thin-section analyses showed that hydraulic parameters are favourable for the gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates were deposited in a carbonate ramp setting, strongly influenced by currents and storm events. Individual facies belts extend over kilometres and thus horizontal reservoir connectivity is expected to be good with minor facies variability. Thin-section analyses showed that especially the fossil-rich sections show good storage qualities. Fluid flow forecasting indicate that both potential horizons have good to very good storage characteristics. However, intense diagenetic

  20. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

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    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  1. Late Holocene vegetation and ocean variability in the Gulf of Oman

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    Miller, Charlotte S.; Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Collins, Philip E. F.; Lahijani, Hamid A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Fossil pollen and dinocyst records in marine sequences are frequently combined to reveal the response of vegetation and ocean conditions to changes in both regional and global climate. In this study we analysed pollen and dinocysts within a clearly-laminated sediment core off the Iranian coast in the Gulf of Oman, an extremely data-poor area, to reconstruct climatic change during the Late Holocene (last 1900 years). The vegetation record from southern Iran indicates a replacement of savannah by desert formations at c. 910 CE, shortly after the Islamic invasion and the subsequent collapse of the Sassanid Empire. From c. 910 to 1145 CE, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the vegetation was heavily dominated by desert formations, such as Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Asteraceae, Centaurea and Calligonum. In parallel, in the Gulf of Oman, the presence of Impagidinium paradoxum indicates a lack of freshwater discharge into the ocean around this time. The desert taxa of the MCA were subsequently replaced by savannah formations at c. 1145 CE, comprised mainly of Poaceae and Cyperaceae, corresponding to the Little Ice Age (LIA), indicating generally wetter climatic conditions. A sudden increase in Spiniferites ramosus (1-63%), at c. 1440 CE suggests an increase in the strength of the SW summer monsoon, with increased freshwater discharge into the ocean at this time. Our data indicate that over the past two millennia the NW Arabian Sea region has alternated between contrasting climatic conditions, with firstly a humid phase equivalent to the cultural period of the Sassanid Empire, a significantly drier climate during the MCA and a relatively wetter climate during the LIA. The mechanisms resulting in dry conditions during the MCA in the Middle East associated with the northward shift of the ITCZ and the intensification of the Indian summer monsoon may be similar to those causing the dry conditions which dominated the Early Holocene in the Near East. Our

  2. Primary prevention of hemoglobinopathies by prenatal diagnosis and selective pregnancy termination in a Muslim country: Oman

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    Suha Mustafa Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies (HBP are the most common genetic disorder in Oman and are in need of prevention programs due to the high incidence of β-thalassemia major and sickle cell disease. Prenatal diagnosis (PD and selective pregnancy termination is shown to be the most effective prevention tool for the control of HBP. However, PD is not available in Oman thus far because abortion is subject to religious, cultural and ethical issues. We have examined the attitude of a number of Omani HBP carrier couples towards prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion. We have interviewed 35 couples at risk visiting the main premarital clinic in Muscat between Jan 2011 and Jan 2012. Couples were interviewed using a pre-structured questionnaire. The majority would have accepted prenatal diagnosis (94% if the service would be available in the country but pregnancy termination was greatly influenced by religious values. 血红蛋白病(HBP)是一种在阿曼最常见的遗传性疾病,由于其高发的B型地中海贫血症及镰状细胞症,相关的预防措施对于这一国家来说,相当重要。产前诊断(PD)和选择性终止妊娠被证实是针对管控血红蛋白病(HBP)的最有效方法。然而,由于受到宗教、文化和伦理抵制堕胎的影响,产前诊断(PD)并不能在该国得以应用。我们对该国一部分血红蛋白病患夫妇做了一项关于产前诊断的意向调查。2011年一月至2012年一月,我们在马斯喀特(阿曼首都)的一家婚前诊所对35对夫妇做了相关的采访调查。调查的问卷是事先设置好的。大部分(94%)夫妇表示接受产前诊断如果相应的措施能得到广泛的普及,但是他们对于选择性终止妊娠的态度受到了其宗教价值观的极大影响。

  3. Serotype Prevalence and Penicillin-susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Oman

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    Mubarak M. Al-Yaqoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to determine the prevalent serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and the rate of penicillin-nonsusceptibility among pneumococci in Oman.Methods: Pneumococcal isolates encountered during the period of September 2002 to December 2007 in the Royal Hospital were serotyped. Clinical information as well as the penicillin susceptibility reports were retrieved from the hospital information system and medical records.Results: 120 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated of which 85 strains were seroptyped. 20 different serotypes were identified; the most common seroptypes were 9A, 6B, 19F, 14 and 23F. 56�0of the strains were not susceptible to pencillin, while 99�0of these were susceptible to ceftriaxone. 74.3�0and 46.1�0of the serotypes are covered by the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine respectively.Conclusion: Certain few pneumococcal serotypes such as 9A, 6B and 19F are more prevalent in the Omani community than others. More than half of S. pneumoniae are not susceptible to penicillin while the great majority of the strains are susceptible to ceftriaxone.

  4. Child Maltreatment; Types and effects: Series of six cases from a university hospital in Oman

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    Muna Al-Saadoon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment (CM is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH, Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen emissions from stored manure and cropped fields in irrigated mountain oases of Oman

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    Jens Gebauer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about gaseous carbon (C and nitrogen (N emissions from traditional terrace agriculture in irrigated high mountain agroecosystems of the subtropics. In an effort towards filling this knowledge gap measurements of carbon dioxide (CO_2, methane (CH_4, ammonia (NH_3 and dinitrous oxide (N_2O were taken with a mobile photoacoustic infrared multi-gas monitor on manure-filled PE-fibre storage bags and on flood-irrigated untilled and tilled fields in three mountain oases of the northen Omani Al Jabal al Akhdar mountains. During typical 9-11 day irrigation cycles of March, August and September 2006 soil volumetric moisture contents of fields dominated by fodder wheat, barley, oats and pomegranate ranged from 46-23%. While manure incorporation after application effectively reduced gaseous N losses, prolonged storage of manure in heaps or in PE-fibre bags caused large losses of C and N. Given the large irrigation-related turnover of organic C, sustainable agricultural productivity of oasis agriculture in Oman seems to require the integration of livestock which allows for several applications of manure per year at individual rates of 20 t dry matter ha^−1.

  6. Obstetric and Non-Obstetric Risk Factors for Cesarean Section in Oman

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    Ibrahim Al Busaidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to explore the risk factors, profiles and neonatal outcomes of Cesarean sections among selected women in Oman.Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, a total of 500 participants (250 cases who had cesarean section and 250 controls who had spontaneous vaginal delivery, were randomly selected from four hospitals. Cases and controls were matched according to timing and place of delivery.Results: The following predictors were found to be significantly associated with increased risk of cesarean section: a advancing age (above the age of 25 years, OR=1.42; p=0.03, b prior cesarean section (previous cesarean section=1, OR=22.71; p=0.001, c increased body mass index (obesity, OR=2.11; p=0.07, d extremes of neonatal birth weight (neonates birth weight 4.0 kg, OR=7.3; p<0.001, and e prepregnancy diabetes (OR=9.3; p=0.04. On the contrary, increased parity and history of the use of birth spacing methods (OR=0.38; p=0.03 were associated with decreased risk of cesarean section.Conclusion: The study calls for increasing awareness about clinical and public health majors that would lead to prevention of risk factors associated with increased risk of cesarean section such as maintaining normal BMI and prevention of gestational and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Liver and kidney toxicity induced by Afzal smokeless tobacco product in Oman.

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    Al-Mukhaini, Nawal; Ba-Omar, Taher; Eltayeb, Elsadig; Al-Shihi, Aisha; Al-Riyami, Nafila; Al-Belushi, Jamila; Al-Adawi, Kawthar

    2017-04-01

    Afzal, the common smokeless tobacco product (STP) in Oman, is believed to contain toxins that may impair the function of some organs such as liver and kidney. An aqueous extract from Afzal was added to drinking water to be administrated orally to Wistar albino rats (n=72) young and adult from both genders weighing between 60-80g and 150-240g respectively for 8 weeks. Animals were divided into three groups: control (distilled water instead of Afzal extract), low-dose (3mgnicotine/kgbodyweight/day) and high-dose (6mgnicotine/kgbodyweight/day). The animals were euthanized and their blood, liver and kidney were collected for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed for the liver function, while blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRT) were assayed for the kidney function. The results showed a significant increase in the ALT, AST, BUN and CRT levels (Pliver and edematous and calcified changes in renal glomerulus among Afzal-treated groups. Additionally, the weight gain of the Afzal-treated groups was lower than the control group. Our findings show that the exposure of Wistar rats to the Afzal extract has the potentials of causing decreased weight gain and dose-dependent functional and structural damage to the biochemical and histological profiles of liver and kidney as well as serious biochemical effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF THYMUS VULGARIS LEAVES GROWN IN OMAN

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    Aisha Haroon Al-Balushi, Maryam Aljabri, Md. Sohail Akhtar*, Sadri Said, Afaf Weli, Qasim Al-Riyami and Ahlam A. AlAbri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is a pleasant smelling perennial shrub, which grows in several regions in the world. The plant is reported to have high economic and medicinal values. The objectives of this research was to determine antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from leaves of Thymus vulgaris collected from Oman. The other objective was to determine cytotoxic activity of the three extracts. Antimicrobial activity was measured using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Brine shrimp test was used to estimate cytotoxic activity. In antibacterial assay, Thymus vulgaris leaves extracts showed very strong results, inhibition zones ranged from 7 – 20 mm. So this plant can be used as a good source of potential antimicrobial agent.Petroleum ether showed the highest antibacterial activity. Furthermore, Petroleum ether and Chloroform extracts have almost killed all the shrimp larvae at higher concentration of 1000 mcg/ml. LC50 values for the two extracts were 85.2 and 95.8 mcg/ml, respectively. Polar fractions like hydro alcoholic extract have displayed very low cytotoxic activities.

  9. Phylogeny of the genus Rhynchocalamus (Reptilia; Colubridae) with a first record from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmíd, Jiří; Martínez, Gabriel; Gebhart, Jurgen; Aznar, Javier; Gállego, Javier; Göçmen, Bayram; De Pous, Philip; Tamar, Karin; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-10-23

    The genus Rhynchocalamus comprises three species distributed in Southwest Asia. Little is known about them, most probably because of their secretive fossorial lifestyle. The poor knowledge of the genus is even underscored by the fact that its phylogenetic affinities remained unclear until very recently. The least known of the species, Rhynchocalamus arabicus, is known only from the holotype collected in Aden, Yemen, and it has not been observed since its description in 1933. Here we provide a second record for this species, which represents the first record of this genus for Oman. This extends its range in southern Arabia by more than 1000 km. The observed specimen was determined as R. arabicus on the basis of its similarity in size, color, and scalation with the holotype. Furthermore, we sequenced three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and one nuclear (cmos) genes for R. arabicus and for two individuals of R. melanocephalus and one R. satunini and inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all currently recognized species of the genus for the first time. The results of our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Rhynchocalamus is a member of the Western Palearctic clade of Colubrinae and is sister to Lytorhynchus, with which it forms a very well supported clade and shares some morphological characters. As our results show, R. satunini is the basal lineage of the genus and R. melanocephalus is sister to R. arabicus.

  10. Mapping the terrestrial reptile distributions in Oman and the United Arab Emirates

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    Andrew Gardner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial reptile fauna of Oman and the United Arab Emirates is rich, with at least 79 species of lizards and snakes and a single species of worm lizard. However, to date there have been no accurate maps published of their distribution ranges, and distribution data relies on scattered museum specimen localities and published accounts. Considerable numbers of locality data points do exist, collected by visting and resident herpetologists, and more recently, from ecologists working on surveys for environmental impact assessments and biodiversity action plans. These data are invaluable, as amongst other uses, they can assist conservation planning and management, and will eventually document changes in distributions over time. This is especially true where there has been extensive habitat loss and degradation due to urbanisation and development activities. Data have been collected from museum records, published accounts and unpublished data from a variety of sources, including many records made by the author over the last 20 years, with the aim of producing an atlas of species distributions. The number of records is now approaching 5.000, giving sufficient coverage to produce maps that are useful for a variety of applications. Examples are discussed, including endangered and endemic species, snakes of medical importance and species of potential interest in ecological and evolutionary studies.

  11. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

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    Zena Al-Sharbati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. Results: The majority of referrals were females (59%, aged 18–34 years, employed (38%, had ≤12 years of formal education (51%, and were single (54%. A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder, while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn, contemptuous envy (Hassad, evil eye (Ain and sorcery (Sihr which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Conclusion: Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  12. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients attending Psychotherapy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbati, Zena; Hallas, Claire; Al-Zadjali, Hazar; Al-Sharbati, Marwan

    2012-02-01

    There is significant evidence that psychotherapy is a pivotal treatment for persons diagnosed with Axis I clinical psychiatric conditions; however, a psychotherapy service has only recently been established in the Omani health care system. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of attendees at a psychotherapy clinic at a tertiary care hospital. An analysis was carried out of 133 new referrals to the Psychotherapy Service at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital. The majority of referrals were females (59%), aged 18-34 years, employed (38%), had ≤12 years of formal education (51%), and were single (54%). A total of 43% were treated for anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), while 22% were treated for depression. A total of 65% were prescribed psychotropic medications. The utilisation of the Psychotherapy Service and its user characteristics are discussed within the context of a culturally diverse Omani community which has unique personal belief systems such as in supernatural powers (Jinn), contemptuous envy (Hassad), evil eye (Ain) and sorcery (Sihr) which are often used to explain the aetiology of mental illness and influence personal decisions on utilising medical and psychological treatments. Despite the low number of referrals to the Psychotherapy Service, there is reason to believe that psychotherapy would be an essential tool to come to grips with the increasing number of mental disorders in Oman.

  13. Knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women residing in Qatar and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Al-Kharusi, Balqees M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women in Qatar and Oman. Three hundred pregnant women were interviewed during their second trimester based on a questionnaire developed for the study. Results of the survey indicated that 94% of the women knew about folic acid, 41.3% knew it should be taken periconceptionally, 58.5% knew that it prevents birth defects and 34.4% were able to identify five or more food sources of folic acid. The majority (88.7%) of women was taking the supplement, 85.0% were taking it regularly and 13.2% took it before getting pregnant. Knowledge and use were significantly influenced by ethnicity, age, education level, employment and family income. Periconceptional use of supplement was lowest among younger women (4.9%) and illiterate and least educated women (5.3%). It was concluded that high level of knowledge of folic acid was not reflected as successful use of the folic acid supplement.

  14. Characteristics of Registered Diabetics in Dhank Province in the Sultanate of Oman

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    Faisal Rabia Al-Rubaee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of registered diabetics and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in three primary health care centers in the Dhank province of Oman. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 567 individuals aged > 20 years old. Clinical data were obtained retrospectively from physical registers and electronic clinical records. Results: Of the total 567 patients with T2DM (age-stratified prevalence = 10.2%, 44.8% were men. The mean age of the patients was 55.8±15.6, and they had a mean body mass index (BMI of 29.7±6.0. Diabetes duration was 5.9±4.0 years. Overall, 28.4% of the patients had glycated hemoglobin values 2.59 mmol/L and triglycerides (TG ( 30. Obesity and overweight were more prevalent in patients in the 30–59 age group compared to patients aged 60 years (p 60 years (p = 0.017. Patients were managed by lifestyle measures (14.2%, oral hypoglycemic agents (one or two; 50%, and insulin therapy (35.7%. Conclusions: The prevalence of registered T2DM patients in Dhank is less than the national figure. This may be due to the location of Dhank as a border province. Further qualitative studies are recommended to elaborate on the factors that lead to poor glycemic control.

  15. Characteristics of Registered Diabetics in Dhank Province in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubaee, Faisal Rabia; Al-Abri, Moza Humaid

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of registered diabetics and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in three primary health care centers in the Dhank province of Oman. Methods This cross-sectional study included 567 individuals aged > 20 years old. Clinical data were obtained retrospectively from physical registers and electronic clinical records. Results Of the total 567 patients with T2DM (age-stratified prevalence = 10.2%), 44.8% were men. The mean age of the patients was 55.8±15.6, and they had a mean body mass index (BMI) of 29.7±6.0. Diabetes duration was 5.9±4.0 years. Overall, 28.4% of the patients had glycated hemoglobin values 2.59 mmol/L) and triglycerides (TG) ( 30. Obesity and overweight were more prevalent in patients in the 30–59 age group compared to patients aged 60 years (p 60 years (p = 0.017). Patients were managed by lifestyle measures (14.2%), oral hypoglycemic agents (one or two; 50%), and insulin therapy (35.7%). Conclusions The prevalence of registered T2DM patients in Dhank is less than the national figure. This may be due to the location of Dhank as a border province. Further qualitative studies are recommended to elaborate on the factors that lead to poor glycemic control. PMID:27162591

  16. Evaluation of resources for contact lens practice in private contact lens clinics of Muscat, Oman

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    Rajiv Khandekar

    2009-01-01

    Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between May and July 2006. A team of optometrists and health inspectors visited clinics and collected information about the infrastructure, available human resources, and materials used in the CL practice. We used a pre-tested close-ended questionnaire to collect responses of the practitioners and observations of the field staff. Statistical Method: Univariate parametric type of analysis. Results: The team visited 67 CL clinics and interviewed 75 CL practitioners. Proper hand washing facility was available at 61 clinics. Thirty-nine practitioners had> 10 years of experience in dispensing contact lenses. Only 13 clinics had a bio-microscope. None of the clinics had legal documents signed by both providers and end users of the contact lens. Conclusions: Contact lens has received less attention in areas outside the developed world. The CL practice in the private sectors of Oman needs to be strengthened. Minimum standards, standard operating procedures for CL practice, and its periodic supervision would be useful.

  17. Pattern of glomerular diseases in oman: A study based on light microscopy and immunofluorescence

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    Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy and immunofluorescence play an important part in the final diagnosis of renal biopsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of various glomerular diseases in Oman. A total of 424 renal biopsies were retrospectively analyzed at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between 1999 and 2010. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, minimal change disease (MCD, membranous glomerulopathy (MGN and IgA nephropathy were the most common primary glomerular diseases encountered, accounting for 21.2%, 17%, 12.3% and 8.3%, respectively, of all cases. Lupus nephritis was the most common secondary glomerular disease and was the most prevalent among all biopsies, accounting for 30.4% of all biopsies. Amyloidosis was seen in only two cases. The presence of fluorescein isothiocyanatefibrin in all renal cases was low when compared with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C1q markers. In conclusion, based on the findings of this study, lupus nephritis was the most common of all glomerular diseases and FSGS was the most common primary glomerular disease. The importance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrin in the diagnosis of renal biopsy needs to be further investigated.

  18. Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity among Omani adults: the Oman World Health Survey, 2008.

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    Mabry, R M; Morsi, M; Al-Lawati, J A; Owen, N

    2016-04-28

    There is an increasing burden of obesity and obesity-related noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, including Oman. This descriptive, epidemiological study assessed physical activity among 2977 Omani adults using a population-based household survey in 2008. Overall, 54.2% of men and 41.6% of women were physically active; the rate was higher in younger cohorts and varied significantly by region of residence. Physical activity related to the transportation (walking and cycling) domain was higher than in the leisure or work domains. Unmarried men aged 30-39 years were twice as likely to be physically active (OR 2.25) and unmarried women aged 40+ years were half as likely to be active (OR 0.58) than their married counterparts. Young women not working were less active (OR 0.18) than working women. Higher education was significantly associated with leisure activity for men aged 30+ years and women aged 40+ years. Further research to understand regional variations and to identify culturally appropriate strategies to promote physical activity is required.

  19. Prevalence and Pattern of Third Molar Impaction; A retrospective study of radiographs in Oman

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    Samira M. Al-Anqudi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of third molar impaction in patients between 19‒26 years old attending Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: The study reviewed 1,000 orthopantomograms (OPGs of patients attending the Oral Health Department of SQUH between October 2010 and April 2011. Patients were evaluated to determine the prevalence of third molar impaction, angulation, level of eruption and associated pathological conditions. Results: Of the study population, 543 (54.3% OPGs showed at least one impacted third molar. The total number of impacted molars was 1,128. The most common number of impacted third molars was two (41%. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesioangular (35% and the most common level of impaction in the mandible was level A. Of the 388 bilateral occurrences of impacted third molars, 377 were in the mandible. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides of both jaws. Pathological conditions associated with impacted lower third molars were found in 18%, of which 14% were associated with a radiographic radiolucency of more than 2.5 mm, and 4% of impacted lower third molars were associated with dental caries. Conclusion: This study found that more than half of Omani adult patients ranging in age from 19‒26 years had at least one impacted third molar.

  20.   Bloodstream Bacterial Pathogens and their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Dhahira Region, Oman

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    PP Geethanjali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the epidemiological, clinical, microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Bloodstream infections in Dhahira region, Oman.Methods: Clinical data was collected from all patients with positive blood cultures for two years period. Standard laboratory methods were used for blood culture. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: Of the 360 bacterial pathogens isolated from 348 patients, 57.8�0were gram-positive and 42.2�0were gram-negative. The common isolates were: Streptococcus species 76 (21.1� coagulase-negative Staphylococci 75 (20.8� Escherichia coli 43 (11.9� Staphylococcus aureus 41 (11.4� Overall, mortality was 21.3�0(74/348. Staphylococcus species (Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS were more commonly resistant to Trimethoprim/ Sulphamethoxazole (35.3�20and Penicillin (25.9� Streptococcus species were resistant to Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole (39.1�20and Erythromycin (19.6�Conclusion: Bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in our patients, especially among chronically ill elderly adult males. Prescription of proven resistant antibiotics to suspected bacteremic patients needs attention in Dhahira region.

  1. Preparedness for the Introduction of E-learning in Higher Education-The Case of Oman

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    Z. A. Al-Khanjari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Web-based instruction (WBI and with the availability of well-structured Course Management Tools there seems to be a prospectus of improving both the classroom and distance educations using e-Learning principle[1,2]. As the instructor community plays a central role in all education processes we are motivated to study the level of their cooperation with respect to applying WBI through Course Management Systems (WBI-CMS to current education. Particularly, instructor awareness of the use of the Internet in the current education and secondly their vision towards augmenting current education using WBI-CMS are vital factors in the augment process. This study presents the results of a survey conducted across the academic community of the Science Faculty in Sultan Qaboos University (SQU, Sultanate of Oman. Survey outcome positively indicates that the overall instructor community with the science background is aware of the importance of computers in both their personal and professional use. Majority of science instructors have positively shown their mandate for the use of computers in facilitating the educational process, a proof for the basic hypothesis in this research.

  2. An Investigation into Cultural Dimensions of Construction Professionals Working for International Projects in Oman

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    Byung Gyoo Kang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International construction projects involve multinational participants with different nationalities and cultural backgrounds. To execute international projects, construction companies easily face significant risks which hinder the capability to create profits and degrade company credibility. One of the major risk factors affecting project performance and success is cultural characteristics of project participants, especially expatriates, working in international construction projects. This research investigates the cultural dimensions of Indian, Sri Lankan and British construction professionals working for international projects in Oman. Cultural dimensions have been surveyed by a quantitative approach. The outcomes indicate that even though these professionals are working in the same construction industry and currently in similar working environments, their cultural dimensions are mainly influenced by national culture. Further Asian participants of the survey showed lower Power Distance Index (PDI and Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI than their national cultural dimensions. This is a reflection of westernization of their companies in the international construction markets. Also lower Long Term Orientation (LTO indicates the temporary tendency of employment in international construction projects. Further research will need to focus on the relationship between corporate culture and national culture to complete the entire picture of culture in construction.

  3. The Practice of Ethnomedicine in the Northern and Southern Provinces of Oman

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    Madhu. C. Divakar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to ethnomedicines investigate the way people manage illness and diseases because of their cultural perspective. Fields like ecology, epidemiology, and medical history jointly contribute to the broad field of ethnomedical study. The knowledge gathered by traditional healers in the villages and tribal communities on natural medicines remains unfamiliar to the majority of scientists and the general population. The study of ethnomedicine principally involves the compilation of empirical data, particularly the patterns of illness and treatments from folklore. Due to deforestation, and urbanization of the desert jungles, many valuable medicinal plants present in the study areas appear to be facing extinction in the near future if no proper conservation plans are carried out. This survey documented 33 different herbs used by the natives of Oman for various ailments. Parts of a particular plant, fresh or dried, might be crushed and drunk as an infusion or used externally as a poultice, ground into a paste, or inhaled as smoke. The survey identified 22 plant families, and 18 traditional treatment groups.

  4. Medical Tourism Abroad: A new challenge to Oman's health system - Al Dakhilya region experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Saleh S; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed S; Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim H

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to understand why people seek medical advice abroad given the trouble and expense this entails. The types of medical problems for which treatment abroad was sought, preferred destinations and satisfaction with the treatment were explored. A secondary aim was to give feedback to stakeholders in the health care system on how to handle this issue and meet the needs of the community. 45 patients who had recently travelled abroad for treatment were asked to complete a questionnaire or were interviewed by telephone. 40 questionnaires were received. 68% of the respondents were male. Orthopaedic diseases were the most common conditions leading patients to seek treatment abroad. Thailand was the most popular destination followed by India (50% and 30% respectively). 85% of respondents went abroad for treatment only, 10% for treatment and tourism and 2.5% were healthy, but travelled abroad for a checkup. Interestingly, 15% of the participants went abroad without first seeking medical care locally. Out of those initially treated in Oman, 38.2% had no specific diagnosis and 38.2% had received treatment, but it was not effective. 73% of respondents obtained information on treatment abroad from a friend. The Internet and medical tourism offices were the least used sources of information. 15% of the patients experienced complications after their treatment abroad. Various facts about medical treatment abroad need to be disseminated to the public. This will necessitate greater effort in public health promotion and education.

  5. Microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation of anorthosites from Oman ophiolite and the dynamics of melt lenses

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    Morales, Luiz F. G.; Boudier, FrançOise; Nicolas, Adolphe

    2011-04-01

    Microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of anorthosite samples interlayered in the upper and lower gabbro sections in the Oman ophiolite were analyzed in this paper. In the anorthosites registering the dynamics of the melt lenses, foliation is flat lying and starts to develop a few meters below the root zone of the sheeted dike complex (RZSDC). Microstructures and CPO of these rocks were developed in response to four different mechanisms: (1) density-controlled settling of plagioclase on the lens floor, (2) deposition of anorthosites related to convection currents, (3) melt compaction, and (4) uncompacted melt accumulation. In these anorthosites, the poles to (010) of plagioclase are parallel to the flow plane of convection, whereas the [100] axes and poles to (001) express the convection flow direction and the axis of convection rolls, respectively. The effect of subsidence of melt lens floor is recorded immediately below the RZSDC and is characterized by the rapid (but progressive) development of dipping foliation and lineation, reflecting the increase of deformation downsection. The degree of foliation and CPO development in the anorthosites is directly related to the distance of the center of the melt lenses before the subsidence starts. Despite the uncertain origin of the anorthosites from the lower gabbro section, all the samples lost the magmatic microstructural characteristics and presently are reequilibrated aggregates. However, they still preserve plagioclase CPO, where some of these patterns present similarities with the anorthosites from the upper gabbro section, but no evidence of intracrystalline deformation under high temperatures.

  6. Screening of Actinomycetes From Lipar Area of Oman Sea to Investigate the Antibacterial Compounds

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    Shams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Actinomycetes are one of the most important sources for the production of antibacterial compounds. Marine environments, due to their unique characteristics, are considered a good option to search for bacteria with the capability of producing antimicrobial compounds. Objectives The purpose of this study was to isolate the actinomycetes producing antibacterial compounds. Materials and Methods A total of 35 actinomycetes were isolated from Oman Sea (Lipar Area. To investigate antibacterial activity, the isolated actinomycetes were assessed against reference and pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcu intermedius, Staphylococcu chromogenes, Staphylococcu saprophyticus, Bacillus cereus and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcu aureus, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using the cross streak method. Results Based on the morphological characterization, 35 isolated cases belonged to actinomycetes and %94 of them had the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. In the cross streak method, most of the isolated bacteria have antibacterial activity against reference S. aureus among Gram-positive bacteria and Acinetobacter among Gram-negative bacteria. Inhibition zone diameters were measured between 2-25 and 1-20 mm for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, receptivity. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that the native Iranian Actinobacteria could be considered a suitable option for screening of the new antibacterial compounds. Molecular research and antibacterial compound extraction against the aforementioned pathogenic strains are also being conducted.

  7. Statistical inference of seabed sound-speed structure in the Gulf of Oman Basin.

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    Sagers, Jason D; Knobles, David P

    2014-06-01

    Addressed is the statistical inference of the sound-speed depth profile of a thick soft seabed from broadband sound propagation data recorded in the Gulf of Oman Basin in 1977. The acoustic data are in the form of time series signals recorded on a sparse vertical line array and generated by explosive sources deployed along a 280 km track. The acoustic data offer a unique opportunity to study a deep-water bottom-limited thickly sedimented environment because of the large number of time series measurements, very low seabed attenuation, and auxiliary measurements. A maximum entropy method is employed to obtain a conditional posterior probability distribution (PPD) for the sound-speed ratio and the near-surface sound-speed gradient. The multiple data samples allow for a determination of the average error constraint value required to uniquely specify the PPD for each data sample. Two complicating features of the statistical inference study are addressed: (1) the need to develop an error function that can both utilize the measured multipath arrival structure and mitigate the effects of data errors and (2) the effect of small bathymetric slopes on the structure of the bottom interacting arrivals.

  8. The Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative: Sustained Cabled Ocean Observing Systems in the Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

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    Ingle, S.; Du Vall, K.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. began developing an ocean observing system that would help the Sultanate of Oman better manage the health of their fisheries. The resulting cutting-edge, fiber-optic cabled ocean observatory was installed in the northern Sea of Oman and became operational in August of 2005; this summer the system surpassed the milestone of 2100 days of successful operation. A second, deepwater cabled observatory was installed farther to the south, where the Sea of Oman meets the Arabian Sea, in January, 2010. Both systems monitor physical properties throughout the water column including current velocity, temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity. The entirely subsea nature of the fiber-optic cabled observatory capitalizes on several advantages over traditional buoyed systems including a lack of exposure to environmental wear and tear, collision, vandalism and theft. The systems are both cabled to nearby shore facilities, where the data are relayed instantly to Houston via satellite for processing, analysis and modeling - the data may also be used in making real time decisions. Many challenges were encountered between the design / development stage and the operation a reliable, long-term, real-time observing system in a dynamic marine environment. Examples of obstacles we encountered and overcame include: maintaining upright mooring strings under differential current velocities; minimizing points of weakness in the system, especially the number of wet mates; recognizing the need for cathodic protection in unanticipated places; protecting vulnerable sensors from biofouling; developing a climate-controlled shore facility in a harsh and remote environment; ensuring an uninterrupted power supply and availability of additional power bursts when required; and lengthening the life of the system while reducing the need for maintenance. The design and obstacles and scientific questions being addressed by the Lighthouse

  9. Oman Vision 2050 for Health Research: A Strategic Plan for the Future Based on the Past and Present Experience.

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    Al Mawali, Adhra Hilal Nasser; Al Qasmi, Ahmed Mohamed; Al Sabahi, Sultana Mohamed Saif; Idikula, John; Elaty, Mahmoud Attia Abd; Morsi, Magdi; Al Hinai, Ali Talib

    2017-03-01

    Health care delivery in Oman has attained great heights since the modern renaissance in 1970. Although the health service had the main impetus all these years, the importance of health research began to take place by mid 1990's and is now gaining momentum as an important responsibility and activity of the Ministry of Health (MoH). Although there has been progressively increasing investment and commitment to research activities in the recent Five Year Plan for Health Development, it still lags behind in the quality and quantity of research output. Lack of factors like adequate infrastructure, dedicated human resources, empowerment of existing systems, and societal support for research have adversely affected research output. Centre of Studies and Research in MoH has proposed a strategic plan, the 'Health Vision 2050 for Health Research' with aim of making Oman the regional leader and a research hub of world standards in health research. The mission is to promote, facilitate, and conduct high quality health research addressing national health priorities to improve health care services and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the health system, reduce health inequity, and contribute to socioeconomic development. The strategy includes setting health research priorities, strengthening the health research capacity, defining and implementing norms and standards, developing health research (quality and quantity), translating evidence into policy, strategy and practice, monitoring and coordinating research, financing health research, and evaluating the effectiveness of the health research system. It should generate a multifold increase in the quality and quantity of health research in Oman, positively impacting the health system and health care service.

  10. Oman Vision 2050 for Health Research: A Strategic Plan for the Future Based on the Past and Present Experience

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    Adhra Hilal Nasser Al Mawali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Health care delivery in Oman has attained great heights since the modern renaissance in 1970. Although the health service had the main impetus all these years, the importance of health research began to take place by mid 1990’s and is now gaining momentum as an important responsibility and activity of the Ministry of Health (MoH. Although there has been progressively increasing investment and commitment to research activities in the recent Five Year Plan for Health Development, it still lags behind in the quality and quantity of research output. Lack of factors like adequate infrastructure, dedicated human resources, empowerment of existing systems, and societal support for research have adversely affected research output. Centre of Studies and Research in MoH has proposed a strategic plan, the ‘Health Vision 2050 for Health Research’ with aim of making Oman the regional leader and a research hub of world standards in health research. The mission is to promote, facilitate, and conduct high quality health research addressing national health priorities to improve health care services and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the health system, reduce health inequity, and contribute to socioeconomic development. The strategy includes setting health research priorities, strengthening the health research capacity, defining and implementing norms and standards, developing health research (quality and quantity, translating evidence into policy, strategy and practice, monitoring and coordinating research, financing health research, and evaluating the effectiveness of the health research system. It should generate a multifold increase in the quality and quantity of health research in Oman, positively impacting the health system and health care service.

  11. In-Hospital and One-Year Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Tertiary Hospital in Oman: Oman PCI Registry

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    Prashanth Panduranga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the in-hospital and one-year clinical outcome of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in a tertiary hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, single-center, observational study looking at patients > 18 years old who underwent a PCI from 1 January to 31 December 2013. The primary end point was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE, defined as death, any myocardial infarction (MI, cerebrovascular accident (CVA, and target vessel revascularization (TVR with either repeat PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. Secondary end-points included procedural success rate, angina status, stent thrombosis, and the rate of redo-PCI/CABG for in-stent restenosis. Results: A total of 1 045 consecutive patients were analyzed. The mean age of the cohort was 58.2±11.2 years. Hyperlipidemia (66.8%, hypertension (55.1%, and diabetes mellitus (45.9% were the predominant risk factors. Stable angina, ST-elevation MI, non-ST-elevation MI, and post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS were common indications (approximately 20.0% each. The angiographic and procedural success rate was 95.0%. Forty-six percent of patients had single-vessel disease, 34.4% had double vessel disease, and triple vessel disease was seen in 19.1% of patients. Ninety-eight percent had balloon angioplasty with stenting, and only 1.9% of patients had balloon angioplasty without stenting. The majority of patients had single-vessel stenting (81.3%. A drug-eluting stent was used in 88.4% of patients, and a bare-metal stent in 11.6%. In-hospital MACE was 3.6%. There were 19 in-hospital deaths (1.8%, and four patients (0.4% had CVA/MI. Out of 1 026 patients discharged, 100 patients were lost to follow-up. Among the 926 patients followed-up, 673 patients (72.7% were asymptomatic. One-year MACE was 17.0%, including 5.0% death and 6.0% MI. Repeat revascularization was performed in 53 patients (5

  12. Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Treated Wastewater: An Option to Manage a Coastal Aquifer In Oman For Better Domestic Water Supply

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    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Zekri, Slim; ElRawy, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Arid countries, such as the Sultanate of Oman, are facing challenges of water shortages threatening economic development and social stability. Most of those countries are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of climate change, the most significant of which are increased average temperatures, less and more erratic precipitation, sea level rise, and desertification. The combined effect of existing adverse conditions and likely impacts of future climate change will make water management even more difficult than what it is today. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to augment the water resources. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is practiced widely to store water during periods of surpluses and withdraw during deficits from an aquifer. In Muscat, there will be a surplus of >100,000 m3/day of TWW during winter months in the coming few years. The aquifer along the northern coast of Oman (Al-Khawd Aquifer) is conducive for MAR. Data show that TWW volumes will increase from 7.6 Mm3 in 2003 to 70.9 Mm3 in 2035 in Muscat city only. This study assesses, using MODFLOW 2005 numerical code, the impact of MAR using TWW on better management of the Al-Khawd unconfined coastal aquifer for better urban water supply. Specifically, aiming to maximize withdrawals from the domestic wells with minimize adverse effect of seawater intrusion. The model operates under a number of constrains that minimize the loss to the sea and the injected TWW must not migrates upstream (due to developed mound) and reach the wellfields used for domestic supply. The hypothetical injection wells are located downstream the domestic wellfield zone. The results of different managerial scenarios show that MAR produces a hydraulic barrier that decelerates the seawater intrusion which allows higher abstraction of pristine water from the upstream part of the aquifer. MAR along with redistribution/relocation of public wells allows abstraction of 2 times the current abstraction rate (around 6 Mm3/year to 12 Mm3

  13. Diagnostic utility of coeliac disease: a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital, oman.

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    Al Saidi, Safana Salim; Al Harthi, Salim Omar; Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah Sharef

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of coeliac disease in Oman is unknown. We aim to estimate the prevalence of coeliac disease in at-risk subjects, describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings associated with coeliac disease and the validity of serological testing for coeliac disease at the Royal Hospital, Oman over a period of three years. This is a retrospective case finding study. The medical and laboratory records were reviewed for patients for whom serum antiendomysium IgA antibodies were requested at the Royal Hospital during a 3-year period (1(st) Jan 2006-31(st) Dec 2008). The data were extracted in order to assess the following: a) Prevalence rate of coeliac disease among at-risk subjects; b) Clinical characteristics in patients with coeliac disease and clinical manifestations for which the requesting clinicians considered coeliac disease as a possible diagnosis, including their specialties; c) Laboratory tests results in patients with coeliac disease; and d) Validity of antiendomysium antibodies testing in comparison with histopathology of jejunal biopsies for diagnosing coeliac disease. The study included 431 patients (250 females, 181 males) who were suspected of having (or screened for) coeliac disease. The median of age was 15 years (range: 9 months-74 years) with mean ± SD 18.95 ± 14.1 years. Of these, 15 (3.5%) patients (10 females, 5 males) with a median age of 19 years and mean 21.4 ± 13.0 years (range: 2.5-38 years), had positive antiendomysium antibodies results with median (range) of 160 (40-320) IU/L and mean± SD 204.5 ± 160 IU/L. Of these 15 patients, 13 had positive jejunal histopathological changes indicative of coeliac disease; the remaining 2 patients had no biopsy examination. Of the 44 patients with negative antiendomysium antibodies coeliac disease. All the 3 patients had serum total IgA levels within the reference range. The calculated validity indicators for antiendomysium antibodies were: sensitivity 81.3%, specificity 100

  14. Diagnostic Utility of Coeliac Disease: A Descriptive Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Oman

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    Safana Salim Al Saidi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of coeliac disease in Oman is unknown. We aim to estimate the prevalence of coeliac disease in at-risk subjects, describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings associated with coeliac disease and the validity of serological testing for coeliac disease at the Royal Hospital, Oman over a period of three years.Methods: This is a retrospective case finding study. The medical and laboratory records were reviewed for patients for whom serum antiendomysium IgA antibodies were requested at the Royal Hospital during a 3-year period (1st Jan 2006-31st Dec 2008. The data were extracted in order to assess the following: a Prevalence rate of coeliac disease among at-risk subjects; b Clinical characteristics in patients with coeliac disease and clinical manifestations for which the requesting clinicians considered coeliac disease as a possible diagnosis, including their specialties; c Laboratory tests results in patients with coeliac disease; and d Validity of antiendomysium antibodies testing in comparison with histopathology of jejunal biopsies for diagnosing coeliac disease.Results: The study included 431 patients (250 females, 181 males who were suspected of having (or screened for coeliac disease. The median of age was 15 years (range: 9 months-74 years with mean ± SD 18.95 ± 14.1 years. Of these, 15 (3.5% patients (10 females, 5 males with a median age of 19 years and mean 21.4 ± 13.0 years (range: 2.5-38 years, had positive antiendomysium antibodies results with median (range of 160 (40-320 IU/L and mean± SD 204.5 ± 160 IU/L. Of these 15 patients, 13 had positive jejunal histopathological changes indicative of coeliac disease; the remaining 2 patients had no biopsy examination. Of the 44 patients with negative antiendomysium antibodies <10 IU/L who had jejunal biopsy, 41 were negative and 3 had histopathological changes suggestive of mild coeliac disease. All the 3 patients had serum total IgA levels

  15. Structural style and tectonic evolution of the easternmost Gulf of Aden conjugate margins (Socotra - Southern Oman)

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    Nonn, Chloe; Leroy, Sylvie; Castilla, Raymi; de Clarens, Philippe; Lescanne, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Observations from distal rifted margins in present day magma-poor rifted margins led to the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumed sub-continental mantle. This finding allowed to better figure out how thinning process are accommodate by tectonic structures, forming various crustal domains, as the deformation localized towards the future area of breakup. However, some of the current challenges are about clarifying how factors as oblique kinematic, pre-existing structures and volcanism can control the 3D geometry and crustal architecture of the passive margins? A key to better understand the rifting evolution in its entirety is to study conjugate margins. The gulf of Aden is a young oceanic basin (with a global trend about N75°E) oblique to the divergence (about 30°N), separating Arabia from Somalia of less than 800 km. Thanks to its immerged margins and its thin post-rift sediment cover, the gulf of Aden basin is a natural laboratory to investigate conjugate margins and strain localisation throughout the rift history. In this contribution, we focus our interest on offshore Socotra Island (Yemen) and its conjugate in Southeastern Oman. This area extends from Socotra-Hadbeen (SHFZ) and the eastern Gulf of Aden fault zones (EGAFZ). In the easternmost part of the gulf of Aden, we provide new insights into crustal deformation and emplacement of the new oceanic crust thanks to bathymetric, magnetic, gravimetric data and single-, multi-channel, high speed seismic reflection data collected during Encens-Sheba (2000), Encens (2006) and the more recent Marges-Aden (2012) cruises respectively. The results obtained after compilation of these data, previous geological (field works) and geophysical (receiver functions, Pn-tomography, magnetic anomalies, heat flow) studies on the focused area, allowed us to provide new structural mapping and stratigraphic correlation between onshore and offshore parts of Socotra and Oman margins. We precisely defined and map crustal

  16. Challenges in modelling spatiotemporally varying phytoplankton blooms in the Northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman

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    S. Sedigh Marvasti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine interannual variability of phytoplankton blooms in northwestern Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman. Satellite data (SeaWIFS ocean color shows two climatological blooms in this region, a wintertime bloom peaking in February and a summertime bloom peaking in September. A pronounced anti-correlation between the AVISO sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and chlorophyll is found during the wintertime bloom. On a regional scale, interannual variability of the wintertime bloom is thus dominated by cyclonic eddies which vary in location from one year to another. These results were compared against the outputs from three different 3-D Earth System models. We show that two coarse (1° models with the relatively complex biogeochemistry (TOPAZ capture the annual cycle but neither eddies nor the interannual variability. An eddy-resolving model (GFDL CM2.6 with a simpler biogeochemistry (miniBLING displays larger interannual variability, but overestimates the wintertime bloom and captures eddy-bloom coupling in the south but not in the north. The southern part of the domain is a region with a much sharper thermocline and nutricline relatively close to the surface, in which eddies modulate diffusive nutrient supply to the surface (a mechanism not previously emphasized in the literature. We suggest that for the model to simulate the observed wintertime blooms within cyclones, it will be necessary to represent this relatively unusual nutrient structure as well as the cyclonic eddies. This is a challenge in the Northern Arabian Sea as it requires capturing the details of the outflow from the Persian Gulf.

  17. Ocular status and functional adaptation of visually challenged children of a special school in Oman

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    Rajiv Khandekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : We assessed the ocular status and visual adaptation among children studying at a school for visually disabled children in Muscat, Oman. Materials and Methods : This descriptive study was conducted in 2009-2010. We assessed the visual and ocular status of the participants. They were interviewed to elicit the past history of eye problems and management. They also expressed their visual adaptation in their ′day-to-day′ life, and their ambitions. Result : We examined and interviewed 47 participants (29 male and 18 female. The mean age of the participants was 19.7 years (Standard deviation 5.9 years. Twenty-six of them were blind since birth. Phthisical eyes, disfigured eyes and anophthalmic sockets were noted in 19, 58, and six eyes of participants. Twenty-six (55.5% participants had visual disabilities due to genetic causes, since birth. In 13 participants, further investigations were needed to confirm diagnosis and determine further management After low vision training, 13 participants with residual vision could be integrated in the school with normal children. One participant was recommended stem cell treatment for visual restoration. Five children were advised reconstructive orbital surgery. The participants were not keen to use a white cane for mobility. Some participants, 16 / 28 (57%, with absolute blindness, were not able to read the Braille language. Singing and playing music were not very well-accepted hobbies among the participants. Nineteen participants were keen to become teachers. Conclusions : Children with visual disabilities need to be periodically assessed. The underlying causes of visual disabilities should be further explored to facilitate prevention and genetic counseling. Participants had visual adaptation for daily living and had ambitions for the future.

  18. Drug utilization pattern of anti-epileptic drugs: a pharmacoepidemiologic study in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssens, Y; Deleu, D; Al Balushi, K; Al Hashar, A; Al-Zakwani, I

    2002-10-01

    To get an insight into the type and aetiology of epileptic seizures; to describe the drug utilization pattern of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for the treatment of various forms of epileptic seizures in this tertiary referral centre in Oman; and to compare our drug utilization pattern with that from other countries. In addition, the tolerability of AEDs and the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) were evaluated. In a 6-month study, all epileptic patients aged 14 and above who were prescribed an AED were considered for analysis. Demographic data, type and aetiology of epileptic seizures, AED data, tests performed and adverse drug reaction (ADR) data were collected. A total of 1039 prescriptions originated from 488 epileptic patients. The age ranged from 14 to 77 years (median, 24 years). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (51%) of idiopathic/cryptogenic origin (83%) were the most common type and aetiology of epileptic seizures, respectively. An average of 1.34 AEDs per patient was prescribed with 78% of patients being on monotherapy. Sodium valproate (49%) was the most frequently prescribed AED, followed by carbamazepine (44%), phenytoin (12%) and lamotrigine (11%). Ten patients suffered an ADR and phenobarbital followed by carbamazepine were most commonly the subject of TDM. Unlike the results in most other studies, generalized seizures represented the majority of epileptic seizures. The selection of the AEDs corresponded well with their known efficacy profiles for specific epileptic seizure types. Monotherapy was the type of therapy most frequently used, and sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most commonly used AEDs.

  19. A Study of Post-Caesarean Section Wound Infections in a Regional Referral Hospital, Oman

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    Hansa Dhar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI in patients undergoing a Caesarean section (CS and to identify risk factors, common bacterial pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity. SSI significantly affect the patient’s quality of life by increasing morbidity and extending hospital stays. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Nizwa Hospital, Oman, to determine the incidence of post-Caesarean (PCS SSI from 2001 to 2012. This was followed by a case-control study of 211 PCS cases with SSI. Controls (220 were randomly selected cases, at the same hospital in the same time period, who had undergone CS without any SSI. Data was collected on CS type, risk factors, demographic profile, type of organism, drug sensitivity and date of infection. Results: The total number of PCS wound infections was 211 (2.66%. There was a four-fold higher incidence of premature rupture of the membranes (37, 17.53% and a three-fold higher incidence of diabetes (32, 15.16% in the PCS cases compared with controls. The most common organisms responsible for SSI were Staphylococcus aureus (66, 31.27% and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli group (40, 18.95%. The most sensitive antibiotics were aminoglycoside and cephalosporin. Polymicrobial infections were noted in 42 (19.90%, while 47 (22.27% yielded no growth. A high incidence of associated risk factors like obesity, hypertension, anaemia and wound haematoma was noted. Conclusion: Measures are recommended to reduce the incidence of SSI, including the implementation of infection prevention practices and the administration of antibiotic prophylaxis with rigorous surgical techniques.

  20. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Homozygous Beta Thalassaemia; A single-centre experience from Oman

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    Nihal Al-Riyami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnancy in women with homozygous beta thalassaemia (HBT carries a high risk to both the mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes among this group at a single tertiary centre. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2012 on all women with HBT who received prenatal care and subsequently delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Women who delivered elsewhere and women with the beta thalassaemia trait were excluded. Results: Ten women with HBT were studied with a total of 15 pregnancies and 14 live births. The mean maternal age ± standard deviation (SD was 27.9 ± 3.7 years, with a range of 24‒35 years. There were 14 spontaneous pregnancies and one pregnancy following hormone treatment. Eight women had been on chelation therapy before pregnancy, one of whom needed chelation during late pregnancy. Of the pregnancies, 93% had a successful outcome with a mean ± SD gestational age at delivery of 38.6 ± 0.9 weeks, with a range of 37‒40 weeks. Eight babies (57% were delivered by Caesarean section. The mean ± SD birth weight was 2.6 ± 0.2 kg, with a range of 1.9‒3.0 kg. Three babies (21% were born with low birth weights. Conclusion: Pregnancy is safe and usually has a favourable outcome in patients with HBT, provided that a multidisciplinary team is available. This is the first study of Omani patients with HBT whose pregnancies have resulted in a successful outcome.

  1. Simulation of the surface wind field and wind waves over the Oman Sea

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    Hamzeloo, Sima; Hadi Moeini, Mohammad; Jandaghi Alaee, Majid

    2016-04-01

    Surface wind field is one of the most important factors in the generation of the marine hydrodynamic phenomena such as wind waves that highly affected by the surface winds. Therefore, accessibility to the correct wind field is of great importance for accurate prediction and simulation of the hydrodynamic variables. Nowadays numerical mesoscale weather prediction models are widely applied as powerful tools to simulate wind and other atmospheric variables with predefined temporal and spatial resolution in desired areas. Despite appropriate results of the numerical models in many regions, there are still some complications in the simulation of the surface wind field in areas with complex orography since the surface wind field is highly affected by the local topography, land-sea discontinuity, temperature gradient etc. Nowadays, with the development of high-speed processors the third generation spectral models are generally used for simulation of wind waves. Wind data are the main input parameters of the numerical spectral wave model. Therefore, the quality of the input wind data can be assessed by comparison of the wave model outputs with measured values. The main goal of the current study is to simulate surface wind field over the Oman Sea using WRF modeling system. To verify the model results, the simulated wind speeds were compared with synoptic and buoy measurements and satellite observations. Wind-wave parameters simulated by the spectral model were also compared with wave measurements to verify simulated surface wind field as the input of the wave model. The Comparison simulated wind speed and directions in coastal synoptic stations and QuikSCAT satellite shows sufficient results for both offshore and coastal areas.

  2. Origin of sulfate in barite and calcite cements in the Jebel Madar salt dome (Oman)

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    Vandeginste, V.; John, C. M.; Gilhooly, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Jebel Madar is a 500-m high mountain rising in the desert at the Oman Foothills. The Jebel consists of Triassic to Cretaceous carbonate host rocks forming the carapace of a salt dome. Halokinesis caused major fracturing and faulting at Jebel Madar, and the resulting structures acted as the main pathways for fluids that generated diagenetic cements composed of both barite and calcite. The spatial distribution of calcite and barite occurrences shows that calcite is formed in large abundance along the three main faults, whereas barite is more concentrated along faults further away from the three main ones. The stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of calcite and fluid inclusion data from both calcite and barite show a distinct evolution of the fluid with a highly saline component towards more mixing with meteoric water. This is in agreement with clumped isotopes data on calcite cements indicating an evolution towards lower temperatures, consistent with doming of the Jebel and greater input of lower-temperature descending meteoric fluids. Here, we present sulphur and oxygen isotopic data on barite that suggest a link between the barite formation and the Precambrian salt underlying Jebel Madar. The average δ34S measured in barite is 33‰ CDT (1σ = 5‰; n = 33), which falls at the lower end of the δ34S range reported for the Ara Group anhydrite. The average δ18O in the same barite samples is 23‰ VSMOW (1σ = 2‰; n = 33). Data from the barite will be compared with sulphur isotopes from the carbonate-associate sulfate in the calcite cements. The overall goal of our research is to gain a better insight in the formation process of barite and calcite in Jebel Madar and its link with salt tectonics. We would like to acknowledge the financial support of QCCSRC (funded jointly by Qatar Petroleum, Shell and the Qatar Science & Technology Park) and the GSA Laubach fund for this study.

  3. Evaluation of self-medication practices in acute diseases among university students in Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Al Flaiti; Khaloud Al Badi; Wefaq Othman Hakami; Shah Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the practices of university students towards self-medication to treat minor ailments inMuscat andSohar region ofSultanate ofOman.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted inOctober2013-January2014.A total of450 university students were randomly selected and their verbal consent was obtained.The data were collected through the self-administered, close ended, pretested questionnaire and was analyzed statistically bySPSS version19.0.Results:Overall204 males(45.3%) and246 females(56.7%) participated in the study.The mean age of respondents was22.3 years.Ninety-four percent of respondents reported practicing self-medication and165(36.7%) participants admitted of having purchased drugs without prescription more than four times over the last six months.Headache, fever, cough and cold were the most common ailments which prompted respondents to seek self-medication. Analgesics, cough preparations and antibiotics were the most common classes of drugs used in self-medication.The majority of respondents practiced self-medication either because their illness was not serious or they had prior experience with the drug.The majority of respondents had good medicationknowledge which they reported to acquire from reading drug leaflet or from pharmacists’ advice.Conclusion:The prevalence of self-medication among university students was very high.There is a need for intensive education and comprehensive awareness campaign to advocate for reduction in the prevalence of self-medication practices among students.

  4. Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman.

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    Seiffert, Erik R

    2006-03-28

    The Jebel Qatrani Formation of northern Egypt has produced Afro-Arabia's primary record of Paleogene mammalian evolution, including the world's most complete remains of early anthropoid primates. Recent studies of Fayum mammals have assumed that the Jebel Qatrani Formation contains a significant Eocene component ( approximately 150 of 340 m), and that most taxa from that succession are between 35.4 and 33.3 million years old (Ma), i.e., latest Eocene to earliest Oligocene in age. Reanalysis of the chronological evidence shared by later Paleogene strata exposed in Egypt and Oman (Taqah and Thaytiniti areas, Dhofar Province) reveals that this hypothesis is no longer tenable. Revised correlation of the Fayum and Dhofar magnetostratigraphies indicates that (i) only the lowest 48 m of the Jebel Qatrani Formation are likely to be Eocene in age; (ii) the youngest Fayum anthropoids, including well known species such as Aegyptopithecus zeuxis and Apidium phiomense, are probably between 30.2 and 29.5 Ma, approximately 3-4 Ma younger than previously thought; (iii) oligopithecid anthropoids did not go extinct at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary but rather persisted for at least another 2.5 Ma; (iv) propliopithecid anthropoids first appear in the Fayum area at approximately 31.5 Ma, long after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary; and (v) the youngest Fayum mammals may be only approximately 1 Ma older than the 28- to 27-Ma mammals from Chilga, Ethiopia, and not 4-5 Ma older, as previously thought. Whatever gap exists in the Oligocene record of Afro-Arabian mammal evolution is now limited primarily to a poorly sampled 27- to 23-Ma window in the latest Oligocene.

  5. Statin Associated Hepatic Adverse Effects: A Retrospective Review from a Regional Hospital in Sultanate of Oman

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    Jimmy Jose

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence, pattern and predisposing factors for hepatic adverse effects with statins in a regional hospital in Sultanate of Oman. Methods: A retrospective review of the patient files in Department of Medicine during the year 2011 was done to evaluate any hepatic dysfunction possibly related to statins among the patients. For each case of suspected statin induced hepatic effect, additional details on temporal relationship, pattern of presentation, management, final outcome and any contributing factors were obtained. Difference in the occurrence of hepatic effects based on the patient demographics and drug characteristics was additionally evaluated. Results: A total of 927 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included for the study. Mean age of the evaluated patients was 63.1 ± 11.37 and median duration of use of statin in months was 22 (IQR, 43.25. In 40 (4% of the 927 patients, there was presence of a hepatic effect considered to be statin related and only in 12 (1% patients a significant transaminase rise (>3 times was observed. Median duration of use of statin among those patients who developed suspected statin induced hepatic effects and those who did not was 45 (IQR,52 and 21 (IQR, 43 months, respectively and the difference observed was statistically significant. A significant difference in the prevalence of hepatic effects was observed only based on the duration of statin use. Conclusion: There was an infrequent occurrence of significant hepatic effects associated with statins in the study population. Our results support the latest recommendations including from United States Federal Drug Administration (US FDA that statins appear to be associated with a very low risk of serious liver injury and that routine periodic monitoring of transaminases does not appear to detect or prevent serious liver injury in association with statins.

  6. Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Very Low Birthweight Neonates; A retrospective study from Oman

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    Amitha R Aroor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical parameters, weight gain, osteopenia and phosphate supplementation in very low birth weight (VLBW neonates receiving early versus late parenteral nutrition (EPN versus LPN. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken in the level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman: from January 2007 to October 2008 (LPN group, n = 47 and from January 2009 to June 2010 (EPN group, n = 44. Demographic data, anthropometric and laboratory parameters were extracted from the electronic record system. Results: The mean age of PN initiation was LPN = 47.3 hours versus EPN = 14.3 hours. Biochemical parameters analysed during the first week of life revealed a reduction in hypernatraemia (12.7% versus 6.8% and non-oliguric hyperkalemia (12.7% versus 6.8% in EPN, with no significant differences in acidosis and urea levels between the two groups. Hyperglycemia >12 mmol/L in <1000g was higher in EPN. Nutritional parameters in 81 babies who survived/stayed in the unit up to a corrected gestational age (CGA of 34 weeks (40 in LPN and 41 in EPN, revealed a reduction in metabolic bone disease (osteopenia of prematurity [OOP], 17.5% versus 7.3% and the need for phosphate supplementation (22.5% versus 7.3% in the EPN group. There was no increase in acidosis or cholestasis. No difference was noted in albumin levels, time to full feeds, time to regain birthweight and mean weight gain per day till 34 weeks corrected CGA. Conclusion: EPN in VLBW newborns is well tolerated and reduces hypernatraemia, non-oliguric hyperkalemia, OOP and the need for phosphate supplementation.

  7. Organizational-level study of the impact of past turnover on future turnover in the Sultanate of Oman

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    Ruqaiya Mohamed Al Balushi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turnover phenomena attracted researchers from all over the world for generations. Most of this research was directed towards turnover antecedents with a few scattered conceptual and empirical studies related to turnover consequences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of past turnover on future turnover in public organizations, in addition to test the mediation role of organizational climate in this relationship. Public schools as separate identities were the best choice as the study sample. Data were collected through questionnaires from 142 public schools in all educational regions in Oman. Two-step structural equation modeling approach, and nested model comparison were used for data analysis. The results revealed that: (1 past turnover predicts future turnover, significantly; (2 organizational climate fails to mediate this relationship. The study added to the body of knowledge by confirming Staw’s hypothesis relating past turnover to future turnover in the Omani context. Human resource professionals and educational administration practitioners may play an important role in decreasing future turnover by tackling and decreasing past turnover, in addition to improving the relationship climate in schools. The study is limited to public schools in Oman and further studies about turnover consequences in the Arabic context are needed to affirm the results.

  8. The Ministry of Health′s experience in implementing quality of health professions′ education in the Sultanate of Oman

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    Nada Hussain Al Moosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Education and health are a fundamental human rights and not a privilege. They are the nation′s instruments in generating a society that is knowledgeable, healthy, and innovative. Historical development of education and healthcare sectors in the Sultanate of Oman has experienced numerous reforms over the past 40 years. A main area targeted was embedding a culture of quality in higher education through assessments, quality audits, and by introducing a system of accreditation across the country. Specific to the Ministry of Health Education Institutes, the Ministry of Health (MOH has taken active steps in fulfilling the requirements of meeting institutional audit, and thereafter prepare for health professions′ education programme accreditation. This paper outlines the concept of quality in both the health and education sectors, with a focus on how the MOH in the Sultanate of Oman helped build a culture of quality across its health education sector and the steps taken by members of the health education institutes in embedding a culture of quality across all levels of health professions′ education.

  9. Two new species of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda: Rhinebothriidea) from granulated guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in the Gulf of Oman.

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    Golestaninasab, M; Malek, M

    2016-07-01

    During a study of the rhinebothriideans of rays in the Gulf of Oman, two new species of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890, Rhinebothrium kruppi sp. n. and R. persicum sp. n., were identified in Glaucostegus granulatus (Cuvier). Some significant features that distinguish R. kruppi sp. n. from R. persicum sp. n. include: scolex characteristics (hinged with 42-46 loculi vs. fusiform with 68-62 loculi), number of testes (4-5 vs. 20-27), genital pore position (61.1-76.9% of proglottid length vs. 47.2-63.3%), ovarian morphology (lobulated vs. follicular), cirrus-sac expansion (past midline of proglottid vs. limited to poral side of proglottid), vas deferens configuration (spanning posteriorly to near ovarian isthmus vs. to the level of ovarian anterior margins) and details of microthrix morphology. In addition, a combination of the aforementioned characteristics can be used to distinguish these two new species from other valid species of Rhinebothrium. These are the first species of rhinebothriidean cestodes to be described systematically from the Gulf of Oman, Iran. The two new species reported here increase the number of valid species of Rhinebothrium to 43.

  10. A Study on the Impact of Learning Management Systems on Students of a University College in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarachandran Nair. C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sultanate of Oman is one of the great countries in the Middle East with rapid progress in education with advanced teaching and learning technologies. The University colleges in Oman have introduced the latest e-Learning Management Systems in order to keep the pace of the technological revolution in the field of higher education. However, it is very important and essential to find out the impact of e-Learning Management Systems in the University colleges. Since the researcher is associated with Muscat College, the study has been conducted at Muscat College to evaluate the impact of e-learning technology. This paper examines what impact LMS has made on students and how effectively LMS has influenced students on their academic activities. A questionnaire was prepared in the academic year 2008-09 and circulated to the students enrolled for various Bachelor (Honours degree courses of affiliated partner, University of Stirling, UK. The result of the survey was a matter of concern. Hence, the researcher has decided to continue the research in the academic years 2009-10 and 2010-11 in order to find out the real impact of the LMS on the students in the college.

  11. The Magnitude and Impact of Bullying among School Pupils in Muscat, Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Rizvi, Syed; Al-Jabri, Abdullah; Almamari, Sufyan; Al-Baluki, Wafaa

    2014-01-01

    Research about bullying among school pupils in the Arab/Muslim population is scarce. This study evaluates the characteristics of bullying and its impact among school pupils in Oman via cross-sectional survey among eighth grade school pupils (n = 1,229) during the academic year 2006-2007. The participants were selected using stratified random selection among 6 administrative divisions of one the governorates in the country. Data were collected using self-completed structured questionnaires. This study found similar percentages of males and females (76%) have experienced one form of bullying, and the majority of the incidents (80%) occurred in the vicinity of the school. In almost half of the cases, the bullying was initiated by a student of the same age or older than the victim. The most common type of bullying encountered in this study was verbal (47.7%), followed by misuse (45.9%), physical (43.9%), and, finally, social isolation/exclusion (22.5%). Although the failure of an academic year was uncommon among victims of bullying, the number of pupils who missed 4–6 and ≥7 school days was higher among bullied pupils. If this study will withstand further research, educational initiatives are needed to mitigate the rate of bullying in Oman. PMID:25541623

  12. Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis of Hemodynamic Parameters Under Mental and Physical Stress in Extended Omani Arab Pedigrees : The Oman Family Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Mohammed O.; Jaju, Deepali; Voruganti, V. Saroja; Bayoumi, Riad A.; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Yahyaee, Saeed; Aslani, Afshin; Snieder, Harold; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Al-Anqoudi, Zahir M.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We performed a genome-wide scan in a homogeneous Arab population to identify genomic regions linked to blood pressure (BP) and its intermediate phenotypes during mental and physical stress tests. Methods: The Oman Family Study subjects (N = 1277) were recruited from five extended familie

  13. Genome-wide linkage analysis of hemodynamic parameters under mental and physical stress in extended Omani Arab pedigrees : the Oman Family Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Mohammed O; Jaju, Deepali; Voruganti, V Saroja; Bayoumi, Riad A; Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Yahyaee, Saeed; Aslani, Afshin; Snieder, Harold; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Al-Anqoudi, Zahir M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We performed a genome-wide scan in a homogeneous Arab population to identify genomic regions linked to blood pressure (BP) and its intermediate phenotypes during mental and physical stress tests. METHODS: The Oman Family Study subjects (N = 1277) were recruited from five extended familie

  14. Religious Coping, Meaning-Making and Stress: Perspective of Support Staff of Children with Disabilities in Residential Disability Centres in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud; Al-Bahrani, Muna

    2016-01-01

    Staff providing support to children with disabilities in residential disability centres in Oman are exposed to stressful work environments which may put them at an increased risk of burnout. Previous research has examined predictors of stress in disability support staff, but there is little consensus as the findings are inconclusive. Using a…

  15. The Implications of Expanding the Instruction Time for the English Language Teaching Policy Implementation in the Sultanate of Oman: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study asks questions and elicits answers about the importance of English language teaching (ELT) instruction time on the national curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman from an ideological perspective. It triangulates data from semi-structured interviews made with different agents involved in the Omani ELT system and representing different…

  16. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  17. Family Functioning Predictors of Self-Concept and Self-Esteem in Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities in Oman: Exclusion of Parent and Gender Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abu-Serei, Usama Saad

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether family functioning can predict the self-concept and self-esteem of normally achieving (NA) and at risk for learning disabilities (LD) students in Oman regardless of parent education level and gender status. A total of 259 elementary school students were selected from schools in the main districts of Muscat, the…

  18. Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Countries in the Arab region are faced with the challenge of developing their populations' skills and technical knowledge, or human capital, in order to compete in the 21st century global economy. The authors describe the education and labor market initiatives implemented or under way in four countries in the Arab region -- Lebanon, Oman, Qatar,…

  19. A Comparative Analysis between the Assessment Criteria Used to Assess Graduating Teachers at Rustaq College (Oman) and Griffith University (Australia) during the Teaching Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Moza Abdullah; Weir, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study that compares the assessment criteria used to measure pre-service teachers' professional competencies at Rustaq College of Applied Sciences in Oman, and at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. The study adopts a discourse analytic approach to deconstruct and critically compare the…

  20. The impact of green logistic based on financial economic, social and environment activities on sustainable monetary expansion indicators of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Alshubiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine green logistic activities by three axes (financial economic, social and environment activities and how these activities affect on sustainable monetary expansion indicators as an evidence of Sultanate of Oman. Design/methodology/approach: This study began by definition elements of logistic green and how evolution of this concept in recent years. This concept analyzed after survey of previous studies on green logistic. The independent variables of green logistic  are includes of three components of financial economic , social and environment and applies these components to clarify the impact on expansionary monetary policy indicators ( broad , narrow and reserve money as a important signals  in determining a country's economy. This study used data published in statistical annual report of central bank of Oman as representative of country economic of sultanate of Oman from the period 2008 to 2015.  Findings: The results found two variables of government support to electricity sector (GSE and subsidy on soft loans to private sector and housing (SSLPH based on environment activities are statistical significant 1% and 5%. Only one variable of transport and communication (TC in financial economic activates is statistical significant at 1% and 5% , but all variables community, social and personal (CSP , cultural and religious affairs (CRA and social security and welfare (SSW in social activities are statistical significant at 1% 5% and 10% , finally , also the multiple regression test run of all variables of green logistics activities and each monetary expansion indicators and found there are a statistical significant at 1% and 5%, .The study recommends that should be attention with financial economic activities as a quantitative standard contributes to build the green logistic by diagnosed the priorities and existing economic and financial system that contributes of  sustainable development system in

  1. Evolution of a very deeply subducted metasediment from As Sifah, northeastern coast of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Opitz, Joachim; Theye, Thomas; Nasir, Sobhi

    2013-01-01

    Near the coastal village of As Sifah, NE Oman, eclogite-facies rocks occur in the Saih Hatat window. We investigated a metapelite from this area, which is composed of mm-sized garnet and greenish phengite and minor epidote, blue amphibole, paragonite, albite, quartz, rutile, opaque phases, barite, and carbonate. Garnet exhibits a chemical zonation with Gro17Alm66Pyr6Spe11, Gro22Alm72.5Pyr5Spe0.5, and Gro25Alm65Pyr8Spe2 as inner core, mantle and outermost rim compositions. Inner portions of phengite have Si contents of up to 3.6 per formula unit (pfu), whereas rims are poorer in Si (3.2-3.4 pfu). We constructed a P-T pseudosection in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-O2-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2-H2O for the bulk-rock composition of the studied metapelite and contoured it by isopleths of various parameters such as the molar fractions of garnet components. Based on this contouring a P-T path was derived that starts at ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Garnet began to form at 25 kbar and 490 °C. Subsequently, temperatures increased and pressures decreased to finally reach P-T conditions of 13 kbar and 565 °C at which low-Si phengite, the outermost rim of garnet, Na-amphibole, epidote, quartz, magnetite, and rutile were in equilibrium. The P-T path is related to events in a subduction channel where the top of subducted oceanic crust, including the studied metasediments, was involved in an upwards-directed mass flow, resulting in the release of about 3 wt.% H2O by garnet formation from hydrous minerals such as chlorite and lawsonite. In order to get hints at the interaction of such hydrous fluids, we have analyzed the trace and minor elements in phengite. The contents of B, Rb, Cs, and Tl (20, 397, 6.7 and 1.7 ppm, respectively) are nearly constant over the entire Si range of potassic white mica. In contrast, the contents of Ba and Sr increase from 900 and 0.5 to 10500 and 14 ppm, respectively, with decreasing Si content in phengite. We hypothesize that this result reflects early

  2. Geological and Geochemical Controls on Subsurface Microbial Life in the Samail Ophiolite, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempfert, Kaitlin R.; Miller, Hannah M.; Bompard, Nicolas; Nothaft, Daniel; Matter, Juerg M.; Kelemen, Peter; Fierer, Noah; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial abundance and diversity in deep subsurface environments is dependent upon the availability of energy and carbon. However, supplies of oxidants and reductants capable of sustaining life within mafic and ultramafic continental aquifers undergoing low-temperature water-rock reaction are relatively unknown. We conducted an extensive analysis of the geochemistry and microbial communities recovered from fluids sampled from boreholes hosted in peridotite and gabbro in the Tayin block of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman. The geochemical compositions of subsurface fluids in the ophiolite are highly variable, reflecting differences in host rock composition and the extent of fluid-rock interaction. Principal component analysis of fluid geochemistry and geologic context indicate the presence of at least four fluid types in the Samail Ophiolite (“gabbro,” “alkaline peridotite,” “hyperalkaline peridotite,” and “gabbro/peridotite contact”) that vary strongly in pH and the concentrations of H2, CH4, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, SO42-, trace metals, and DIC. Geochemistry of fluids is strongly correlated with microbial community composition; similar microbial assemblages group according to fluid type. Hyperalkaline fluids exhibit low diversity and are dominated by taxa related to the Deinococcus-Thermus genus Meiothermus, candidate phyla OP1, and the family Thermodesulfovibrionaceae. Gabbro- and alkaline peridotite- aquifers harbor more diverse communities and contain abundant microbial taxa affiliated with Nitrospira, Nitrosospharaceae, OP3, Parvarcheota, and OP1 order Acetothermales. Wells that sit at the contact between gabbro and peridotite host microbial communities distinct from all other fluid types, with an enrichment in betaproteobacterial taxa. Together the taxonomic information and geochemical data suggest that several metabolisms may be operative in subsurface fluids, including methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and fermentation, as well as the

  3. Genetic differentiation between cave and surface-dwelling populations of Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seemann Robert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic similarities among cave-dwelling animals displaying troglomorphic characters (e.g. reduced eyes and lack of pigmentation have induced a long-term discussion about the forces driving convergent evolution. Here we introduce Garra barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, as an interesting system to study the evolution of troglomorphic characters. The only hitherto known troglomorphic population of this species lives in Al Hoota Cave (Sultanate of Oman close to a surface population. As a first approach, we assessed the genetic differentiation between the two morphotypes of G. barreimiae to determine whether gene flow still occurs. Results We analysed the mitochondrial control region (CR. In G. barreimiae the CR starts immediately downstream of the tRNA-Thr gene, while the tRNA-Pro gene is missing at this genomic location. Interestingly, a putative tRNA-Pro sequence is found within the CR. The phylogenetic analyses of the CR sequences yielded a tree divided into three clades: Clade 1 has a high genetic distance to the other clades and contains the individuals of three populations which are separated by a watershed from all the others. Clade 2 comprises the individuals from Wadi Bani Khalid, the geographically most remote population. Clade 3 comprises all other populations investigated including that of Al Hoota Cave. The latter forms a haplogroup which also includes individuals from the adjacent surface population. Conclusions Our data indicates that the troglomorphic cave population is of quite recent origin supporting the hypothesis that selection drives the fast evolution of troglomorphic traits. In this context pleiotropic effects might play an important role as it has been shown for Astyanax. There seems to be some gene flow from the cave population into the adjacent surface populations. One blind individual, found at a surface locality geographically distinct from Al Hoota Cave, is genetically differentiated from the

  4. Sub-seafloor epidosite alteration: Timing, depth and stratigraphic distribution in the Semail ophiolite, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, Samuel A.; Diamond, Larryn W.; Mercolli, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Pervasive epidotization of igneous rocks is a common feature in the ophiolite record of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust. Current genetic models view epidosites as markers of focussed upflow of hydrothermal fluid beneath oceanic spreading ridges. The epidosites are envisaged to form at the base of the sheeted dike complex (SDC) during active plate spreading. Our mapping of the Semail ophiolite in Oman has revealed abundant epidosites in the volcanic sequence, some exceeding 1 km2 in extent. They are more frequent and far larger than the mineralogically identical epidosites in the SDC. We have also found epidosites that traverse the entire SDC from bottom to top. Thus, rather than being restricted to the base of the SDC, as implied by current models, epidosites in fact occur throughout the SDC and dominantly within the overlying volcanic pile. We report the occurrence of 19 epidosite bodies and their crosscutting relations with respect to host lava units, dikes, intrusive stocks and also seafloor umbers. The volcanostratigraphic affiliation of the dikes is identified by their whole-rock and clinopyroxene compositions. The relations set constraints on the timing of epidotization with respect to igneous activity in the ophiolite. At least one of the epidosites in the SDC formed during Lasail off-axis volcanism. Another epidosite in the SDC and many in the volcanic units formed later during post-spreading, Alley and Boninitic Alley supra-subduction zone volcanism. Only permissive, not compelling, evidence allows just two of the epidosites to have formed within the main-stage SDC during or shortly after its emplacement. We conclude that epidotization of the oceanic crust is not necessarily coupled to spreading ridges and that it can occur during fore-arc volcanism. This finding is consistent with evidence from the modern seafloor and it requires a different hydrothermal environment to that traditionally associated with alteration beneath spreading axes. The timing

  5. Comment on "Lack of enhanced preservation of organic matter in sediments under the oxygen minimum on the Oman Margin" by T.F. Pedersen, G.B. Shimmield, and N.B. Price

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; PrakashBabu, C.

    A comment on the study on the lack of enhanced preservation of organic matter in sediments under the oxygen minimum on the Oman Margin is given. As such a negative correspondence between productivity and organic enrichment was pointed out which...

  6. Reply to "Methane origin in the Samail ophiolite: Comment on 'Modern water/rock reactions in Oman hyperalkaline peridotite aquifers and implications for microbial habitability'" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179 (2016) 217-241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Matter, Jürg M.; Kelemen, Peter; Ellison, Eric T.; Conrad, Mark; Fierer, Noah; Ruchala, Tyler; Tominaga, Masako; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2017-01-01

    We thank Dr. Giuseppe Etiope for his comment and the opportunity to further discuss why we consider the origin of the methane detected in subsurface fluids obtained from a peridotite aquifer in Oman to be enigmatic.

  7. Paleaostress/strain study and its implications for the geodynamic history of the Jabal Akhdar Dome (Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Andreas; Amrouch, Khalid; Mattern, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Field observations, including oolite-, styolite, fracture analyses combined with laboratory measurements using calcite twin analysis show a ductile-to-brittle multiple-phase deformation history of the Arabian carbonate platform, ranging from Late Cretaceous to Neogene times. The Arabian carbonate platform, belonging to a passive continental margin since the Late Permian, was the site of the obduction of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere (Semail Ophiolite) during the Late Cretaceous, caused by the northward drift of Africa (Hanna, 1995). After or during the obduction, large parts of the entire nape pile composed of the Arabian platform and the Hawasina/Semail nappes, where folded and exhumed. This led to the exhumation of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Our oolite samples from the Jabal Akhdar Dome and from below the ophiolite thrust reveal the strain ellipsoid related to the obduction. This strain ellipsoid shows components of pure and simple shear. In the latter case the longest axes of the strain ellipsoid are parallelly oriented to the direction of obduction (NE to SW), which is in good agreement with the direction of obduction as depicted by Hacker et al. (1996) for the study area. The pure-shear component (flattening) is interpreted to be a result of the overburden of the up to 7 km thick oceanic lithosphere. The oolites that are located approximately 200 m below the ophiolite thrust contact provide evidence for ductile deformation during the Late Cretaceous. These results are compared with strain and stress tensors obtained from styolites, calcite twins and fracture analyses, derived from the uppermost part of the Arabian platform of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Our results show a complex and detailed structural deformation of the post-obduction history of the Jabal Akhdar Dome, including its folding and exhumation. Hanna, S. (1995) Field guide to the Geology of Oman. Ruwi (Historical Association of Oman. 178 pp. Hacker, B.R., Mosenfelder, J.L. & Gnos, E. (1996) Rapid emplacement

  8. OCEAN COLOR RETRIEVAL USING LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY IN COASTAL CASE 2 WATERS (CASE STUDY PERSIAN AND OMAN GULF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moradi

    2016-06-01

    (λ2/(λ1, the three bands ratio with variable [(λ1−1−(λ2−1]×(λ3 and four bands ratio with variable [(λ1−1−(λ2−1]/[(λ4−1−(λ3−1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4 in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look. Despite the high importance of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea which can have up basin countries, to now few studies have been done in this area. The focus of this article on the northern part of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf, the shores of neighboring Iran (case 2 water. In this paper, by using Landsat 8 satellite imageries, we have discussed chla concentrations and customizing different OC algorithms for this new dataset (Landsat-8 imagery. This satellite was launched in 2013 and its data using two sensors continuously are provided operating one sensor imager land (OLI: Operational Land Imager and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS: Thermal InfraRed Sensor and are available. This sensors collect image data, respectively, for the nine-band short wavelength in the range of 433-2300 nm and dual-band long wavelength thermal. Seven band of the nine band picked up by the sensor information of OLI to deal with sensors TM (Thematic Mapper and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus in previous satellite Landsat compatible and two other band, the band of coastal water (433 to 453 nm and Cirrus band (1360 to 1390 nm, short wave infrared provides to measure water quality and high thin clouds. Since OLI sensor in Landsat satellite 8 compared with other sensors to study OC have been allocated a much better spatial resolution can be more accurate to determine changes in OC. To evaluate the results of the image sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer at the same time satellite images Landsat 8 is used. The statistical parameters used in order to evaluate the performance of different algorithms, including root mean square error

  9. High rates of denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in arid biological soil crusts from the Sultanate of Oman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abed, Raeid M M; Lam, Phyllis; De Beer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Using a combination of process rate determination, microsensor profiling and molecular techniques, we demonstrated that denitrification, and not anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), is the major nitrogen loss process in biological soil crusts from Oman. Potential denitrification rates were 584......±101 and 58±20 μmol N m -2 h -1 for cyanobacterial and lichen crust, respectively. Complete denitrification to N 2 was further confirmed by an 15 NO 3 - tracer experiment with intact crust pieces that proceeded at rates of 103±19 and 27±8 μmol N m -2 h -1 for cyanobacterial and lichen crust, respectively...... layer and thus apparently originated from incomplete denitrification. Using quantitative PCR, denitrification genes were detected in both the crusts and were expressed either in comparable (nirS) or slightly higher (narG) numbers in the cyanobacterial crusts. Although 99% of the nirS sequences...

  10. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  11. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E T; Berumen, Michael L; Paulay, Gustav

    2015-03-16

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, and from Symphyllia recta from reefs in the Gulf of Oman. This is the second cryptochirid species with the Red Sea as type locality. It can be separated from its congeners by the subrectangular carapace, raised midline and the complete division of the carapace depressions, and reddish black colour pattern of these concavities in live specimens. This new species is the seventh assigned to Fizesereneia. A DNA barcode for the new species has been deposited in GenBank.

  12. A Call for More Diploma Nurses to Attain a Baccalaureate Degree; Advancing the nursing profession in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy K. Kamanyire

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare needs of the Omani population are evolving, particularly with regards to changes in disease complexity, advances in technology and the enhanced delivery of healthcare services. Nurses now need to adapt to a fundamental shift in the provision of patient-centred care. In line with lifelong learning goals, registered nurses in Oman at the diploma level should seek to obtain a more advanced qualification, for instance a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, to ensure they possess the requisite skills and knowledge to keep abreast of new developments in healthcare management. Challenges involved in this transition and suggestions to overcome these potential obstacles are discussed in this article in order to inform nursing education stakeholders. Recommendations to ensure the success of bridging programmes are also suggested.

  13. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meij, Sancia E T

    2015-03-16

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, and from Symphyllia recta from reefs in the Gulf of Oman. This is the second cryptochirid species with the Red Sea as type locality. It can be separated from its congeners by the subrectangular carapace, raised midline and the complete division of the carapace depressions, and reddish black colour pattern of these concavities in live specimens. This new species is the seventh assigned to Fizesereneia. A DNA barcode for the new species has been deposited in GenBank. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

  14. Clinico-Histopathological Findings and PCR Based Diagnosis of Lumpy Skin Disease in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Body, K. Pal Singh, M. Hammad Hussain*, Abdulmajeed Al-Rawahi, Mahir Al-Maawali, Khalisa Al-Lamki and Saif Al-Habsy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current report describes the clinical, histopathological and molecular diagnosis of lumpy skin disease (LSD outbreak in the Sultanate of Oman during 2009. Outbreak was suspected on the basis of clinical picture in 13 cattle (n=201 farms belonging to Al-Batinah (7 holdings, Al-Dakhiliyah (2 holdings and Ash Sharqiyah (4 holdings regions. All suspected cases were clinically examined and a tentative diagnosis of LSD was made upon observation of classical signs. Morbidity and mortality rates were recorded as 27.9 and 5.5%, respectively. Apparent case fatality rate observed was 19.6%. Histopathological examination of the suspected skin biopsy samples revealed presence of ballooning degeneration and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies characteristic of LSD. PCR reaction was carried out to confirm the presence of disease. Amplification of 221bp (base pair PCR product from samples belonging to all 3 affected regions confirmed the presence of LSD virus DNA.

  15. Determination of the Earth gravity Field Parameters in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea with the Satellite Altimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, S. R.; Najafi-Alamardi, M.; Toosi, K. N.; Sedighi, M.; Nankali, H. R.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimetry provides continuous, accur ate, and homogenous data ser ies in marine areas .Th e Sea Surf ace Heigh ts (SSH) ex tracted from altimetry data w as used in a method sear ching for the least squares of the sea surface topography to simultaneously d etermine the geoidal height and the sea surface topography as well in the Persian Gulf and the Oman sea. This is contrary to th e methods wh ich r equire the knowledge of one parameter to estimate the other. The North and East componen ts of the deflections of vertical w ere also estimated by differentiating the der ived geoid al heights in the corresponding directions, and finally the free- air grav ity anomalies w ere computed utilizing the inverse V ening- Meinesz integral.

  16. A Call for More Diploma Nurses to Attain a Baccalaureate Degree: Advancing the nursing profession in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanyire, Joy K; Achora, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The healthcare needs of the Omani population are evolving, particularly with regards to changes in disease complexity, advances in technology and the enhanced delivery of healthcare services. Nurses now need to adapt to a fundamental shift in the provision of patient-centred care. In line with lifelong learning goals, registered nurses in Oman at the diploma level should seek to obtain a more advanced qualification, for instance a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, to ensure they possess the requisite skills and knowledge to keep abreast of new developments in healthcare management. Challenges involved in this transition and suggestions to overcome these potential obstacles are discussed in this article in order to inform nursing education stakeholders. Recommendations to ensure the success of bridging programmes are also suggested.

  17. Modeling of circulation in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman: Skill assessment and seasonal thermohaline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azhar, Muchamad; Temimi, Marouane; Zhao, Jun; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-03-01

    Hindcast simulations of the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) are quantitatively evaluated with basin-wide hydrographic data and time series measurements. The model shows comparable skill in reproducing moored observations of current velocities structure in upper and bottom depths. The skill in simulating observed temperature is higher of 0.93 (scale 0-1) in upper depths compared to 0.52 in bottom depths. Model results are sensitive to parameterization of water clarity. A lower sensitivity was noticed to KPP, GLS, and MY2.5 turbulence closures. When coastal turbid water parameterization is used, accuracy of the model in reproducing seasonal and spatial variations of temperature and salinity increased by 25% compared to the clear water case whereas only 10% increase was noticed when applying KPP turbulent closure. The model reproduces well anticlockwise circulation in the Gulf. A stronger surface inflow of fresher water to the Arabian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz is simulated in summer compared to winter conditions, mainly due to upper layer horizontal gradient of density between the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Less seasonal variability of outflow between 0.15 and 0.20 m s-1 at 50 m to bottom depth around the Strait of Hormuz was noticed in the model results. Modeled surface layer stratification is stronger in summer than winter and varies spatially in the Arabian Gulf with highest stratification near the Strait of Hormuz. Overall, the stratification in shallow water area of the Arabian Gulf remains low throughout the year.

  18. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Parvin, E-mail: parvin.sadeghi@gmail.com [Marine Biology Department, Marine Science Faculty, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazerouni, Faranak [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza [Marine Biology Department, Marine and Oceanic Science Faculty, Khorramshahr University of Marine Science and Technology, Khorramshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ajdari, Daniel [Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53 ± 1.23 and 110 ± 1.4 μg g{sup –1}) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43 ± 1.31 and 13.5 ± 3.23 μg g{sup –1}), respectively. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P < 0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. - Highlights: • Plasma EPO level and kidney HAI were assessed as Cr biomarkers in E. stoliczkae. • Chromium was measured in the sediment and kidney of E. stoliczkae in the Gulf of Oman. • Highest Cr concentration was in the sediment and E. stoliczkae kidney from Konarak. • The analyzed biomarkers in E. stoliczkae are suitable to monitor Cr pollution.

  19. Assessment of Perceived Health Status in Hypertensive and Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Primary Health Centers in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Hasni, Alya; Al-Sumri, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics on perceived health status in primary health centers in Oman. Methods: In a cross-sectional retrospective study, 450 patients (aged ≥ 18 years) seen at six primary health centers in Wilayat A’ Seeb in the Muscat region, Oman, were selected. Perceived health status of the physical (PSCC) and mental (MSCC) components of quality-of-life were assessed using the 12-item short form health survey (SF-12). The analyses were performed using univariate statistical techniques. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54 ± 12 years and they were mostly female (62%). The presence of both diabetes mellitus and hypertension was associated with lower physical scores compared to those with diabetes alone (p = 0.001) but only marginally lower than those with hypertension alone (p = 0.066). No significant differences were found across the disease groups in mental scores (P = 0.578). Age was negatively correlated (p < 0.001) but male gender (P < 0.001), married (p < 0.001), literate (p < 0.001) and higher income (p = 0.002) were all associated with higher physical scores. Moreover, longer disease duration was associated with lower physical scores (p < 0.001). With regards to the mental status, male (p = 0.005), marriage (P = 0.017) and higher income (p < 0.001) were associated with higher mental scores. Polypharmacy was associated with lower physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p = 0.005) scores. Conclusions: The presence of both diseases was associated with lower physical scores of perceived health status. Health status was also affected by various demographic and clinical characteristics. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the study's limitations. PMID:22174966

  20. Characterization of Industrial Wastewater Sludge in Oman from Three Different Regions and Recommendations for Alternate Re¬use Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad S. BAAWAIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic and industrial wastewaters are mostly treated by biological process such as activated sludge, aerobic pond, and anaerobic treatment. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of sewage sludge in the Sultanate of Oman chosen from three industrial sewage treatment plants (STPs: Rusayl Industrial Estate (RSL.IE; Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE; and Raysut Industrial Estate (RIE.Methods: Samples of recycled activated sludge (RAS and wasted activated sludge (WAS were collected over a period of 12 months across above mentioned STPs. Parameters analyzed are electrical conductivity (EC, potential of hydrogen (pH, cations, anions and volatile content (VC.Results: The obtained values for pH and EC were low for both RAS and WAS samples, except EC values of RIE that was more than 1000 µS/cm. The range of VC percentages in RAS and WAS samples were 44 to 86% and 41 to 77%, respectively. The measured values for chloride, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate were higher than the other anions.Conclusion: The average values of the cations in RAS and WAS samples were within the Omani Standards, suitable for the re-use of sludge in agriculture except for Cd in RSL.IE. The study recommends that a regular maintenance should be performed at the studied STPs to prevent any accumulation of some harmful substances, which may affect the sludge quality, and the sludge drying beds should be large enough to handle the produced sludge for better management. Keywords: Industrial Wastewater sludge, Characterization, Analysis, physicochemical, Heavy metals, Sultanate of Oman

  1. Patient-provider interaction from the perspectives of type 2 diabetes patients in Muscat, Oman: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östenson Claes-Göran

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' expectations and perceptions of the medical encounter and interactions are important tools in diabetes management. Some problems regarding the interaction during encounters may be related to a lack of communication skills on the part of either the physician or the patient. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients regarding the medical encounters and quality of interactions with their primary health-care providers. Methods Four focus group discussions (two women and two men groups were conducted among 27 purposively selected patients (13 men and 14 women from six primary health-care centres in Muscat, Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results The patients identified some weaknesses regarding the patient-provider communication like: unfriendly welcoming; interrupted consultation privacy; poor attention and eye contact; lack of encouraging the patients to ask questions on the providers' side; and inability to participate in medical dialogue or express concerns on the patients' side. Other barriers and difficulties related to issues of patient-centeredness, organization of diabetes clinics, health education and professional competency regarding diabetes care were also identified. Conclusion The diabetes patients' experiences with the primary health-care providers showed dissatisfaction with the services. We suggest appropriate training for health-care providers with regard to diabetes care and developing of communication skills with emphasis on a patient-centred approach. An efficient use of available resources in diabetes clinics and distributing responsibilities between team members in close collaboration with patients and their families seems necessary. Further exploration of the providers' work situation and barriers to good interaction is needed. Our findings can help the policy makers in Oman, and countries with similar health systems, to improve the quality and

  2. Late Quaternary delta evolution on an uplifted coastal area (Wadi Haida Sultanate of Oman, Arabian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, K. Al; Balushi, N. Al; Roepert, A.; Rupprechter, M.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the Northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The coastal morphology allows delineating areas of subsidence and uplift. The study area is located on the eastern shoreline facing the Indian Ocean. The coast is characterized by 6-7 wave cut terraces which are situated up to 400 m above present sea level. Whereas the higher - and therefore older - terraces are mainly erosional, the lower ones are depositional in style. We aim at quantifying the differential land movement along the coast (Rupprechter et al. 2012, Hoffmann et al. 2012 ). The study presented here aims at revealing the processes that resulted in the formation of the depositional terraces. Relevant processes are: (a) ongoing land uplift; (b) sea-level oscillations; (c) faulting. Historic evidence gave rise to the speculation of recent earthquake activity: the city of Qalhat, situated 7 km south of the study site was probably destroyed by an earthquake at the end of the 15th century (Musson 2009). The delta under investigation here formed at the mouth of the 15 km long Wadi Haida that drains the adjacent Selma Plateau (up to 2000 m high). The apex is situated 1.6 km from the present shoreline and the delta is some 2 km across. The delta sediments make up the lowermost terrace and are exposed along a cliff section. In the central part the cliff is 12 m high and cliff heights are lower to the North and South, reflecting the convex shape of the delta. The Quaternary delta deposits were deposited on top of an Eocene limestone. This formation is only observed in the northern part of the study area. In the southern part the formation is located below beach level, due to normal faulting. The lowermost unit related to the delta formation is a mudstone with in-situ coral reefs. The maximum thickness observed is 3 m. The coral reefs are capped by a 1.5 m thick layer of unconsolidated gravel. The sorting is very poor, individual boulders are up to 70 cm in diameter and angular

  3. The Penta Helix Model of Innovation in Oman: An HEI Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrence S Halibas

    2017-05-01

    government in Oman. HEI engagement is perceivably still weak. HEIs have yet to come out as a strong leading force in promoting systems of innovation. There is clear awareness of the need to adopt leading-edge practices in innovation strategy and management, curriculum and assessment, staff support and reward systems, funding and ICT infrastructure, research commercialization and IP management, and community engagement. Recommendations for Practitioners: There is need to conduct more in-depth analyses about the synergy and partnerships between key players of the Penta Helix model. A large-scale survey will help completely reveal the status and impact of innovation practices in the region and among HEIs. Recommendation for Researchers: There is need to conduct more in-depth analyses about the synergy and partnerships between key players of the Penta Helix model. A large-scale survey will help completely reveal the status and impact of innovation practices in the region and among HEIs. Impact on Society: The paper hopes to influence policy. It fully intends to convince policymakers increase the adoption of strategic interventions. The paper is not a theoretical description of the problem. It suggests several concrete courses of action. Future Research: The paper has seen the need to measure the effectiveness of the current innovation practices among key players in the innovation network and how these practices advance Oman’s knowledge economy. We propose a Likert-based bottom-up engagement metric.

  4. Valeri Marc, Le Sultanat d’Oman. Une révolution en trompe-l’œil, Paris, Karthala Recherches Internationales, 2007, 512 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élizabeth Picard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Á plusieurs égards, cette monographie issue d’une thèse préparée sous la direction d’Olivier Roy et soutenue en 2005 constitue une nouveauté remarquable. Elle signale d’abord la présence de la jeune recherche politologique française sur la péninsule Arabique. Jusque là, les travaux sur la péninsule, et singulièrement sur Oman, étaient en effet l’apanage des auteurs de langue anglaise – les Britanniques en ce qui concerne le sultanat d’Oman, puisqu’ils y ont exercé l’indirect rule jusque dans ...

  5. Pilot study on the prevalence of abuse and mistreatment during clinical internship: a cross-sectional study among first year residents in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; White, Gillian; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate perceptions of being mistreated during internship among first year Oman Medical Specialty Board residents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Training centres for Oman Medical Specialty Board. Participants First year medical residents following completion of internship during the study period 2009–2010. Method A cross-sectional survey of first year medical residents. Results Of 58 residents (response rate 84%), 96.6% perceived that mistreatment exists. Among different types of mistreatment reported, verbal and academic abuses were the most common (87.9%), followed by sexual harassment (24.1%), then physical abuse (22.4%). Forty-four (75.9%) residents had advised at least one of their relatives not to join medical school. Conclusions Mistreatment of medical interns is an ethical issue challenging the quality of clinical training. Further research is needed to understand factors influencing mistreatment and to draw guidelines to limit such problems. PMID:23396558

  6. Sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae) in their westernmost extent: an updated and illustrated checklist and key to the species in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Ghezellou, Parviz; Hesni, Majid Askari; Dakhteh, Seyyed Mohammad Hashem; Ahmadian, Hooman; Vidal, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The Persian Gulf is known as the westernmost distribution limit for sea snakes, except for Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) that reaches southeastern Africa. Previous identification guides for sea snakes of the Persian Gulf and its adjacent waters in the Gulf of Oman were based on old data and confined mostly to written descriptions. Therefore, a series of field surveys were carried out in 2013 and 2014 through Iranian coastal waters of both gulfs to provide a comprehensive sampling of sea snakes in the area. This paper presents an illustrated and updated checklist and identification tool for sea snakes in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, which are based on new material and a review of the literature. This checklist includes ten species of marine hydrophiines, of which one, Microcephalophis cantoris (Günther, 1864), is a new record for the area. All specimens examined herein are deposited and available at the Zoological Museum of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman province, Iran.

  7. Distribution of the lactase persistence-associated variant alleles -13910* T and -13915* G among the people of Oman and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Abdul Rahim; Al-Rawas, Omar; Al-Yahyaee, Saeed; Al-Habori, Molham; Al-Zubairi, Adel Sharaf; Bayoumi, Riad

    2012-06-01

    The high prevalence of lactase persistence (LP) among the people of Saudi Arabia is associated with the -13915(*)G variant allele upstream of the lactase gene (LCT). We, therefore, examined the frequency of the commonly known LP associated SNPs among randomly collected samples from Omani and Yemeni adult populations and obtained further data on the distribution of the two most common LP-associated variants, -13910(*)T and -13915T(*)G, in the Arabian Peninsula. The DNA fragment containing all the reported LP- associated SNPs was amplified and genotyped. The frequency of the -13915(*)G allele was highest among Dhofari Arabs of southern Oman (0.72) followed by Yemeni Arabs (0.54) and Arabs of northern Oman (0.14). It was not detected in Omanis of Asian origin. The frequency of the -13910(*)T allele was extremely low in Arabs of northern and southern Oman (0.00-0.01) and Yemenis (0.002). However, it had a frequency of 0.160 among Omanis of Asian origin. Results show that the highest frequency of the LCT -13915(*)G variant allele appears to be in the south of the Arabian Peninsula with clinal decrease within the Peninsula and further out in surrounding countries.

  8. Development potential and policies in the South Arabian countries Yemen Arab Republic, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Sultanate of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, M.

    1982-01-01

    The South Arabian countries are small and economically and socio-economically among the least developed countries in the world. Nonetheless, the two Yemens and Oman have some international importance due to their position in the tense Middle East. The Arabian peninsula is likely to remain one of the world's trouble spots in the foreseeable future. Oil progressively became the determining factor in the economic development of the Arabian peninsula in the 1970s, and the shortage of labour in the oil-producing countries (including Oman) enabled the two Yemens to share in the wealth it created through the remittances of their migrant workers. Since the mid-1970s the two Yemens and Oman have received preferential treatment from the rich oil states in respect of financial cooperation (capital aid in the form of loans and grants), a commitment which is to be further increased. It is principally for the oil countries to speed up reforms aimed at improving structures in the South Arabian countries by pursuing an appropriate aid policy (conditionality). As the general change that oil has brought to the Arabian peninsula means that the two Yemens can no longer be regarded as typical LLDCs, the industrialized countries should concentrate their development cooperation with the South Arabian countries chiefly on technical assistance and planning consultancy coordinated with the wealthy oil countries. (orig./HSCH).

  9. A study on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards premarital carrier screening among adults attending primary healthcare centers in a region in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Gupta, Ishita; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Farsi, Khalil S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-04-17

    Despite that hereditary diseases are widespread among the Arab population due to high rates of consanguineous marriages, research regarding community awareness towards premarital carrier screening in some countries such as Oman, is extremely scarce. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and attitude towards premarital carrier screening (PMCS) in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to 400 Omani adults aged 20-35 who attended primary healthcare institutions at the South Batinah Governorate in Oman. The majority of the participants (84.5%) believed that PMCS was necessary, and about half of them (49.5%) supported the view of making PMCS compulsory. On the contrary, approximately one third (30.5%) of the participants reported that they were not in favor of taking the blood screening test. Overall, unwillingness to perform pre-marital testing was associated with female gender, younger age, being single, less education, and increased income. Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, about one third of the participants were still reluctant to carry out premarital testing. Such attitude calls for immediate need for community-based campaigns to encourage the public to do premarital testing.

  10. Metals in Blood and Eggs of Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Nesting Colonies of the Northern Coast of the Sea of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaei, Mahmood; Bolouki, Mehdi

    2017-06-19

    The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been a species of global concern for decades. In this study, heavy metals (mercury: Hg; Cadmium: Cd; Lead: Pb; Copper: Cu; and Zinc: Zn) were measured in blood and three egg fraction of green sea turtles nesting on the northern coast of Sea of Oman. Heavy metals concentrations in blood, yolk, albumen, and egg shell ranged between 0.16-36.78, 0.006-33.88, 0.003-4.02, and 0.002-6.85 μg/g (ww), respectively. According to the results, all heavy metals found in blood samples (n = 12) also were detected in the various parts of the eggs (n = 48). Moreover, there were no significant differences between concentrations of heavy metals in different clutches laid in a nesting season. However, Pb concentrations in blood samples significantly increased in later clutches (p sea turtles on the northern coast of Sea of Oman. Results of this study suggest that heavy metals could be one of the factors influencing reductions in fertilization and hatching success. Results also indicate that green sea turtle on the northern coast of Sea of Oman have high capacity in rapid response and detoxification of heavy metals and/or from the low exposure levels of these turtles to the heavy metals. Further research is required concerning the effects of heavy metals on green sea turtles, especially on their possible influence of fetal development of turtles.

  11. Ocean Color Retrieval Using LANDSAT-8 Imagery in Coastal Case 2 Waters (case Study Persian and Oman Gulf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, N.; Hasanlou, M.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2016-06-01

    Ocean color (OC) monitoring using satellite imageries provides an appropriate tool for a better understanding of marine processes and changes in the coastal environment. Radiance measurements in the range of visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum provides information of ocean color that is associated with the water constituents. This measurements are used to monitor the level of biological activity and the presence of particles in the water. Ocean features such as the concentration of chlorophyll, suspended sediment concentration and sea surface temperature have a significant impact on the dynamics of the ocean. The concentration of chlorophyll (chla), active pigments of phytoplankton photosynthesis, as a key indicator applied for assessment of water quality and biochemistry. Experimental algorithms chla related to internal communication various optical components in the water that may be change in space and time in the water with different optical characteristics. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed for one area may not work for other places and each region according to its specific characteristics needs that determined by an algorithm may be appropriate to local. We have tried treatment several algorithms for determination of chlorophyll, including experimental algorithms with a simple band ratio of blue-green band (i.e. OCx) and algorithms includes two bands ratio with variable 𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)/𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1), the three bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]×𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3) and four bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]/[𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ4)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3)-1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4) in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look

  12. Anatomy of a frozen axial melt lens from a fast-spreading paleo-ridge (Wadi Gideah, Oman ophiolite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T.; Koepke, J.; Garbe-Schönberg, C.-D.; Dietrich, M.; Bauer, U.; Wolff, P. E.

    2017-02-01

    At fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges, axial melt lenses (AMLs) sandwiched between the sheeted dyke section and the uppermost gabbros are assumed to be the major magma source of crust formation. Here, we present our results from a field study based on a single outcrop of a frozen AML in the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman which presents a whole suite of different lithologies and complex cutting relationships: varitextured gabbro with relics of primitive poikilitic clinopyroxene is intruded by massive quartz diorites and tonalites bearing relics of assimilated sheeted dykes, which in turn are cut by trondhjemite dykes. The whole is cut by basaltic dykes with chilled margins. The geochemical evolutionary trend of the varitextured gabbros, including some of the quartz diorites and tonalites, can be best modelled by fractional crystallisation of an experimental MORB parental melt composition containing 0.4 to 0.8 wt.% H2O. Patchy varitextured gabbros containing domains of primitive poikilitic clinopyroxene and evolved granular networks represent the record of in situ crystallisation. Some quartz diorites, often with xenoliths of sheeted dykes and exceptionally high Al2O3 contents, show a bulk trace element pattern more in accord with melts generated by experimental partial melting of dyke material. Highly evolved, crosscutting trondhjemite dykes show characteristic trace element patterns implying a formation by partial melting of sheeted dykes under lower water activity which is indicated by relatively low Al2O3 contents. The late basaltic dykes with chilled margins crosscutting all other lithologies show a relatively depleted geochemical character with pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies implying a genetic relationship to the second phase of magmatic Oman paleo-ridge activity (V2). The field relationships in combination with the petrological/geochemical trends reveal multiple sequences of MORB-type magma cooling (resulting in fractional crystallisation) and re

  13. Weathering of ordinary chondrites from Oman: Correlation of weathering parameters with 14C terrestrial ages and a refined weathering scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs; Jull, A. J. Timothy

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated 128 14C-dated ordinary chondrites from Oman for macroscopically visible weathering parameters, for thin section-based weathering degrees, and for chemical weathering parameters as analyzed with handheld X-ray fluorescence. These 128 14C-dated meteorites show an abundance maximum of terrestrial age at 19.9 ka, with a mean of 21.0 ka and a pronounced lack of samples between 0 and 10 ka. The weathering degree is evaluated in thin section using a refined weathering scale based on the current W0 to W6 classification of Wlotzka (1993), with five newly included intermediate steps resulting in a total of nine (formerly six) steps. We find significant correlations between terrestrial ages and several macroscopic weathering parameters. The correlation of various chemical parameters including Sr and Ba with terrestrial age is not very pronounced. The microscopic weathering degree of metal and sulfides with newly added intermediate steps shows the best correlation with 14C terrestrial ages, demonstrating the significance of the newly defined weathering steps. We demonstrate that the observed 14C terrestrial age distribution can be modeled from the abundance of meteorites with different weathering degrees, allowing the evaluation of an age-frequency distribution for the whole meteorite population.

  14. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  15. Determination of fatty acids percentages and profile extracted from cuttlefish of Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yosief Ali Asadpour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fatty acid profile extracted from cuttlefish of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, including Ancistrocheirus, Enoploteuthidae, Cranchiidae, Ommastrephidae and Loliginidae. Methods:Oil was extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by gas chromatography. Results:The results showed that (13±5)% of wet weight of cuttlefish is oil. The results also showed that cuttlefish oil has 29.40% saturated fatty acids and 23.70% single-band unsaturated fatty acids, and the total value of the unsaturated multiple-band is 40.20%, the contents of arachidonic acid 2.78%, linolenic acid 3.10%, linoleic acid 5.20%, docosahexaenoic acid 15.40%, and eicosapentaenoic acid 9.60% out of the total fatty acids of the same may be mentioned. Conclusions:The results of the current study described that cuttlefish is considered for the first time as the new and rich source of omega-3 and omega-6.

  16. Sedimentary Facies Models on Carbonatite in the Upper Shuaiba Member of Lower Cretaceous in Daleel Field, Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feng; Jiang Zaixing; Zhou Liqing; Zhao Guoliang; Wang Lin; Zheng Ning; Xiang Shu'an

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Shuaiba Member (USH) is the main force pay bed in the Daleel field in northern Oman; 5 layers including A, B, C, D, and E were divided in profile, and layer D and layer E are the main beds. With the development of exploration in the Daieel oil field, studying the sedimentary systems about their inner composition and the collocation in dimension, and setting up the sedimentary models in the USH are becoming more and more necessary and important to meet the further exploration requirement. Based on the data of geology, seism, and paleo-biology, according to the analysis method on carbonatite depositional system, the litho-facies assemblage and sedimentary environment in the USH were studied. Intershoal low-lying sub-facies (where the water depth is 10-50 m) and shallow shoal sub-facies (where the water depth is not more than 10 m) were extinguished in the layer D, and storm deposit was found in layer E1, in which intershoal low-lying sub-facies also developed. The feature of the sedimentary sub-facies and the sedimentary condition were analyzed, and the sedimentary model was set up in the article: the carbonatite intershoal low-lying developed under the background of open land in shallow sea, where storm events usually occurred in the Lower Cretaceous in the area.

  17. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  18. Deep-water Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea, new species and examples of endemism and cosmopolitanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, P Graham

    2015-08-05

    Seven species of Thyasiridae are reported from the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea at depths between 688 m and 3356 m. Hypoxic conditions exist at depths between 400 and 1200 m and three species are restricted to this zone and to the Arabian Sea. Leptaxinus indusarium has also been recorded from the Indus Fan and Channelaxinus investigatoris from off Sri Lanka. A new species Thyasira anassa sp. nov. is described from the hypoxic zone. Another four species are recorded from the abyssal zone where oxygen levels are typical for the deep ocean. Here another new species is described, Parathyasira bamberi sp. nov. but the other species could not be conclusively identified because of close affinity with populations from other oceans.  Deep water Atlantic species Axinulus croulinensis and Mendicula ferruginosa are apparently present in the abyssal Indian Ocean while another thyasirid shell is very close to Channelaxinus excavatus from the Eastern Pacific and C. perplicata from the Atlantic. Accompanying these abyssal thyasirids were other bivalve species, Deminucula atacellana, Limopsis pelagica and Bentharca asperula that cannot be distinguished by morphology from their Atlantic populations. It is concluded that using morphology alone that the abyssal species may well be cosmopolitan in distribution.

  19. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, E J; Abrego, D; Vaughan, G O; Burt, J A

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals, there are regional gaps in reproductive records. In the Gulf of the Oman in the Arabian Sea, reproductive timing was assessed in four common species of broadcast spawning corals using field surveys of gamete maturity and aquarium observations of spawning activity. The appearance of mature gametes within the same month for Acropora downingi, A. hemprichii, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea (≥ 75% of colonies, n = 848) indicated a synchronous and multi-specific spawning season. Based on gamete disappearance and direct observations, spawning predominantly occurred during April in 2013 (75-100% of colonies) and May in 2014 (77-94% of colonies). The difference in spawning months between survey years was most likely explained by sea temperature and the timing of lunar cycles during late-stage gametogenesis. These reproductive records are consistent with a latitudinal gradient in peak broadcast spawning activity at reefs in the northwestern Indian Ocean which occurs early in the year at low latitudes (January to March) and progressively later in the year at mid (March to May) and high (June to September) latitudes.

  20. Evaluation of the 2006–2008 Food Crisis on Household Welfare: The Case of the Sultanate of Oman

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    Houcine Boughanmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of high food prices during the 2006–2008 food crisis period on the welfare of households in the Sultanate of Oman. The welfare impacts of price changes are estimated using the Hicksian compensating variation (CV methodology. The compensating variation was estimated for 4 different income household groups as well as two location groups (urban-rural. Results suggest that all household groups suffered welfare losses due to the food crisis. On average, Omani households need to be compensated about 10.3% of their income for the price increase they experienced during the 2006–2008 period. Rural households are more affected than urban households with a required compensation of 12.4% and 9.87%, respectively. In all cases most of the impact is felt on the first round where no consumption adjustment is made; the second round effect is comparatively small compared to the first-order effect. Total compensation required to compensate all households amounts to O.R. 266 M, that is, a 1.14% of GDP, whereas a compensation targeted to the low-income quartile amounts only to O.R. 26.7 M representing 0.1% of GDP.

  1. Decision-to-Delivery Time Intervals in Emergency Caesarean Section Cases: Repeated cross-sectional study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashfeen, Kaukab; Patel, Malini; Hamdi, Ilham M; Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim H A; Al-Yarubi, Mansour N

    2017-02-01

    In cases of fetal intolerance to labour, meeting the standard decision-to-delivery time interval (DDI) of ≤30 minutes is challenging. This study aimed to assess DDIs in emergency Caesarean section (CS) cases to identify factors causing DDI delays and the impact of a delayed DDI on perinatal outcomes. This repeated cross-sectional study included all emergency CS procedures performed due to acute fetal distress, antepartum haemorrhage or umbilical cord prolapse at the Nizwa Hospital, Nizwa, Oman. Three audit cycles of three months each were conducted between April 2011 and June 2013, including an initial retrospective cycle and two prospective cycles following the implementation of improvement strategies to address factors causing DDI delays. Poor perinatal outcomes were defined as Apgar scores of 60 minutes was significantly associated with poor neonatal outcomes in terms of increased SCBU admissions and low Apgar scores (P <0.001 each). Factors causing DDI delays included obtaining consent for the CS procedure, a lack of operating theatre availability and moving patients to the operating theatre. The identification of factors causing DDI delays may provide opportunities to improve perinatal outcomes.

  2. Decision-to-Delivery Time Intervals in Emergency Caesarean Section Cases; Repeated cross-sectional study from Oman

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    Kaukab Tashfeen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In cases of fetal intolerance to labour, meeting the standard decision-to-delivery time interval (DDI of ≤30 minutes is challenging. This study aimed to assess DDIs in emergency Caesarean section (CS cases to identify factors causing DDI delays and the impact of a delayed DDI on perinatal outcomes. Methods: This repeated cross-sectional study included all emergency CS procedures performed due to acute fetal distress, antepartum haemorrhage or umbilical cord prolapse at the Nizwa Hospital, Nizwa, Oman. Three audit cycles of three months each were conducted between April 2011 and June 2013, including an initial retrospective cycle and two prospective cycles following the implementation of improvement strategies to address factors causing DDI delays. Poor perinatal outcomes were defined as Apgar scores of 60 minutes was significantly associated with poor neonatal outcomes in terms of increased SCBU admissions and low Apgar scores (P <0.001 each. Factors causing DDI delays included obtaining consent for the CS procedure, a lack of operating theatre availability and moving patients to the operating theatre. Conclusion: The identification of factors causing DDI delays may provide opportunities to improve perinatal outcomes.

  3. Service-Learning Might be the Key: Learning From the Challenges and Implementation Strategies in EFL Teacher Education in Oman

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    Thuwayba Al Barwani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning, a major reform in higher education, is considered essential for developing citizenship for the 21st century. This paper reports a study aimed at investigating the problems and challenges faced when implementing service-learning in pre-service education of teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL and carried out in the Sultanate of Oman. The study also investigated the strategies that could possibly be used to overcome the challenges. A two-part questionnaire was designed and administered to a sample of 65 respondents comprising EFL instructors, pre-service student-teachers, administrators and administrative support staff. The first part of the questionnaire included 26 items covering 5 dimensions of challenges and the second consisted of 14 dimensions that covered a total of 77 strategies for overcoming the challenges identified. In general, the challenges were perceived to present serious problems in implementing service-learning; there were no significant differences between respondent groups on account of gender. The study also found that the strategies suggested were perceived to be very helpful in overcoming the challenges with no significant differences between faculty and administrators.

  4. Prevalence Pattern of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease among Patients Presenting for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Oman

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    Rajeeva Rivikath Pieris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the pattern of prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting for coronary artery bypass grafting at a single center in Oman. Methods: All patients who had coronary artery bypass grafting between March 2008 to March 2010 were included and data were obtained from history and laboratory investigations. The prevalence rates of eight conventional risk factors are presented as a retrospective single center observational study. Results: Out of 146 total patients, 107 (73.29% were male. The age ranged from 31 to 87 years old. The mean age was 58.18 ± 10.08 years (males = 56.81 ± 10.42, females = 61.95 ± 7.97. Hypertension was present in 119 patients (81.51%, 115 patients (78.77% had dyslipidemia, 107 patients (73.29% were male, 79 patients (54.11% had diabetes mellitus, 70 patients (47.95% were over the age of 60 years, 41 patients (28.08% gave a history of smoking, 31 patients (21.23% were obese, and 19 patients (13.01% gave a positive family history. Conclusions: The most common risk factor was hypertension, followed by dyslipidemia, male gender, diabetes mellitus, old age, smoking, obesity and positive family history; 87.7% had three or more risk factors. The females in this study were older than the males and had more risk factors at presentation. The most common combination of factors seen together was diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and male gender.

  5. OMANASTER IMBRICATUS (ECHINODERMATA, ASTEROIDEA, A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES FROM THE SAKMARIAN (LOWER PERMIAN SAIWAN FORMATION OF OMAN, ARABIAN PENINSULA

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    DANIEL B. BLAKE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Omanaster imbricatus is a new genu s and species of Sakmarian (Early Permian asteroids collected from the basal Pachycyrtella Bed of the Saiwan Formation of Oman, Arabian Peninsula; the family Omanasteridae is recognized. Late Paleozoic and especially Permian asteroids are rare and O. imbricatus differs significantly from those previously described, thereby providing an important addition to known late Paleozoic diversity. Unfortunately the single available specimen is incomplete with remaining ossicles both leached and partially fused, and available data are limited. Adambulacral form and arrangement of O. imbricatus are both suggestive of corresponding expressions of certain earlier Paleozoic species and unlike those of the crown-group, suggesting an enduring Paleozoic lineage but one not phylogenetically a part of the Mesozoic diversification. The Pachycyrtella Bed has been interpreted as recording a succession of pioneer palaeocommunities colonizing a turbulent, shallow-water settingaffected by oscillatory flows. The apparently flattened appearance of O. imbricatus is suggestive of appearances of certain Cretaceous and extant species recovered from similar environments thus suggesting both homoplasy and the versatility of asteroid evolution across extended spans of geologic time.

  6. Antibiotic resistant bacteria as bio-indicator of polluted effluent in the green turtles, Chelonia mydas in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Mahmoud, Ibrahim Y; Al-Zadjali, Maheera; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Alawi, Wafaa

    2011-03-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria were studied as bio-indicators of marine polluted effluents during egg-laying in green turtles. A non-invasive procedure for sampling oviductal fluid was used to test for exposure of turtles to pollution in Ras Al-Hadd, Oman, which is one of the most important nesting beaches in the world. Each sample was obtained by inserting a 15 cm sterile swab gently into the cloacal vent as the sphincter muscle is relaxed and the cloacal lining is unfolded to the outside. Forty turtles were sampled. A hundred and thirty-two species of bacteria from 7 genera were isolated. The dominant isolate was Citrobacter. Among the isolates 60.6% were multiple resistant to 15 tested antibiotics. The dominant resistance to antibiotics was ampicillin followed by streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole. Sampling oviductal fluid for resistant bacteria to antibiotics is valuable way to assess exposure to polluted effluents during feeding and migratory in turtles. Polluted effluents using bacteria as bio-indicator may influence reproductive potential in this endangered species.

  7. Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Induction of First-Trimester Miscarriages; Experience at a single tertiary care centre in Oman

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    Qamariya Ambusaidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Non-invasive methods of inducing a miscarriage are now considered an effective alternative to surgical evacuation (dilatation and curettage. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of misoprostol in the termination of first-trimester miscarriages. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010 and assessed all patients admitted to the Royal Hospital in Muscat, Oman, for the termination of first-trimester miscarriages during the study period. All patients received misoprostol and the rates of successful termination were measured. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a short questionnaire. Results: A total of 290 women were included in the study. Termination with misoprostol was successful in 61.38% of the subjects. Of the remaining subjects requiring additional surgical evacuation (n = 112, 58.93% required evacuation due to failed termination with misoprostol and 65.18% underwent early evacuation (≤24 hours since their last misoprostol dose. The majority of patients experienced no side-effects due to misoprostol (89.66%. Pain was controlled with simple analgesics in 70.00% of the subjects. A high satisfaction rate (94.83% with the misoprostol treatment was reported. Conclusion: Misoprostol was a well-tolerated drug which reduced the rate of surgical evacuation among the study subjects. This medication can therefore be used safely in the management of incomplete miscarriages.

  8. Vulnerability Assessment of Environmental and Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman

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    Mohammed Saif Al-Kalbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its consequences present one of the most important threats to water resources systems which are vulnerable to such changes due to their limited adaptive capacity. Water resources in arid mountain regions, such as Al Jabal Al Akhdar; northern Sultanate of Oman, are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of environmental and climate change. Besides climatic change, current demographic trends, economic development and related land use changes are exerting pressures and have direct impacts on increasing demands for water resources and their vulnerability. In this study, vulnerability assessment was carried out using guidelines prepared by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and Peking University to evaluate four components of the water resource system: water resources stress, water development pressure, ecological health, and management capacity. The calculated vulnerability index (VI was high, indicating that the water resources are experiencing levels of stress. Ecosystem deterioration was the dominant parameter and management capacity was the dominant category driving the vulnerability on water resources. The vulnerability assessment will support policy and decision makers in evaluating options to modify existing policies. It will also help in developing long-term strategic plans for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures and implement effective policies for sustainable water resources management, and therefore the sustenance of human wellbeing in the region.

  9. Driving student-centred calculus: results of a comprehensive case study for Kaizen learning in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bernhard; Rupp, Florian; Viet, Nils; Stockhausen, Paul v.; Gallenkämper, Jonas; Kreuzer, Judith

    2015-04-01

    The art of teaching freshmen students is undergoing a rapid paradigm change. Classical forms of teaching are not applicable any more and an unmanageable offer of new multimedia tools and concepts is glutting the market. Moreover, compared to previous courses, the class size triples. In view of these challenges, we implemented a new teaching concept best described as Kaizen learning. By Kaizen learning, we define a teaching philosophy that is based on a concise mix of short learning units (with feedback loops and tests) and of carefully chosen repetitions (also with feedback loops and tests) to calibrate a course for the students. Here, this intensive blended, student-centred learning paradigm is analysed together with its direct impact on the students' performance. This case study leads to easy-to-implement key drivers for successfully teaching science in Oman, such as (1) human-human interaction, (2) clearly communicated expectations, (3) avoidance of a short-term learning attitude, (4) a no-calculator policy, (5) continuous Kaizen learning, and (6) balanced combination of traditional teaching and e-learning.

  10. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, PO Box 321, Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedead@squ.edu.om [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2015-01-01

    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman. - Highlights: • Pesticide-related safety standards are frequently poor on many farms in Northern Oman. • Pesticides are frequently stored within the living accommodation of farm workers. • Safety standards generally increase with the education status of farm workers. • A local farmers’ association (FA) has the effect of raising safety standards on member’s farms. • FA farm workers are more likely to conform to the behaviour shown by owners of FA farms.

  11. Chromogranin A as a Biochemical Marker for Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Center Experience at Royal Hospital, Oman

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    Elham S. Al-Risi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the significance of serum chromogranin A (CgA status in patients with and without different neuroendocrine tumors (NETs by conducting a retrospective assessment of the diagnostic utility and limitations of CgA as a biomarker for NETs in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of CgA requests referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman over a 24-month period (April 2012 to March 2014. During this time, 302 CgA tests for 270 patients (119 males and 151 females; age range 11–86 years and mean±standard deviation (SD 44.0±18.0 years, were requested. Of these CgA tests, 245 tests were performed for 245 patients investigated for the diagnosis of NETs, and 57 CgA tests were performed for 25 patients with diagnosed NETs who were undergoing follow-up. Serum CgA levels were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cut-off value of 22 IU/L. Results: Of the 302 CgA tests reviewed, 197 (65.2% were within the quoted normal range; however, 105 (34.8% had CgA > 22 IU/L. Of the 245 patients with first-line CgA, 38 patients (15.5% had NET that included carcinoid, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic NET, adrenal adenoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma, gastrointestinal NET, medullary thyroid carcinoma, Schwannoma, lung small cell carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, and pituitary macroadenoma. The mean±SD of CgA in these patients with NETs was 205.0±172.0 IU/L. Meanwhile, there were 45 (18.3% patients with CgA > 22 IU/L (83.0±116.0 IU/L who did not have NETs. The conditions/diseases included: essential hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, peptic ulcer, chronic diarrhea, use of proton pump inhibitors, and other chronic diseases (hypothyroidism, asthma, diabetes mellitus. Of the 25 patients with known NET who were followed-up, there were 57 CgA results (29 with CgA ≤ 22 IU/L and 28 with CgA > 22 IU/L. The overall clinical sensitivity of CgA in the

  12. Magma system along fast-spreading centers controlled by ridge segmentation: Evidence from the northern Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Sumio; Adachi, Yoshiko

    2013-04-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are segmented at various scales with a hierarchy, from the biggest 1st- order to the smallest 4th-order segments. These segment structures control magmatic processes beneath the mid-ocean ridges such as mantle upwelling, partial melting of the upper mantle, and magma delivery system to form the oceanic crust (Macdonald, 1998). However, systematic studies on the segment control for magmatic processes are rare at modern mid-ocean ridges due to the difficulty of obtaining in-situ samples from different crustal-lithospheric depths. Sampling at ocean floors is generally exclusively limited only to the surface (i.e. the seafloor). Furthermore, the samples obtained from the surface of the ocean floor may likely represent the products of off-axis magmatism (Kusano et al., 2012). Therefore, studies of ocean ridge segmentation in ophiolites provide important constraints for the magmatic processes beneath seafloor spreading centers, because the precise 3-D architecture of the upper mantle and the crust (all the way to the uppermost extrusive layer) and their lateral variations could be observed and investigated in ophiolites. We have studied the northern Oman ophiolite where a complete succession from the upper mantle peridotites to the uppermost extrusive rocks is well exposed. Miyashita et al. (2003), Adachi and Miyashita (2003) and Umino et al. (2003) proposed a segment structure in the northern Oman ophiolite; the Wadi Fizh area is regarded as a northward propagating tip of a mid-ocean ridge based on geological evidence (Adachi and Miyashita. 2003). On the other hand, the Wadi Thuqbah area, about 25 km south of Wadi Fizh, is regarded as a segment center based on the thickest Moho transition zone, well developed EW-trending lineations in the MTZ and layered gabbro, and the comparatively primitive compositions of the layered gabbros. Furthermore, the southern margin of the Hilti block (Salahi block), about 40 km south of Wadi Thuqbah, is inferred to be the

  13. Geological exploration for a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system: a case study from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, Gerd; Schütz, Felina; Huenges, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    A collaborative research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is underway, which aims to develop and implement an innovative concept of a sustainable thermally driven cooling system in combination with a HT-ATES in northern Oman. The system will use an absorption chiller for cold supply, which nominally requires water of around 100°C as energy source. Solar collectors will provide this thermal energy and energy surpluses during daytimes will be stored to ensure a continuous operation of the cooling system. An integral part of this project is, therefore, the development of an efficient HT-ATES (100°C), which is based on temporary storage and recovery of thermal energy through hot water injection in subsurface aquifer horizons. Thus, an accurate thermal and fluid flow characterisation of potential reservoir horizons is essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area is located in the Al Khwad area, approximately 40 km to the west of Muscat. The area is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We use a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES exploration and development phase, including traditional geological fieldwork dovetailed with virtual outcrop geology, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting analyses. Our first results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate-dominated sequence. The alluvial fan system is characterised by a more than 300 m thick, coarse-clastic succession of coalesced individual fans. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are favourable for gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates

  14. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  15. HbA1c Levels among Primary Healthcare Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Oman

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    Jawad A Al-Lawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate whether younger patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels compared to older patients, and to determine the factors associated with higher HbA1c levels.Methods: Data from 1,266 patients from all over Oman were used to obtain the mean HbA1c level, odds ratios (OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI from multiple logistic regression models with age groups, sex, duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, tobacco use, and healthcare index as predictors of good (HbA1c <7% vs.poor (≥7% glycemic control.Results: Mean HbA1c levels were 8.9, 8.3, and 7.8 in the age groups 20-39, 40-59 and 60+ years, respectively. After controlling for all other covariates, the OR of good glycemic control increased with age, 40-59 years old (OR=1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6 and 60+ year (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.0, female gender (OR=1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0 and in patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3. Longer duration of diabetes (≥5years and treatment with oral agents or insulin were inversely related to good glycemic control.Conclusion: Younger Omani adults exhibit worse glycemic levels compared to older adults posing a formidable challenge to diabetes care teams.

  16. Refractive error and visual functions in children with special needs compared with the first grade school students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vora Urmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the refractive status and visual function of children with special needs (other handicap in 2010 and compared them with healthy 1 st grade school students in Oman. Materials and Methods: This was a cohort study. Optometrists recorded vision using a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR chart. Preferential looking method was used for testing 31 children. Cycloplegic refraction was performed on all children. Contrast sensitivity was tested using 2.5%, 10%, and 100% contrast charts. Ocular movement, alignment, and anterior segment were also assessed. A pediatrician reviewed the health records of all the children at the time of their enrollment in this study to determine if the child had been diagnosed with a systemic condition or syndromes. The visual functions were assessed by study investigators. We estimated the rates and the risk of different visual function defects in children with special needs. Result: The prevalence of refractive error in 70 children (4.7 ± 0.8 years with special needs (group 1 and 175 normal healthy first grade students (group 2 were 58.5% and 2.9%, respectively. The risk of refractive error was significantly higher in children with special needs [relative risk, 48.1 (95% confidence interval, 17.54-131.8]. Hyperopia (>1.00 D, myopia (≥ 1.00D and astigmatism (≥ ±1.00 D were found in 18.6%, 24.3%, and 27.1%, respectively, in group 1. Six children in this group had defective near vision. Sixteen (80% children with Down syndrome had refractive error. Seven (50% children with developmental disorder showed decreased contrast sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error was much higher in children with special needs. Prevalence of strabismus, nystagmus, and reduced contrast sensitivity was also higher in children with special needs. Early vision screening, visual function assessment, correction of refractive error, and frequent follow-up are recommended.

  17. 350 ka organic 13C record of the monsoon variability on the Oman continental margin, ArabianSea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alfred N N Muzuka

    2000-12-01

    The stable isotope compositions of sedimentary organic carbon and content of organic carbon for sediment cores recovered at two sites (sites 724C and 725C) during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg. 117 on the Oman continental margin are used to document variability of the monsoon winds for the past 350 ka. Although both sites have a mean 13C value of -20.1%, three zones depleted in 13C are observable at site 724C during isotope stages 3, 8 and 10, while only one zone is recognizable at site 725C. Increased coastal upwelling during isotope stage 3 owing to intense SW monsoon winds resulted in higher concentration of CO2 in the water column causing the formation of organic matter that was depleted in 13C. The other two zones deposited during oxygen isotope stages 8 and 10, which are also characterized by low values of organic carbon, nitrogen and C/N ratios, could be attributed to the dilution by terrestrial material derived from paleosol by transported by northwesterlies. Because of utilization of 13C enriched dissolved CO2 during the last glacial maximum Holocene sedimentary organic materials are depleted in 13C relative to the the fomer. The content of residues organic carbon (ROC) is higher at site 724C (with an average of 2.3 ± 1.2%) relative to site 725C, which averages to 0.9 ± 0.4% probably because of differences in the degree of preservation. Organic material deposited at site 725C has undergone more degradation relative to site 724C as reflected by a systematic downcore decrease in 13C resulting from a loss of 13C enriched organic compounds. Owing to lack of good chronology at site 725C, a zone that is characterized by low 13C values it could not be correlated with the other three zones observed at Site 724C.

  18. Profile of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Among Preschoolers in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman: A Retrospective Study

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    Marwan M. Al-Sharbati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of mental and behavioral disorders in preschoolers is critical for a better prognosis, ultimately leading to improved quality of life for both the child and the family. Our study investigated the clinical profile of mental and behavioral disorders in children < 7 years of age, seeking consultation at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2010. The objective was to explore demographic variables, intervention types, and annual trends. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted by reviewing the electronic records of preschoolers seeking consultation on mental and behavioral disorders at the Department of Behavioral Medicine. The diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. Results: The total number of cases was 466, the majority (77.9% being boys. The cumulative frequencies and annual hospital-based prevalence rates were estimated for each category of mental and behavioral disorders. Our findings showed increased service utilization among preschoolers, as reflected in the annual trend and case-specific prevalence rates. While comorbidity was common, the most frequent disorders encountered were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (70.8%, developmental language disorder (23.6%, autism spectrum disorders (20.2%, and disruptive behavior disorders (11.6%. The most commonly prescribed drugs/supplementation were risperidone (18.7%, atomoxetine (9.7%, omega-3 (8.8%, and methylphenidate (6.2%. Conclusions: Consultations for mental and behavioral disorders are being sought for Omani preschoolers. Beside pharmacotherapy, other interventions, which are an integral part of a much desired multidisciplinary approach should be introduced. Readdressing the missing needs is essential for a comprehensive approach to managing mental and behavioral disorders.

  19. Paediatric Blunt Torso Trauma; Injury mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children requiring hospitalisation at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

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    Khalid M. Bhatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7% male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0% received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1% were injured by falls, 12 (17.1% during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7% by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%, followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%. The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7% and spleen (11.4%. The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9% with a good outcome (74.3%. The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach.

  20. Breast One Stop Clinic – Follow up Experience at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in the Sultanate of Oman

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    Adil Al Jarrah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of the breast clinics is to diagnose breast cancer and reassure patients with benign disorders. One stop clinics - same day reporting - further reduce anxiety caused by the delay in the results. The first one stop clinic was introduced in SQUH–Oman in September 2011.Methods: This retrospective analysis of 395 consecutive cases presented to Breast One Stop Clinic at SQUH was done between September 2011 and December 2013. All patients underwent triple assessment conducted by consultants. Mammography was performed for patients above 35 years with no contraindications. Ultrasound was done for all patients with palpable lesions. The reports were assigned a score (BIRADS 0-6. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC was done for all patients with palpable abnormality or nipple discharge. An immediate report was given using the standard reporting categories: acellular/inadequate, benign, atypical, suspicious, and malignant (C1-C5.Results: Out of 395 patients, 210 were found to have palpable lesions with a mean age of 36 years (12-84 years. All patients were female. The FNAC sensitivity and specificity was 95.7% and 92.2%, respectively. Out of 210 patients, 15.3% were diagnosed with breast cancer on FNAC who were subsequently staged and discussed in the Breast Multidisciplinary Team Meeting (MDT, and 84.7% were diagnosed to have benign breast disorders who were reassured and advised to be followed up after 6 months.Conclusions: Immediate relief and reassurance to the majority of patients with benign disease obviate the need for review appointments. A reliable diagnosis can be obtained with triple assessment which can be used to avoid unnecessary core biopsy of benign lesions, if correctly done.

  1. Home exposure to Arabian incense (bakhour and asthma symptoms in children: a community survey in two regions in Oman

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    Al-Riyami Bazdawi M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incense burning has been reported to adversely affect respiratory health. The aim of this study was to explore whether exposure to bakhour contributes to the prevalence of asthma and/or triggers its symptoms in Omani children by comparing two Omani regions with different prevalence of asthma. Methods A randomly selected sample of 10 years old schoolchildren were surveyed using an Arabic version of ISAAC Phase II questionnaires with the addition of questions concerning the use and effect of Arabian incense on asthma symptoms. Current asthma was defined as positive response to wheeze in the past 12 months or positive response to "ever had asthma" together with a positive response to exercise wheeze or night cough in the past 12 months. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of bakhour exposure and other variables on current asthma diagnosis and parents' response to the question: "Does exposure to bakhour affect your child breathing?" Results Of the 2441 surveyed children, 15.4% had current asthma. Bakhour use more than twice a week was three times more likely to affect child breathing compared to no bakhour use (adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI 2.23–4.08 and this effect was 2.55 times higher in asthmatics (adjusted OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.97–3.31 compared to non-asthmatics. In addition, bakhour caused worsening of wheeze in 38% of the asthmatics, making it the fourth most common trigger factor after dust (49.2%, weather (47.6% and respiratory tract infections (42.2%. However, there was no significant association between bakhour use and the prevalence of current asthma (adjusted OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.63–1.20. Conclusion Arabian incense burning is a common trigger of wheezing among asthmatic children in Oman. However, it is not associated with the prevalence asthma.

  2. Pomegranate from Oman Alleviates the Brain Oxidative Damage in Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Selvaraju Subash

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress may play a key role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD neuropathology. Pomegranates (石榴 Shí Liú contain very high levels of antioxidant polyphenolic substances, as compared to other fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols have been shown to be neuroprotective in different model systems. Here, the effects of the antioxidant-rich pomegranate fruit grown in Oman on brain oxidative stress status were tested in the AD transgenic mouse. The 4-month-old mice with double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576 were purchased from Taconic Farm, NY, USA. Four-month-old Tg2576 mice were fed with 4% pomegranate or control diet for 15 months and then assessed for the influence of diet on oxidative stress. Significant increase in oxidative stress was found in terms of enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO and protein carbonyls. Concomitantly, decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed in Tg2576 mice treated with control diet. Supplementation with 4% pomegranate attenuated oxidative damage, as evidenced by decreased LPO and protein carbonyl levels and restoration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione (GSH, and Glutathione S transferase (GST]. The activities of membrane-bound enzymes [Na+ K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE] were altered in the brain regions of Tg2576 mouse treated with control diet, and 4% pomegranate supplementation was able to restore the activities of enzymes to comparable values observed in controls. The results suggest that the therapeutic potential of 4% pomegranate in the treatment of AD might be associated with counteracting the oxidative stress by the presence of active phytochemicals in it.

  3. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

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    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed.  Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  4. Formation of Fast-Spread Ocean Crust : Crystallographic Preferred Orientations From a Reference Lower Crust Section in the Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonse, B.; Mueller, T.; Mock, D.; Koepke, J.

    2016-12-01

    About 20 years ago, two competing models were proposed for the formation of the lower, gabbroic crust at fast-spreading ridges. The lower crust is either formed by downward flow of mushy material from the shallow axial melt lens (gabbro glacier), or by sill intrusions (sheeted sills). To further test these end-member models, we characterized the vertical distribution of Crystallographic Preferred Orientations (CPO) in Wadi Gideah gabbro section (Sumail ophiolite, Sultanate Oman), using the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique. CPO were measured on 67 gabbro samples, documenting a 5 km thick section, with an average interval of 80 m between samples. EBSD data sets were processed using MTEX, a free Matlab toolbox. Average misorientation in grains (angle between each pixel orientation and mean orientation of the grain) is very low ( 0.25°). This is consistent with magmatic flow in these rocks, and the paucity of crystal-plastic overprint. The strength (J index) of plagioclase CPO increases down-section, with a more pronounced variability in the layered gabbros. For clinopyroxene, the difference between upper (foliated) and lower (layered) gabbros is stronger, with low J in upper gabbros, and higher and more variable J in lower gabbros. In upper gabbros the symmetry of plagioclase and clinopyroxene CPO progressively evolves downward to progressively more oblate. Continuing down-section, the trend reverses, with progressively more prolate CPO in lower gabbros. The crystallographic fabric variability in the lower crust section calls for distinct formation mechanisms in the upper and lower gabbros. It is consistent with a hybrid model for crustal formation (Boudier et al., 1996, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00167-7). The genesis of the upper foliated gabbro can be at least partly explained by the gabbro glacier model, while the continuous emplacement of sheeted sills at various depths is a more plausible model for the lower layered gabbro section.

  5. New paleomagnetic data from the Wadi Abyad crustal section and their implications for the rotation history of the Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthew; Morris, Antony; Anderson, Mark; MacLeod, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Oman ophiolite is an important natural laboratory for understanding the construction of oceanic crust at fast spreading axes and its subsequent tectonic evolution. Previous paleomagnetic research in lavas of the northern ophiolitic blocks (Perrin et al., 2000) has demonstrated substantial clockwise intraoceanic tectonic rotations. Paleomagnetic data from lower crustal sequences in the southern blocks, however, have been more equivocal due to complications arising from remagnetization, and have been used to infer that clockwise rotations seen in the north are internal to the ophiolite rather than regionally significant (Weiler, 2000). Here we demonstrate the importance and advantages of sampling crustal transects in the ophiolite in order to understand the nature and variability in magnetization directions. By systematically sampling the lower crustal sequence exposed in Wadi Abyad (Rustaq block) we resolve for the first time in a single section a pattern of remagnetized lowermost gabbros and retention of earlier magnetizations by uppermost gabbros and the overlying dyke-rooting zone. Results are supported by a positive fold test that shows that remagnetization of lower gabbros occurred prior to the Campanian structural disruption of the Moho. NW-directed remagnetized remanences in the lower units are consistent with those used by Weiler (2000) to infer lack of significant rotation of the southern blocks and to argue, therefore, that rotation of the northern blocks was internal to the ophiolite. In contrast, E/ENE-directed remanences in the uppermost levels of Wadi Abyad imply large, clockwise rotation of the Rustaq block, of a sense and magnitude consistent with intraoceanic rotations inferred from extrusive sections in the northern blocks. We conclude that without the control provided by systematic crustal sampling, the potential for different remanence directions being acquired at different times may lead to erroneous tectonic interpretation.

  6. Characterization of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman using MERIS fluorescence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-03-01

    In this study, MERIS fluorescence data were utilized to monitor a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium bloom in 2008 in the Arabian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. The bloom was characterized using modified fluorescence line height (MFLH), enhanced Red-Green-Blue (ERGB) and true color composites, and the ratio of particulate backscattering (bbp) to MFLH (bbp/MFLH). In addition to high MFLH values and dark colors in ERGB images which are generally observed when blooms happen, it was found that the Cochlodinium bloom indicated species-specific signatures which consisted of reddish brown colors in true color composites and bbp/MFLH values below 0.2 mW-1 cm2 μm m-1 sr. Based on these findings, Cochlodinium blooms were successfully distinguished from blooms dominated by other species that were found in the study area, like diatom, Noctiluca, and Trichodesmium. Qualitative analysis showed that the fluorescence-based approach presented better performance than the chlorophyll-a anomaly approach for HAB detection, despite the sensitivity to atmospheric perturbations, benthic vegetation in coastal shallow waters, and variations in environmental conditions. The applicability of the HAB characterization approach tested for the first time over the study area using MERIS data was discussed and can be anticipated with sufficient knowledge of local bloom history. Combing different ocean color products is strongly recommended to improve our understanding of HAB dynamics and enhance our ability to characterize them. This is of great importance for marine environment protection and management and can lead to valuable information for contingency planning.

  7. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2015-07-01

    Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW) on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. . Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A'Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children's health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children's performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW) and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7-11 years, who had completed grades 2-4, were surveyed.  . Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7%) of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5-17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%), followed by arithmetic and language (16% each). BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2-6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. . Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  8. Diversity in the later Paleogene proboscidean radiation: a small barytheriid from the Oligocene of Dhofar Governorate, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Erik R.; Nasir, Sobhi; Al-Harthy, Abdulrahman; Groenke, Joseph R.; Kraatz, Brian P.; Stevens, Nancy J.; Al-Sayigh, Abdul Razak

    2012-02-01

    Despite significant recent improvements to our understanding of the early evolution of the Order Proboscidea (elephants and their extinct relatives), geographic sampling of the group's Paleogene fossil record remains strongly biased, with the first ~30 million years of proboscidean evolution documented solely in near-coastal deposits of northern Africa. The considerable morphological disparity that is observable among the late Eocene and early Oligocene proboscideans of northern Africa suggests that other, as yet unsampled, parts of Afro-Arabia might have served as important centers for the early diversification of major proboscidean clades. Here we describe the oldest taxonomically diagnostic remains of a fossil proboscidean from the Arabian Peninsula, a partial mandible of Omanitherium dhofarensis (new genus and species), from near the base of the early Oligocene Shizar Member of the Ashawq Formation, in the Dhofar Governorate of the Sultanate of Oman. The molars and premolars of Omanitherium are morphologically intermediate between those of Arcanotherium and Barytherium from northern Africa, but its specialized lower incisors are unlike those of other known Paleogene proboscideans in being greatly enlarged, high-crowned, conical, and tusk-like. Omanitherium is consistently placed close to late Eocene Barytherium in our phylogenetic analyses, and we place the new genus in the Family Barytheriidae. Some features of Omanitherium, such as tusk-like lower second incisors, the possible loss of the lower central incisors, an enlarged anterior mental foramen, and inferred elongate mandibular symphysis and diminutive P2, suggest a possible phylogenetic link with Deinotheriidae, an extinct family of proboscideans whose origins have long been mysterious.

  9. 核子密度仪在阿曼管沟回填中的应用%Use of nuclear density gauge for testing trench backfilling in Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓兆勋; 刘光然

    2011-01-01

    针对国际工程——阿曼马斯喀特污水管网工程点多、面广、管沟回填速度快、检测频率高等特点,阐述了核子密度仪的工作原理,依据英国BS标准进行校正的方法及针对阿曼政府对辐射源的管理所采取的防护措施,保证了工程质量和施工的顺利进行。%Considering Oman Muscat waste water collection network project——an international construction project which has many engineering aspects,requirement of quick backfilling and fast detection,high test frequencies,this article explains the working principle of the nuclear density gauge,according to the British BS standard method of correction and focusing on the management of the government of Oman to the radiation protection measures taken to ensure the engineering quality and construction to proceed smoothly.

  10. Epidemiology of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms in a Teaching Hospital in Oman: A One-Year Hospital-Based Study

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    Abdullah Balkhair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antimicrobial resistance is increasingly recognized as a global challenge. A few studies have emerged on epidemiology of multidrug resistant organisms in tertiary care settings in the Arabian Gulf. Aim. To describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Oman. Methods. A retrospective review of MDRO records has been conducted throughout the period from January 2012 till December 2012. Organisms were identified and tested by an automated identification and susceptibility system, and the antibiotic susceptibility testing was confirmed by the disk diffusion method. Results. Out of the total of 29,245 admissions, there have been 315 patients registered as MDRO patients giving an overall prevalence rate of 10.8 (95% CI 9.3, 12.4 MDRO cases per 1000 admissions. In addition, the prevalence rate of MDRO isolates was 11.2 (95% CI 9.7, 12.9 per 1000 admissions. Overall, increasing trends in prevalence rates of MDRO patients and MDRO isolates were observed throughout the study period. Conclusion. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging challenge in Oman. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility and strict adherence to infection prevention guidelines are essential to prevent proliferation of MDRO. Along such quest, stringent antibiotic prescription guidelines are needed in the country.

  11. Assessment of (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K activities from the northern coastline of Oman Sea (water and sediments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi-Golestan, F; Hezarkhani, A; Zare, M R

    2017-02-27

    Water and sediment samples were collected from northern coast of Oman Sea covering from Goatr to Hormoz canyon seaport. Water and sediment quality assessment for naturally or anthropogenic radionuclides at Oman Sea as a main strategic golf for trade and transit, is an important issue. Correspondence analysis (CA) by R-mode analysis represents that sigma(T)-temperature-conductivity-O2 parameters are well-correlated with (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. Accordingly Q-mode analysis revealed an indicator samples of ST13W for different radionuclides, ST03W for O2, and simultaneously ST34W-ST21W-ST08W-ST04W for sigma(T) parameters. The CA results overlapped with factor and cluster analysis results that explained 85.8% of total variance of water samples. Descriptive analysis of sediments indicates more significant variation than water samples. The (232)Th and (226)Ra generally showing that ST13D to ST25D sediments that restricted to Pi Bashk coastline are concentrated from (137)Cs and (40)K. By comparison with reference-values from Iran and other parts of the world, they are acceptable with respect to environmental and radioisotope hazards.

  12. A study of burrow morphology in representative axiidean and gebiidean mud shrimps, from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran

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    Vahid Sepahvand

    Full Text Available Mud shrimps (formerly Thalassinidea are common burrow dwelling decapod crustaceans in the littoral zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Their burrow morphology was investigated using foam casting methods. The present study shows that the burrow morphology in Upogebia carinicauda is not consistent and the recorded variations are based on habitat type and some physical characteristics of sediments. Adult burrow morphology in sandy-muddy substrate with shells, and boulder field habitats were Y-shaped and complex burrows of horizontal channels with turning chambers and vertical connections to internal passages or crevices of boulders, respectively. In burrows of U. carinicauda, some narrow passages, connected to the upper part of adult burrows in sandy-muddy habitats, belong to juveniles. Another species, Neocallichirus jousseaumei was found under boulders in sandy-muddy habitats of the Gulf of Oman and Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Since this type of habitat is special in some features, no conspicuous ex-current openings (usually obvious as conical mounds of extruded sediment have been observed on the sediment surface; as these were hidden among the boulders surrounded by mixed sand and shells. The only method for observing this type of burrow was to remove the boulders by hand or lever.

  13. Gleason’s Grading of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma: Inter-Observer Variation Among Seven Pathologists at a Tertiary Care Center in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asim; Lakhtakia, Ritu; AL Bahri, Maiya; Al Haddabi, Ibrahim; Saparamadu, Anna; Shalaby, Asem; Al Riyami, Marwa; Rizvi, Gauhar

    2016-11-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest solid malignancy seen in Omani elderly males 60-80 years of age. The Gleason grade is the most widely used grading system for prostatic carcinoma and is recommended by the World Health Organization. A peer review was carried out at the Pathology Department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, to assess the quality of reporting at the center. The aim of this study was to determine inter-observer variation among 7 pathologists working at a tertiary care center in Oman. A total of 47 consecutive prostatic biopsies were interdependently reviewed by seven pathologists and the results obtained were compared with each other and the original diagnosis. This peer review indicated a fair inter-observer agreement (0.482) among 7 pathologists in the department, with fair to moderate agreement when the results were compared to the reported diagnosis, comparable to the published literature. Dual and sub-specialty reporting are being instituted to improve the performance in this vital aspect of pathology.

  14. Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Hadi; Sajjadi, Mir Masoud; Parto, Paria; Rajaian, Hamid; Mokhlesi, Amin

    2010-06-01

    Rays are common elasmobranches in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea that may have one or more mineralized serrated stingers on the whip-like tail. The stingers are covered by epidermal cells among which some can produce venom. When these animals are dorsally touched, the stinger can be introduced into the aggressor by a whip reflex mechanism of the tail when the pectoral fins are touched, causing severe mechanical injuries and inoculating the venom. The exact localization of the venom secretory cells in the stinger of different species is controversial, but it is known that the cells are preferentially located in the ventro-lateral grooves in marine stingrays. A comparative morphological characterization of the stinger epidermal tissue of different ray species in the northern part of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was carried out in this study. EDTA was used for decalcification of stings and conventional histological processes were subsequently employed. The results indicated that structure of dermis and epidermis layers of stings in all species are similar to the structure of corresponding layers in other parts of fish's body. The results of the present study have shown that all examined species of Dasyatidae family, but not Myliobatidae and Gymnuridae families, had venom secretory cells. Distribution of venom secretory cells varies in each species and is often located around or inside the stinger ventro-lateral grooves. These differences among the stingers of various species may explain the envenomation severity in these species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae in their westernmost extent: an updated and illustrated checklist and key to the species in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

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    Mohsen Rezaie-Atagholipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Persian Gulf is known as the westernmost distribution limit for sea snakes, except for Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766 that reaches southeastern Africa. Previous identification guides for sea snakes of the Persian Gulf and its adjacent waters in the Gulf of Oman were based on old data and confined mostly to written descriptions. Therefore, a series of field surveys were carried out in 2013 and 2014 through Iranian coastal waters of both gulfs to provide a comprehensive sampling of sea snakes in the area. This paper presents an illustrated and updated checklist and identification tool for sea snakes in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, which are based on new material and a review of the literature. This checklist includes ten species of marine hydrophiines, of which one, Microcephalophis cantoris (Günther, 1864, is a new record for the area. All specimens examined herein are deposited and available at the Zoological Museum of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman province, Iran.

  16. High-temperature hydrothermal activities around suboceanic Moho: An example from diopsidite and anorthosite in Wadi Fizh, Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizawa, Norikatsu; Tamura, Akihiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Junji; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Python, Marie; Arai, Shoji

    2016-10-01

    Reaction products between hydrothermal fluids and uppermost mantle harzburgite-lowermost crustal gabbro have been reported along Wadi Fizh, northern Oman ophiolite. They are named mantle diopsidite (MD) or crustal diopsidite (CD) depending on the stratigraphic level. They construct network-like dikes crosscutting structures of the surrounding harzburgite or gabbro. The MD is mainly composed of diopsidic clinopyroxene, whereas the CD is of diopsidic clinopyroxene and anorthitic plagioclase. Here, we report a new reaction product, crustal anorthosite (CA), from the lowermost crustal section. The CA is always placed in the center of the CD network, and mainly consists of anorthitic plagioclase with minor titanite and chromian minerals such as chromite and uvarovite. Aqueous fluid inclusions forming negative crystals are evenly distributed in minerals of the CA. The fluid inclusions contain angular-shaped or rounded daughter minerals as calcite or calcite-anhydrite composite, which were identified by Raman spectroscopic analysis. We estimated their captured temperature at 530 °C at least by conducting microthermometric analysis of the fluid inclusions. Furthermore, we examined their chemical characteristics by direct laser-shot sampling conducted by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicate that the trapped aqueous fluids contain an appreciable amount of Na, but no K and Cr. Hydrothermal fluids involved in the CA formation transported Cr, which was probably taken up from chromite seams in the uppermost mantle section. Cr got soluble by forming complexes with anions as SO42-, CO32- and Cl-. In addition, these hydrothermal fluids transported Fe, Mg and trace elements (Ti, Sr, Y, Zr and rare-earth elements) governing whole-rock chemical compositions of the MDs, CDs and CAs. Our estimation for the condition of CA formation yielded rather low temperatures (530-600 °C), which indicates a later stage production of the CA

  17. Mechanical behaviour of the Oman metamorphic sole: rheology of amphibolites at lower crustal conditions during subduction initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Ildefonse, Benoît; Dubacq, Benoît; Prigent, Cécile; Yamato, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Amphibolites are commonly found in the middle to lower continental crust and along oceanic transform faults and detachments. Amphibolites are also the main component of metamorphic soles beneath highly strained peridotites at the base of large-scale ophiolites as exemplified in Oman. Metamorphic soles are crustal slivers stripped from the slab during early subduction and underplated below the upper plate (future ophiolite) mantle when the subduction interface is still young and warm (i.e. during the first million years -My- of intra-oceanic subduction). Understanding the rheological behaviour of amphibolitic rocks is therefore of major interest to model and quantify deformation and strain localisation in varied geodynamical environments. This contribution focuses on the deformation mechanisms of amphibole through a microstructural and petrological study of garnet-bearing and garnet-free clinopyroxene-bearing amphibolites, using EBSD analysis. The first aim is to test the influence of progres- sive changes in PT conditions during deformation and of the appearance/disappearance of anhydrous minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene and garnet) on the mechanical behaviour of mafic amphibolites. The second aim is to track deformation mechanisms during early subduction, through the study of these metamorphosed oceanic rocks, commonly 10-100 m thick, which range from high- to low-grade away from the contact with the peridotites (i.e. from 800 ± 100˚C - 0.9 ± 0.2 GPa to 500 ± 100˚C - 0.5 ± 0.1 GPa) and are essentially mafic at the top). Our study points out the existence of two major steps of deformation in the high-temperature amphibolite slices of the metamorphic soles during the early subdduction dynamics. These two steps witness important mechanical coupling and progressive strain localization at plate interface under cooling and hydrated conditions after subduction initiation. During the accretion of the first slice of metamorphic sole at 850 ± 50˚C (the garnet

  18. The geochemical stratigraphy and bulk composition of the lower oceanic crust in the Wadi Khafifah section the Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    It has long been known that mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are not the direct result of mantle melting, but rather have experienced some degree of crystal fractionation and mixing prior to eruption. Yet fundamental questions as to where this fractionation occurs within the lower oceanic crust and upper mantle, what degree of fractionation they undergo, and how much magma mixing occurs, remain to be answered. There are two ways of constraining the composition of the oceanic crust; and thus, the degree of fractional crystallization and other processes occurring in both the mantle and crust at spreading ridges: (1) from the bottom-up, investigating the nature and extent of mantle melting, or (2) from the top-down, quantifying the composition of the erupted and intruded oceanic crust. The first of these has been the most common approach to-date. This study is concerned with the top-down approach to constraining the composition and nature of the oceanic crust. We present a detailed, stratigraphically-constrained, bulk composition for the lower crust of the Wadi Khafifah section of the Oman ophiolite. Together with sheeted dikes and lavas having trace element contents similar to MORB, the bulk crustal composition meets two fundamental criteria for a mantle-derived melt: (1) It has Mg# in equilibrium with Fo90 mantle olivine; (2) it is multiply saturated in ol+aug+opx±plag/sp at shallow mantle pressures. In addition, clinopyroxene crystallizes early, eliminating the so-called `pyroxene paradox'. The parent magma represents an aggregate produced by polybaric decompression melting of depleted MORB mantle (DMM), which has crystallized approximately 5% olivine - probably by reactive fractionation (e.g., Collier & Kelemen, J Petrol 2010) in the crust-mantle transition zone - prior to emplacement within the crust. An additional 40-60% fractional crystallization (ol+aug+ plag) in the lower crust is required to produce the observed sheeted dike and lava compositions. Where data

  19. Controls on the stable isotope compositions of travertine from hyperalkaline springs in Oman: Insights from clumped isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, E. S.; Guo, W.; Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Mervine, E. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonate formation at hyperalkaline springs is typical of serpentinization in peridotite massifs worldwide. These travertines have long been known to exhibit large variations in their carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, extending from apparent equilibrium values to highly depleted values. However, the exact causes of these variations are not well constrained. We analyzed a suite of well-characterized fresh carbonate precipitates and travertines associated with hyperalkaline springs in the peridotite section of the Samail ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman, and found their clumped isotope compositions vary systematically with formation environments. Based on these findings, we identified four main processes controlling the stable isotope compositions of these carbonates. These include hydroxylation of CO2, partial isotope equilibration of dissolved inorganic carbon, mixing between isotopically distinct carbonate end-members, and post-depositional recrystallization. Most notably, in fresh crystalline films on the surface of hyperalkaline springs and in some fresh carbonate precipitates from the bottom of hyperalkaline pools, we observed large enrichments in Δ47 (up to ∼0.2‰ above expected equilibrium values) which accompany depletions in δ18O and δ13C, yielding about 0.01‰ increase in Δ47 and 1.1‰ decrease in δ13C for every 1‰ decrease in δ18O, relative to expected equilibrium values. This disequilibrium trend, also reflected in preserved travertines ranging in age from modern to ∼40,000 years old, is interpreted to arise mainly from the isotope effects associated with the hydroxylation of CO2 in high-pH fluids and agrees with our first-order theoretical estimation. In addition, in some fresh carbonate precipitates from the bottom of hyperalkaline pools and in subsamples of one preserved travertine terrace, we observed additional enrichments in Δ47 at intermediate δ13C and δ18O, consistent with mixing between isotopically distinct carbonate end

  20. Soil abandonment in artificial soil terraces in marginal areas. Preliminary results of a case of water shortage effect in soils from Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Sara Kalifah Al; Kindi, Samaya Salim Al; Pracejus, Bernhard; Moraetis, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Soil abandonment is taking place in marginal land areas in Sultanate of Oman. Artificial soil terraces in high elevation rocky mountainous areas left without agricultural activities due to water shortage. Soil terraces have been established approximately 700 years ago and constitute a significant part of the Oman cultural and natural heritage. The present study investigates the soil state in those areas and seeks the possible reasons for the land abandonment. Questionnaires were prepared to interview the opinion of the local people. In addition, meteorological data were gathered to analyze the rain patterns in the area and most importantly, six soil profiles in two different areas in marginal rocky areas of Oman were sampled. The soils are in artificial terraces in Wijma and Hadash villages with elevation of 1247 and 1469 m respectively at mountainous slopes of 20 to 45 degrees. Most of the land was abandoned the last 20 years, while one terrace had agriculture activity 3 years ago. The questioners and interviews showed that water shortage was the reason of land abandonment. The rain patterns show a reduction of annual precipitation at least the last 10 years of available metrological data in the area. The total soil depth in the six soil profiles was between 33 to 70 cm. The main horizons include AC and C and there was a characteristic hard soil horizon in most of the soil profiles with accumulation of carbonate minerals (caliche). The soil pH was mainly alkaline between 7.5 to 8.1 and the electrical conductivity range between 42 to 859 μS/cm. A horizonization in electrical conductivity showed more dissolved solids in lower horizons compare to the upper 10 cm of the soil and this was coinciding with the hard layers in lower soil profiles. It appeared that several hundred years (or maximum 1000 years) old soils showed the development of hard soil layers which are characteristic in arid areas. The upper soil layers showed low conductivity probably due to surface

  1. Peridote-water interaction generating migration pathways of H2-rich fluids in subduction context: Common processes in the ophiolites of Oman, New-Caledonia, Philippines and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Pillot, D.; Vacquand, C.; Sissmann, O.

    2010-12-01

    The occurrence of H2 flows which were punctually known notably in the ophiolites of Oman, Zambales (Philippines) and Antalya (Turkey) appears to be a widespread phenomenon in these major peridotite massifs associated with ancient or active subduction processes. Similar H2-rich gas flows have been discovered also in the peridotite of New-Caledonia. H2 concentrations are locally high (commonly 60 to90% in Oman). H2 is frequently degassing in hyperalkaline springs but the highest flows were found directly expelled from fractures in the peridotites. Obviously, within the fracture systems, gas and associated hyperalkaline water separate at shallow depth close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically in the fractures, whereas water with degassing H2 tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. The genesis of natural H2 is interpreted as the result of the interaction, at depth, between ultrabasic mantle rocks in the upper plate and water expelled by the subducted sediments by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water during serpentinisation. CH4 is commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids and it is interpreted as the result of the reduction of available CO2 at depth. N2 is also commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites, whereas N2 flows (within H2) were found in the subducted sediments (below the sole décollement of the peridotite) where it can be observed (Oman and New-Caledonia). Within the peridotites, the hyperalkaline water is rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal décollement of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). This hyperalkaline water migration induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting at depth within the fracture systems by the

  2. Chanel, Camper ja Topshop internetissä : Kolmen muotibrändin oman median käyttö ja hallinta.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkin kolmen muotibrändin oman digitaalisen median käyttöä (esimerkiksi brändin omat verkkosivustot, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube). Tutkittavat brändit ovat Chanel, Camper ja Topshop. Aluksi selvitän, millä eri tavoilla ja missä digitaalisissa kanavissa valitut muotibrändit ovat rakentaneet omaa digitaalista presenssiään. Seuraavassa vaiheessa syvennän työtä selvittämällä, miten brändi ja kuluttaja kommunikoivat havaitussa brändiekosysteemissä. Tavoitteenani oli löy...

  3. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Seham Salim Al-Hdhrami; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and identify the chemical compositions of different organic plants crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita) grown in Sultanate of Oman by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The powder sample was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of M. piperita and its derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were prepared.Results:MS showed that majority of these compounds are bioactive.Conclusions:According to the results of the present study, the plant crude extracts could be Qualitative analyses of various organic plant crude extracts of M. piperita by using GC-used as medicine for the treatment of different diseases. The analysis and identification of the chemical compounds in the plant crude extracts by using GC-MS was the first time.

  5. Scenario-based tsunami risk assessment using a static flooding approach and high-resolution digital elevation data: An example from Muscat in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bastian; Hoffmann, Gösta; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of tsunami risk and vulnerability is essential to establish a well-adapted Multi Hazard Early Warning System, land-use planning and emergency management. As the tsunami risk for the coastline of Oman is still under discussion and remains enigmatic, various scenarios based on historical tsunamis were created. The suggested inundation and run-up heights were projected onto the modern infrastructural setting of the Muscat Capital Area. Furthermore, possible impacts of the worst-case tsunami event for Muscat are discussed. The approved Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Model was used to model the structural vulnerability of the infrastructure for a 2 m tsunami scenario, depicting the 1945 tsunami and a 5 m tsunami in Muscat. Considering structural vulnerability, the results suggest a minor tsunami risk for the 2 m tsunami scenario as the flooding is mainly confined to beaches and wadis. Especially traditional brick buildings, still predominant in numerous rural suburbs, and a prevalently coast-parallel road network lead to an increased tsunami risk. In contrast, the 5 m tsunami scenario reveals extensively inundated areas and with up to 48% of the buildings flooded, and therefore consequently a significantly higher tsunami risk. We expect up to 60000 damaged buildings and up to 380000 residents directly affected in the Muscat Capital Area, accompanied with a significant loss of life and damage to vital infrastructure. The rapid urbanization processes in the Muscat Capital Area, predominantly in areas along the coast, in combination with infrastructural, demographic and economic growth will additionally increase the tsunami risk and therefore emphasizes the importance of tsunami risk assessment in Oman.

  6. Sediment transport and decadal morphodynamic changes in the Tang Estuary with a Re-Migrating inlet, Iranian Coastline of the Oman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratpour, Behrouz; Amjadi, Soma; Haghshenas, S. Abbas

    2016-04-01

    The Tang Estuary located on the Iranian Coastline of the Oman Sea, The estuary's inlet is a rare re-migrating one which connects the Tang bay/estuary to the Oman Sea. The estuary experiences considerable floods and sediment load during occasional intense rainy periods. The upstream watershed supplies the narrow inlet channel with heavy sediment load twice a year on average. Moreover, a reef acts as a headland/natural offshore breakwater, which results in the formation of a tombolo in front of the estuary inlet. The most important feature of the system is the migration of the channel and the inlet which has occurred at least three times during the past 50 years. Considering the importance of this dynamic system and corresponding sediment discharge, physiography and watershed analysis of the Tang Estuary is investigated and sediment discharge from the channel and its sand content are estimated in the first step. A numerical model has been utilized to investigate cases of flow and sediment transport behaviour in the coastal Tang area and future migration patterns of the re-migrating inlet is estimated. The morphodynamic changes are investigated by analysing two sets of aerial photos taken in 1967 and 1993, a series of high resolution satellite images from 2008 and 33 series of lower resolution data in the period of 1966 to 2015 in a GIS framework to investigate decadal evolution of the Tang Estuary the past five decades. Eventually, numerical results are compared with field observations and comprehensive GIS based analysis of historic shoreline changes from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Management guidelines and suggestions are deducted and drawn from the calibration and verification of the results with field observations and satellite image analysis.

  7. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section; Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gonsalves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results: Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5% and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%. The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%. Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5% and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%, although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%, intrapartum fever (4.4%, rupture of the membranes (2.9% and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%. However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%. Conclusion: The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  8. Democracy Promotion in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    members of the Majlis al-Shura ( Con - sultative Assembly), and the sultan appoints members of the Majlis al-Dawla (State Assembly). Women also gained...Abdulhadi Khalaf and Giacoko Luciani, 189–193 ( Dubai : Gulf Research Center, 2006). Omanis elected one woman to the Majlis al-Shura in October...groups consist mostly of younger Omanis, many of whom are unemployed and largely motivated by the country’s economic con - ditions. The unemployment

  9. Sedimentology, rhythmicity and basin-fill architecture of a carbonate ramp depositional system with intermittent terrigenous influx: The Albian Kharfot Formation of the Jeza-Qamar Basin, Dhofar, Southern Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salad Hersi, O.; Abbasi, I. A.; Al-Harthy, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Albian Kharfot Formation is preserved in the eastern margin of the Jeza-Qamar Basin which straddles across the Oman-Yemen border. This study addresses the sedimentological attributes of the formation and deduces its depositional setting, cyclicity and relative sea level changes in local (within the basin) and regional (Arabian) contexts. The interaction among siliciclastic influxes, in-situ carbonate production and tectono-climatic controls on the stacking nature of the various lithofacies that build-up the formation is discussed. In the study area, the formation lies unconformably over Barremian-Aptian Qishn Formation and conformably under late Albian-?Turonian Dhalqut Formation. The Kharfot Formation thickens from ~ 140 m in the eastern side of the study area to ~ 300 m at the Oman-Yemen border. It consists of eight lithofacies: Orbitolina-rich marls, peloidal bioclastic packstone, bioclastic mudstone to wackestone, argillaceous, bioclastic floatstone to rudstone, bioclastic rudstone, sandy, peloidal, bioclastic mudstone to packstone, peloidal, bioclastic grainstone and dolostone. The vertical arrangement of these lithofacies defines recurring meter- to decameter-scale, shallowing-upward units deposited on a westward-deepening inner- to outer-ramp setting. Tectonic rejuvenation of the siliciclastic source area was accompanied by warm, humid climatic conditions as suggested by high kaolinitic marls of the Kharfot Fm. and coeval quartz-rich sandstone units (Harshiyat Fm.). The shallowing-upward rhythmic sedimentation of the formation has close resemblance with cycles of the Nahr Umr Formation in northern Oman and partially comparable with the global sea level changes. The Kharfot basin was an intrashelf depression that was part of the much larger Arabian epeiric platform. The latter is defined by a rimmed margin in northern Oman where Al-Hassanat Formation represents platform margin deposits and Nahr Umr Formation representing back-rim intrashelf depression

  10. Non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction in arid environments: Land-use change, frankincense production and the sustainability of Boswellia sacra in Dhofar (Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Mohamud Haji

    Frankincense, a much revered non-timber forest product (NTFP) known as luban in Oman, is a gum-resin extracted from Boswellia sacra (meqerot). In Oman, B. sacra is endemic to ecological zones in and around Dhofar's southern mountain ranges of Jabal Samhan, Jabal Qamar and Jabal Qara. Hojar (Samhan Nejd), Nejd (Qara Nejd), Shazr (Qamar Nejd) and Sha'b are the four B. sacra ecological zones. A suffix (i) after the name (i.e. Hojari or Samhan Nejdi) is indicative of the luban produced in or associated with the respective zone. Traditional Omani B. sacra ownership, management, organization, and frankincense extraction are based on a land parcel system known as menzela. The 1970's oil boom attracted rural labor to urban and oil operation centers in Dhofar and other provinces, thus creating a labor shortage that had a profound transformative impact on frankincense production. This transformation caused frankincense extraction to evolve from an Omani-controlled system to a Somali-dominated hybrid system. Migrant Somali harvesters predominantly control the production and processing of frankincense in the field. Similarly, wholesalers occupy the next rung up the production ladder are the most powerful players in the frankincense industry. Dhofar has a long history of non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. From April to mid-June 1999, luban production in the Hojari/Nejdi zone of the study area was estimated at 8,710 kg with a seasonal projection of 24,840kg-30,360kg. B. sacra, a single or multiple stem shrub restricted to wadis in arid environments in or around the Dhofar Mountains, can be found at elevations from 60m above sea level in Wadi Adonib on the coastal plains to 1,770m above sea level in Wadi Kharish (a branch of Wadi Qobyr) in jabal Samhan). Land-use and landcover changes in Dhofar are threatening the fragile stability of B. sacra habitats. Frankincense trees on easily accessible flat or gently sloping terrain are susceptible to stress and mortality from

  11. Evidence for seagrass meadows and their response to paleoenvironmental changes in the early Eocene (Jafnayn Formation, Wadi Bani Khalid, N Oman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Sara; Frijia, Gianluca; Bömelburg, Esther; Zamagni, Jessica; Perrin, Christine; Mutti, Maria

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and understanding of vegetated habitats in the fossil record are of crucial importance in order to investigate paleoecological responses and indirectly infer climate and sea-level changes. However, the low preservation potential of plants and macroalgae hampers a direct identification of these environments in the geological past. Here we present sedimentological and paleontological evidences as tool to identify the presence of different seagrass-vegetated environments in the shallow marine settings of the lower Eocene Jafnayn platform of Oman and their responses to paleoenvironmental changes. The studied lower Eocene deposits consist of well bedded, nodular packstones dominated by encrusting acervulinid and alveolinid foraminifera passing upward to an alternance of packstones with echinoids and quartz grains and grainstones rich in Orbitolites, smaller miliolid foraminifera and quartz grains. The presence of seagrass is inferred by the occurrence of encrusting acervulinids and soritid Orbitolites, as well as by their test morphologies together with further sedimentological criteria. The clear shift observed in the faunal assemblages and sedimentary features may be related to a major reorganization of the carbonate system passing from a carbonate platform to a ramp-like platform with increased terrigenous sedimentation. Heterotroph tubular acervulinids and oligotroph alveolinids of the carbonate platform were replaced upward by more heterotroph organisms such as large, discoidal Orbitolites and smaller miliolids, most likely due to enhanced nutrient levels which would have led to a change of phytal substrate, from cylindrical-leaf dominated grasses into flat-leafed ones.

  12. Determination of total phenol, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of seeds and fruits of Zizyphus spina-christi grown in Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatma Alhakmani; Shah Alam Khan; Aftab Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform phytochemical screening and to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of seeds and fruits of Zizyphus spina-christi (ZSC) growing in Oman. Methods: Alcoholic extract of the dry powdered seeds and fruits of ZSC was obtained by cold maceration method and was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Total phenolic content were estimated by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity of plant extracts. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results:Phytochemical analysis of both the extracts revealed the presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc.. ZSC seeds were found to contain the highest total phenolics but ZSC fruits exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of both parts of the plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. Conclusions:Based on the results of this pilot study, it can be concluded that ZSC is a good source of natural antioxidants which can be used to prevent progression of many chronic diseases. Further detailed phytochemical studies are needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for exhibiting potent anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Promoting Learning by Inquiry Among Undergraduates in Soil Sciences: Scaffolding From Project-based Courses to Student-Staff Research Grants by the National Research Agency in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ismaily, Said; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Three strategies in a soil science undergraduate programme with inquiry-based learning (IBL) principles at Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, are presented. The first strategy scaffolds courses into three phases: with direct instructional guidance, structured IBL, and finally, guided to open IBL. The second strategy involves extra-curricular activities of undergraduates, viz. conducting workshops on soils for pupils in grades 7-9 with their teachers. The third strategy promotes the teaching-research nexus through collaboration between the undergraduates and faculty within a student-supporting, government-funded programme through 1-year long research grants of up to 5,500 US/project. The efficiency of the strategies was evaluated by students' evaluations of courses and instructors and questionnaire-based surveys. Statistics of students' responses in teaching evaluations of IBL courses showed a significantly higher level of satisfaction compared with regular courses taught in the department and college. In surveys of other constituencies of the program, viz. the secondary schools, more than 90% of respondents "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that they had learned new information/secrets about soils. The indicators of success in the third strategy are: winning a highly competitive grant and, moreover, earning an even more competitive annual national award for the best executed research project. The two top graduates of the IBL soil programme progressed into the MSc programme with the university and national scholarships. Key words: inquiry based learning, soil science undergraduate program, scaffold of courses, outreach activities, teaching-research nexus, evaluation of program's efficiency

  14. Successful Treatment of Cardiomyopathy due to Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: First Case Report from Oman with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharef Waadallah Sharef

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MIM 201475 is a severe defect of mitochondrial energy production from oxidation of very long-chain fatty acids. This inherited metabolic disorder often presents in early neonatal period with episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia usually responding well to intravenous glucose infusion. These babies are often discharged without establishment of diagnosis but return by 2-5 months of age with severe and progressive cardiac failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without hepatic failure and steatosis. An early diagnosis and treatment with high concentration medium chain triglycerides based feeding formula can be life saving in such patients. Here, we report the first diagnosed and treated case of Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Oman. This infant developed heart failure with left ventricular dilation, hypertrophy and pericardial effusion at the age of 7 weeks. Prompt diagnosis and subsequent intervention with medium chain triglycerides-based formula resulted in a reversal of severe clinical symptoms with significant improvement of cardiac status. This treatment also ensured normal growth and neurodevelopment. It is stressed that the disease must be recognized by the pediatricians and cardiologists since the disease can be identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry; therefore, it should be considered to be included in expanded newborn screening program, allowing early diagnosis and intervention in order to ensure better outcome and prevent complications.

  15. Patterns of prescription drugs use among pregnant women at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Family and Community Medicine Clinic, Oman

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    J Z Al-Hamimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluates the patterns of prescription drugs use among women attending antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH and SQUH Family and Community Medicine clinic (FAMCO, Oman. Methods: The study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study on pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at SQUH and FAMCO from February to April 2014 and received a prescription containing at least one drug. Patients' information was extracted from SQUH electronic records. Results: A total of 105 pregnant women were included in the study. Among the recruited pregnant women, 35 (33.3% had at least one chronic disease. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient per prescription during the period of pregnancy was 2.33 ± 1.43. Vitamins and minerals were the most frequently prescribed class of drugs (30.60% followed by analgesics (11.19% and antidiabetic drugs (10.13%. According to the Food and Drug Administration risk classification, most of the prescribed drugs were from category B (30.0% and C (27.14%. No drug was prescribed from category X. There was a significant decrease in prescribing category A drugs over the three trimesters (20.7%, 12.7%, and 9.3%, respectively (P < 0.047. Conclusion: The study gives an overview of the extent of drug prescription during pregnancy and increases the awareness of health-care providers and women about the potential risks of drug use during pregnancy.

  16. Bankruptcy Prediction Using the Altman Z-score Model in Oman: A Case Study of Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries

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    Shariq Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial health is of great concern for a business firm. For measuring the financial health of a business firm, there are lots of techniques available. However, Altman’s Z-score has been proven to be a reliable tool. This model envisages predicting the possibilities of bankruptcy of manufacturing organization. Multiple discriminate analyses (MDA are useful tools in such situations. The use of MDA helps to consolidate the effect of all ratios. Keeping the above view in mind, the “Z score” analysis has been adopted to monitor the financial health of the company. The current study has been conducted to assess the financial health of a firm namely Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries in Oman. This study was based on the secondary data which was obtained from the published sources i.e. Annual report for the period of 8 years (2007 to 2014. The study revealed that the Company Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries are financially sound as they have higher Z score than the benchmark (2.99 except in some years of study. The findings of the study may be useful for the managers to take financial decision, the stockholders to choose investment options and others to look after their interest in the concerned cement manufacturers of the country.

  17. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

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    Salvador Carranza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains. Recent taxonomic studies on the Zagros populations of Asaccus have shown that this genus is much richer than it was previously thought and preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that its diversity in Arabia may also be underestimated. Methods A total of 83 specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus (including specimens of the two new species described herein, six other Asaccus species from the Hajar and the Zagros Mountains and two representatives of the genus Haemodracon were sequenced for up to 2,311 base pairs including the mitochondrial 12S and cytb and the nuclear c-mos, MC1R and ACM4 genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches and the former method was also used to calibrate the phylogenetic tree. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were inferred from the phased nuclear genes only. Sixty-one alcohol-preserved adult specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus from the northern Hajar Mountains were examined for 13 morphometric and the five meristic variables using multivariate methods and were also used to diagnose and describe the two new species. Results The results of the molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the species originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus is, in fact, an assemblage of three different species that started diversifying during the Mid-Miocene. The molecular phylogenies consistently

  18. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Salvador; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Jayasinghe, Sithum; Wilms, Thomas; Els, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the highest mountain range in Eastern Arabia. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals with strong Indo-Iranian affinities. Among vertebrates, the rock climbing nocturnal geckos of the genus Asaccus represent the genus with the highest number of endemic species in the Hajar Mountains. Recent taxonomic studies on the Zagros populations of Asaccus have shown that this genus is much richer than it was previously thought and preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that its diversity in Arabia may also be underestimated. A total of 83 specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus (including specimens of the two new species described herein), six other Asaccus species from the Hajar and the Zagros Mountains and two representatives of the genus Haemodracon were sequenced for up to 2,311 base pairs including the mitochondrial 12S and cytb and the nuclear c-mos, MC1R and ACM4 genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches and the former method was also used to calibrate the phylogenetic tree. Haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were inferred from the phased nuclear genes only. Sixty-one alcohol-preserved adult specimens originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus from the northern Hajar Mountains were examined for 13 morphometric and the five meristic variables using multivariate methods and were also used to diagnose and describe the two new species. The results of the molecular and morphological analyses indicate that the species originally classified as Asaccus caudivolvulus is, in fact, an assemblage of three different species that started diversifying during the Mid-Miocene. The molecular phylogenies consistently recovered the Hajar endemic A. montanus as

  19. Deformation of a continental margin sequence under a thrust sheet: complex stress history in a high pressure cell revealed by vein systems in the Oman Mountains

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    Virgo, Simon; Urai, Janos L.; Grobe, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Seven deformation phases can be mapped in mesozoic carbonates of the Jebel Akhdar mountains in North Oman. These include an early horizontal NE-SW directed extension that produced bedding confined vein sets with evidence for anticlockwise rotation of the stress field over time, interpreted to have developed during the thrust sheet emplacement. It is followed by a phase of top-NE bedding parallel shearing which rotates these veins on the North side of the mountains. The next phase is normal to oblique slip faults followed by at least two phases of strike-slip deformation. A "background" ductile deformation (maximum burial temperatures of 250 °C) is shown bu deformed fossils and diagenetic concretions. Each of these phases is consistently documented by a large number of observations of overprinting in nearly continuous outcrops. Each deformation phase produces vein sets that do not only differ in orientation but also in occurrence and appearance. Early vein sets exhibit a high stratigraphic variability, but are laterally very stable. With the onset of faulting, the stratigraphic variability decreases and the lateral variability becomes more significant. Even though the area offers excellent outcrop conditions with nearly 100% exposure, it is virtually impossible to find two outcrops that exhibit the same vein patterns. This has interesting implications for vein system analysis and is due to two reasons: (1) the stratigraphic and lateral variability of occurrence and orientation of each vein set cause different combination of vein sets do develop in different layers (2) Intersecting vein sets can show very different interaction such as crosscutting and reactivation, depending on the mechanical properties of the host rock and the veins.

  20. Ground-based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Mapping Rock Alterations and Lithologies: Case Studies from Semail Ophiolite, Oman and Rush Springs Sandstone, Oklahoma

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    Sun, L.; Khan, S.; Hauser, D. L.; Glennie, C. L.; Snyder, C.; Okyay, U.

    2014-12-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing data to map rock alterations and lithologies at Semail Ophiolite, Oman, as well as hydrocarbon-induced rock alterations at Cement, Oklahoma. The Samail Ophiolite exposed the largest, least-deformed, and the most-studied ophiolite in the world. Hydrocarbon seepages at Cement, Oklahoma brought hydrocarbons to the Rush Springs sandstones at surface, and generated rock alterations including bleaching of red beds, and carbonate cementation. Surficial expressions of rock alterations and different lithofacies are distinct from adjacent rocks, and can be detected by remote sensing techniques. Hyperspectral remote sensing acquires light intensity for hundreds of bands in a continuous electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to short-wave infrared radiation, and holds potential to characterize rocks with great precision. Ground-based hyperspectral study could scan the objects at close ranges thus provide very fine spatial resolutions (millimeters to centimeters). This study mapped all the major iconic outcrops of Semail ophiolite including pillow lava, sheeted dykes, layered gabbros, and peridotites. This study also identified surficial rock alterations induced by hydrocarbons at Cement, Oklahoma. Reddish-brown Rush Spring sandstones are bleached to pink, yellow, and gray colors; pore spaces in the sandstones have been filled with carbonate cementation. Laboratory spectroscopy was used to assist with mineral identification and classification in hyperspectral data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to provide high-accuracy spatial references. Principal component analysis, minimum noise fraction, spectral angle mapper, and band ratios are used in image processing. Combining lithological, remote sensing and geochemical data, this study built a model for petroleum seepage and related rock alterations, and provided a workflow for employing ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in petrological

  1. Two new cestode species of Tetragonocephalum Shipley & Hornell, 1905 (Lecanicephalidea, Tetragonocephalidae from Himantura randalli Last, Manjaji-Matsumoto & Moore (Myliobatiformes, Dasyatidae from the Gulf of Oman

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    Atabak Roohi Aminjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The original description of the genus Tetragonocephalum was published more than one hundred years ago but its taxonomic status was clarified only recently. To date, approximately 30 nominal species of this genus have been described, mostly from the northern Indian Ocean, but nearly half of them are invalid and only 14 species are recognized as valid. In the present study two new species of Tetragonocephalum are described from the spiral intestine of Himantura randalli from off Jod, on the northern coast of the Gulf of Oman. Tetragonocephalum sabae sp. n. is distinguishable from the valid species of Tetragonocephalum based on number of proglottids (43−53, number of testes (42−50, and size of scolex (401−453×328−455, acetabula (87−109×72−116, mature proglottids (802−1,333×226−336, cirrus sac (92−160×103−154, and eggs (16−19×11−13. Tetragonocephalum salarii sp. n. can be distinguished from T. sabae sp. n. and all other valid species of Tetragonocephalum based on number of proglottids (77−86. Furthermore, it differs from its congeners based on a combination of some characteristics, including the number of mature (3−7 and gravid (18−20 proglottids, the number of testes (30−38, and the size of acetabula (84−111×80−96, mature proglottids (497−833×334−403, gravid proglottids (1,036−1,482×440−575, testes (20−34×31−50, ovary (123−215×210−278, and eggs (24−45×13−21.

  2. Relationships between physical and chemical factors and aquatic macroinvertebrates in perennial streams in the arid northern mountain basin El Batinah, Oman

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    S. Boulaaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between physical properties, water chemistry and aquatic macroinvertebrates were investigated in riffles of four perennial streams in the arid northern Oman. Samples were collected monthly in autumn, winter and spring with a Surber net. Thirty two invertebrate taxa were recorded, most species are widely distributed, but few species with very restricted distribution were also captured. Diptera followed by Pulmonata, Coleoptera and Odonata were the most represented taxa, Trichoptera and Heteroptera were a significant component only in one station (the Fezeh, where the lowest mean water temperature (23°C was recorded. In the dry months from May to October, aquatic macroinvertebrates were completely absent. In order to summarise the community response some biotic indices were calculated. The highest diversity was observed in the Fezeh station. A seasonal gradient was also observed, with the highest diversity values in January, April, and December. The low faunal diversity was attributed to the high air and water temperature and the hydrological regime instability. A between station and a between month coinertia analysis was carried out, to analyse the response to spatial and seasonal factors. The first coinertia axis was correlated with altitude and substrate composition, while the second axis was correlated with air and water temperature. The present research emphasizes the urgency for preserving the less disturbed wadis in arid zones, because, despite their species poorness, their uniqueness in faunal composition requires special attention. The presence of few endemic species with very restricted distribution highlights the topicality and the value in investigating these areas, allowing the increase of our knowledge on biodiversity, ecology and biogeography about the benthic macroinvertebrates living in these extreme habitats.

  3. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  4. Plasmid-Mediated Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 in an Escherichia coli ST10 Bloodstream Isolate in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Jalila; Pál, Tibor; Petersen, Jorgen Eskild; Darwish, Dania; Ghazawi, Akela; Ashraf, Tanveer; Sonnevend, Agnes

    2017-08-11

    To identify plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Oman, where this resistance mechanism has not been encountered yet. Twenty-two colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates collected between July 2014 and June 2016 in a tertiary care hospital in Muscat were screened by PCR for the mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes. The strain identified as mcr-1 positive was genotyped and its antibiotic susceptibility was established. The mcr-1 containing plasmid was mobilized into Escherichia coli K-12 and its sequence was determined. A single E. coli isolate (OM97) carrying mcr-1 gene was identified, while no strains carrying the mcr-2 gene was found. E. coli OM97 was isolated in June 2016 from blood culture of a male patient with multiple comorbidities. It belonged to ST10. Beyond colistin, it was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole. The mcr-1 gene was located on a conjugative IncI2-type plasmid of 63722 bp size, which did not harbor any further resistance genes. The genetic surrounding of the mcr-1 gene lacked the ISApl1 element. Although colistin resistance caused by the mcr-1 gene is not common in our collection of clinical isolates, the occurrence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in an E. coli ST10 strain is of concern as this clonal group was already shown to spread ESBL genes and quinolone resistance worldwide. It is especially worrisome that as the mcr-1 gene occurred in a non-ESBL, carbapenem-susceptible E. coli strain, current susceptibility testing algorithms may not detect its presence.

  5. Effects of charcoal-enriched goat manure on soil fertility parameters and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in a sandy soil from northern Oman

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    Melanie Willich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of charcoal feeding on manure quality and its subsequent application to enhance soil productivity has received little attention. The objectives of the present study therefore were to investigate the effects of (i charcoal feeding on manure composition, and (ii charcoal-enriched manure application on soil fertility parameters and growth of millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.. To this end, two experiments were conducted: First, a goat feeding trial where goats were fed increasing levels of activated charcoal (AC; 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9% of total ration; second, a greenhouse pot experiment using the manure from the feeding trial as an amendment for a sandy soil from northern Oman. We measured manure C, N, P, and K concentrations, soil fertility parameters and microbial biomass indices, as well as plant yield and nutrient concentrations. Manure C concentration increased significantly (P<0.001 from 45.2% (0% AC to 60.2% (9% AC with increasing dietary AC, whereas manure N, P, and K concentrations decreased (P<0.001 from 0% AC (N: 2.5%, P: 1.5%, K: 0.8% to 9% AC (N: 1.7%, P: 0.8%, K: 0.4%. Soil organic carbon, pH, and microbial biomass N showed a response to AC-enriched manure. Yield of millet decreased slightly with AC enrichment, whereas K uptake was improved with increasing AC. We conclude that AC effects on manure quality and soil productivity depend on dosage of manure and AC, properties of AC, trial duration, and soil type.

  6. Safety and Complications of Double-Lumen Tunnelled Cuffed Central Venous Dialysis Catheters; Clinical and radiological perspective from a tertiary centre in Oman

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    Rana S. Hamid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the technical success, safety and immediate and delayed complications of double-lumen tunnelled cuffed central venous catheters (TVCs at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH, Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January 2012 and October 2013. The clinical records and radiological data of all patients who underwent ultrasound- and fluoroscopy-guided TVC placement at SQUH during the study period were reviewed. Demographic data and information regarding catheter placement, technical success and peri- and post-procedure complications (such as catheter-related infections or thrombosis were collected. Results: A total of 204 TVCs were placed in 161 patients. Of these, 68 were female (42.2% and 93 were male (57.8%. The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 17.3 years. The most common reason for catheter placement was the initiation of dialysis (63.4%. A total of 203 procedures were technically successful (99.5%. The right internal jugular vein was the most common site of catheter placement (74.9%. Mild haemorrhage which resolved spontaneously occurred in 11 cases (5.4%. No other complications were observed. Subsequent follow-up data was available for 132 catheters (65.0%; of these, thrombosis-related catheter malfunction was observed in 22 cases (16.7% and catheter-related infection in 29 cases (22.0%. Conclusion: Radiological-guided placement of tunnelled haemodialysis catheters can be performed safely with excellent technical success. The success rate of catheter insertion at SQUH was favourable in comparison with other studies reported in the literature.

  7. Natural flows of H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites of Oman and the Philippines: Tectonic control of migration pathways and associated diagenetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Monnin, C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Arcilla, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    We compare the geological environments of sites of emission of natural hydrogen in the Oman ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite (Luzon, Philippines). The genesis of natural H2 results from the interaction between ultrabasic rocks and aqueous solutions circulating in deep fracture networks, by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water, probably under high temperature conditions. This process generates very reducing conditions capable of destabilizing other molecules (notably reduction of deep CO2 being transformed into CH4 by Fisher-Tropsch type reactions). Nitrogen is also commonly associated to the H2-rich fluids. H2 flows are associated with the expulsion of hyperalkaline waters rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal thrust plane of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Within the fracture networks, gas and water separate probably at shallow depth, i.e. close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically through fracture pathways and they are able to inflame spontaneously on the surface. Aqueous fluids tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. This water circulation induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting in the fracture systems and continuing at the surface where it leads to the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, brucite and more rarely portlandite. This chain of diagenetic reactions is associated with the capture of the atmospheric CO2 during the precipitation of carbonates.

  8. Determination of sucrose in date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) growing in the Sultanate of Oman by NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Boqué, Ricard; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Javid; Hafidh, A; Hind, K; Ahmed, M A G; Manzoor, A; Hussain, Hidayat; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Iman, S H; Said, Jahina J; Hamood, Sara A

    2015-01-01

    A Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method combined with multivariate calibration was developed for the determination of the amount of sucrose in date fruits growing in the Sultanate of Oman. In this study two groups of samples were used: one group of 48 sucrose standard solutions in the concentration range from 0.01% to 50% (w/v) and another group of 54 date fruit samples of 18 different varieties. The sucrose standard samples were split in two sets, i.e. one training set of 31 samples and one test set of 17 samples. All samples were measured with a NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 700 to 2500 nm. The spectra collected were preprocessed using baseline correction and Savitzky-Golay 1st derivative. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was used to build the regression model with the training set of 31 samples. This model was then validated by using random leave-one-out cross-validation. Later, the PLS regression model was externally validated by using the test set of 17 samples of known sucrose concentration. The root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) was found to be of 1.5%, which shows a good prediction ability of the model. Finally, the PLS model was applied to the spectra of 54 date fruit samples to quantify their sucrose amount. It was found that the Khalas, Barnia Nizwi, Ajwa Almadina, Maan, and Khunizi varieties contain high amounts of sucrose, i.e. ranging from 36% to 60%, while Naghal, Fardh, Nashu and Qash Tabaq varieties contain the least amount of sucrose, ranging from 3.5% to 8.1%.

  9. 235U, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in marine sediments along the northern coast of Oman Sea using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2012-09-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in sediment samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz canyon to Goatr seaport, as the first time has been determined. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. Sediments from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs using two high purity germanium detectors with 38.5% and 55% relative efficiencies. The concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.01 and 2.87 Bq/kg, 11.83 and 22.68 Bq/kg, 10.7 and 25.02 Bq/kg, 222.89 and 535.07 Bq/kg and 0.14 and 2.8 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose.

  10. Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D

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    Nasrollah Erfani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seaweeds have proven to be a promising natural source of bioactive metabolites for drug development. Objective: This study aimed to monitor the ethanol extract of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, for their in vitro cytotoxic activity on three human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Three human breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231(ER− , MCF-7(ER + , and T-47D (ER + were treated by different concentrations of total ethanol (90% algae extracts and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Doxorubicin (Ebewe, Austria was used as a positive control. After 72 h of incubation, the cytotoxic effect of the algae was calculated and presented as 50%-inhibitory concentration (IC 50 . Results: The results indicated Gracilaria foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. to be the most active algae in terms of cytotoxic effects on the investigated cancer cell lines. The IC 50 values against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cells were, respectively, 74.89 ± 21.71, 207.81 ± 12.07, and 203.25 ± 30.98 mg/ml for G. foliifera and 66.48 ± 4.96, 150.86 ± 51.56 and >400 mg/ml for Cladophoropsis sp. The rest of the algal extracts were observed not to have significant cytotoxic effects in the concentration range from 6.25 mg/ml to 400 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our data conclusively suggest that G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may be good candidates for further fractionation to obtain novel anticancer substances. Moreover, stronger cytotoxic effects on estrogen negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231(ER− in comparison to estrogen positive cells (MCF-7 and T-47D suggest that the extract of G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may have an estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-independent mechanism for their cellular growth inhibition.

  11. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax metacaspase 1 and Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistance 1 genes of field isolates from Mauritania, Sudan and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Fatimata; Bonnot, Guillaume; Ahmed, Bilal Rabah; Diagana, Sidi Mohamed; Kebe, Hachim; Koita, Mohamedou; Samba, Ba Malado; Al-Mukhaini, Said K; Al-Zadjali, Majed; Al-Abri, Seif S; Ali, Osama A M; Samy, Abdallah M; Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel; Ali Albsheer, Musab M; Simon, Bruno; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Petersen, Eskild; Picot, Stéphane

    2017-02-02

    Plasmodium vivax is the second most important human malaria parasite, widely spread across the world. This parasite is associated with important issues in the process toward malaria elimination, including potential for relapse and increased resistance to chloroquine. Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistant (pvmdr1) is suspected to be a marker of resistance although definitive evidence is lacking. Progress has been made in knowledge of biological factors affecting parasite growth, including mechanisms of regulated cell death and the suspected role of metacaspase. Plasmodium vivax metacaspase1 (PvMCA1-cd) has been described with a catalytic domain composed of histidine (H372) and cysteine (C428) residues. The aim of this study was to test for a link between the conserved histidine and cysteine residues in PvMCA1-cd, and the polymorphism of the P. vivax multi-drug resistant gene (pvmdr1). Thirty P. vivax isolates were collected from Mauritania, Sudan, and Oman. Among the 28 P. vivax isolates successfully sequenced, only 4 samples showed the conserved His (372)-Cys (428) residues in PvMCA1-cd. Single nucleotide polymorphisms observed were H372T (46.4%), H372D (39.3%), and C428R (85.7%). A new polymorphic catalytic domain was observed at His (282)-Cys (305) residues. Sequences alignment analysis of pvmdr1 showed SNP in the three codons 958, 976 and 1076. A single SNP was identified at the codon M958Y (60%), 2 SNPs were found at the position 976: Y976F (13%) and Y976V (57%), and 3 SNPs were identified at the position 1076: F1076L (40%), F1076T (53%) and F1076I (3%). Only one isolate was wildtype in all three codons (MYF), 27% were single MYL mutants, and 10% were double MFL mutants. Three new haplotypes were also identified: the triple mutant YVT was most prevalent (53.3%) distributed in the three countries, while triple YFL and YVI mutants (3%), were only found in samples from Sudan and Mauritania. Triple or quadruple mutants for metacaspase genes and double or triple

  12. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  13. Across-slope relations between the biological populations, the euphotic zone and the oxygen minimum layer off the coast of Oman during the southwest monsoon (August, 1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, P. J.; Fasham, M. J. R.; Weeks, A. R.; Hemmings, J. C. P.; Roe, H. S. J.; Pugh, P. R.; Holley, S.; Crisp, N. A.; Angel, M. V.

    1998-01-01

    An area some 120×70 km off the eastern coast of Oman (containing the UK JGOFS Arabesque station) was intensively studied over a 17 day period in August 1994, with the objective of determining the relationships between the biological populations, the oxygen minimum layer and the dynamic hydrography of the euphotic zone. The outer margin of the area was delimited by a rectangle of 15 full depth CTD casts and the hydrography was further defined by two Seasoar surveys within the box. Midwater trawls were used to sample the populations at three stations, oceanic, slope and shelf edge respectively. Day and night samples of macroplankton and micronekton were taken at each station to determine the extent of diel vertical migration and the effect of the hypoxic region on these migrations. Concurrent ADCP data were used to follow the migrations and spatial changes in real time. Despite the limited area studied the patterns of upwelling and their temporal and spatial changes were complex. Coastal upwelling was observed directly only at the southwestern edge of the area during both Seasoar surveys. Persian Gulf Water was a consistent but spatially discrete feature of the region at depths of 200-300 m. Arabian Sea Surface Water was present at the eastern margin of the first survey. Between these two water masses was a large area with small horizontal gradients and variable silicate and chlorophyll levels. Satellite data suggest that this water may have been advected as a filament from a more northerly coastal source. Very marked changes took place in the hydrography and in the phytoplankton composition and abundance at the reference station at 19°N 59°E over the 16 day period between visits. The highest biomass of plankton and micronekton (expressed as wet volume or as carbon) occurred in the upper 100 m, closely correlated with the relatively high oxygen levels at these depths. Gelatinous animals predominated in these layers, with additional swarms of swimming crabs. Quite

  14. Magmatism and metamorphism at the sheeted dyke-gabbro transition zone: new insight from beerbachite from ODP/IODP Hole 1256D and Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Python, Marie; Abily, Bénédicte; France, Lydéric

    2014-05-01

    During IODP Expedition 335, two-pyroxenes bearing granulites (beerbachites) were extensively recovered as drilling cuttings at the gabbro-sheeted dyke transition zone of ODP Hole 1256D (East Pacific Rise, 6°44.163'N, 91°56.061'W). This lithology results from high-temperature metamorphism of previously hydrothermally altered diabases, basalts and/or gabbros; the heat source likely stems from the melt lens located at the top of the magmatic chambers imaged along present-day fast-spreading ridges. This lithology, associated with gabbroic bodies, characterises the transition zone between the sheeted dyke complex and the uppermost gabbroic section and represents the interface between magmatic and hydrothermal convecting systems in an oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Samples acquired during IODP Exp. 335 show a particularly high degree of recrystallisation and are characterised by the absence of hydrous phases like amphibole, suggesting very high-T metamorphism. The Beerbachites mineral chemical characteristics are rather homogeneous compared to gabbros or dolerite from the sheeted dyke but pyroxenes Mg#, Ti, Al and Cr contents as well as the anorthite content of plagioclase are closer to gabbro than dolerite. This similarity may be explained by two hypothesis: either beerbachites in Hole 1256D are metamorphosed gabbros, or they underwent a melt-rock reaction process with the gabbros parental magma and were re-equilibrated at high temperature until their mineral composition become similar to that of gabbros. The gabbro-sheeted dyke transition zone in the Oman ophiolite is also outlined by the presence of high grade metamorphic rocks. Fine grained granulites and amphibolites that may be derived from the transformation of altered sheeted dyke diabases are in direct contact with fresh gabbroic and troctolitic bodies which are themselves cross-cut by dolerite dykes. The observation of textures show that high-T recrystallisation occurred in the fine grained

  15. Demand-side management energy saving potential in commercial and governmental/institutional sectors and its impact on power planning : a case study of central grid of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.S.; Al-Khrousi, A.R.; Al-Hindi, M.; Al-Mahrouqi, Y. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). College of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of Demand-Side Management (DSM) energy saving potential in commercial, government and institutional sectors of Oman were presented along with an evaluation of its impact on generation capacity and energy savings. DSM was defined as electricity demand management by methods such as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, and strategic conservation. Peak clipping reduces electricity demand during on-peak periods of the day, thus lowering the peak demand that utilities must meet. In contrast, valley filling increases the electrical load during off-peak periods. Load shifting refers to the movement of loads from peak periods to off-peak periods without any shift in energy use. Strategic load growth aims to increase the load in the future, while strategic conservation aims to decrease the load in the future without any shift in demand to another time. The purpose of DSM is to influence the amount or timing of customers' energy use. It has a positive environmental outlook and provides the best solution between load growth and increasing constraints on new and existing generation, transmission and distribution capacity. Resource options for DSM include energy efficiency options, such as energy efficient appliances, lighting, high efficiency heating, ventilating and air conditioning. Other options include load management and tariffs such as time-of-use incentives. The goal of electricity planning is to meet the load forecast with high reliability at a minimum cost. DSM economic energy savings potential is worked out from both the customer point of view and the electric utility's point of view. The study showed that the use of DSM in commercial and government sectors is economically justified from the customer point of view. DSM programs in the government and commercial sectors reduced the energy consumption to 21 and 38 per cent respectively. The discounted payback period of investment in efficient lighting and air-conditioning was between 4

  16. Methane origin in the Samail ophiolite: Comment on "Modern water/rock reactions in Oman hyperalkaline peridotite aquifers and implications for microbial habitability" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179 (2016) 217-241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Miller et al. (2016) report a new study of fluids in the peridotites of the Samail ophiolite in Oman related to modern serpentinization (olivine hydration), a process that can provide energy and raw materials for chemosynthetic microbial life. The authors, in particular, report an isotopic composition for methane (CH4) in groundwater near Ibra (up to 1.4 mM) that is unusually 13C-enriched (δ13CCH4 ∼ +2.4 and +3‰ VPDB), and consider the gas origin to be uncertain, i.e., abiotic or microbial, and to be modulated by significant fractionation due to oxidation or diffusion. The purpose of this comment is to clarify and correct a few points concerning the possible origin of the δ13CCH4 values, with the intention to promote a fruitful and constructive debate, considering the interest that there is for serpentinization and the associated formation of various gases.

  17. Oman Maan historiatulkinnat kansakuntaa rakentamassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riina Turunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arvio teoksesta Karonen, Petri & Räihä, Antti (toim.: Kansallisten instituutioiden muotoutuminen. Suomalainen historiakuva Oma Maa -kirjasarjassa 1900–1960. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura. 2014. 457 s. ISBN 978- 952-222-606-8.

  18. Architecture and dynamic of lower Cretaceous carbonate platform in sultanate of Oman: correlations between seismic data and outcrop; Architecture et dynamique des systemes carbonates de la plate-forme Cretace inferieur du Sultanat d'Oman: correlations entre donnees de sismique et d'affleurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bec, A.

    2004-12-15

    The Rayda Basin, located in northern Oman at the south-eastern passive margin of the Arabian plate, has been filled in by a pro-grading carbonate system during the Lower Cretaceous. The filling up basin realized to carbonate platform pro-gradation on 300 km. Pelagic facies represented with radiolarian chert and shallowing facies with erosive surface, mud-cracks and lagoonal mud, and displaying on seismic lines an alternation of high angle and low angle clinoforms at the 10's of kilometers scale. Detailed study of these two types of clinoforms in the nearby outcrops shows that the high angle system is dominated by high-energy, grainy facies (ooliths, rudists, stromatoporoids), while the low angle system is dominated by a low-energy, carbonate mud facies. Based on the subsurface (geometries) and outcrop (facies) data a regional depositional model is proposed for this system. The outcrop study is based on 14 measured sections (6764 meters), completed with photo panoramas, thin section analysis and geochemical analyses (carbonate and organic matter content). The subsurface dataset consists of several regional seismic lines, two high resolution 3D blocs, and is supported by core material The regional seismic lines allow to map out the position of the high and low angle clinoform belts. One high angle belt and two low angle belts are identified in the profiles. In outcrop at least one more high angle belt and one more low angle belt are present. These overall geometries probably define the large scale sequence organisation. At a smaller scale, the 3D blocs allow to show the detailed geometrical organisation of the clinoform belts. The outcrop sections provide critical sub-seismic scale data on the facies composition and depositional geometries. The high energy system of the steep clinoforms (angle estimated at several degrees), is probably a wave controlled barrier coastline system, while the muddy low angle clinoforms (angle < 0.5 degree) shows large convex and

  19. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds. Mission Orgon 4, 1978 (golfe d'Aden, mer d'Oman. Généralités et résultats obtenus à la mer Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Organ 4 Mission, 1978 (Gulf of Aden, Sea of Oman. General and Results Obtained At Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quatre articles distincts traitent, le premier des généralités sur la mission ORGON 4, le second du cadre géographique et géologique général, ainsi que de la description des carottes prélevées, le troisième de la biochimie des eaux et le dernier de la microbiologie. Plusieurs milieux ont été rencontrés et étudiés, qui vont de la lagune (Ghubbet el Kharab à la fosse tectonique profonde (fosse d'Alula-Fartak. Deux radiales, l'une en mer d'Arabie, l'autre dans le golfe d'Oman, permettent de suivre l'évolution des caractères depuis les zones côtières jusqu'à la plaine abyssale. L'implantation des sites de carottage avait été étudiée de manière à éviter les zones à apport détritique important (cône de l'Indus : les résultats rapportés indiquent que ce but a été certainement atteint et en particulier que la matière organique des sédiments est massivement d'origine marine autochtone (planctonique. L'étude des eaux a retrouvé un résultat antérieurement acquis, à savoir l'existence dans les profondeurs moyennes (800 à 1800 m d'une zone à minimum de teneur en oxygène très marqué (équivalent à 1 ml/1, correspondant à des milieux de sédimentation a caractère réducteur net et à teneur en matièe organique relativement importante. De façon plus générale, les teneurs en carbone organique des sédiments prélevés à ORGON 4 sont les plus élevées de toutes celles mesurées dans les missions ORGON, à la fois en moyenne et pour les valeurs maximales ; ceci est certainement lié à la productivité primaire exceptionnelle des eaux sus-jacentes. Les études microbiologiques n'ont pas retrouvé les phénomènes spectaculaires d'ORGON 3 : niveaux à microflore exceptionnellement importante encadrés de niveaux stériles dans les profondeurs des carottes. Néanmoins, des tendances vers l'acquisition de ce caractère existent dans certains niveaux. Il faut signaler qu'un essai d'étude plus exhaustive des

  20. Genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman reveals the dominance of Panton–Valentine leucocidin-negative ST6-IV/t304 clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Udo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA genotypes circulating at a tertiary hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 79 MRSA isolates were obtained from different clinical samples and investigated using antibiogram, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec, Spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. The isolates were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, tigecycline and mupirocin but were resistant to tetracycline (30.4%, erythromycin (26.6%, clindamycin (24.1%, trimethoprim (19.0%, ciprofloxacin (17.7%, fusidic acid (15.2% and gentamicin (12.7%. Molecular typing revealed 19 PFGE patterns, 26 Spa types and 21 sequence types. SCCmec-IV (86.0% was the dominant SCCmec type, followed by SCCmec-V (10.1%. SCCmec-III (2.5% and SCCmec-II (1.3% were less common. ST6-IV/t304 (n = 30 and ST1295-IV/t690 (n = 12 were the dominant genotypes followed by ST772-V/t657 (n = 5, ST30-IV/t019/t021 (n = 5, ST22-IV/t852 (n = 4, ST80-IV/t044 (n = 3 and 18 single genotypes that were isolated sporadically. On the basis of SCCmec typing and MLST, 91.2% of the isolates were classified as community-associated MRSA and 8.8% of the isolates (consisting of four ST22-IV/t852, one ST239-III/t632, one ST5-III/t311 and one ST5-II/t003 were classified as healthcare-associated MRSA. The study has revealed the dominance of a Panton–Valentine leucocidin-negative ST6-IV/t304 clone and provided insights into the distribution of antibiotic resistance in MRSA at the tertiary hospital in Oman. It also highlights the importance of surveillance in detecting the emergence of new MRSA clones in a healthcare facility.

  1. A Study on the use of Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter (Web2.0) among selected academic libraries from 6 Gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to explore and study the current usage trends of Web2.0 namely Facebook, RSS, Blogs and Twitter among selected higher education institutions’ libraries in 6 gulf countries namely: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and Kuwait. Websites of the selected libraries would be compared on the extent of the usage of these tools, the participation level and their purpose. The author would also share his opinion and suggestions on improving the current trends pertaining to the area of Web2.0 and libraries. The impact and importance of Web2.0 on libraries cannot be disputed. Since gaining popularity in mid-2000, libraries around the globe have jumped onto the Web2.0 bandwagon. Among the common examples of Web2.0 used by libraries today are namely: social networking sites, blogs, wikis, folksonomies and video sharing sites. Libraries are using Web2.0 to (among others): • market their services / resources to their community, • announce latest library news, • provide their online guides / notes for their resources among others. Though such tools have been implemented by most libraries around the world, some of the challenges faced by libraries are: •participation level – casting the net to a wider audience •selection of web2.0 tools •effectiveness of present web2.0 tools used by the libraries

  2. Reservoir quality in the A2C-Stringer interval of the late Neoproterozoic Ara-Group of the South Oman Salt Basin. Diagenetic relationships in space and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). LuFG Reservoir Petrology; Reuning, L.; Kukla, P.A. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Geological Inst.; Abe, S.; Li, Shiyan; Urai, J.L. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geomechanics; Farqani, S.; Lopes Cardozo, G.; Rawahi, Z. [Petroleum Development Oman (Oman)

    2013-08-01

    The Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group of the South Oman Salt Basin consists of six carbonate to evaporite (rock salt, gypsum) sequences. These Ara Group carbonates are termed A0C to A6C from the bottom towards the top of the basin. Differential loading of locally 5 km thick Cambrian to Ordovician clastics onto the mobile rock salt of the Ara Group caused growth of isolated salt diapirs, which resulted in strong fragmentation and faulting of the carbonate intervals into several isolated so-called 'stringers'. These carbonate stringers represent a unique intra-salt petroleum system, which has been successfully explored in recent years. However, some of the stringers failed to produce at significant rates due to the complex diagenetic history from the shallow to the deep burial realm. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, to unravel the complex diagenesis and its relative timing and link them to the burial history of the salt basin. Secondly, to detect spatial distribution patterns of diagenetic phases and their effect on reservoir properties. Mineralogy, rock fabrics, paragenetic relationships and geochemistry of {proportional_to} 400 samples from several petroleum wells from the late Neoproterozoic A2C interval were analyzed and combined with pre-existing data. The spatial distribution of diagenetic phases and petrophysical characteristics will be displayed in field-scale distribution maps. These maps comprise crucial information for better prediction of reservoir quality in the analyzed fields, planning of new exploration wells and better volumetric calculations. An integration of the paragenetic sequence derived from thin-section analysis with results from finite element and discrete element models further helps to constrain the effect of salt tectonics on fracture formation and fluid evolution within the stringers.

  3. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-05-01

    To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  4. The rediscovery of Strix butleri(Hume,1878) in Oman and Iran,with molecular resolution of the identity of Strix omanensis Robb,van den Berg and Constantine,2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magnus S.Robb; George Sangster; Mansour Aliabadian; Arnoud B.van den Berg; Mark Constantine; Martin Irestedt; Ali Khani; Seyed Babak Musavi; Jo?o M.G.Nunes; Ma?a Sarrouf Willson; Alyn J.Walsh

    2016-01-01

    Background:Many species of owls(Strigidae) represent cryptic species and their taxonomic study is in flux.In recent years,two new species of owls of the genus Strix have been described from the Middle East by different research teams.It has been suggested that one of these species,S.omanensis,is not a valid species but taxonomic compari?sons have been hampered by the lack of voucher specimens of S.omanensis,and the poor state of the holotype of S.butleri.Methods:Here we use new DNA sequence data to clarify the taxonomy and nomenclature of the S.butleri complex.We also report the capture of a single S.butleri sensu stricto in Mashhad,Iran.Results:A cytochrome b sequence of S.omanensis was found to be identical to that of the holotype of S.butleri,indicating that the name S.omanensis is best regarded as a junior synonym of S.butleri.The identity of the S.butleri captured in Mashhad,Iran,was confirmed using DNA sequence data.This represents a major(1300 km) range exten?sion of this species.Conclusions:The population discovered in Oman in 2013 and originally named ‘S.omanensis’ actually represents the rediscovery of S.butleri,which was known from a single specimen and had not been recorded since 1878.The range of S.butleri extends into northeast Iran.Our study augments the body of evidence for the recognition of S.butleri and S.hadorami as separate species and highlights the importance of using multiple evidence to study cryptic owl species.

  5. The rediscovery ofStrix butleri (Hume, 1878) inOman andIran, withmolecular resolution ofthe identity ofStrix omanensis Robb, van den Berg andConstantine, 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magnus S. Robb; Maïa Sarrouf Willson; Alyn J. Walsh; George Sangster; Mansour Aliabadian; Arnoud B. van den Berg; Mark Constantine; Martin Irestedt; Ali Khani; Seyed Babak Musavi; João M. G. Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many species of owls (Strigidae) represent cryptic species and their taxonomic study is in lfux. In recent years, two new species of owls of the genusStrix have been described from the Middle East by different research teams. It has been suggested that one of these species,S. omanensis, is not a valid species but taxonomic compari‑sons have been hampered by the lack of voucher specimens ofS. omanensis, and the poor state of the holotype ofS. butleri. Methods: Here we use new DNA sequence data to clarify the taxonomy and nomenclature of theS. butleri complex. We also report the capture of a singleS. butleri sensu stricto in Mashhad, Iran. Results: A cytochromeb sequence ofS. omanensis was found to be identical to that of the holotype ofS. butleri, indicating that the nameS. omanensis is best regarded as a junior synonym ofS. butleri. The identity of theS. butleri captured in Mashhad, Iran, was conifrmed using DNA sequence data. This represents a major (1300 km) range exten‑sion of this species. Conclusions: The population discovered in Oman in 2013 and originally named ‘S. omanensis’ actually represents the rediscovery ofS. butleri, which was known from a single specimen and had not been recorded since 1878. The range ofS. butleri extends into northeast Iran. Our study augments the body of evidence for the recognition ofS. butleri andS. hadorami as separate species and highlights the importance of using multiple evidence to study cryptic owl species.

  6. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55%and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99%and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  7. OIB signatures in basin-related lithosphere-derived alkaline basalts from the Batain basin (Oman) - Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar ages and Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Jung, S.; Pfänder, J. A.; Romer, R. L.; Mayer, B.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.

    2017-08-01

    Tertiary rift-related intraplate basanites from the Batain basin of northeastern Oman have low SiO2 ( 9.73 wt.%) and moderate to high Cr and Ni contents (Cr > 261 ppm, Ni > 181 ppm), representing near primary magmas that have undergone fractionation of mainly olivine and magnetite. Rare earth element systematics and p-T estimates suggest that the alkaline rocks are generated by different degrees of partial melting (4-13%) of a spinel-peridotite lithospheric mantle containing residual amphibole. The alkaline rocks show restricted variations of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ranging from 0.70340 to 0.70405 and 0.51275 to 0.51284, respectively. Variations in Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb: 18.59-18.82, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.54-15.56, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.65-38.98) of the alkaline rocks fall in the range of most OIB. Trace element constraints together with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition indicate that assimilation through crustal material did not affect the lavas. Instead, trace element variations can be explained by melting of a lithospheric mantle source that was metasomatized by an OIB-type magma that was accumulated at the base of the lithosphere sometimes in the past. Although only an area of less than 1000 km2 was sampled, magmatic activity lasted for about 5.5 Ma with a virtually continuous activity from 40.7 ± 0.7 to 35.3 ± 0.6 Ma. During this period magma composition was nearly constant, i.e. the degree of melting and the nature of the tapped source did not change significantly over time.

  8. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined byα,αα-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α,αα-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively). Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  9. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α, α- diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively. Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  10. Neli omanäolist tantsutruppi Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Estonia Teatris 25. ja 26. apr. rootsi Cullberg Ballett, 29. ja 30. apr. Von Krahli Teatris saksa tantsutrupp Rubato, 1. mail Ugalas ja 4. mail Vene Draamateatris norra Jo Strımgren Kompanii ja 6. mail esineb Von Krahli Teatris sooloetendustega Thomas Lehmen

  11. Neli omanäolist tantsutruppi Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Estonia Teatris 25. ja 26. apr. rootsi Cullberg Ballett, 29. ja 30. apr. Von Krahli Teatris saksa tantsutrupp Rubato, 1. mail Ugalas ja 4. mail Vene Draamateatris norra Jo Strımgren Kompanii ja 6. mail esineb Von Krahli Teatris sooloetendustega Thomas Lehmen

  12. Oman tien rullaajat : Joensuulainen skeittiporukka 1990-luvulla

    OpenAIRE

    Tanskanen, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Tämä tutkimus käsittelee 1990-luvun joensuulaista skeittariryhmää ja sitä, kuinka ryhmään kuuluneet jälkeenpäin ovat kokeneet skeittikulttuurin vaikuttaneen heidän elämäänsä ja mikä tässä kulttuurissa oli heille tärkeää. Tarkastelen rullalautailukulttuuria alakulttuurina ja vastakulttuurina. Alakulttuurin osalta käsittelen muun muassa ryhmän pukeutumista, tyyliä ja kuunneltua musiikkia. Vastakulttuurin näkökulmasta pyrin tarkastelemaan skeittikulttuurin ideologisia puolia, kuten suhtautumis...

  13. Selected highlights of the VIII International Symposium of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) on Growth, Puberty and Endocrine Complications in Thalassaemia. Auditorium of the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) Muscat (Sultanate of Oman), 20th of December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Wali, Yasser; Elsedfy, Heba; Daar, Shahina; Al-Yaarubi, Saif A H; Mevada, Surekha Tony; Tony, Surekha; Elshinawy, Mohamed; Fawzy, Hanan; Al-Subhi, Taimoora; Al-Rawas, Abulhakim; Al-Muslehi, Muhanna; El Kholy, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The VIII ICET-A International Symposium was held in Muscat (Sultanate of Oman) on the 20th of December, 2014. The symposium included four sessions on a wide range of topics covering growth disorders and endocrine complications in thalassaemia. Despite the fact that endocrine complications are very common in multi-transfused thalassaemia patients a recent survey conducted by the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescent Medicine (ICET-A) in 2014 in Acitrezza (Catania, Italy) showed that the major difficulties reported by hematologists or pediatricians experienced in thalassaemias or thalassaemia syndromes in following endocrine complications included: Lack of familiarity with medical treatment of endocrine complications, interpretation of endocrine tests, lack of collaboration and on-time consultation between thalassaemic centres supervised by haematologists and endocrinologists. Endocrine monitoring of growth, pubertal development, reproductive ability and endocrine function in general are essential to achieve a good quality of life as well as controlling the pain which results from the defects of bone structure, all of which increase with the age of patients. Such comprehensive care is best provided by coordinated, multidisciplinary teams working in expert centres. The multidisciplinary team must include an endocrinologist, preferably someone experienced in the management of hormonal deficiencies caused early in life by transfusion-induced iron overload.

  14. Emotional Intelligence in Language Instruction in Oman: The Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika; Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2016-01-01

    The field of English Language Teaching (ELT) has long sought to identify traits of good language learners, in an effort to teach these traits to less successful language learners (Rubin, 1975). Emotional Intelligence has recently come to the forefront of research on language learning and teaching, and is now increasingly recognized as an important…

  15. Epidemiological Transition of End-Stage Kidney Disease in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Al Ismaili

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: The incidence and prevalence of ESKD has increased progressively over last 30 years. This is anticipated to continue at an even higher rate in view of the progressive rise in noncommunicable diseases. Continuous improvement in registries is required to improve capturing of ESKD patients for providing accurate data to health authorities, and enhancing public awareness of the magnitude, future trends, treatments, and outcomes regarding ESKD.

  16. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  17. Trace Metals And Organic Matter Diagenesis At The Oman Margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    Trace Metals (e.g. Mn and Fe) play an important role as secondary oxidants in the degradation of sedimentary OM under sub-oxic conditions. Hence the remineralisation of organic constituents of sediments in the marine environment may significantly...

  18. Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    international religious freedom and on trafficking in persons. Human rights report for 2015: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253153.pdf...1 Democratization, Human Rights, and Unrest...5 Broader Human Rights Issues

  19. Using "Total Physical Response" with Young Learners in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harrasi, Kothar Talib Sulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Among several approaches to teaching and learning a foreign language, Total Physical Response, or TPR, is one that simulates the way children naturally acquire their mother tongue. Instructors give commands to students in the new language, and students respond through gestures. This article showcases a language learning project that the Ministry…

  20. Organic matter composition in sediments of the Oman margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.

    and fulvic acids, which are more slowly broken down (Henrichs, 1992; Fabiano and Danovaro, 1994). Only the labile fraction of OM undergoes early diagenesis whereas the refractory one accumulates in the sediments (Hedges and Keil, 1995). The objectives... at C020 C14 C until analysis. Frozen cores collected within the OMZ area (12690#1, 12692#1 and 12695#2) were sliced at 5 mm intervals down to 10 mm depth; and at 10 mm intervals between 10 and 70 mm depth; and 20 mm intervals between 70 and 150 mm...

  1. Phosphorites from the Oman Margin, ODP Leg 117

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.

    . The phosphate grains occur as coprolites, faecal pellets, spherical and coated grains, micronodules, foraminifer infillings and bone fragments. The sediment levels dominated by phosphate grains are bioturbated and associated with shallow water oxic conditions...

  2. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M

    2015-02-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  3. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  4. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  5. Students' Perception of Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Education in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Rakesh; Al Balushi, Hanan; Belwal, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Universities and other higher educational institutions play an increasingly important role in providing entrepreneurship education, training, and technical assistance to existing and potential entrepreneurs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perceptions of entrepreneurship and the role of universities in developing…

  6. Evaluation of Critical Thinking in Higher Education in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar.R, Renjith; James, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the critical level thinking of students in higher education. It is focused to evaluate the level of critical thinking variables among the students in Nizwa College of Technology and to determine whether these variables are influenced by gender and department. The data for the research is collected from 281 diploma…

  7. Emotional Intelligence in Language Instruction in Oman: The Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika; Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2016-01-01

    The field of English Language Teaching (ELT) has long sought to identify traits of good language learners, in an effort to teach these traits to less successful language learners (Rubin, 1975). Emotional Intelligence has recently come to the forefront of research on language learning and teaching, and is now increasingly recognized as an important…

  8. Janneli Kurvits, Eeva Masso : omanäoline apartmenthotell Marokos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Janneli Kurvitsast (sünd. 1975) ja Eeva Massost (sünd. 1975), nende olulisemad teostatud objektid. J. Kurvitsa ja E. Masso kujundatud hotell (19. saj. lõpp, omanik Margit Naptal) Marokos Fezis. Sisearhitektide kommentaarid. Ill.: joonised, 19 värv. vaadet, värv. foto arhitektidest

  9. Frictional amyloidosis in Oman - A study of ten cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular amyloidosis is an important cause for cutaneous pigmentation, the aetiology of which is poorly understood. Friction has recently been implicated the causation of early lesions, referred to as frictional amyloidosis. Confirmation of diagnosis by the detect on of amyloid using histochemical stains is inconsistent. Ten patients with pigmentation suggestive of macular amyloidosis were studied with detailed history, clinical examination, biopsy for histochemistry and electron microscopy. Nine out of ten patients had a history of prolonged friction with various objects such as bath sponges, brushes, towels, plant sticks and leaves. Amyloid was demonstrated by histochemical staining in only six out of ten cases. In the remaining four cases, amyloid was detected by electron microscopy. These consisted of aggregates of non-branching, extracellular, intertwining fibres measuring between 200-500 nm in length and between 20-25 nm in diameter. The study confirms the role of friction in the causation of this condition. Histochemical stains are not always successful in the detection of amyloid and electron microscopy is helpful for confirming its presence. The term frictional amyloidosis aptly describes the condition.

  10. Present day serpentinization in New Caledonia, Oman and Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Trescases, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Geochemical evidence for modern low-temperature serpentinization has been found in three new localities. Apparently the low-temperature reactions are a common mode of formation of the lizardite-chrysotile and brucite assemblage. Possibly the 18O content of serpentine formed at low temperatures is in part inherited from the pyroxene and olivine. ?? 1978.

  11. Religious Tolerance in Oman: Addressing Religious Prejudice through Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sadi, Fatma H.; Basit, Tehmina N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a school-based intervention entitled "Our Brothers and Sisters in Humanity" on 10th grade female Omani students' religious tolerance. A questionnaire was administered before and after an intervention to a sample of 241 girls, of whom 116 were in the experimental group and 125 in the control group. A…

  12. Two new flavonoids from Adenium obesum grown in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two new antimicrobial flavonoid compounds were isolated and characterized, and their biological activities were assayed. The pure antimicrobial compounds were isolated and characterized from the ethyl acetate extract using different chromatographic techniques. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated pure compounds was assessed using disk diffusion method. Phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate crude extract of stem of Adenium obesum (A. obesum resulted in the isolation of two pure new flavonoids 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy flavone 1 and 3,5,7,3′,4′,5′-hexahydroxyflavone 2 with several other minor compounds. Their structures were deduced on the basis of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT 90 and 135, COXY, HMBC, and MS. The pure antimicrobial flavonoid compounds showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris in the disk diffusion assay. Inhibition zones were 9–14 mm. The maximum inhibition was shown by compound 2 at concentration 200 μg/ml against P. vulgaris (IZ = 14 mm when compared with the standard amoxicillin. The results showed that the isolated pure antimicrobial flavonoid compounds have significant antimicrobial activity, which can be used as antibiotics. This is the first report on isolation of these secondary metabolites from A. obesum.

  13. Janneli Kurvits, Eeva Masso : omanäoline apartmenthotell Marokos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Janneli Kurvitsast (sünd. 1975) ja Eeva Massost (sünd. 1975), nende olulisemad teostatud objektid. J. Kurvitsa ja E. Masso kujundatud hotell (19. saj. lõpp, omanik Margit Naptal) Marokos Fezis. Sisearhitektide kommentaarid. Ill.: joonised, 19 värv. vaadet, värv. foto arhitektidest

  14. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2014-01-01

    are alluvium deposits (silt, sand and gravel) and the measured groundwater radioactivity (including 232Th, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 222Rn, gross-α and gross-β) indicates values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water. The results also show large difference in radioactivity fingerprints, in particular...... for 226Ra and 222Rn within the investigated aquifers. The data further indicate lower radioactivity in groundwater of the alluviums compared to the carbonate aquifers in the region. This feature makes the alluvium aquifers valuable reservoirs that should be carefully exploited as a source of groundwater....... As this is the first investigation on the radioactivity of groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the region, it suggests that other alluvial deposits, particularly those inland and far from the marine water intrusion or seepage from carbonate rocks would have low radioactivity fingerprints....

  15. Imported Case of Melioidosis in Oman: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamtami, Nada AL; Khamis, Faryal; Al-Jardani, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is most commonly described in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and some imported cases in non-endemic areas. We describe the case of a 55-year-old Omani man with fulminant sepsis who worked in Laos, Cambodia. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient’s blood and was identified by means of microbiological and biochemical tests. We highlight the importance of careful attention to non-fermentative gram-negative rods in a septic patients who have worked or travelled to Southeast Asia. PMID:28042405

  16. A Lion in the Path of Oman’s Nationalization: Insurgency in Oman from the 1950s through the 1970s Examined through Social Movement Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Liberation Front (DLF). Their message was anti-imperialist, specifically anti-Sultan and anti British. They used the oil company exploration as a symbol ...the decision that he be deposed. The Sultan’s son, from his marriage to a Dhofari bride , succeeded easily when he attempted a coup of his father on

  17. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.

  18. Stable H and O isotope variations reveal sources of recharge in Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Gerhard; Al-Mashaikhi, Khalid S; Bawain, Abdullah; Knöller, Kay; Friesen, Jan; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ability of stable water isotopes to characterize the origin of water and connected processes of groundwater recharge, we used the isotope variations of hydrogen and oxygen in different water sources for assessing the recharge process in the Dhofar region. δ(18)O and δ(2)H of precipitation, spring water, and groundwater cover a range from -10 to +2 and from -70 to +7 ‰ (vs Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water), respectively, and correlate in a linear relationship close to the Global Meteoric Water Line. No obvious evaporation processes are detected. A clear signal of the recent precipitation is given by the annual monsoon. The monsoon signal is confirmed by several springs existing in the south at the foot of the Dhofar mountains and sources at Gogub above 450 m and Tawi Atir at 650 m above sea level. They occur here first in the form of water intercepted by trees as stemflow and throughflow. The isotope signature of groundwater in the Dhofar mountains reflects the climatic conditions at the time of recharge and the lithological features of the limestone matrix. To the north, the isotope patterns of the groundwater are continuously depleted from the monsoon signal along the outcropping aquifer D (Lower Umm Er Radhuma). Here, a more negative signature towards the wells in the Najd desert region was observed. Cyclone water that flooded wadis in the Dhofar region occasionally, as observed in November 2011, falls isotopically into the same range as we observed in the fossil groundwater. Taking into account the different sources of precipitation and groundwater and thus a clear distinction of the isotopic composition of the water sources, we conclude a recharge process divided into a southward and a northward component in the Dhofar region.

  19. Evaluation of self-medication practices in acute diseases among university students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Al Flaiti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication among university students was very high. There is a need for intensive education and comprehensive awareness campaign to advocate for reduction in the prevalence of self-medication practices among students.

  20. Integrating True Short Stories into English Classes: The Case of Foundation Students in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Siyabi, Munira Said

    2017-01-01

    Searching for practical ways to improve students' English language skills is a real concern for all English teachers. There is a consensus among ELT practitioners regarding the significance of reading for learning new languages, since reading gives depth to language learning (Stern, 2001). Thus, teachers are obligated to provide their students…

  1. Heritability of Hemodynamic Reactivity to Laboratory Stressors in a Homogenous Arab Population : 'Oman Family Study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Mohammed O.; Bayoumi, Riad A.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Snieder, Harold; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Yahyaee, Saeed; Al-Hadabi, Saleh; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Albarwani, Sulayma

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stressful stimuli may be a risk factor for the development of hypertension. The genetic influence on blood pressure (BP) reactivity to stress and its control mechanisms has been receiving considerable support. This study aims at examining the heri

  2. Omanäolised uuslavastused noortelt nukunäitlejatelt / Kati Kuusemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusemets, Kati

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsooteatri uutest lavastustest, Kadri Kalda lavastatud varjuteatrist „Rapuntsel” 4–10-aastastele ning maskiteatritehnikat kasutavast Mirko Rajase lavastusest Franz Kafka „Metamorfoos” gümnaasiumiealistele

  3. The First Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Boswellia sacra, a Resin-Producing Plant in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Asaf, Sajjad; Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Boswellia sacra (Burseraceae), a keystone endemic species, is famous for the production of fragrant oleo-gum resin. However, the genetic make-up especially the genomic information about chloroplast is still unknown. Here, we described for the first time the chloroplast (cp) genome of B. sacra. The complete cp sequence revealed a circular genome of 160,543 bp size with 37.61% GC content. The cp genome is a typical quadripartite chloroplast structure with inverted repeats (IRs 26,763 bp) separated by small single copy (SSC; 18,962 bp) and large single copy (LSC; 88,055 bp) regions. De novo assembly and annotation showed the presence of 114 unique genes with 83 protein-coding regions. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the B. sacra cp genome is closely related to the cp genome of Azadirachta indica and Citrus sinensis, while most of the syntenic differences were found in the non-coding regions. The pairwise distance among 76 shared genes of B. sacra and A. indica was highest for atpA, rpl2, rps12 and ycf1. The cp genome of B. sacra reveals a novel genome, which could be used for further studied to understand its diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny. PMID:28085925

  4. Socio-cultural impacts of large-scale cruise tourism in Souq Mutrah, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Gutberlet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The following paper explores socio-cultural impacts of large-scale cruise liner tourism on the traditional bazaar (souq in the district of Mutrah. The souq is located opposite the port in the Omani capital Muscat. Large-scale cruise tourism in Muscat started only in 2004 and has increased in scale and numbers in the past years. 24 cruise vessels with around 7600 passengers arrived in Muscat in 2005. Seven years later 135 cruise liners carrying 257,000 tourists docked in Muscat. Due to this dramatic rise of international cruise ships, the socio-cultural impacts have increased for local residents, shop vendors/owners and tourists alike. To capture those socio-cultural impacts on Souq Mutrah, a survey of cruise tourists was conducted by a questionnaire. In addition, the researcher used participatory observation, counting, and in-depth interviews with different stakeholders of the local community and different types of tourists during the cruise seasons 2012/13 and 2013/14. Moreover, content analysis of statistics and local media publications were used. Results indicate that the souq has become “the core of a tourist bubble”, where crowding is a major problem and local residents avoid the place. The social carrying capacity of the souq has been reached. Omani vendors are leaving their businesses and renting their shops out to expatriates. Since contemporary cruise tourists are low spenders, expatriate shop sellers have become more aggressive.

  5. victory in hades: the forgotten wars of the oman, 1957-1959 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    autonomous under the rule of its own imams, and he was frequently .... his business with a brief but triumphal tour of his dominions. Sheikh .... of the Sultan's political strategy. As he informed ...... Arms and Armour Press, 1980.) (10) Ibid item (9) ...

  6. Motivating Teachers in the Developing World: Insights from Research with English Language Teachers in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2013-01-01

    According to some commentators, targets set by the international community for bringing education to all children in developing countries are threatened by a teacher motivation crisis. For this crisis to be addressed, challenges to the motivation of teachers in such contexts need to be understood from perspectives both theoretical and comparative.…

  7. Potential for up-scaling Nimr reed bed facilities, Oman : feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrevel, A.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Soppe, R.W.O.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a feasibility study to treat oil contaminated water using reed beds, and consume the treated saline water using forestry. The feasibility study focused on the social, technical and economical feasibility of a project designed to process 45,000 m3 of water per da

  8. Kehvast kööktoast sai uus omanäoline kodu / Ada Maltseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltseva, Ada, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Nõmme Lastekaitse Liit aitab igal aastal ühte peret oma kodu uuendamisel. Tänavu tehti põhjalik remont perekond Vagiströmide korteris. Kommenteerib Nõmme linnaosavalitsuse lastekaitse vanemspetsialist Kati Valma

  9. Nii kauge, kuid nii omane Brasiilia / Antonio Claudio Carvalho ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carvalho, Antonio Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Vestlus brasiilia kunstniku Antonio Claudio Carvalhoga 15. X, päeval pärast tema näituse avamist Kunstihoone galeriis. Kunstist, kunstnikest, endast, oma loomingust, kunsti tähendusest praeguses Brasiilias jm.

  10. Concentration and exposure assessment of mercury in commercial fish and other seafood marketed in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mughairi, Sabra; Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Rahbi, Waleed A K; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud H

    2013-07-01

    The results of this study present analytical data of the mercury levels in several fish and shellfish species to create awareness among individuals of the risks associated with consuming fish contaminated with mercury. Mercury concentrations varied from a mean of 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.19 mg/kg in shark in both fresh and frozen fish, from 0.02 mg/kg in sardines to 0.18 mg/kg in skipjack tuna in canned fish, and from 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.79 mg/kg in shark in dried fish. Shellfish contained a slightly higher amount of mercury than fresh or frozen fish with a mean of 0.09 mg/kg. Trophic position, followed by habitat, was the most important factors for variability in mercury concentrations in fish and shellfish. The maximum safe weekly intake (MSWI) values of mercury were significantly higher for herbivores than for carnivores. The MSWI value for total mercury in the case of consuming most (72%) fish species was more than 5 kg; however, the MSWI value was never more than 5 kg in most (66%) shellfish species. Risks were identified upon consumption of 120 g of dried shark when exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake threshold (1.6 μg/kg) for methylmercury. Therefore, fish-eating populations should reduce the quantity of dried shark to efficiently diminish the exposure to mercury.

  11. Alice in Oman: A Study on Object-First Approaches in Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Khizar; Al-Shukaili, Naeem Ali; Sultan, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The success of university-level education depends on the quality of underlying school education and any deficiency therein may be detrimental to a student's career. This may be more glaring with Computer Science education, given its mercurial nature. In the developing countries, the Computer Science school curricula are usually stuffed with…

  12. Trends of Sickness Certifications in Primary Health Care in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz A’Rashdy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness certification (SC is common practice in primary health care with proven implications on the health system. To assess the rate of sickness certifications in the Bowsher province and describe related demographic, occupational and medical factors. Methods: Our retrospective, cross-sectional study retrieved data for all consultations, with patients aged six to 65 years old, which ended with SC. The data from four primary health care centers in the Bowsher provice were collected during 2011 using the electronic medical record system. Collected data included patient demographics, occupation, date issued, duration of sickness certification, recorded vital signs, and clinical diagnosis. Suitable rates were calculated as percentages and important differences were compared using the chi-square test. Results: The total number of consultation visits for the targeted population was 189,275. Of these 26,096 consultations resulted in SC to a total of 15,758 patients. The overall rate of SC was 13.8 per 100 consultation-years (confidence interval (CI: 13.6–14. SC rates in males were significantly higher than females (17 and 11 per 100 consultations/year, respectively. Patients aged 19–29 years old had the highest rate of SC (18.6/100 consultations/year. School students aged six to 18 years made up 28% of patients, and 24% and 22% of patients were working in the private and public sectors, respectively. No vital signs record was found for 30% of SC visits. The highest rate of SC was in October (17% and the lowest was in August (9%. Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent diagnoses (31% resulting in certifications. The rate of SC issued for Omanis and non-Omanis was 14 and 9 per 100 consultations per year, respectively. Conclusion: Sickness certification is a burden on primary health care in the studied health centers with approximately one in seven consultations ending with SC issued. More investigations are needed to identify determinates of high sickness absence. Robust guidelines are important to regulate the number of sickness certificates issued.

  13. Ekslik on omane on sassis = Erroneous is own is messy / Eik Hermann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hermann, Eik

    2010-01-01

    Miks on eksimine ja segadus kodudest rääkimisel taunitav, miks ei juleta süüvida omasusetunde lätetesse, mis sisaldab paraja annuse segamini olekut. Seesama argus, mis hoiab meid ekslemast, hoiab meid ka veavabaduse ja korras tubade ahelais, kaugel omasusest

  14. Deformation and melt in natural mantle rocks: The Hilti Massif (Oman) and the Othris Massif (Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    For a full understanding of plate tectonics, one of the central paradigms in Earth Sciences, it is critical to know the mechanical properties of the material of which the earth's upper mantle consists, i.e., peridotite. The cold outer shell of the Earth, the lithosphere, is broken up into strong and

  15. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  16. English Language Assessment in the Colleges of Applied Sciences in Oman: Thematic Document Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hajri, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency in English language and how it is measured have become central issues in higher education research as the English language is increasingly used as a medium of instruction and a criterion for admission to education. This study evaluated the English language assessment in the foundation Programme at the Colleges of Applied sciences in…

  17. Ajalehe Sakala omanäolised tööruumid = The Sakala newspaper's unique offices

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viljandis Tartu t. 8A asuvate ajalehe Sakala tööruumide sisekujundus. Sisearhitektid Liis Lindvere ja Raili Paling (KOKO Arhitektid OÜ). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. III ja IV korruse plaan, 7 värv. vaadet, foto L. Lindverest ja R. Palingust

  18. Water Level and Current Simulation for LOTS Operations - Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    equations are solved by a finite element approach. However the equations are reformulated mathematically to a form with much improved numerical solution...longer than the tidal cycle, since tidal ebb and flood currents tend to cancel each other. 23Chqpwr 3 Ceibraga wnd Vedication 30 25 (Z 20 M2 "W 15 0 10Q...circulation in the Arabian Gulf," Applied Mathematical Modeling, 14, 410-419. Bogdanov, K. T. (1987). "T’idal wave propagation and tidal level oscillations

  19. The Spectrum of Glomerular Diseases on Renal Biopsy: Data From A Single Tertiary Center In Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Al Riyami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the pattern of glomerular disease (GD from the result of renal biopsies at our center.Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 190 adult native renal biopsy reports from the pathology registry of renal biopsy performed at our hospital between 1992 and 2010.Results: Lupus nephritis was the most common pathology 48/133 (36.1% with a female preponderance. The most common primary glomerular disease was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS 26/133(19.5%, followed by membranous glemerulopathy (MGN 13/133 (9.8%, and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis 6/133 (4.5%. IgA nephropathy and acute proliferative glomerulonephritis each accounted for 4/133 (3.0%. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis accounted for 3/133 (2.3%. Focal proliferative and cresentic glomerulonephritis each accounted for 2/133 (1.5%. Vasculitis was not common and there was no report of anti-GBM disease.Conclusion: Among the secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the commonest condition with a female preponderance. Among the primary glomerular diseases, FSGS was the commonest. These results are consistent with global trend. IgA nephropathy is not common as the case in the Caucasian population. Vasculitis was not common and there was no report of anti-GBM disease.

  20. Perceptions of School Principals' Servant Leadership and Their Teachers' Job Satisfaction in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahdy, Yasser F. H.; Al-Harthi, Aisha S.; Salah El-Din, Nesren S.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies Omani teachers' perceptions of servant leadership and teacher job satisfaction, and the impact of several demographic differences on their perceptions. The Servant Leadership Scale (SLS) of Barbuto and Wheeler and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) of Spector are used to collect data from 356 teachers. With a few…

  1. Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Seiffert, Erik R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jebel Qatrani Formation of northern Egypt has produced Afro-Arabia’s primary record of Paleogene mammalian evolution, including the world’s most complete remains of early anthropoid primates. Recent studies of Fayum mammals have assumed that the Jebel Qatrani Formation contains a significant Eocene component (≈150 of 340 m), and that most taxa from that succession are between 35.4 and 33.3 million years old (Ma), i.e., latest Eocene to earliest Oligocene in age. Reanalysis of the chronolo...

  2. Duality of magmatism in the plutonic sequence of the Sumail Nappe, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juteau, T.; Ernewein, M.; Reuber, I.; Whitechurch, H.; Dahl, R.

    1988-09-01

    Detailed field mapping of the crustal sequence in several areas of the Sumail Ophiolite Nappe, mainly in the Fizh, the Salahi and the Haylayn blocks, and comparisons with other well-studied areas, have shown that the crustal sequence was constructed by two distinct, although nearly contemporaneous, magmatic series: The first, a gabbroic series, was emplaced during the accretion stage at an oceanic spreading centre which formed the layered gabbro unit, the high-level isotropic gabbro unit and their by-products, the sheeted dyke complex and the lower extrusives. Fine-grained homogeneous, planar-laminated gabbros commonly occur at the top of the layered gabbro sequence. In some specific areas (Wadi Haymiliyah and Wadi Rajmi), these are strongly differentiated Fe-Ti-rich gabbronorites and norites, which coincide with large-scale discontinuities within the plutonic sequence, interpreted as axial discontinuities of the spreading magma chambers. The second series, an ultramafic wehrlitic series, is locally rooted in the upper mantle (i.e., the impregnated dunitic transition zone). This has intruded the whole crustal sequence up to the pillow lavas. Countless discordant and concordant wehrlitic bodies intruded the plutonic sequence, making up 20-40% of it in volume. We describe the various settings and forms of these intrusions, which were largely underestimated in previous studies. We also describe their mineralogy and textures, and show with chemical and mineralogical arguments that these bodies evolved as relatively closed systems, independently from each other. We infer from the study of the contacts that the gabbros were still hot and consolidated just at the moment of the wehrlitic intrusion. At the base of the crust however, indications of immiscibility between gabbros and wehrlites are common, suggesting that both magmatic series were quite contemporaneous. The wehrlites are commonly isotropic and may exhibit an internal layering of the dunite-wehrlite-clinopyroxenite type, sometimes appearing at the upper or lower margins of the intrusions. In this case, the ultramafic layered cumulates show lobate intrusive contacts with the adjacent layered gabbros. These plagioclase-free ultramafic layered cumulates, therefore, are not interbedded within the gabbro cumulates, but actually belong to the wehrlitic intrusive series. Picritic dykes radiating from the uppermost intrusions can be traced up to the upper extrusives, which are for the main part cogenetic with the wehrlites. The time of this second magmatic event coincides with the cessation of the accretion process and with the beginning of the intraoceanic detachment of the ophiolite at the spreading centre. We believe that the compressive regime that initiated the detachment acted as an efficient filter press and helped the extraction and ascent of the wehrlitic magmas towards the uppermost levels of the crust.

  3. Persian Gulf Security: The United States and Oman, The Gulf Cooperation Council, and Western Allied Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hamud Al Bu Said; Minister of the Sultan’s Affairs. - Fahr ibn Taimur Al Bu Said; Deputy Prime Minister for Security and Defense Affairs. - Sayyid...Cornell University Press, 1980), p’ 777. 3Sydney Nettleton Fisher, The Middle East, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1979), p. 497. 4Ralph H. Magnus

  4. Ajalehe Sakala omanäolised tööruumid = The Sakala newspaper's unique offices

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viljandis Tartu t. 8A asuvate ajalehe Sakala tööruumide sisekujundus. Sisearhitektid Liis Lindvere ja Raili Paling (KOKO Arhitektid OÜ). Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. III ja IV korruse plaan, 7 värv. vaadet, foto L. Lindverest ja R. Palingust

  5. Blended Learning Approach Using Moodle and Student's Achievement at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to identify factors behind the usage of a blended learning approach that could have an effect on students' achievement, motivation, collaboration and communication as perceived by students. It also aims to analyze obstacles faced by students in using Moodle in blended learning. A sample of 283-students from all colleges at…

  6. Numerical simulations of spreading of the Persian Gulf outflow into the Oman Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ezam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional numerical model namely POM (Princeton Ocean Model and observational data are used to study the Persian Gulf outflow structure and its spreading pathways during 1992. In the model, the monthly wind speed data were taken from ICOADS (International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set and the monthly SST (sea surface temperatures were taken from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer with the addition of monthly net shortwave radiations from NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction. The mean monthly precipitation rates from NCEP data and the calculated evaporation rates are used to impose the surface salinity fluxes. At the open boundaries the temperature and salinity were prescribed from the mean monthly climatological values from WOA05 (World Ocean Atlas 2005. Also the four major components of the tide were prescribed at the open boundaries. The results show that the outflow mainly originates from two branches at different depths in the Persian Gulf. The permanent branch exists during the whole year deeper than 40 m along the Gulf axis and originates from the inner parts of the Persian Gulf. The other seasonal branch forms in the vicinity of the shallow southern coasts due to high evaporation rates during winter. Near the Strait of Hormuz the two branches join and form the main outflow source water. The results of simulations reveal that during the winter the outflow boundary current mainly detaches from the coast well before Ras Al Hamra Cape, however during summer the outflow seems to follow the coast even after this Cape. This is due to a higher density of the colder outflow that leads to more sinking near the coast in winter. Thus, the outflow moves to a deeper depth of about 500 m (for which some explanations are given while the main part detaches and spreads at a depth of about 300 m. However in summer it all moves at a depth of about 200–250 m. During winter, the deeper, stronger and wider outflow is more affected by the steep topography, leading to separation from the coast. While during summer, the weaker and shallower outflow is less influenced by bottom topography and so continues along the boundary.

  7. 77 FR 11384 - Removal of Oman from the Restricted Destinations List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... important economic and commercial development projects. Exports of radioactive sources from the United... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. This rule affects only companies..., Intergovernmental relations, Nuclear materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Reporting and...

  8. Are we prepared to implement a Lean philosophy within cancer-care service in Oman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Itrat; Al Bahrani, Bassim J

    2017-07-01

    Lean, as it applies to business, has come to signify simplicity, swift response, and efficiency. The concept is to do more with less; namely, to use resources in the most productive way possible through the elimination of all types of waste. The Lean approach can be applied to any field, including healthcare, in which the exponential growth of costs is widespread. Hospitals began experimenting with Lean healthcare in 1990s.  Equal accessibility to healthcare is consistent with the tenets of social justice and a society's duty to ensure basic healthcare to everyone. However, the gap between a state's constitutional responsibility and resource availability is widening, creating a need for an evolution in healthcare provision based on relevance, objectivity, and impartiality. Health-services providers must juggle limited resources to ensure even-handed healthcare availability to all in the era of cost explosion.

  9. Chemical characterisation of bioactive compounds in Medicago sativa growing in the desert of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Ahmed Yahya; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Hdhrami, Ibtisam; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Al-Azkawi, Ahlam; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Medicago sativa Linn growing in Omani desert were chemically characterised using flame photometry, inductively coupled plasma, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. HPLC analyses were performed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids present in M. sativa. The major compounds detected in M. sativa leaves were protchaechenic acid (3.22%), hydroxyl benzoic acid (1.05%), β-Phenyl caffate (0.97%) and kaempherol (0.89%). Pterostilbene, a cholesterol-lowering compound, was detected in M. sativa.

  10. Ekslik on omane on sassis = Erroneous is own is messy / Eik Hermann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hermann, Eik

    2010-01-01

    Miks on eksimine ja segadus kodudest rääkimisel taunitav, miks ei juleta süüvida omasusetunde lätetesse, mis sisaldab paraja annuse segamini olekut. Seesama argus, mis hoiab meid ekslemast, hoiab meid ka veavabaduse ja korras tubade ahelais, kaugel omasusest

  11. Prospective Teachers' Perceptions about the Concept of Sustainable Development and Related Issues in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Al Washahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, from the Omani's prospective, teachers' perceptions about the concept of sustainable development (SD) and three related issues (cultural diversity, renewable energy and equity). The sample consisted of 159 prospective teachers from Sultan Qaboos University. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising a list…

  12. Cyclic architecture of a carbonate sequence, early Aptian Shuaiba formation, Al Huwaisah field, Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groetsch, J. (Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands))

    1993-09-01

    Sequence stratigraphy of carbonates is a topic of ongoing controversy. In particular, small-scale shallowing-upward cycles can provide some key information needed for interpretation of carbonate sequences and/or third-order sea level changes. The early Aptian Shuaiba Formation in the Al Huwaisah field consists of about 90 m of shallow-water limestones. Throughout the formation, an overall decreasing influx of fine detritus is notable toward the top. The sequence can be subdivided into a basal unit and an overlying unit. Both units are composed of meter-scale shallowing-upward cycles of different composition, which can be recognized in core and well logs. Fourier analysis of the first principle component of a set of well logs (GR, FDC, CNL, Sonic) revealed an abrupt change in spectral behavior between the two units. Toward the top, the spectra are [open quotes]cleaning upward[close quotes] with an increasing pronunciation of a peak grouping of 1: 2: 5, suggesting a better preservation of orbital variations in the upper unit. Preservation of orbital forcing in shallowing-upward cycles requires rapid rates of sedimentation. In addition, increased shallow-water carbonate production on the platform is indicated by the appearance of reefal organisms. Hence, a higher rate of sedimentation and therefore a faster aggradation of the platform is inferred for the upper unit, which could have resulted from an increased rate of relative sea level rise. The sudden facies differentiation on the broad Arabian shelf in the upper part of the early Aptian reflects the development of an intrashelf basin. Changes in rate of relative sea level rise on the Arabian shelf might explain the repeated alternation from an easily correlatable ramp-type sedimentation, with slightly higher input of fine terrigenous sediment (e.g., lower unit of Shuaiba Formation) and a differentiation into platform and intrashelf basin facies due to faster aggradation (e.g., upper unit of Shuaiba Formation).

  13. Alloimmunization in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia: Experience of a Single Centre in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkindi, Salam; AlMahrooqi, Saba; AlHinai, Sumaiya; AlMarhoobi, Ali; Al-Hosni, Saif; Daar, Shahina; Fawaz, Naglaa; Pathare, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an integral part of the supportive care for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassaemia. The hazard of red cell alloimmunization, however, is one of the main complications of this therapy. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of red cell alloimmunization in Omani patients with sickle cell anaemia and thalassemia. Methods This study included 262 patients whose historical transfusion records were available. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with thalassaemia who were attending the day care unit for regular transfusions, and 133 SCD patients admitted at our hospital were included in this study. The Diamed® gel system was used for the screening and identification of atypical antibodies. Results The rate of alloimmunization in SCD patients was 31.6% (n=42, 95%CI, 24.87–40.66), whereas in patients with thalassaemia it was 20% (n=26; 95%CI, 13.9–27.6). Antibodies to E, e, C, c, D, K, S, Fyª, Kpª, Jkª and Cw were observed; 85% of the patients were also immunised with Rh and Kell antigens. Considering the two groups together, 8 developed nonspecific antibodies and 12 developed more than one antibody. Conclusions Red cell transfusions were associated with a significant risk of alloimmunization. It is, therefore, imperative to perform an initial extended red cell phenotyping for both donors and recipients, and carefully select ABO, Rh and Kell matched donors. The higher incidence of alloimmunization in SCD patients is related to the inherent SCD-specific inflammatory state. PMID:28293401

  14. Nature of bacteria found on some wards in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al Daughari, H; Al Lamki, Z; Al Rawas, O

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to determine what objects lying in the hospital environment or brought in from outside contribute to the introduction of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. One hundred swab specimens collected from children's toys, sinks, door handles, telephone handsets and flowers brought into the hospital were plated on different culture media. Colonial growth on the media was purified and identified subsequently using standard bacteriological methods. Of the 100 samples cultured, 61 (61%) grew a range of bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=14, 23.0%), Acinetobacter spp. (n=13, 21.3%), Serratia spp. (n=9, 14.7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=9, 14.7%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=4, 6.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, 6.6%), Enterobacter cloacae (n=3, 4.9%), Pantoea sp. (n=2, 3.3%), Chryseobacterium sp. (n=2, 3.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, 1.6%). Although all the Serratia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pantoea species isolates showed varying degrees of resistance to gentamicin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and cefotaxime, all were resistant to ampicillin. Chryseobacterium and Stenotrophomonas species isolates were resistant to amikacin, imipenem, gentamicin and ceftazidime, to which only three isolates of Pseudomonas species were resistant. All the staphylococcal isolates were susceptible to methicillin. Although there has been no major outbreak of a nosocomial infection in the hospital, it is strongly recommended that effective control measures (e.g., sampling the hospital water supply, disinfecting children's toys, use of appropriate hand washing and checking some of the disinfectants for presence of bacteria) are needed. These measures are necessary to ensure that the antibiotic-resistant strains identified in this study are not allowed to spread in the hospital.

  15. Antibacterial and insecticidal activity of volatile compounds of three algae species of Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Pasdaran, Ardalan; Hamedi, Azadeh; Mamedov, Nazim A.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the volatile oils showed important biologicaland pharmacological activities, these compounds as part of the traditionalmedicine in many cultures used as long time. Potencies of them caused thesenatural products gained many scientific researches in felid of naturalproducts. The volatile oils of Actinotrichiafragilis (Forsskål) Børgesen,Liagora ceranoides J.V.Lamouroux and Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertensex Roth) Derbes and. Solier were extracted by hydrodistillation. Thesevolatile oils were...

  16. Greece and Oman: Successful Anglo/American Counterinsurgencies Viewed from Current American Counterinsurgency Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    his government and military, across the Adriatic Sea the Italian Dictator, Benito Mussolini was reorganizing his for war. Mussolini had been so...Norway, Holland, Belgium, and France had fallen. Only England continued to hold on by winning the Battle of Britain. Mussolini finally grew inpatient

  17. Perceptions of School Principals' Servant Leadership and Their Teachers' Job Satisfaction in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahdy, Yasser F. H.; Al-Harthi, Aisha S.; Salah El-Din, Nesren S.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies Omani teachers' perceptions of servant leadership and teacher job satisfaction, and the impact of several demographic differences on their perceptions. The Servant Leadership Scale (SLS) of Barbuto and Wheeler and the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) of Spector are used to collect data from 356 teachers. With a few…

  18. Nii kauge, kuid nii omane Brasiilia / Antonio Claudio Carvalho ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carvalho, Antonio Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Vestlus brasiilia kunstniku Antonio Claudio Carvalhoga 15. X, päeval pärast tema näituse avamist Kunstihoone galeriis. Kunstist, kunstnikest, endast, oma loomingust, kunsti tähendusest praeguses Brasiilias jm.

  19. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF LAUNAEA NUDICAULIS GROWN IN OMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Mohammed Weli et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the aerial parts of Launaea nudicaulis was isolated using Clevenger's apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS instrument. Different extracts of the aerial parts of Launaea nudicaulis were tested for their activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Seventeen constituents were identified in the essential oil. The major constituents in the essential oil are limonene, Z-citral and E-citral. The three polar extracts (hydro alcoholic, Ethyl acetate and butanol extracts showed good activity against Gram +ve and Gram-ve bacteria. On the other hand, non-polar extracts (petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract did not show any antibacterial activity.

  20. Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes of Teenage Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al-Haddabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital.  Methods: This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period.  Results: When compared with pregnant women (n=307, teenage pregnant girls (n=307 were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040, preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005 and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005. Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001. Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020, incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003, but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups.  Conclusion: Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies.

  1. Mitte uhke, vaid omanäoline ja hubane / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Aaviku elurajoonis asuva eramu sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt Tiiu Truus, AB Studio 3. Ehitaja: KMG Ehitus. Põrandad on betoonist, viimistlusmaterjalideks vineer, plekk ja mööblilinoleum. T. Truus on kavandanud ka osa mööblist. T. Truusist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 2 plaani, 9 värv. vaadet

  2. Assessment of alternative management techniques of tank bottom petroleum sludge in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Futaisi, Ahmed [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman)]. E-mail: futaisi@squ.edu.om; Jamrah, Ahmad [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman); Yaghi, Basma [Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman); Taha, Ramzi [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman)

    2007-03-22

    This paper investigated several options for environmentally acceptable management techniques of tank bottom oily sludge. In particular, we tested the applicability of managing the sludge by three options: (1) as a fuel supplement; (2) in solidification; (3) as a road material. Environmental testing included determination of heavy metals concentration; toxic organics concentration and radiological properties. The assessment of tank bottom sludge as a fuel supplement included various properties such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy content. Solidified sludge mixtures and road application sludge mixtures were subjected to leaching using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Tank bottom sludge was characterized as having higher concentrations of lead, zinc, and mercury, but lower concentrations of nickel, copper and chromium in comparison with values reported in the literature. Natural occurring radioactive minerals (NORM) activity values obtained on different sludge samples were very low or negligible compared to a NORM standard value of 100 Bq/g. The fuel assessment results indicate that the heating values, the carbon content and the ash content of the sludge samples are comparable with bituminous coal, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal and petroleum coke/coal mixture, but lower than those in car tyres and petroleum coke. The nitrogen content is lower than those fuels mentioned above, while the sulfur content seems comparable with bituminous coal, petroleum coke and a petroleum coke/coal mixture. The apparent lack of leachability of metals from solidification and road material sludge applications suggests that toxic metals and organics introduced to these applications are not readily attacked by weak acid solutions and would not be expected to migrate or dissolved into the water. Thus, in-terms of trace metals and organics, the suggested sludge applications would not be considered hazardous as defined by the TCLP leaching procedure.

  3. United Kingdom Use of Salalah Port, Sultanate of Oman for the Movements of Military Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    GCT Ops @ 570m • Port Control @ 570m • Accommodation @ 730-830m • Potential for c55+ fatalities (Higher if a cruise ship is present) CONDITIONAL...times restricted. • No handling if cruise ship present. • No berthing if cruise ship is within 11.1Q1/3. • Limitations if other DG present. • HD1.1

  4. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Isolated From Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Adibpour, Neda; Nasr, Farhad; Nematpour, Fatemeh; SHAKOURI, ARASH; Ameri, Abdolghani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance toward a number of conventional antibiotics has triggered the search for antimicrobial agents from a variety of sources including the marine environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Holothuria leucospilota from Qeshm and Kharg Islands against some selected bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, sea cucumbers from two coastal cities of Persian Gulf were collected in...

  5. Multibeam collection for M32L6: Multibeam data collected aboard Meteor from 1995-08-17 to 1995-09-18, departing from Muscat, Oman and returning to Muscat, Oman

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The Councils published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 74 FR... 74 FR 28426 on June 15, 2009, is adopted as a final rule without change. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-S ... Peru AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), ] and...

  7. Effectiveness of Formal Logic Course on the Reasoning Skills of Students in Nizwa College of Technology, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. Renjith

    2017-01-01

    The study of formal logic helps to improve the process of thinking and tries to refine and improve the thinking ability. The objectives of this study are to know the effectiveness of formal logic course and to determine the critical thinking variables that are effective and that are ineffective. A sample of 214 students is selected from all the…

  8. Varying the dietary supply of C and N to manipulate the manure composition of water buffalo heifers in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing the composition of manure has the potential to reduce nutrient losses to the environment and to increase crop yields. In this study the effect of dietary ratios of carbon (C to nitrogen (N and neutral detergent fibre (NDF to soluble carbohydrates (SC on faeces composition of water buffalo heifers was assessed. Two digestibility trials were conducted with 12 animals each, fed one control and four test diets composed to achieve (1 high C/N and high NDF/SC ratios (HH, (2 low C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (LL, (3 high C/N and low NDF/SC ratios (HL and (4 low C/N and high NDF/SC (LH ratios. Faecal C/N ratios were generally lower than dietary C/N ratios, but the reduction was especially large for high C/N ratio diets (HH=55 %, HL=51 %. Faecal N concentration was positively correlated (r^2 = 0.6; P < 0.001 with N intake, but the increase in faecal N was more pronounced for diets that supplied low amounts of N. Faecal NDF concentration was positively related to NDF intake (r^2 = 0.42; P < 0.001, as well as the faecal C/N ratio (r^2 = 0.3; P < 0.001. Results demonstrate that C/N ratio and NDF concentration of buffalo manure were affected by diet composition. Diets with high C/N ratio and low NDF/SC ratio are preferable with regard to manure quality, but may not satisfy the nutritional requirements of producing animals, since N concentration in these diets was low and fibre concentration simultaneously high.

  9. Constraints on cooling of the lower ocean crust from epidote veins in the Wadi Gideah section, Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alexander; Bieseler, Bastian; Bach, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Determining the depth, extent, and timing of high-temperature hydrothermal alteration in the ocean crust is key to understanding how the lower oceanic crust is cooled. We report data from 18 epidote veins from the Wadi Gideah section in the Wadi Tayin block, which is a reference section for alteration of the lower crust formed at a fast oceanic spreading center. 87Sr/86Sr ratios feature a narrow range from 0.70429 to 0.70512, while O isotope compositions vary between - 0.7 and +4.9‰ in δ18OSMOW. These compositions indicate uniform water-rock ratios between 1 and 2 and formation temperatures in the range of 300 to 450˚ C. There is no systematic trend in Sr and O isotope compositions down section. Fluid inclusion entrapment temperatures for a subset of four samples linearly increase from 338˚ C to 465˚ C in lowermost 3 km of crust of the Wadi Gideah section. Salinities are uniform throughout and scatter closely around seawater values. We developed a numerical cooling model to assign possible crustal ages to the thermal gradients observed. For pure conductive cooling, these ages range between 4 and 20 Ma. Our thermal model runs with a high Nusselt number (Nu) of 20 down to the base of the crust indicate that the epidote veins may record this near-axial deep circulation in crust of only 0.1 Ma (5-7 km off axis). When off-axis circulation is shut off in the more distal flanks, however, massive conductive reheating of the lower crust by as much as 200˚ C is predicted to take place. But there is no evidence for prograde metamorphic reactions in the samples we studied (or other hydrothermally altered oceanic gabbros). An intermediate model, in which Nu is 20 down to 2 km for the first 0.1 Ma and Nu is then 4 down to 6.5 km depth off axis to 1 Ma, is consistent with the permeability distribution within the ocean crust and predicts a thermal gradient for the lower crust that matches the observed one for ages between 1 and 3 Ma. The most plausible explanation for the origin of the epidote veins is that they formed in off-axial hydrothermal systems that reach the base of the crust within 50-150 km off the axis. This deep circulation provides an efficient mechanism for mining heat that escapes the crust in the young flanks of mid-ocean ridges where a sizeable fraction of the global oceanic hydrothermal heat flux is expected to take place.

  10. Two new species of Tetragonocephalum (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from Pastinachus sephen (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Gulf of Oman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atabak Roohi Aminjan; Masoumeh Malek

    2017-01-01

    ... (Khamkar 2011, 2012, Khamkar and Shinde 2012, Lanka et al. 2013, Kankale 2014). The species of Tetragonocephalum possess a dumb-bell-shaped uterus in gravid proglottids, which appears to be unique to this genus...

  11. University Student Perceptions of the Relationship between University Education and the Labour Market in Egypt and Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Hamood K.

    2011-01-01

    How do university students perceive the key relationship between their university education and the labour market? This article describes the perceptions that 827 Egyptian and Omani seniors--both males and females, studying commerce, education, and engineering--hold about that relationship. For these students, a major motivation for attending…

  12. 76 FR 72173 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India, the Sultanate of Oman, the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Steel Development Fund Support K. Special Economic Zones (``SEZ'') Programs 1. Duty-Free Importation of.... Preferential Lending 1. Preferential Export Lending 2. Dubai Commodity Receipts For further...

  13. Driving Student-Centred Calculus: Results of a Comprehensive Case Study for Kaizen Learning in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Bernhard; Rupp, Florian; Viet, Nils; Stockhausen, Paul v.; Gallenkämper, Jonas; Kreuzer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The art of teaching freshmen students is undergoing a rapid paradigm change. Classical forms of teaching are not applicable any more and an unmanageable offer of new multimedia tools and concepts is glutting the market. Moreover, compared to previous courses, the class size triples. In view of these challenges, we implemented a new teaching…

  14. Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mukhaini, Elham M.; Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networks is a growing phenomenon, being increasingly important in both private and academic life. Social networks are used as tools to enable users to have social interaction. The use of social networks (SNs) complements and enhances the teaching in traditional classrooms. For example, YouTube, Facebook, wikis, and blogs provide…

  15. A new species of Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura, 1980 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea and Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, van der S.E.T.; Berumen, M.L.; Paulay, G.

    2015-01-01

    A new species of cryptochirid crab, Fizesereneia panda van der Meij, is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the scleractinian corals Lobophyllia cf. hemprichii and L. cf. corymbosa from the Farasan Banks, Farasan Islands, and the reefs off Thuwal in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea,

  16. Heritability of ambulatory and beat-to-beat office blood pressure in large multigenerational Arab pedigrees: the 'Oman Family study'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarwani, Sulayma; Muñoz, M Loretto; Voruganti, V Saroja; Jaju, Deepali; Al-Yahyaee, V Saeed; Rizvi, Syed G; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Al-Anqoudi, Zahir M; Bayoumi, Riad A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Snieder, Harold; Hassan, Mohammed O

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the heritability of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and beat-to-beat office BP and HR in an isolated, environmentally and genetically homogeneous Omani Arab population. Ambulatory BP measurements were recorded in 1,124 subjects with a mean age of 33.8 ± 16.2 years, using the auscultatory mode of the validated Schiller ambulatory BP Monitor. Beat-to-beat BP and HR were recorded by the Task Force Monitor. Heritability was estimated using quantitative genetic analysis. This was achieved by applying the maximum-likelihood-based variance decomposition method implemented in SOLAR software. We detected statistically significant heritability estimates for office beat-to-beat, 24-hour, daytime, and sleep HR of 0.31, 0.21, 0.20, and 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates in the above mentioned conditions for systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP)/mean BP (MBP)were all significant and estimated at 0.19/0.19/0.19, 0.30/0.44/0.41, 0.28/0.38/0.39, and 0.21/0.18/0.20,respectively. Heritability estimates for 24-hour and daytime ambulatory SBP, DBP, and MBP ranged from 0.28 to 0.44, and were higher than the heritability estimates for beat-to-beat recordings and sleep periods,which were estimated within a narrow range of 0.18-0.21. In this cohort, because shared environments are common to all, the environmental influence that occurs is primarily due to the variation in non-shared environment that is unique to the individual. We demonstrated significant heritability estimates for both beat-to-beat office and ambulatory BP and HR recordings, but 24-hour and daytime ambulatory heritabilities are higher than those from beat-to-beat resting levels and ambulatory night-time recordings.

  17. Educational Assessment Attitudes, Competence, Knowledge, and Practices: An Exploratory Study of Muscat Teachers in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said; Alnabhani, Hilal; Alkalbani, Muna

    2012-01-01

    Educational assessment can be a powerful tool in enhancing classroom instruction and student performance. Yet, its effectiveness relies on the beliefs and knowledge of those who apply it on a daily classroom basis. This study explored attitudes, competence, knowledge, and practices of teachers about educational assessment. Participants were 165…

  18. Lions in the Path of Stability and Security: Oman’s Response to Pressing Issues in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    imperialist, specifically anti-Sultan and anti-British. They used oil company exploration as a symbol of the imperial and colonial tendencies of the...from his marriage to a Dhofari bride , easily overthrew his father on 23 July 1970. This decision would have impacts on the Dhofar rebellion, the

  19. Eye and vision defects in under-five-year-old children in Oman: A public health intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Khandekar

    2010-01-01

    Result : Among 1,520 examined children, three children had absent eyeball bilaterally and three had unilaterally absent eyeball. Strabismus and nystagmus were detected in 44 (2.9% and 18 (1.2% children respectively. ′Hiding Heidi′ test was normal in 530/537 (87% of children. Distant vision reading was ≥0.32 in 386/448 (86.2% eyes. Preferential looking test suggested that half of the children had defective vision (>2cpcm. Screening at ′1-2 year′ and ′3-4 years′ age group could significantly predict eye problems ( P≤0.001. Conclusion : Eye and vision screening of under-five kids helped in detection of eye problems in early stages. Instead of universal screening, high risk population or children of ′3 to 4′ years for vision and ′1 to 2′ years for ocular abnormalities is proposed The existing health services could not detect some children with eye problems and they were identified during such screening.

  20. Andres Tolts 60 : omanäoliste vaikelude imeline maailm / Andres Tolts ; intervjueerinud Tiina Kolk ; kommenteerinud Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tolts, Andres, 1949-2014

    2009-01-01

    Andres Toltsi näitused "Asjad" Hobusepea galeriis 12. oktoobrini, "Näitus" Tallinna Kunstihoones 25. oktoobrini, "Varane Tolts" Haus galeriis 13. novembrini. Pikemalt näitusest "Näitus", kuraator Harry Liivrand