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Sample records for olkiluoto site description

  1. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  2. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  3. Olkiluoto site description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.; Ahokas, H.; Hudson, J.A.

    2007-03-01

    This second version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2004 (Posiva 2005) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2005. The main product of the modelling has been to develop a descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. For practical reasons, the Site Descriptive Model is divided into five parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, which are presented in individual chapters. Four separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models. The consistency between the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models is assessed in a joint chapter. Chapter 1 presents an outline of the report, explains the background to its development and sets out its objectives and scope. It is also introduces and explains the integrated modelling methodology, the nomenclature used in the descriptions of the models and the prediction/outcome studies. Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of the data used for producing the Site Description. Chapters 3 to 8 present the descriptive modelling, which involves interpreting data, interpolating or extrapolating between measurement points and calibrating the model against data, based on the various assumptions made about each conceptual model. Chapter 9 presents the results of the prediction/outcome studies performed during 2005 and Chapter 10 the overall consistency and confidence assessment. Overall conclusions are provided in Chapter 11. The main advances since Site Report 2004 are: A new geological model is presented in Chapter 4, representing a significant change from Bedrock Model 2003/1. There has been extensive use of geological data, whereas hydrogeological data have deliberately not been used and more

  4. Olkiluoto site description 2008. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This third version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2006 (Andersson et al. 2007) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2007. The main product of the modelling has been to develop an updated version of the descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The Site Descriptive Model is divided into six parts: the surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and migration, which are presented in individual chapters. Five separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and migration models. The main advances since Site Report 2006 are: (1) The geological model has been revised according to new data and interpretations. This has improved the consistency between the locations of the deformation zones in the geological model and the hydraulic zones in the hydrogeological model, (2) New 3D seismic data have been incorporated within the geological model and an initial model for the eastern part of the Island is presented. Site-scale brittle deformation zones are extrapolated to intersect the surrounding regional lineaments, unless prohibited by direct observations to the contrary. The alteration model has been revised, showing a clear correspondence between the illitisation and the sitescale fault zones, (3) A first account of the development of the brittle deformation history of the site is provided, (4) A new geological DFN model has been developed, that considers mapped fracture traces from both the surface and the ONKALO, (5) A new stress state model and fracture and fracture zone properties are presented, (6) A new hydrogeological DFN model has been developed, (7) An updated site scale (EPM) flow model has been developed, (8) There has been an

  5. Site and Regional Data for Biosphere Assessment BSA-2009 Supplement to Olkiluoto Biosphere Description 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, L.; Haapanen, R.; Puhakka, L.; Hjerpe, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Koivunen, S.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Salo, T.; Ikonen, A.T.K.; Helin, J.

    2010-06-01

    The safety case for a spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto includes a computational safety assessment. A site-specific biosphere assessment is an integral part of them both. In 2009 an assessment was conducted to demonstrate preparedness to apply for construction license to the repository in 2012. As a part of the biosphere assessment, the present conditions at the site are described in Olkiluoto biosphere description report for an analogue of the future conditions being simulated in the safety assessment. This report is a supplement to the biosphere description report of 2009 and documents the site and regional data used in the biosphere assessment 'BSA-2009' with respective rationales. (orig.)

  6. Olkiluoto biosphere description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Kareinen, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Mykrae, S.; Turkki, H.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the current knowledge of the biosphere of Olkiluoto, and it is the first Biosphere Description Report. The elements considered were climate, topography, land use, overburden, terrestrial vegetation and fauna and sea flora, fauna and water. The principal aim was to present a synthesis of the present state (now to 2020) and the main features of past evolution of the biosphere at the site using currently available data. The lack of site specific parameters and their importance was discussed. Conceptual ecosystem models are presented for land and sea. Currently available data made it possible to calculate the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation and further convert it to carbon. In the case of terrestrial animals, preliminary figures are given for moose alone due to lack of sitespecific data. For the same reason, the sea ecosystem model was not quantified within this work. The ecosystems on Olkiluoto do not deviate from the surrounding areas. Since mires are few on Olkiluoto, forests are the most important land ecosystem. However, coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The major interest concerning aquatic ecosystems was laid on four future lakes potentially developing from the sea due to the land up-lift. Current sea sediments near Olkiluoto are future land areas, and thus very important. Spatially, the forest ecosystems of Olkiluoto are now most comprehensively covered, while the temporal coverage is highest in sea ecosystems. Lack of data is greatest in terrestrial fauna and sea sediments. During this work, the system boundaries were crossed and the use of data over disciplines was started. The data were mostly in agreement, but some discrepancies were detected. To solve these, and to supplement the existing data, some recommendations were given. (orig.)

  7. Developing methodology for description of biosphere evolution at Olkiluoto disposal site utilising forest studies at other land uplift sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikondn, A.T.K.; Afo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In Finland, Olkiluoto Island has been selected as the site for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in addition to the existing repository for low and intermediate level waste. When creating biosphere models for safety assessments, local main features and processes need to be taken into account. A special characteristic of the site, as well as the coastal area of the Gulf of Bothnia in general, is the land uplift (6-9 mm/a). This continuously exposes new land to soil-formation processes and provides surfaces for colonization by plant communities. The forest vegetation succession on stony, fine-grained till soils starts from deciduous shoreline vegetation and ends in almost pure Norway spruce forests. This has enabled to study ecological and microbiological processes in soils and forests of different developmental stages, to monitor forest condition and the factors affecting it in sites locating close to each other. It has also made possible gradient studies of the succession of boreal mire ecosystems without a need to wait thousands of years. Applying a methodology described in the full paper, a descriptive model on the evolution of the biosphere will be established to indicate possible ecosystem distributions and main characteristics on the area on the basis of above-mentioned studies carried out by Finnish Forest Research Institute, and of results of the site investigations at Olkiluoto. In future, the evolution description will be used as a basis for selection of appropriate ecosystem modules and parameter values in the subsequent coupled assessment model systems. (author)

  8. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  9. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  10. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. (ed.) [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  11. Detection of environmental change using hyperspectral remote sensing at Olkiluoto repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.; Lipping, T.

    2011-03-01

    In this report methods related to hyperspectral monitoring of Olkiluoto repository site are described. A short introduction to environmental remote sensing is presented, followed by more detailed description of hyperspectral imaging and a review of applications of hyperspectral remote sensing presented in the literature. The trends of future hyperspectral imaging are discussed exploring the possibilities of long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging. A detailed description of HYPE08 hyperspectral flight campaign at the Olkiluoto region in 2008 is presented. In addition, related pre-processing and atmospheric correction methods, necessary in monitoring use, and the quality control methods applied, are described. Various change detection methods presented in the literature are described, too. Finally, a system for hyperspectral monitoring is proposed. The system is based on continued hyperspectral airborne flight campaigns and precisely defined data processing procedure. (orig.)

  12. Groundwater flow modelling at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary site investigations for spent fuel disposal has been carried out at the Olkiluoto site, Finland. During the investigations high salt concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples deep in the bedrock. In this study, the groundwater flow is analyzed at Olkiluoto taking into account the effects of salinity. The transient simulations are performed by solving coupled and non-linear partial differential equations describing the flow and solute transport. A site-specific simulation model for flow and transport is developed on the basis of the field investigations. The simulations are carried out for a period that started when the highest hills at Olkiluoto rose above sea level. The simulation period continues until the present day. The results of the coupled simulations were strongly dependent on the poorly known initial salinity distribution in the solution domain. The DP approximation together with the EC approximation proved to be a useful complementary approach when simulating solute transport in a fractured rock mass. The simulations also confirm the assumption that the realistic simulation of groundwater flow at Olkiluoto requires taking into account the effects of salinity

  13. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    1999-03-01

    Groundwater flow modelling on the site scale has been an essential part of site investigation work carried out at different locations since 1986. The objective of the modelling has been to provide results that characterise the groundwater flow conditions deep in the bedrock. The main result quantities can be used for evaluation of the investigation sites and of the preconditions for safe final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This study represents the latest modelling effort at Olkiluoto (Finland), and it comprises the transient flow analysis taking into account the effects of density variations and the repository as well as the post-glacial land uplift. The analysis is performed by means of numerical finite element simulation of coupled and transient groundwater flow and solute transport carried out up to 10000 years into the future. This work provides also the results for the site-specific data needs for the block scale groundwater flow modelling at Olkiluoto. Conceptually the fractured bedrock is divided into hydraulic units: the planar fracture zones and the remaining part of the bedrock. The equivalent-continuum (EC) model is applied so that each hydraulic unit is treated as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum with representative average characteristics. All the fracture zones are modelled explicitly and represented by two-dimensional finite elements. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and solute transport is developed on the basis of the latest hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical field investigations at Olkiluoto. The present groundwater table and topography together with a mathematical model describing the land uplift at the Olkiluoto area are employed as a boundary condition at the surface of the model. The overall flow pattern is mostly controlled by the local variations in the topography. Below the island of Olkiluoto the flow direction is mostly downwards, while near the shoreline and below the sea water flows horizontally and

  14. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    Groundwater flow modelling on the site scale has been an essential part of site investigation work carried out at different locations since 1986. The objective of the modelling has been to provide results that characterise the groundwater flow conditions deep in the bedrock. The main result quantities can be used for evaluation of the investigation sites and of the preconditions for safe final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This study represents the latest modelling effort at Olkiluoto (Finland), and it comprises the transient flow analysis taking into account the effects of density variations and the repository as well as the post-glacial land uplift. The analysis is performed by means of numerical finite element simulation of coupled and transient groundwater flow and solute transport carried out up to 10000 years into the future. This work provides also the results for the site-specific data needs for the block scale groundwater flow modelling at Olkiluoto. Conceptually the fractured bedrock is divided into hydraulic units: the planar fracture zones and the remaining part of the bedrock. The equivalent-continuum (EC) model is applied so that each hydraulic unit is treated as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum with representative average characteristics. All the fracture zones are modelled explicitly and represented by two-dimensional finite elements. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and solute transport is developed on the basis of the latest hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical field investigations at Olkiluoto. The present groundwater table and topography together with a mathematical model describing the land uplift at the Olkiluoto area are employed as a boundary condition at the surface of the model. The overall flow pattern is mostly controlled by the local variations in the topography. Below the island of Olkiluoto the flow direction is mostly downwards, while near the shoreline and below the sea water flows horizontally and

  15. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.

    2007-07-01

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  16. Baseline conditions at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The main purpose of this report is to establish a reference point - defined as the data collected up until the end of year 2002 - for the coming phases of the Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal programme. The focus is: to define the current surface and underground conditions at the site, both as regards the properties for which a change is expected and for the properties which are of particular interest for long-term safety or environmental impact; to establish, as far as possible, the natural fluctuation of properties that are potentially affected by construction of the underground laboratory, the ONKALO, and to provide references to data on parameters or use in model development and testing and to use models to assist in understanding and interpreting the data. The emphasis of the baseline description is on bedrock characteristics that are relevant to the long-term safety of a spent fuel repository and, hence, to include the hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, rock mechanical, tectonic and seismic conditions of the site. The construction of the ONKALO will also affect some conditions on the surface, and, therefore, a description of the main characteristics of the nature and the man-made constructions at Olkiluoto is also given. This report is primarily a road map to the available information on the prevailing conditions at the Olkiluoto site and a framework for understanding of data collected. Hence, it refers to numerous available background reports and other archived information produced over the past 20 years or more, and forms a recapitulation and revaluation of the characterisation data of the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)

  17. Bedrock model of the Olkiluoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaeki, S.; Anttila, P.; Front, K.; Pitkaenen, P.; Hassinen, P.; Ylinen, A.

    1993-07-01

    Site investigations were carried out at Olkiluoto (in Finland) in 1987-1992 in accordance with an investigation programme drawn up by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). The site was modelled in terms of rock types, fracturing, fracture structures and geohydrological conditions, the main focus of examination was on fracturing and associated hydraulic conductivity. The various properties of the bedrock structures were classified by means of a three-dimensional model. The descriptions of the models were gathered in a computer system for illustration and storage purposes. The rock types at Olkiluoto are migmatite, which may be divided into mica gneiss and veined gneiss, and also tonalite and coarse-grained migmatite granite (pegmatite). (64 refs., 65 figs.)

  18. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  19. Concentration ratios to great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Olkiluoto repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Haavisto, Fiia [FM Meri and Erae Oy, Seijaistentie 133a, 21230 Lemu (Finland); Salmi, Juhani A. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 3, 20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. The great cormorant was a common species in the Finnish coastal area and possibly also a resource for human uses before the decline of the cormorant population in the 18. century. During the last decade, the great cormorant has become again a relevant part of food web in the Bothnian Sea coastal area. Due to the regulatory requirements, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the adequate literature data on common waterfowl is sparse or in some cases lacking, samples of adult cormorants, eggs and guano together with water and fish samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area. This contribution will present concentration ratios of stable element based on these samples with focus on the elements of a high relevance to the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository together with discussion on the role of food (fish) versus the application of the water-to-bird concentration ratio. (authors)

  20. The geology of the Olkiluoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Paulamaeki, S.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Koistinen, T.; Front, K.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1992-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant deep in the Finnish bedrock. An area close to the power plant at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, was one of the five areas selected in 1987 for the preliminary site investigations. A summary of the geological conditions at the Olkiluoto site is presented in the report

  1. Biosphere analysis - a complementary assessment of dose conversion factors for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylloenen, J.; Keto, V.

    2010-04-01

    The Olkiluoto site is currently the primary candidate for the final disposal site for spent nuclear fuel from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPPs. Safety analysis calculations must be performed to verify the compliance with the long-term safety requirements. The behaviour and distribution of radionuclides in the biosphere is of high importance in these calculations. The aim of this study was to perform a complementary assessment of dose conversion factors for the Olkiluoto site. Posiva has performed extensive analysis on the different ecosystems. In this work the biosphere analysis model of Fortum Nuclear Services (FNS) is used to give an independent estimate of biosphere dose conversion factors for the Olkiluoto site. The following nuclides are analysed: Cl-36, Ni-59, Se-79, Mo-93, Nb-94, Sn-126, I-129 and Cs-135. The FNS model is an equilibrium compartment model in which a steady annual release of 1 Bq of each radionuclide is distributed in different scenarios. The scenarios are the well scenario, which models a small agricultural ecosystem, the lake scenario which models a larger ecosystem with both agriculture and lake use, and sea and transition scenario, which models the behaviour of the radionuclides in marine environments. The scenarios are described and the transfer equations written for the lake scenario. The parameter values are taken from the FNS biosphere database, which has been used in the Finnish L/ILW waste repository safety analyses since mid 1990's. The results of the FNS analysis are compared to those presented in Posiva working report 2000-20 (POSIVA-WR-00-20). The results are of the same order of magnitude for all nuclides except I-129. Since the Posiva and FNS models were independently constructed, the results can be considered as convincing, and the compliance of the results give confidence to the modelling results. (orig.)

  2. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  3. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  4. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature compilation for site characterization and geological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millnes, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    The present report arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating longterm safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust has been reviewed, and key references chosen and arranged, with the particular geology of the Olkiluoto site in mind. The result is a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics, which are of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, such as those typical for Olkiluoto. The report is subdivided into six Chapters, covering (1) background information, (2) important aspects of the fabric of intact rock, (3) fracture mechanics and brittle microtectonics, (4) fracture data acquisition and processing, for the statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems, (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones for deterministic modelling, and (6) the regional geological framework of the Olkiluoto site. The Chapters are subdivided into a number of Sections, and each Section into a number of Topics. The citations are mainly collected under each Topic, embedded in a short explanatory text or listed chronologically without comment. The systematic arrangement of Chapters, Sections and Topics is such that the Table of Contents can be used to focus quickly on the theme of interest without the necessity of looking

  5. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: (1) pervasive (disseminated) alteration and (2) fracture-controlled (veinlet) alteration. Kaolinisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the lithological trend (slightly dipping to the SE). Kaolinite is also located in the uppermost part, but the orientation is opposite to the main lithological trend

  6. Challenges and Solutions for the Integration of Structural and Hydrogeological Understanding of Fracture Systems - Insights from the Olkiluoto Site, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, L. J.; Aaltonen, I.; Baxter, S. J.; Cottrell, M.; Fox, A. L.; Hoek, J.; Koskinen, L.; Mattila, J.; Mosley, K.; Selroos, J. O.; Suikkanen, J.; Vanhanarkaus, O.; Williams, T. R. N.

    2017-12-01

    A field site at Olkiluoto in SW Finland has undergone extensive investigations as a location for a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, which is expected to become operational in the early 2020s. Characterisation data comes from 58 deep cored drillholes, a wide variety of geophysical investigations, many outcrops, kilometres of underground mapping and testing in the ONKALO research facility, and groundwater pressure monitoring and sampling in both deep and shallow holes. A primary focus is on the properties of natural fractures and brittle fault zones in the low permeability crystalline rocks at Olkiluoto; an understanding of the flow and transport processes in these features are an essential part of assessing long-term safety of the repository. This presentation will illustrate how different types of source data and cross-disciplinary interpretations are integrated to develop conceptual and numerical models of the fracture system. A model of the brittle fault zones developed from geological and geophysical data provides the hydrostructural backbone controlling the most intense fracturing and dynamic conduits for fluids. Models of ductile deformation and lithology form a tectonic framework for the description of fracture heterogeneity in the background rock, revealing correlations between the intensity and orientation of fractures with geological and spatial properties. The sizes of brittle features are found to be best defined on two scales relating to individual fractures and zones. Inferred fracture-specific from flow logging are correlated with fracture geometric and mechanical properties along with in situ stress measurements to create a hydromechanical description of fracture hydraulic properties. The insights and understandings gained from these efforts help define a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto site, with hydrogeological characteristics consistent with monitoring data of hydraulic heads and their disturbances to

  7. DFN Modeling for the Safety Case of the Final Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanarkaus, O.

    2017-12-01

    Olkiluoto Island is a site in SW Finland chosen to host a deep geological repository for high-level nuclear waste generated by nuclear power plants of power companies TVO and Fortum. Posiva, a nuclear waste management organization, submitted a construction license application for the Olkiluoto repository to the Finnish government in 2012. A key component of the license application was an integrated geological, hydrological and biological description of the Olkiluoto site. After the safety case was reviewed in 2015 by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland, Posiva was granted a construction license. Posiva is now preparing an updated safety case for the operating license application to be submitted in 2022, and an update of the discrete fracture network (DFN) model used for site characterization is part of that. The first step describing and modelling the network of fractures in the Olkiluoto bedrock was DFN model version 1 (2009), which presented an initial understanding of the relationships between rock fracturing and geology at the site and identified the important primary controls on fracturing. DFN model version 2 (2012) utilized new subsurface data from additional drillholes, tunnels and excavated underground facilities in ONKALO to better understand spatial variability of the geological controls on geological and hydrogeological fracture properties. DFN version 2 connected fracture geometric and hydraulic properties to distinct tectonic domains and to larger-scale hydraulically conductive fault zones. In the version 2 DFN model, geological and hydrogeological models were developed along separate parallel tracks. The version 3 (2017) DFN model for the Olkiluoto site integrates geological and hydrogeological elements into a single consistent model used for geological, rock mechanical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies. New elements in the version 3 DFN model include a stochastic description of fractures within Brittle Fault Zones (BFZ

  8. A system of nomenclature for rocks in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.

    2006-06-01

    Due to international interest in the Finnish deep repository project at Olkiluoto (SW Finland) and the need for collaboration between scientists involved in site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in other countries, a well-documented system of rock nomenclature is required, based on existing classification schemes and international recommendations. The BGS (British Geological Survey) rock classification scheme is the most comprehensive rock classification scheme and the basic principles behind it are utilised for the system of nomenclature for rocks in Olkiluoto. The BGS classification system is based on the use of descriptive names and a clear hierarchy, making it possible to classify rocks at different levels depending on the specific goals of the study, the level of available information, and the expertise of the user. Each rock type is assigned a root name, which is based on structural and textural characteristics or modal compositions of the rock and the root names are refined with qualifier terms as prefixes. Qualifier terms refer to the structure or modal composition of the rock. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site consists of metamorphic and igneous rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of migmatitic gneisses and (non-migmatitic) gneisses, which are further divided according to their structural characteristics and modal compositions, the former into stromatic, veined, diatexitic gneisses, the latter into mica, quartz, mafic and TGG gneisses. Igneous rocks consist of pegmatitic granites, K-feldspar porphyry and diabases. (orig.)

  9. Environmental Radioactivity Data of Olkiluoto in 1984-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2003-04-01

    In this report, data of the environmental radiation surveillance programme of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is published in a collected format for further reference. The data reported consists of analysis results of selected environmental media and indicator organisms representing human food web, and it covers a period of 1984-2001. In addition to sampling and analysis results, also a concise description of data acquisition methods - when still traceable - and handling is provided as well as locations of sampling sites. (orig.)

  10. Geological Model of the Olkiluoto Site. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, I.

    2010-10-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: 1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and 2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. In addition, the largest ductile deformation zones and tectonic units are described in 3D model. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: firstly, pervasive alteration and secondly fracturecontrolled alteration. Clay mineralisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the foliation and lithological trend. Kaolinite is also mainly located in the

  11. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Olkiluoto site report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Front, K. [VTT Communication and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Olkiluoto. The bedrock of the Olkiluoto site consists of Svecofennian metasediments and platonic rocks, 1800-1900 million years in age. Migmatitic mica gneiss is the most abundant rock type, and is intruded by foliated tonalites and granodiorites and massive coarse-grained granites and pegmatites. Five successive plastic deformation phases have been defined. In total, 30 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the site. Most of these represent steeply dipping fracture zones, but several sub-horizontal zones, gently dipping to the SE, have also been identified. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed `intact rock`, which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval, is 8 x 10{sup -13} m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the

  12. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Olkiluoto site report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.; Ahokas, H.; Front, K.

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Olkiluoto. The bedrock of the Olkiluoto site consists of Svecofennian metasediments and platonic rocks, 1800-1900 million years in age. Migmatitic mica gneiss is the most abundant rock type, and is intruded by foliated tonalites and granodiorites and massive coarse-grained granites and pegmatites. Five successive plastic deformation phases have been defined. In total, 30 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the site. Most of these represent steeply dipping fracture zones, but several sub-horizontal zones, gently dipping to the SE, have also been identified. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed 'intact rock', which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 3 x 10 -7 m 2 /s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval, is 8 x 10 -13 m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the postglacial

  13. Geological discrete-fracture network model (version 1) for the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Buoro, A.; Dahlbo, K.; Wiren, L.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of a discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 500 m; an upper scale limit is not expressly defined, but the DFN model explicitly excludes structures at deformation-zone scales (∼ 500 m) and larger. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modelling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is currently planned to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches (as of July 2007), geological and structural data from cored boreholes (as of July 2007), and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory (January 2008). The modelling results suggest that the rock volume at Olkiluoto surrounding the ONKALO tunnel can be separated into three distinct volumes (fracture domains): an upper block, an intermediate block, and a lower block. The three fracture domains are bounded horizontally and vertically by large deformation zones. Fracture properties, such as fracture orientation and relative orientation set intensity, vary between fracture domains. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subverticallydipping fracture set

  14. Ecosystem characterization strategy at a repository site - Olkiluoto as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, Tuomas [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, 27160 Eurajoki (Finland); Kangasniemi, Ville [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kaironiementie 15, 39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Posiva Oy is constructing an underground research facility ONKALO in Olkiluoto, located in the municipality of Eurajoki, Finland. This is part of the plan for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel produced by Posiva's owners: Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oyj. Posiva has applied for construction license for an underground repository, which is planned to start its operation around the year 2020. The final disposal of high-level radioactive waste poses questions of long-term safety and possible processes of radionuclide release in the EBS (Engineered Barrier System) and the geosphere are also modelled as well as possible transport routes in the bedrock. Posiva has also established a monitoring program for the environment and is also conducting modelling of the surface environment and biosphere in Olkiluoto and the surrounding reference area. These serve the purpose of both, site description and modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment and biosphere. The process of modelling used by Posiva requires the division of the surface environment and biosphere into several categories. In Posiva's classification, ecosystems are divided to two categories: terrestrial and aquatic with terrestrial divided to forests and agricultural areas. These categories are further divided to ecosystem types which include: lake, river, forest, cropland and sea (with coastal sea as a separate type). These types are even further divided to 14 ecosystem sub-types and behind these sub-types, a total of 24 biotopes exist. Soil and sediment types are also classified to 7 classes. The methodology behind the selection of these biotopes and their connection to the modelling of radionuclide transport in the surface environment is further described in the text. Some of the ecosystem types and biotopes are absent in present-day Olkiluoto area, which necessitates the use of reference targets, such as lakes, rivers

  15. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto - complementary simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.

    2000-06-01

    This work comprises of the complementary simulations to the previous groundwater flow analysis at the Olkiluoto site. The objective is to study the effects of flow porosity, conceptual model for solute transport, fracture zones, land uplift and initial conditions on the results. The numerical simulations are carried out up to 10000 years into the future employing the same modelling approach and site-specific flow and transport model as in the previous work except for the differences in the case descriptions. The result quantities considered are the salinity and the driving force in the vicinity of the repository. The salinity field and the driving force are sensitive to the flow porosity and the conceptual model for solute transport. Ten-fold flow porosity and the dual-porosity approach retard the transport of solutes in the bedrock resulting in brackish groundwater conditions at the repository at 10000 years A.P. (in the previous work the groundwater in the repository turned into fresh). The higher driving forces can be attributed to the higher concentration gradients resulting from the opposite effects of the land uplift, which pushes fresh water deeper and deeper into the bedrock, and the higher flow porosity and the dual-porosity model, which retard the transport of solutes. The cases computed (unrealistically) without fracture zones and postglacial land uplift show that they both have effect on the results and can not be ignored in the coupled and transient groundwater flow analyses. The salinity field and the driving force are also sensitive to the initial salinity field especially at the beginning during the first 500 years A.P. The sensitivity will, however, diminish as soon as fresh water dilutes brackish and saline water and decreases the concentration gradients. Fresh water conditions result in also a steady state for the driving force in the repository area. (orig.)

  16. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2006-01-01

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality now matched

  17. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2006-09-15

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality

  18. Geological setting of the Olkiluoto investigation site, Eurajoki, SW Finland. Excursion guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.

    2009-08-01

    -1250 million years in age. Their geochemical features suggest that they are feeder channels to continental flood basalts, which have not, however, been preserved in the Satakunta area. Lake Saeaeksjaervi, northeast of the Satakunta sandstone, hosts approximately 4.5 km wide impact structure of early Cambrian age (ca. 560 Ma). Below water level it contains unexposed suevite breccia and impact melt breccia. Day 1 of the field excursion introduces the Palaeoproterozoic geology of the Olkiluoto site, with special emphasis to the structural geology. Day 2 presents the Mesoproterozoic history of southern Satakunta area, including the Laitila and Eurajoki rapakivi granites, the Satakunta sandstone and the olivine diabases. The excursion ends to the Lake Saeaeksjaervi, where boulders of impact rocks can be found on the northern shore of the lake. (orig.)

  19. Safeguards for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Methods and technologies for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.

    2003-05-01

    The final disposal of the nuclear material shall introduce new safeguards concerns which have not been addressed previously in IAEA safeguards approaches for spent fuel. The encapsulation plant to be built at the site will be the final opportunity for verification of spent fuel assemblies prior to their transfer to the geological repository. Moreover, additional safety and safeguards measures are considered for the underground repository. Integrated safeguards verification systems will also concentrate on environmental monitoring to observe unannounced activities related to possible diversion schemes at the repository site. The final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological formation will begin in Finland within 10 years. After the geological site investigations and according to legal decision made in 2001, the final repository of the spent nuclear fuel shall be located at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The next phase of site investigations contains the construction of an underground facility, called ONKALO, for rock characterisation purposes. The excavation of the ONKALO is scheduled to start in 2004. Later on, the ONKALO may form a part of the final repository. The plans to construct the underground facility for nuclear material signify that the first safeguards measures, e.g. baseline mapping of the site area, need to take prior to the excavation phase. In order to support the development and implementation of the regulatory control of the final disposal programme, STUK established an independent expert group, LOSKA. The group should support the STUK in the development of the technical safeguards requirements, in the implementation of the safeguards and in the evaluation of the plans of the facility operator. This publication includes four background reports produced by this group. The first of these 'NDA verification of spent fuel, monitoring of disposal canisters, interaction of the safeguards and safety issues in the final disposal' describes the new

  20. Completed lineament interpretation of the Olkiluoto region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.

    2013-10-01

    Site characterization activities at Olkiluoto have been taking place for c. 25 years, including a wide range of different geophysical survey methods using various geometries and scales of investigation. The measurements have been done from the air, ground surface, shallow and deep drillholes and the ONKALO underground facility. As a part of the complementary site investigations, two low-altitude geophysical airborne survey campaigns were done around and at Olkiluoto in 2008 and 2009. The survey in 2008 was focused in the Eurajoensalmi area N or NE of Olkiluoto Island. The survey in 2009 covered most of the Olkiluoto Island, the neighbouring sea area and the archipelago W, SW and S of Olkiluoto as well as some of the mainland area SE of Olkiluoto. This report presents a new lineament interpretation based on these new geophysical airborne surveys. For the interpretation work, the data were extensively further processed into different gradients and filtered data sets and maps. Furthermore, the potential of automatic curvature analyses was examined. Also, quantitative profile interpretation was done from a number of profiles to find out the dips and exact locations of the contacts of some features. The qualitative interpretation of the lineaments was carried out by visually inspecting the different versions of the geophysical maps and by digitizing the geometry of each interpreted lineament. The lineaments are collated into two ArcGIS themes (one for magnetic and one for EM lineaments), accompanied by an attribute table that includes a number of attributes for each interpreted feature: lineament identifier, reference to the data used in interpretation, uncertainty, length, average orientation and probable geological character. The total number of new interpreted features is 125 magnetic and 33 electromagnetic lineaments. The main trend of the interpreted features varies between WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE. Furthermore, trends in directions almost N-S and E-W are also

  1. Completed lineament interpretation of the Olkiluoto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paananen, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    Site characterization activities at Olkiluoto have been taking place for c. 25 years, including a wide range of different geophysical survey methods using various geometries and scales of investigation. The measurements have been done from the air, ground surface, shallow and deep drillholes and the ONKALO underground facility. As a part of the complementary site investigations, two low-altitude geophysical airborne survey campaigns were done around and at Olkiluoto in 2008 and 2009. The survey in 2008 was focused in the Eurajoensalmi area N or NE of Olkiluoto Island. The survey in 2009 covered most of the Olkiluoto Island, the neighbouring sea area and the archipelago W, SW and S of Olkiluoto as well as some of the mainland area SE of Olkiluoto. This report presents a new lineament interpretation based on these new geophysical airborne surveys. For the interpretation work, the data were extensively further processed into different gradients and filtered data sets and maps. Furthermore, the potential of automatic curvature analyses was examined. Also, quantitative profile interpretation was done from a number of profiles to find out the dips and exact locations of the contacts of some features. The qualitative interpretation of the lineaments was carried out by visually inspecting the different versions of the geophysical maps and by digitizing the geometry of each interpreted lineament. The lineaments are collated into two ArcGIS themes (one for magnetic and one for EM lineaments), accompanied by an attribute table that includes a number of attributes for each interpreted feature: lineament identifier, reference to the data used in interpretation, uncertainty, length, average orientation and probable geological character. The total number of new interpreted features is 125 magnetic and 33 electromagnetic lineaments. The main trend of the interpreted features varies between WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE. Furthermore, trends in directions almost N-S and E-W are also

  2. Geological data acquisition for site characterisation at Olkiluoto: a framework for the phase of underground investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.; Mattila, J.; Wikstroem, L.; Front, K.; Kaerki, A.; Gehoer, S.; Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Ahokas, T.

    2007-05-01

    'Geological data acquisition' is a general term for the collection of observations and measurements by direct observation of exposed bedrock in the field (i.e. in natural outcrops and trenches, in drillholes, and in tunnels and other underground excavations). Only field-based data acquisition is included in this report: laboratory-based investigations will be continued, based on the field data and sampling, and all the data will be subject to discipline-specific processing, as the project proceeds. The ultimate aim of geological data acquisition is to provide the necessary data base for geological models of the bedrock of the Olkiluoto site, in connection with the construction of an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, and a repository for spent nuclear fuel, at about 500m depth. Geological data acquisition plays a central role in site characterisation and modelling, and is intended to provide a solid platform on which the other disciplines (rock mechanics, hydrogeology, seismic risk assessment, etc.) can base their investigations. Based on consideration of a series of guidelines (e.g. modelling scale, source of data, level of investigation, national and international experience, special conditions at Olkiluoto, need for process understanding), a project-oriented 'framework' has been developed as a background to the different projects within the geological data acquisition programme. Each project will require its own system of data acquisition (methodology, spreadsheets, protocols, etc.), as described in the corresponding reports; the present report concentrates on the general principles which lie behind the different methodologies and data sheets. These principles are treated under three main headings: characterization of intact rock, characterization of deformation zone intersections, and characterization of individual fractures. Geological mapping of natural outcrops and trenches at Olkiluoto, and lithological logging of more than 40 rock cores

  3. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2007-03-15

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to study the possibilities for surface 3-D seismics and to review experiences for design before field work. The physical parameters and geometric properties of the site, as well as efficient survey layout and source arrangements, were considered in this work. Reflection seismics is most used geophysical investigation method in oil exploration and earth studies in sedimentary environment. Recently method has also been applied in crystalline bedrock for ore exploration and nuclear waste disposal site investigations. The advantage of the method is high accuracy combined with large depth of investigation. The principles of seismic 2-D and 3-D soundings are well known and advanced. 3-D sounding is a straightforward expansion of 2-D line based surveying. In investigation of crystalline bedrock, the high frequency wave sources and receivers, their right use in measurements and careful processing procedure (refraction static corrections in particular) are important. Using the site parameters in 2-D numerical modeling, two cases of faulted thin layer at depths of 200, 400 and 600 meters were studied. The first case was a layer with vertical dislocation (a ramp) and the other a layer having limited width of dislocated part. Central frequencies were 100, 200, 400 and 700 Hz. Results indicate that 10 - 20 m dislocation is recognizable, but for depths greater than 600 m, over 20 meters is required. Width of the dislocated part will affect the detectability of vertical displacement. At depths of 200 m and 400 m 10 - 50 m wide parts appear as point-like scatterers, wider areas have more continuity. Dislocations larger than 20 m can be seen. From depth of 600 m over 100 m wide parts are discernible, narrower are visible

  4. Surface 3-D reflection seismics - implementation at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E.

    2007-03-01

    Posiva Oy takes care of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. In year 2001 Olkiluoto was selected for the site of final disposal. Construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is going on at the Olkiluoto site. The aim of this work was to study the possibilities for surface 3-D seismics and to review experiences for design before field work. The physical parameters and geometric properties of the site, as well as efficient survey layout and source arrangements, were considered in this work. Reflection seismics is most used geophysical investigation method in oil exploration and earth studies in sedimentary environment. Recently method has also been applied in crystalline bedrock for ore exploration and nuclear waste disposal site investigations. The advantage of the method is high accuracy combined with large depth of investigation. The principles of seismic 2-D and 3-D soundings are well known and advanced. 3-D sounding is a straightforward expansion of 2-D line based surveying. In investigation of crystalline bedrock, the high frequency wave sources and receivers, their right use in measurements and careful processing procedure (refraction static corrections in particular) are important. Using the site parameters in 2-D numerical modeling, two cases of faulted thin layer at depths of 200, 400 and 600 meters were studied. The first case was a layer with vertical dislocation (a ramp) and the other a layer having limited width of dislocated part. Central frequencies were 100, 200, 400 and 700 Hz. Results indicate that 10 - 20 m dislocation is recognizable, but for depths greater than 600 m, over 20 meters is required. Width of the dislocated part will affect the detectability of vertical displacement. At depths of 200 m and 400 m 10 - 50 m wide parts appear as point-like scatterers, wider areas have more continuity. Dislocations larger than 20 m can be seen. From depth of 600 m over 100 m wide parts are discernible, narrower are visible

  5. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site Version O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Gehoer, S.

    2006-05-01

    The geological model of the Olkiluoto site consists of four submodels: the lithological model, the ductile deformation model, the brittle deformation model and the alteration model. The lithological model gives properties of definite rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which enables to define the dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation. The alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to polyphased ductile deformation, including five stages. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result a polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock in the Olkiluoto site has been subject to extensive hydrothermal alteration

  6. Environmental radioactivity data of Olkiluoto in 1977-1983 and 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roiviainen, P.

    2005-05-01

    In this report, data of the environmental radiation surveillance programme of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is published in a collected format for further reference. The data reported consists of analysis results of selected environmental media and indicator organisms representing human food web, and it covers periods of 1977-1983 and 2002-2003. In addition to sampling and analysis results, also a concise description of data acquisition methods - when still traceable - and handling is provided as well as locations of sampling sites. (orig.)

  7. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A.; La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H.

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  8. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  9. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual Report for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2007-05-01

    In February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. Later, in June 2004, the seismic network was expanded with two new seismic stations. At that time started the excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) and the basic operation procedure was changed more suitable for the demands of the new situation. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the year 2006. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated continuously in 2006. In the beginning of 2006, the target area of the seismic monitoring expanded to semi-regional scale. Four new seismic stations started in the beginning of February 2006. At the end of the year, two new borehole geophones were installed in order to improve the sensitivity and the depth resolution of the measurements inside the ONKALO block. This report presents also new interpretations of the excavation induced earthquakes that occurred in the ONKALO in 2005. Altogether 2041 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -1.1 to ML = 3.1 (ML magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of them are explosions. Two of the observed events are be classified as microearthquakes. Evidence of activity that would have influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not been found. The observed earthquakes occurred in 2006 were small, ML = -0.6 and ML= -0.9. The earthquakes relate to small movements in brittle deformation zones OL-BFZ043 and OL-BFZ034 presented in the geological model of the Olkiluoto site

  10. Geochemical modelling of the groundwater at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Snellman, M.; Leino-Forsman, H.; Vuorinen, U.

    1994-04-01

    A preliminary model for probable processes responsible for the evolution of the groundwater at the nuclear waste investigation site Olkiluoto (in Finland) is presented. The hydrological data was collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into crystalline bedrock. Based on chemical, isotopic, petrographic and hydrological data as well as ion plots and speciation calculations with PHREEQE the thermodynamic controls on the water composition and trends constraining these processes are evaluated. In order to determine the reactions which can explain the changes along the flow path during the evolution of groundwater system and to determine to which extent these reactions take place, mass-balance calculations with the NETPATH program were used. Mass transfer calculations with the EQ6 program were used to test the feasibility of the model derived, to predict reaction paths and composition of equilibrium solutions for the redox reactions. (57 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.)

  11. Disposal of spent fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. Programme for research, development and technical design for the pre-construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    assessment will be the cornerstone of the long-term safety case, but the argumentation for safety will also be based on broader technical and scientific evidence. A substantial part of the programme activities will be staged according to the progress of the planned underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, at Olkiluoto. The plan is to start the construction of ONKALO in 2003-2004. Before that Posiva will complete the documentation concerning the: baseline description of the Olkiluoto site; technical design description of the planned underground rock characterisation facility; plan for underground investigations and review of the rock characteristics that are important for the long-term safety of disposal together with an assessment of how the ONKALO project would affect these. Later, at the end of 2005, Posiva will publish an interim progress report of the disposal programme. The report will also contain a more detailed description of the activities planned for the latter half of the programme period. (orig.)

  12. Disposal of spent fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. Programme for research, development and technical design for the pre-construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    will be the cornerstone of the long-term safety case, but the argumentation for safety will also be based on broader technical and scientific evidence. A substantial part of the programme activities will be staged according to the progress of the planned underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, at Olkiluoto. The plan is to start the construction of ONKALO in 2003-2004. Before that Posiva will complete the documentation concerning the: baseline description of the Olkiluoto site; technical design description of the planned underground rock characterisation facility; plan for underground investigations and review of the rock characteristics that are important for the long-term safety of disposal together with an assessment of how the ONKALO project would affect these. Later, at the end of 2005, Posiva will publish an interim progress report of the disposal programme. The report will also contain a more detailed description of the activities planned for the latter half of the programme period. (orig.)

  13. An isotopic and fluid inclusion study of fracture calcite from borehole OL-KR1 at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, A.; Frape, S.; Blomqvist, R.; Nissinen, P.; McNutt, R.

    1998-04-01

    A study of the geochemistry of fracture filling calcite in borehole OL-KR1 at the radioactive waste disposal investigation site Olkiluoto (in Finland) was undertaken in 1998. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the fracture calcite using mineralogy, oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopes, and fluid inclusions in order to determine past and present chemical and isotopic condition at the site

  14. An isotopic and fluid inclusion study of fracture calcite from borehole OL-KR1 at the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, A.; Frape, S. [Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Blomqvist, R.; Nissinen, P. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); McNutt, R. [McMaster Univ. of Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    A study of the geochemistry of fracture filling calcite in borehole OL-KR1 at the radioactive waste disposal investigation site Olkiluoto (in Finland) was undertaken in 1998. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the fracture calcite using mineralogy, oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopes, and fluid inclusions in order to determine past and present chemical and isotopic condition at the site 39 refs.

  15. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J. [Enprima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. In the beginning, the network consisted of six seismic stations. Later, in June 2004, the seismic network was expanded with two new seismic stations. At that time started the excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) and the basic operation procedure was changed more suitable for the demands of the new situation. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the years 2002 - 2004. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The longest interruption occurred 16.-17.6.2004, when two new seismic stations were installed in the network and the operation procedure was changed. Altogether 757 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -3.5 to ML = 1.2. All of them are explosions or other artificial events. So far, none of the 757 observed events can be classified as microearthquakes. Five of the events have characteristics that make the origin of the recorded signal uncertain. They are quite unlikely microearthquakes, but they are not typical examples of artificial seismic signals either. When the experience and the data set of the Olkiluoto microearthquakes increase the identification of events will be more definite. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. (orig.)

  16. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    2005-09-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. In the beginning, the network consisted of six seismic stations. Later, in June 2004, the seismic network was expanded with two new seismic stations. At that time started the excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) and the basic operation procedure was changed more suitable for the demands of the new situation. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the years 2002 - 2004. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The longest interruption occurred 16.-17.6.2004, when two new seismic stations were installed in the network and the operation procedure was changed. Altogether 757 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -3.5 to ML = 1.2. All of them are explosions or other artificial events. So far, none of the 757 observed events can be classified as microearthquakes. Five of the events have characteristics that make the origin of the recorded signal uncertain. They are quite unlikely microearthquakes, but they are not typical examples of artificial seismic signals either. When the experience and the data set of the Olkiluoto microearthquakes increase the identification of events will be more definite. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. (orig.)

  17. Potential reference mires and lakes ecosystems for biosphere assessment of Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Kirkkala, T.; Paloheimo, A.; Koivunen, S.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2010-10-01

    New lakes and mires will develop in the sea area now surrounding Olkiluoto Island due to the postglacial land uplift. The properties of these objects can be forecast using data from existing lakes and mires. There are, however, no such objects on the present Olkiluoto Island. This Working Report presents a project, initiated in 2007, where lakes and mires at different successional stages, suitable as reference objects for the future ones, were searched. The task included delineation of the study area, based on e.g. geological and climatological factors, and development of the selection criteria. As background, development history and properties of present lakes and mires in the study area are described in this report. For this and forthcoming projects, several GIS data sets were acquired. With help of these data, literature and environmental databases, 33 mires and 27 lakes were selected. These were considered to be the best available analogues for the future objects around Olkiluoto Island. The characteristics of these objects are presented briefly; more detailed information is found in the literature and databases. (orig.)

  18. Updated and integrated modelling of the 1995 - 2008 Mise-a-la-masse survey data in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, T.; Paananen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel into bedrock focusing in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The ONKALO underground characterization premises have been constructed since 2004. Posiva Oy is aiming for submitting the construction licence application in 2012. To support the compilation of the safety case and repository and ONKALO design and construction, an integrated Olkiluoto site Description including geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models will be depicted. Mise-a-la-masse (MAM) surveys have been carried out in the Olkiluoto area since 1995 to follow electric conductors from drillhole to drillhole, from drillhole to the ground surface and also between the ONKALO access tunnel and drillholes or the ground surface. The data and some visualisation of the data have been presented as part of reporting of the 1995 and 2008 surveys. The work presented in this paper includes modelling of all the measured data and combining single conductors modelled from different surveys to conductive zones. The results from this work will be used in updating the geological and hydrogeological models of the Olkiluoto site area. Several electrically conductive zones were modelled from the examined data, many of them coincide with the known brittle deformation zones but also indications of many so far unknown zones were detected. During the modelling Comsol Multiphysics software for calculating theoretical potential field anomalies of different models was tested. The test calculations showed that this software is useful in confirming the modelling results, especially in complicated cases. (orig.)

  19. Geological ductile deformation mapping at the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    During 2010-2012 eight larger excavated and cleaned outcrops were investigated to study the polyphase nature of the ductile deformation within the Olkiluoto Island. A detailed structural geological mapping together with a thin section study was performed to get a broader and better understanding of the nature and occurrence of these different ductile deformation phases. These outcrops were selected to represent all different ductile deformation phases recognized earlier during the site investigations. The relicts of primary sedimentary structures and products of the earliest deformations (D{sub 0}-D{sub 1}) are mostly obscured by later deformation events. The D{sub 2}-D{sub 4} is the most significant ductile deformation phases occurring on the Olkiluoto Island and almost all structural features can be labeled within these three phases. The outcrops for this investigation were selected mostly from the eastern part of the Olkiluoto Island because that part of the Island has been less investigated previously. As a reference, one outcrop was selected in the western part of the Island where it was previously known that this location had especially well preserved structures of the second deformation phase (D{sub 2}). The S{sub 2} foliation is E-W orientated with moderate dip towards south. A few folds can be associated with this deformational event, mostly having a tight to isoclinal character. During D{sub 3} the migmatites were re-deformed and migrated leucosomes, were intruded mainly parallel to S{sub 3} axial surfaces having a NE-SW orientation. Generally the dip of the S{sub 3} axial surfaces is slightly more steeper (55- 65 deg C) than that of the S{sub 2} axial surfaces, which shows a more moderate dip (40-65 deg C). F{sub 3} fold structures are quite common in the eastern part of Island showing asymmetrical, overturned, shear folds usually with a dextral sense of shear. Large scale D{sub 3} shear structures contain blastomylonites as characteristic fault rocks

  20. Geological history and its impact on the rock mechanics properties of the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.; Cosgrove, J.W.

    2006-03-01

    This report is one of three documents with background information for supporting the development of Posiva's future rock mechanics programme. The other two reports are a summary of all the rock mechanics work completed for Posiva before 2005 (Posiva Working Report) and a technical audit of the numerical modeling work that has been conducted previously for Posiva (REC Memo). The purpose of this report is to establish the extent to which the mechanical properties of the rocks at the Olkiluoto site can be estimated from a knowledge of the geological environment. The main information required for rock mechanics studies of the site is a knowledge of the prevailing stress state, the properties of the intact rock, and the properties of the fractures at all scales - from sizes that could form blocks in the tunnel roof up to the major brittle deformation zones that could be influence the location of the ONKALO and the subsequent repository. Thus, the summary of the geological history in Chapter 2 concentrates on these features and we summarise the ductile and brittle deformational tectonic history of the site, with emphasis on the inferred stress states causing the deformations. Then, in Chapter 3, the rock stress, the hierarchy of brittle fracturing, the fracture properties and the mechanical properties of the rock mass are considered in the light of the geological environment. These features provide the baseline knowledge of the host rock from which the logic of the future rock mechanics programme can be developed, based on: the bedrock model; the site investigation results; the requirements for generating the site descriptive model; the prediction-outcome ONKALO studies; and numerically modeling the effects of excavation for design and safety analysis. The implications of this study for the future rock mechanics work are outlined in Chapter 4 with emphasis on the key features for modeling. (orig.)

  1. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a ± 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a ± 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM. It is

  2. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a {+-} 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a {+-} 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM

  3. Plan for safety case of spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2005-02-01

    Posiva aims to present the Safety Case supporting the construction license application of the spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto by 2012. An outline and preliminary assessments will be presented in 2009. Interim reporting and an update of the Safety Case plan will be presented in 2006, as required by the authorities. The KBS-3 disposal concept aims at long-term isolation and containment of spent fuel assemblies in durable copper-iron canisters emplaced in a repository to be constructed at a depth between 400 and 600 metres in crystalline bedrock. By 2012, studies on the KBS-3 disposal concept and site investigations at Olkiluoto will have been continued over about thirty years. The construction of an underground rock characterisation facility (called ONKALO) was started in June 2004. The investigations are carried out in close cooperation with the Swedish SKB developing and assessing the same disposal concept at candidate sites, resembling Olkiluoto, at the other side of the Baltic Sea. A safety case is the synthesis of evidence, analyses and arguments that quantify and substantiate the safety, and the level of expert confidence in the safety, of a planned repository. Posiva's Safety Case will be organised in a portfolio including ten main reports, which will be periodically updated according the overall schedule presented in the plan. The Site report describing the present state and past evolution of the Olkiluoto site, as well as the disturbances caused by the construction of ONKALO and the first stage of the repository, forms the geoscientific basis of the Safety Case. The engineering basis is provided by the reports on the Characteristics of spent fuel, Canister design, and Repository design. The Process report containing descriptions and analyses of features, events and processes potentially affecting the disposal system, and the report on the Evolution of site and repository form the scientific basis of the Safety Case. The latter report will describe and

  4. Seismic network at the Olkiluoto site and microearthquake observations in 2002-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of Posiva's seismic network after the comprehensive upgrade performed in 2013 and presents a summary of its micro-earthquake observations in 2002 - 2013. Excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually and communication, hardware and software have developed in over ten years. The upgrade in 2013 included data transmission, the equipment in several seismic stations, the server responsible for the data processing in Olkiluoto and software applied in operation and analysis of observations. After the upgrade Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas, of which the larger one, the seismic semi-regional area, includes the Olkiluoto island and its surroundings. The aim is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. All the expected excavation induced events are assumed to occur inside the smaller target area, the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of the ONKALO.In the beginning the network monitored tectonic earthquakes in order to characterise the undisturbed baseline of seismicity in Olkiluoto. After August 2004, the network also monitored excavation induced seismicity. The first three excavation induced earthquakes were recorded in September 2005. At the moment the total number of excavation induced earthquakes is 17. During the same time about 10 000 excavation blasts were located. The

  5. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2014-06-01

    This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2013. Excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto, where there are currently 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. The network has operated continuously in 2013. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas, of which the larger one, the seismic semiregional area, includes the Olkiluoto island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. All the expected excavation induced events are assumed to occur inside the smaller target area, the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO and includes 13 seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of ONKALO. Upgrade and unification of the whole seismic network was done in August 2013. The upgrade included communication, data acquisition, server equipment in Olkiluoto, network configuration and software. The bedrock models and the ONKALO design model applied in the visualisation of the seismicity remained the same in 2013. The number of located events was much smaller than during previous years due to break in the excavation. Altogether 436 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). The magnitudes of the explosions inside the semi-regional area range from M L = -1.6 to M L = 1.5 (M L = magnitude in local Richter's scale). One small induced earthquake (ML = -1.8) was detected on 9 May 2013

  6. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual Report for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2008-05-01

    In February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. Later, in June 2004, the seismic network was expanded with two new seismic stations. At that time started the excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) and the basic operation procedure was changed more suitable for the demands of the new situation. In the beginning of 2006, the target area of the seismic monitoring expanded to semiregional scale. Four new seismic stations started in the beginning of February 2006 and the focus of interpretation was expanded to an area, called the seismic semi-regional area. At the end of 2006, two new borehole geophones were installed in order to improve the sensitivity and the depth resolution of the measurements inside the ONKALO block. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the year 2007. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The true orientation of the borehole sensor OL-OS13 was calculated. The correct orientation of triaxial seismometer is essential when the fault plane solution of an earthquake is calculated. The other borehole sensor OL-OS14 was permanently disconnected in October 2007. The network has operated continuously in 2007. Altogether 2207 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. Altogether 2207 events have been located in 2007. Most of them (1912) are explosions occurred inside the seismic semiregional area and especially inside the ONKALO block (1891 events). The magnitudes of the observed events inside the semi-regional area range from ML = -2.1 to ML = 1.5 (ML

  7. Posiva safety case hydrogeochemical evolution of the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinchero, P.; Roman-Ross, G.; Maia, F.; Molinero, J. [Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    The goal of the present work is to assess the hydrochemical evolution and related changes in the buffering capacity of the Olkiluoto site using reactive transport models. The analysis covers a number of operational-related and climatic-related modelling periods that take place during a glacial cycle; namely, the present conditions with the open repository (Operational Period), the post-closure conditions (Temperate Period) and a stage of the glacial cycle representative of the ice sheet retreat phase (Melting Period). With the aim of reproducing the interplay between the hydrodynamic and geochemical processes, the reactive transport calculations summarised in this document integrate the results of a hydrogeological model with a number of geochemical reactions whose parameterisation relies on previous site investigation studies. The conceptual model on which the study is based, assumes that the hydrochemical evolution of the groundwater at repository depth is the result of infiltration processes from the surface of the domain to the repository. The infiltration occurs along flowpaths through deformation zones and fractures in the bedrock. The infiltrating water, in turn, undergo geochemical reactions with the rock and minerals, namely calcite and iron sulphide precipitation/dissolution, kinetic dissolution of aluminosilicates, cation exchange and aqueous redox reactions. Mass exchange between the transmissive fractures and the low permeability matrix is simulated using a dual porosity approach for the Temperate and Melting Periods. On the contrary, the Operational Period, which is characterised by high hydraulic gradients with advection being the dominant transport mechanism, is simulated using a single porosity model. In all the reactive transport simulations denoted as 'Base Case', pyrite is assumed to be the main iron sulphide mineral in the fracture filling. A set of sensitivity simulations, denoted as 'Variant Case', has been defined where

  8. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution and residence time at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Luukkonen, A.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Leino-Forsman, H.; Vuorinen, U.

    1999-05-01

    An understanding of the geochemical evolution of groundwater is an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the final disposal of radioactive waste into the bedrock. The performance of technical barriers and migration of possibly released radionuclides depend on chemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions which control chemical conditions in groundwater. The objective of this study is to interpret the processes and factors which control the hydrogeochemistry, such as pH and redox conditions. A model of the hydrogeochemical progress in different parts of the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto has been created and the significance of chemical reactions and groundwater mixing along different flowpaths calculated. Long term hydrodynamics have also been evaluated. The interpretation and modelling are based on water samples (63 altogether) obtained from precipitation, Baltic Sea, soil layer, shallow wells in the bedrock, and eight deep boreholes in the bedrock for which a comprehensive data set on dissolved chemical species and isotopes was available. Some analyses of dissolved gases and fracture calcite and their isotopic measurements were also utilised. The data covers the bedrock at Olkiluoto to a depth of 1000 m. The results from groundwater chemistry, isotopes, petrography, hydrogeology of the site, geomicrobial studies, and PCA and speciation calculations were used in the evaluation of evolutionary processes at the site. The geochemical interpretation of water-rock interaction, isotope-chemical evolution and mixing of palaeo water types were approached by mass-balance calculations (NETPATH). Reaction-path calculations (EQ3/6) were used to verify the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction models obtained. The interpretation and calculation of hydrochemical data from Olkiluoto reveals the complex nature of hydrogeochemical evolution at the site. Changes in

  9. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution and residence time at the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Luukkonen, A. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Leino-Forsman, H.; Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    An understanding of the geochemical evolution of groundwater is an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the final disposal of radioactive waste into the bedrock. The performance of technical barriers and migration of possibly released radionuclides depend on chemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions which control chemical conditions in groundwater. The objective of this study is to interpret the processes and factors which control the hydrogeochemistry, such as pH and redox conditions. A model of the hydrogeochemical progress in different parts of the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto has been created and the significance of chemical reactions and groundwater mixing along different flowpaths calculated. Long term hydrodynamics have also been evaluated. The interpretation and modelling are based on water samples (63 altogether) obtained from precipitation, Baltic Sea, soil layer, shallow wells in the bedrock, and eight deep boreholes in the bedrock for which a comprehensive data set on dissolved chemical species and isotopes was available. Some analyses of dissolved gases and fracture calcite and their isotopic measurements were also utilised. The data covers the bedrock at Olkiluoto to a depth of 1000 m. The results from groundwater chemistry, isotopes, petrography, hydrogeology of the site, geomicrobial studies, and PCA and speciation calculations were used in the evaluation of evolutionary processes at the site. The geochemical interpretation of water-rock interaction, isotope-chemical evolution and mixing of palaeo water types were approached by mass-balance calculations (NETPATH). Reaction-path calculations (EQ3/6) were used to verify the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction models obtained. The interpretation and calculation of hydrochemical data from Olkiluoto reveals the complex nature of hydrogeochemical evolution at the site. Changes in

  10. Review of the GPS deformation monitoring studies commissioned by Posiva Oy on the Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara sites, 1994-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, M.

    2002-05-01

    This report reviews the work done by scientists from the Finnish Geodetic Institute at the three sites Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara over the years 1994-2000, with a view to detecting and measuring possible local crustal movements by means of geodetic GPS. The work, which consisted of measurements, computations and analysis, was reported in seven technical reports of Posiva Oy. Reviewed was also the work related to the three permanent stations established in these three sites, which have operated as part of the twelve-station national FinnRef network. The conclusion was that on the whole, the work has been performed professionally using state of the art equipment, measurement and analysis techniques by competent and experienced personnel. A number of suggestions for improvement and future work are given, mainly concerning the way the modelling of atmospheric propagation effects was done and how that affects the scale of the network computation, a proposal for monitoring the absolute scale, as well as remarks concerning the regular re-measurement of reserve marker ties, and the importance of continuing monitoring for a full solar activity cycle. The importance of interdisciplinarity is stressed. This review report is an outcome of the Bedrock Movements Investigations Group which supports STUKs regulatory activities related to confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto. (orig.)

  11. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2012-06-01

    This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2011. Excavation of the underground characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2011 Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of ONKALO. The configuration of the seismic network as well as the software packages applied in data processing and analyses have remained during the previous year. The design model of ONKALO and the brittle fault zone model of the Olkiluoto of the seismic visualization package Jdi were upgraded in 2011. The network has operated nearly continuously. There was a 14 minutes and 30 second long operation failure in December 2011. That was the first network operation failure in five years. Altogether 1223 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. Most of them (1098) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semiregional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1064 events). The magnitudes of the observed explosions inside the semi

  12. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2011. Excavation of the underground characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2011 Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of ONKALO. The configuration of the seismic network as well as the software packages applied in data processing and analyses have remained during the previous year. The design model of ONKALO and the brittle fault zone model of the Olkiluoto of the seismic visualization package Jdi were upgraded in 2011. The network has operated nearly continuously. There was a 14 minutes and 30 second long operation failure in December 2011. That was the first network operation failure in five years. Altogether 1223 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. Most of them (1098) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semiregional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1064 events). The magnitudes of the observed explosions inside the

  13. Geomicrobial investigations of groundwaters from Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, S.A.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Groundwater from four deep hard rock sites being considered for nuclear waste disposal in Finland (Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara) were investigated for microbial populations. Bacteria will be present in a waste disposal vault, so it is important to understand the microbiology of any potential site. Groundwater samples were collected from 200 to 950 m depth and included fresh, brackish and saline waters. Samples were collected with a pressurized groundwater sampler, PAVE, which is an excellent tool for microbiological sampling. Total cell numbers were typical for deep groundwater, 105 to 106 cells/ml. Growth media designed using groundwater chemistry data were used for enumeration of methanogens, acetogens, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB). Microbial populations varied between sites. Iron sulfide fracture minerals are common in the brackish high sulfate groundwaters of Olkiluoto, where SRB predominated. Haestholmen groundwater has high dissolved iron, iron hydroxide fracture minerals and IRB were the main microbial population. Kivetty and Romuvaara had mixed populations. It has been proposed that deep subsurface ecosystems are based on hydrogen and carbon dioxide which provide energy and carbon to support the food chain. Signs of such an ecosystem were seen in Olkiluoto. More study is needed to understand the basis for deep subsurface life. From a microbiological point of view, all sites investigated are equally suitable for nuclear waste disposal. (orig.) 66 refs.

  14. Geomicrobial investigations of groundwaters from Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haveman, S.A.; Pedersen, K.; Ruotsalainen, P.

    1998-08-01

    Groundwater from four deep hard rock sites being considered for nuclear waste disposal in Finland (Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara) were investigated for microbial populations. Bacteria will be present in a waste disposal vault, so it is important to understand the microbiology of any potential site. Groundwater samples were collected from 200 to 950 m depth and included fresh, brackish and saline waters. Samples were collected with a pressurized groundwater sampler, PAVE, which is an excellent tool for microbiological sampling. Total cell numbers were typical for deep groundwater, 105 to 106 cells/ml. Growth media designed using groundwater chemistry data were used for enumeration of methanogens, acetogens, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB). Microbial populations varied between sites. Iron sulfide fracture minerals are common in the brackish high sulfate groundwaters of Olkiluoto, where SRB predominated. Haestholmen groundwater has high dissolved iron, iron hydroxide fracture minerals and IRB were the main microbial population. Kivetty and Romuvaara had mixed populations. It has been proposed that deep subsurface ecosystems are based on hydrogen and carbon dioxide which provide energy and carbon to support the food chain. Signs of such an ecosystem were seen in Olkiluoto. More study is needed to understand the basis for deep subsurface life. From a microbiological point of view, all sites investigated are equally suitable for nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  15. The geological and structural characterization of the Olkiluoto site in a critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, J.; Jokinen, J.; Siivola, J.; Tiren, S.

    2003-05-01

    This report comments on aspects of Posiva's work relating to the interests of the IMGS (Investigations and Modelling of Geological Structures) Group who is concerned with the potential impact of the tectonic and geological setting of the Olkiluoto site, on the construction a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since the Group's last report (IMGS 2002) a variety of relevant publications have been produced by Posiva. A number of issues have been identified in these documents relating to the procedure for updating the Bedrock model, factors influencing the location and layout of ONKALO, the mapping procedure planned for the access tunnel, the problem of oversimplification and uncertainties and the proposed extension of the repository. These are discussed in the present report. (orig.)

  16. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  17. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J. (Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than +-0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  18. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J.

    2010-06-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ±0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  19. Safety analysis of disposal of decommissioning waste from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant - PURKU-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Meszaros, F.; Nordman, H.; Taivassalo, V.

    1993-12-01

    Decommissioning waste from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant will be disposed of at the depth between 60 and 100 meters in the bedrock at the power plant site. The existing VLJ repository for low and medium level operating waste will be extended with three new silos for the decommissioning waste of the TVO I and II reactors and the spent fuel interim store at the Olkiluoto site. Besides dismantling waste also used fuel boxes, control rods and other activated metal components accumulated during the operation of the reactors will be disposed of in the repository. The safety analysis is based on the detailed decommissioning plan of the Olkiluoto power plants and the comprehensive safety analysis carried out for the Final Safety Analysis Report of the VLJ repository. (58 refs., 31 figs., 38 tabs.)

  20. Forest soil survey and mapping of the nutrient status of the vegetation on Olkiluoto island. Results from the first inventory on the FEH plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, P.; Aro, A.; Salemaa, M.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the inventory was to determine the status of the forest soils and to map the current nutrient status of forest vegetation on Olkiluoto Island in order to create a basis for monitoring future changes in the forests and to provide data for a biospheric description of the island. The study was carried out on 94 FEH plots, which were selected from the forest extensive monitoring network (FET plots) on the basis of the forest site type distribution and tree stand characteristics measured on the island during 2002 - 2004. Forest soils on Olkiluoto are very young and typical of soils along the Finnish coast, i.e. stony or shallow soils overlying bedrock, but with more nutrients than the forest soils inland. In addition to nutrients, the heavy metal concentrations are clearly higher on Olkiluoto than the average values for Finnish forest soils. The soil in the alder stands growing along the seashore is different from the other soils on Olkiluoto and the control soils inland. These soils are less acidic and have large reserves of sodium, magnesium and nitrogen. Macronutrient concentrations in vascular plant species were relatively similar to those reported for Southern Finland. However, it is obvious that the accumulation of particulate material on the vegetation, especially on forest floor bryophytes, has increased due to emissions derived from the construction of roads, drilling and rock crushing, as well as the other industrial activities on Olkiluoto Island. Leaf and needle analysis indicated that the tree stands had, in the main, a good nutrient status on Olkiluoto Island. The surveying methods used on Olkiluoto are better suited to detect systematic changes over a larger area or within a group of sample plots than the changes on individual plots. (orig.)

  1. KBS-3H layout adaptation 2007 for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik; Hagros, Annika; Autio, Jorma; Kirkkomaeki, Timo

    2008-05-01

    As part of the KBS-3H design an Olkiluoto-specific layout of a KBS-3H repository has been produced based on the latest Olkiluoto data and the bedrock model. One of the main goals of this work was to support the evaluation of the feasibility of the one layer KBS-3H concept and to compare the layouts based on the KBS-3H and KBS-3V disposal concepts. The layout presented in this work can be considered only preliminary and involves a number of uncertainties. The percentage of unusable host rock was assumed to be 25% in this work but can change due to the further design of the different components of the KBS-3H disposal system and further development of the host rock criteria. The layout is also significantly affected by the layout-determining fracture zones. In this work 11 major (highly transmissive) fracture zones interpreted to intersect the -420 m level were considered deterministically. The KBS-3H layout requires a larger area than the KBS-3V repository and takes up most of the available area between the major fracture zones HZ20 and HZ21. This is mainly due to the long drift sections occupied by the compartment plugs (30 m) and the bentonite blocks in the blank zones (10 m), which reduces the usability of the host rock and results in larger canister spacings than in the KBS-3V concept, where the positioning of the deposition holes is very flexible and narrow zones with a moderate transmissivity usually have only a minor effect on the locations of the canisters. According to the results, there is enough bedrock in the current investigation area at central Olkiluoto for KBS-3H layout in one layer. However the layout takes up nearly all of the potential bedrock resource and therefore the result is quite sensitive to possible changes in the design bases

  2. Olkiluoto 3 Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, Petteri

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience from the Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant project from regulator's point of view. There are certain factors that have affected greatly the project progress. First, Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant is the first European Pressurised Reactor (EPR) being constructed. Secondly, construction of the unit started after a fairly long break in nuclear power plant construction in Europe, which had resulted in loss of experienced and qualified engineering and manufacturing resources. These factors have to be kept in mind when evaluating the experience from Olkiluoto 3. Experience discussed in this paper have to do with the licensing and regulatory oversight process, completion of the design prior to construction, experience and know-how of the participating organisations, quality management in a nuclear construction project, advanced manufacturing and construction technologies, turnkey contract with regard to licensee's responsibility, safety culture aspects in a nuclear construction project, and the role and importance of regulator's oversight. (author)

  3. Evaluation and modelling of a potential repository site - Olkiluoto case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Ahokas, H.; Loefman, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Paulamaeki, S.; Snellman, M.

    1998-01-01

    The observations, interpretations and estimates resulting from site investigations were developed into conceptual bedrock model of the Olkiluoto area. Model development has been an interdisciplinary process and three major iterations have occurred. Geochemical sampling and a programme of electromagnetic and electrical soundings were carried out and interpreted to model occurrences of groundwater types. The parametrisation and modifications needed between geological models and ground-water flow simulation model is discussed. The latest groundwater flow modelling effort comprises the transient flow analysis taking into account the effects of density variations, the repository, post-glacial land uplift and global sea level rise. The main flow modeling result quantities (the amount, direction, velocity and routes as well as concentration of water) are used for evaluation of the investigation sites and of the preconditions for safe final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical methods and studies has provided the primary method for investigating the evolution. Testing of flow models with hydro-geochemical information is considered to improve the hydrogeological understanding of a site and increases confidence in conceptual hydrogeological models. Bedrock model allows also comparisons to be made between its time-varying versions. The evolution of fracture frequency, fracture zone structures and hydraulic conductivity has been studied. A prediction-outcome comparison was made in selected boreholes and showed that the rock type was the easiest parameter to predict

  4. The use of gamma spectrometry in mapping alteration zones in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, J.V.; Turunen, P.; Eilu, P.; Julkunen, A.; Gehoer, S.

    2007-08-01

    In the Olkiluoto site, a detailed gammaspectrometry log from the drill hole OL-KR27 was used to estimate the concentrations of K, Th and U. The gamma spectrometry results, lithological variations, and kaolinite and illite alteration visually mapped from the drill hole were compared. The result indicate that the Th/K ratio correlates best with lithology and that, in most cases, the changes in the ratio indicate lithological contacts and rising or falling trends of Th/K ratio with some peaks have some correlation with the kaolinite-illite alteration. From the result it is suggested that that very variable Th/K ratio is a reasonably good indicator of alteration zones even in the migmatic gneiss area in the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)

  5. Foliation: Geological background, rock mechanics significance, and preliminary investigations at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Hudson, J.; Wikstroem, L.; Aaltonen, I.

    2006-01-01

    A well developed, pervasive foliation is a characteristic feature of the migmatites and gneisses in the Olkiluoto bedrock, and is expected to have a significant influence on the underground construction, the design and layout and the groundwater flow regime of a deep spent nuclear fuel repository. This Working Report reviews the geological background and rock mechanics significance of foliation, and develops a methodology for the systematic acquisition of foliation data in cored boreholes and in tunnels at the Olkiluoto site, to provide the necessary basis for future geological, rock mechanics and hydrogeological modelling. The first part of the methodology concerns foliation characterisation, and develops a characterisation scheme based on two variables: the foliation type (G = gneissic, B = banded, S = schistose), which is a function of mineral composition and degree of smallscale heterogeneity, and the foliation intensity (1 = low, 2 = intermediate, 3 = high), which is a function of the type and intensity of the deformation by which it was produced (under high-grade metamorphic conditions in the core of the Svecofennian orogenic belt). At the suggested reference scales (1 m length of core, 10 m 2 area of tunnel wall), the most representative foliation type and intensity is assessed using a standard set of core photographs, which are included as an Appendix at the end of the report, providing a systematic description in terms of 9 descriptive types (G1, G2, G3, B1, B2, B3, S1, S2, S3). As a further step, the rock mechanics significance of these types is assessed and a rock mechanics foliation (RMF) number is assigned (RMF 0 = no significance, RMF 1, RMF 2 and RMF 3 = low, intermediate and high significance, respectively). The second part of the methodology concerns the orientations of the foliation within the same 1 m core lengths or 10 m2 wall areas, which have been characterised as above. This combined analysis of foliation character and foliation orientation

  6. Geophysical investigations in the Olkiluoto area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Paananen, M.

    1992-12-01

    Investigations were carried out at the Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1992 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  7. Strength and strain anisotropy of olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Kuula, H.; Hudson, J.

    2006-10-01

    An anisotropy in the elastic moduli values of intact rock with a ratio of more than 1.3∼1.5 has been reported to have an effect on the calculated magnitudes and orientations of the in situ principal stress components as measured by the overcoring method. Work related to the on-going site investigation for a deep radioactive waste repository at the Olkiluoto site in Western Finland has shown that the migmatic mica gneiss is anisotropic which could therefore affect the interpretation of overcoring stress measurement results. This paper includes a summary of the theory of anisotropy concerning the intact rock moduli via the strain compliance matrix, a description of the core sample testing methods, and interpretation of results for the migmatic mica gneiss from two site investigation boreholes. In this case study, 19 specimens were tested and the results showed a modulus anisotropy of about 1.4. Because such anisotropy is high enough to produce significant errors in the estimation of the in situ principal stresses, it is recommended to take this into account in the interpretation of the stress measurement results, both in the context of the current work in Finland and in other projects where similar anisotropy is encountered. (orig.)

  8. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2011-11-01

    Excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010. In March 2010, the seismic network was upgraded by a new triaxial borehole seismometer in order to improve the sensitivity and the depth resolution inside the ONKALO block. The sensor is the second one inside the ONKALO. New PC for data processing and analysis with the new version of Linux operating system was installed. Also all software packages for data processing and analysis and for visualization were upgraded. The network has operated continuously in 2010. Altogether 1089 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. Most of them (943) are explosions occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (895 events). The magnitudes of the observed explosions inside the semi-regional area range from M L = -1

  9. Core drilling of short drillholes at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.

    2007-05-01

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled six short drillholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - August 2006. The identification numbers of the drillholes are OL-PP51 - OL-PP56. The deviation of the drillholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments Reflex EMS. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water was recorded. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling and flushing water were 37 m 3 . (orig.)

  10. Semi-integration of overcoring stress data and review of rock stress data at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ask, D.

    2011-06-01

    This project involves a semi-integration of collected rock stress data at Olkiluoto. The data included in the study involves overcoring and hydraulic fracturing data reported in the 2006 Site Report, supplemented with the additional data gathered since then, measurements for the power plant construction, and measurements in ONKALO. Despite the extensive data, and although the data display a fair correspondence with respect to stress magnitudes between methods, a few discrepancies between methods exist. The discrepancies primarily concern the orientation of the horizontal stresses and the magnitude of maximum horizontal stress. The objective of the study is help answer the remaining discrepancies in the collected data using a semi-integration approach on the overcoring data, i.e. a simplified application of the Integrated Stress Determination Method. The semi-integration involves two steps: (i) a brief re-evaluation of data; and (ii) forced overcoring stress calculations based on constraints derived from the other stress measurement techniques. The overall intension was to force overcoring data, which is the method displaying the largest scatter in results at the Olkiluoto site, to be consistent with a number of constraints that were derived from other stress measurement techniques. This exercise would outline the most probable constraints and in the extension, help identifying a stress model for the site. Regrettably, the results of the semi-integration were not completely satisfactory. The most important factor of this outcome is believed to be the failure to reduce the initial scatter through a re-evaluation. The remaining scatter after re-evaluation is judged too large to represent solely in situ stress variation; hence, measurement related errors are likely still present in the re-evaluated data set. A more in-depth analysis may to some extent decrease the scatter in data, but perhaps more effectively, develop a tool that simultaneously can derive the stress

  11. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  12. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenkkoenen, H.

    2012-04-01

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  13. Modelling end-glacial earthquakes at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelth, B.; Hoekmark, H.

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain estimates of the possible effects that post-glacial seismic events in three verified deformation zones (BFZ100, BFZ021/099 and BFZ214) at the Olkiluoto site may have on nearby fractures in terms of induced fracture shear displacement. The study is carried out by use of large-scale models analysed dynamically with the three dimensional distinct element code 3DEC. Earthquakes are simulated in a schematic way; large planar discontinuities representing earthquake faults are surrounded by a number of smaller discontinuities which represent rock fractures in which shear displacements potentially could be induced by the effects of the slipping fault. Initial stresses, based on best estimates of the present-day in situ stresses and on state-of-the-art calculations of glacially-induced stresses, are applied. The fault rupture is then initiated at a pre-defined hypocentre and programmed to propagate outward along the fault plane with a specified rupture velocity until it is arrested at the boundary of the prescribed rupture area. Fault geometries, fracture orientations, in situ stress model and material property parameter values are based on data obtained from the Olkiluoto site investigations. Glacially-induced stresses are obtained from state-of-the-art ice-crust/mantle finite element analyses. The response of the surrounding smaller discontinuities, i.e. the induced fracture shear displacement, is the main output from the simulations

  14. Eurajoki Olkiluoto birdlife survey 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yrjoelae, R.

    2009-02-01

    The study of birds in Olkiluoto in the summer of 2008 repeated the study of the same area conducted in 1997 (Yrjoelae 1997), and was complemented with two new line transect routes and six new waterfowl counting points for the eastern region of the Olkiluoto island. Using this method the research project covered the whole area of the Olkiluoto island. By repeating the earlier routes and counting points it presented an opportunity to clarify any possible changes in the area. A wide variety of different biotypes are evident in the mixed-growth forests of the whole Olkiluoto island and after that are both spruce and pine forests. There are regionally, however, great differences in the division. In the western sector of the island, on the first three lines, the share of industrial areas and the road network are noticeable. The methods used were line transects for the bird species found on the ground and point checks for the aquatic species of birds (Koskimies and Vaeisaenen 1998), which are the established methods used for the monitoring of birdlife in Finland. In these calculations, the bird observations were 1429 altogether, covering 65 species. The results of the checkpoint census for waterfowl are presented in this study. Altogether, 23 species were interpreted in the census for waterfowl as pairs appearing to nest in the area of the checkpoints. The endangered, or other species mentioned in the EU bird directive, sighted in Olkiluoto in summer 2008 are listed in this study. The Redbacked Shrike and Common Chiffchaff were clearly the most common among these species. The birdlife in Olkiluoto is both rather varied and abundant. A few clear tendencies can be distinguished in the changes within the species of birds. Amongst the waterfowl and gulls, the species favouring flourishing watercourses have increased. The species in the outer archipelago, such as the Common Eider and Velvet Scoter have declined compared to 1997. Probably the waders of the archipelago will

  15. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2010-06-01

    Excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2009 Posiva's seismic network consists of 14 seismic stations and 19 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2009. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The upgrades in 2009 are limited to the processing, interpretation and reporting practices. The latest upgrades of the equipment were done in November 2008. The final technical tuning and tests related to the upgrade were done in the beginning of 2009. The network has operated continuously in 2009. Altogether 1256 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. Most of them (1161) are explosions occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1135 events). The magnitudes of the observed events inside the semi-regional area range from ML = -1.5 to ML = 1.6 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of them are explosions. Two

  16. Simulations of permafrost evolution at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, J. [Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This report provides numerical estimations of the evolution of permafrost and perennially frozen ground at Olkiluoto on time-scales of 60,000 and 125,000 years using Olkiluoto's site-specific information on time histories of ground level temperatures, ice sheet thickness, basal conditions, shoreline migration, soil and vegetation cover as well as heat generation from the spent fuel at a depth of 420 metres. When considering environmental conditions akin to the last glacial cycle for a 125,000 years long period, the maximum permafrost depth over the repository area can exceed the depth of 300 m and the maximum depth of perennially frozen ground the depth of 270 m. If Olkiluoto, after a 50,000 years long temperate phase of boreal climate, was subjected to a 10,000 years long periglacial period with air temperature decreased between -5 deg C and -10 deg C, the maximum permafrost depth would range between 60 and 240 m and the maximum depth of perennially frozen ground between 50 and 220 m. Furthermore, permafrost would reach the repository depth in 10,000 years, if the air temperature was lowered down to -15 deg C and the ground surface had a very thin vegetation and snow cover. Alternatively, if Olkiluoto experienced a 125,000 years long glacial cycle with a very long periglacial periods of low air temperatures and thin vegetation and snow cover and without any ice sheet development, permafrost would reach the depth of 400 m in 98,000 years and perennially frozen ground in 101,000 years. The areal distribution of permafrost and perennially frozen ground are broadly affected by the snow cover, lakes and the peat areas, especially when an extensive peat growth occurs. The lack of snow cover can enhance the evolution of the maximum depth of permafrost and perennially frozen ground by over 50 %. In addition, ground thermal conditions and the heat generation from the spent fuel modify the spatial and temporal development of permafrost and perennially frozen ground. A

  17. Simulations of permafrost evolution at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartikainen, J.

    2013-07-01

    This report provides numerical estimations of the evolution of permafrost and perennially frozen ground at Olkiluoto on time-scales of 60,000 and 125,000 years using Olkiluoto's site-specific information on time histories of ground level temperatures, ice sheet thickness, basal conditions, shoreline migration, soil and vegetation cover as well as heat generation from the spent fuel at a depth of 420 metres. When considering environmental conditions akin to the last glacial cycle for a 125,000 years long period, the maximum permafrost depth over the repository area can exceed the depth of 300 m and the maximum depth of perennially frozen ground the depth of 270 m. If Olkiluoto, after a 50,000 years long temperate phase of boreal climate, was subjected to a 10,000 years long periglacial period with air temperature decreased between -5 deg C and -10 deg C, the maximum permafrost depth would range between 60 and 240 m and the maximum depth of perennially frozen ground between 50 and 220 m. Furthermore, permafrost would reach the repository depth in 10,000 years, if the air temperature was lowered down to -15 deg C and the ground surface had a very thin vegetation and snow cover. Alternatively, if Olkiluoto experienced a 125,000 years long glacial cycle with a very long periglacial periods of low air temperatures and thin vegetation and snow cover and without any ice sheet development, permafrost would reach the depth of 400 m in 98,000 years and perennially frozen ground in 101,000 years. The areal distribution of permafrost and perennially frozen ground are broadly affected by the snow cover, lakes and the peat areas, especially when an extensive peat growth occurs. The lack of snow cover can enhance the evolution of the maximum depth of permafrost and perennially frozen ground by over 50 %. In addition, ground thermal conditions and the heat generation from the spent fuel modify the spatial and temporal development of permafrost and perennially frozen ground. A

  18. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

    2014-08-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  19. GPS deformation measurements at Olkiluoto in 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations since mid-1990s at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara. The research was focused on the Olkiluoto area in 2001, when Olkiluoto was chosen to the site for the final disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel. The work and the results of the GPS deformation monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013 are presented. The measurement consisted of two GPS measurement campaigns, observations at local permanent stations and control markers measurements at four stations. In spring six new stations were set up for permanent tracking. In total 12 permanent stations were operating continuously from April to the end of the year. The residual time series of the stations showed periodic trends up to 3 mm in height and 1 mm in horizontal component relative to the GPS1 station. A few stations were still measured as campaign-based and analysed baseline by baseline. The data from permanent stations (GPS1-GPS9, and GPS13) were included. The analysis of the inner network based on campaign sessions showed very small motions as in previous years: 75 % of change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates could be considered statistically significant at 1 % significance level. Statistically significant change rates were estimated for baselines from GPS1 and GPS5. The trends and strains differed at some baselines clearly from the earlier analysis because of different troposphere modelling. The results of the outer network showed the largest difference on the baseline GPS1-GPS11 where the trend decreased from -0.42 mm/y to -0.28 mm/y. The strain pattern of the outer network shows an eastwards motion of GPS1. The estimated strains for the baselines east of GPS1 were -0.03/-0.04 ppm/y. The control marker measurements were carried at the stations GPS1, GPS2, GPS4 and GPS6. A comparison of the results with the previous measurements showed that the distance between control markers at GPS6 continues to increase. Also

  20. Meteorological data at Olkiluoto in period of 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.

    2005-07-01

    In this working report the data of some routine field observations of Posiva Oy and automatic measurements of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant weather station owned and operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oy is published for further reference. The data reported here covers observations from 2002 to 2004. First, a concise description of data acquisition methods and handling is provided. Thereafter the actual data is presented in the appendices. Weather measurements (e.g. temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity) and snow, ground frost and ditch flow rate observations are reported. (orig.)

  1. Studies on the aquatic environment at Olkiluoto and reference area. 1: Olkiluoto, reference lakes and Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, V. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd., Pori (Finland); Helin, J.

    2014-03-15

    This working report presents the first results of a sampling campaign at Olkiluoto and reference lakes and rivers selected to resemble the aquatic systems expected to form at the site in the future with the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift). In 2009-2010, the aim of the studies was to improve the knowledge of the aquatic systems and to produce input data to the safety case for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. The first main objective was to estimate the areal biomass distribution and measure the dimensions of characteristic aquatic plants and animals. Another objective was to estimate the transfer of different elements from water to the aquatic organisms paying special attention on key elements (Ag, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se) in the dose assessment within the safety case. Surface water, sediment, macrophyte, fish and macrobenthos samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area and from the reference lakes for biomass and dimension measurements and analysis of element concentration. Water-to-biota concentration ratios were estimated for the coastal area and for the reference lakes. From rivers, only water samples were collected at this stage. In 2009-2010, sampling procedures and pre-treatment methods were developed and analytical methods were optimised. Thus, the results reported here are indicative by their nature. After 2010, the studies have been continued with better established methods, and the more recent results will be reported later. (orig.)

  2. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2012. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Siren, T.

    2014-01-01

    datalogger. The results showed that the displacement behaviour was stable during 2012 and no significant changes took place. For the first time temperature measurements were collected from different sources of the Olkiluoto site (surface, drillholes and underground in the ONKALO). All the results were analysed and they indicate relatively uniform distributions of temperature in all depths across the site. Thermal gradient is around 1.4 deg C/100 m below 300 m. Visual observations from the ONKALO tunnels were also collected and analysed. The rock noises i.e. first indication of possible rock damage have been only recorded after the depth of 250 m and often related to the tunnel crossings or intersections. Rock fallouts have been observed at all depths (150 - 450 m) and they seem to be affected more by the weaknesses in the rock structure (foliation, fracturing, rock type contacts) than the tunnel orientation. (orig.)

  3. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2011-11-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) has studied crustal deformations in co-operation with the Posiva Oy since 1994, when a network of ten pillars for GPS observations was established at Olkiluoto. In 2010 the local GPS network at Olkiluoto consisted of 14 concrete pillars. The whole network has been measured twice a year in the static GPS campaigns with 24 h sessions. The four new pillars were established in 2010 and the permanent measurements on them will start in 2011. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. A total of 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 18 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured in connection to the GPS observations using the EDM instrument Kern ME5000 Mekometer. The GPS operations in 2010 included the two GPS campaigns at Olkiluoto, GPS campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara, EDM baseline measurements at Olkiluoto, and the control marker measurements with the tachymeter at Olkiluoto. All GPS data history was reprocessed with Bernese GPS software using the new processing strategy tested in 2009. The results were analysed by computing the change rates of the baselines and estimating horizontal velocities for the pillars using the barycenter of the velocities as a reference. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/a. Roughly one fourth of the change rates could be considered as statistically significant (change rate larger than 3 σ. The statistically significant change rates were mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillar GPS5, which had also the maximum change rate (0.21 ± 0.03 mm/a). In Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rates are

  4. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) has studied crustal deformations in co-operation with the Posiva Oy since 1994, when a network of ten pillars for GPS observations was established at Olkiluoto. In 2010 the local GPS network at Olkiluoto consisted of 14 concrete pillars. The whole network has been measured twice a year in the static GPS campaigns with 24 h sessions. The four new pillars were established in 2010 and the permanent measurements on them will start in 2011. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. A total of 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 18 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured in connection to the GPS observations using the EDM instrument Kern ME5000 Mekometer. The GPS operations in 2010 included the two GPS campaigns at Olkiluoto, GPS campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara, EDM baseline measurements at Olkiluoto, and the control marker measurements with the tachymeter at Olkiluoto. All GPS data history was reprocessed with Bernese GPS software using the new processing strategy tested in 2009. The results were analysed by computing the change rates of the baselines and estimating horizontal velocities for the pillars using the barycenter of the velocities as a reference. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/a. Roughly one fourth of the change rates could be considered as statistically significant (change rate larger than 3 {sigma}. The statistically significant change rates were mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillar GPS5, which had also the maximum change rate (0.21 {+-} 0.03 mm/a). In Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rates

  5. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E.

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy's detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.)

  6. The Olkiluoto 3 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoche, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides presents the Olkiluoto 3 project involving the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor). This EPR is the first reactor of third generation to have be put into construction. The contract was signed between the Areva-Siemens consortium and the Tvo Finn company in december 2003. The construction of the first-off reactor is always a big challenge but also opens the way for its industrial development as it brings knowledge and experience: Olkiluoto is the first international licensing of the EPR, a valuable feedback experience has been acquired on both the fabrication of the primary components and the qualification of the suppliers. A point on the state of the construction works is made at the first term 2009. (A.C.)

  7. GPS Operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, J.; Ollikainen, M.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.

    2006-07-01

    The GPS based deformation studies has been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. Twenty GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and fourteen campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are no statistically signicant movements at Kivetty and Romuvaara expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. The local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliable (maximum velocity is - 0.25 mm/a ± 0.025 mm/a). The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments simultaneously with the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results to show a possible scale error of the GPS. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was enlarged in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari, both north from Olkiluoto. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed five times since 2003, but the time series are still too short for reliable deformation studies. Including the new pillars the local

  8. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2006. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.

    2007-07-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2006. This is the third annual report. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground characterization facility. Although some of the nuclear power production related monitoring studies by TVO (the power company) have been going on from the 1970s, the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto Island has only recently been comprehensive. Consequently, the first Biosphere Description Report was written in 2006. This work further produced some analyses belonging to the environmental monitoring programme, namely the estimates of biomass in terrestrial vegetation (forests) and a preliminary estimate of the biomass in terrestrial fauna (moose). In the monitoring data, the ongoing construction work (OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure) is seen for instance in raised noise levels and deposition of base cations and iron. The land-use continues to change, but where there is natural environment, it resembles other coastal locations. The nearby marine environment is affected by the cooling water from the nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  9. Matrix Pore Water in Low Permeable Crystalline Bedrock: An Archive for the Palaeohydrogeological Evolution of the Olkiluoto Investigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Waber, H. N. [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A.T. [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    Matrix pore water in the connected inter- and intragranular pore space of low permeable crystalline bedrock interacts with flowing fracture groundwater predominately by diffusion. Based on the slow exchange between the two water reservoirs, matrix pore water acts as an archive of past changes in fracture groundwater compositions and thus of the palaeohydrological history of a site. Matrix pore water of crystalline bedrock from the olkiluoto investigation site (SW Finland) was characterised using the stable water isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H), combined with the concentrations of dissolved chloride and bromide as natural tracers. The comparison of tracer concentrations in pore water and present day fracture groundwater suggest for the pore water the presence of old, dilute meteoric water components that infiltrated into the fractures during various warm climate stages. These different meteoric components can be discerned based on the diffusion distance between the two reservoirs and brought into context with the palaeohydrological evolution of the site. (author)

  10. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, U.; Ahola, J.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.

    2009-09-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. A total of 26 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 17 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than 0.20 mm/a. The networks of Kivetty and Romuvaara are quite stable expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are seven pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results can help to fix a possible scale error of the GPS measurements. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is

  11. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, J.; Koivula, H.; Poutanen, M.; Jokela, J.

    2007-05-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 22 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 15 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. The networks of Kivetty and Romuvaara are quite stabile expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.23 mm/a ± 0.023 mm/a). The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments simultaneously with the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results can solve a possible scale error of the GPS. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003, but the time series are still too short for reliable deformation studies. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This

  12. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, J.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.

    2008-05-01

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 24 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 16 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.20 mm/a. The networks of Kivetty and Romuvaara are quite stabile expect one pillar at Romuvaara. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.22 mm/a ± 0.02 mm/a). The uniform scale for the GPS measurements made in different years is the basic condition for reliable results in the deformation analyses. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments simultaneously with the GPS observations. The comparison between the GPS and EDM results can solve a possible scale error of the GPS. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003, but the time series are still too short for reliable deformation studies. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This

  13. Mise-a-la-masse surveys at Olkiluoto, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-02-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted Mise-a-la-masse surveys at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during November and December 2006. The surveys are a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included field work, data processing and technical raporting. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. Data is delivered digitally in xyz-format. (orig.)

  14. Interpretation of aeromagnetic survey in Eurajoensalmi, Olkiluoto (2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, I.; Ahokas, T.; Lahti, M.

    2009-06-01

    In 2001, Olkiluoto was selected as the site for the final disposal of spent nuclear waste in Finland. Current construction of the underground research facility, ONKALO, is occurring at the Olkiluoto site. During the past three decades, detailed geological and geophysical investigations have been carried out on Olkiluoto Island and in the Olkiluoto vicinity in order to define its bedrock properties and structures that affect the final nuclear waste disposal. In April 2008, a high resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Eurajoensalmi inlet in order to investigate the sea and coastal areas north and west of Eurajoensalmi. Measured parameter was total magnetic field. The main goal of the survey was to improve the magnetic image of Eurajoensalmi area, to locate the area's most significant magnetic features, and by magnetic modelling find the best geological explanations for them. Some preliminary lineament interpretations were also performed to compare the accuracy of location data between lineaments interpreted in earlier surveys versus the new 2008 data. Data acquired during earlier magnetic surveys was used as reference data. Interpretation was conducted using measured total magnetic field, derivatives computed from the total field and various visualisation techniques. Comparison of data from the 1988 aeromagnetic survey conducted by GTK and the 2008 survey proves that a more detailed survey configuration sharpens anomalies and increases reliability in the interpretation of subtle features. Positioning techniques have improved significantly since the 1980's, which improves positioning accuracy and increases consistency. It can be concluded that the 2008 data is significantly more detailed and brings interpretation to a new level. Four areas, including well known bedrock structures HZ21, which corresponds to brittle deformation zone OL-BFZ002, and Liikla and Selkaenummi shear zones, were modelled. Modelling was intentionally kept relatively simple using

  15. Environment studies in the Olkiluoto area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.K.; Kaapu, J.; Lehtonen, K.; Mattila, J.; Raeisaenen, R.; Turkki, H.; Sauvonsaari, J.

    2003-04-01

    In the report, different aspects of environmental status of the Olkiluoto area, an island with the near-sea in the Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea, are described by five topical papers. Regarding animal-life, Olkiluoto represents a typical seashore area of southwestern Finland dominated by rocky hills and commercial forests. In the literature and interview study of local hunters, locally dominant mammal and bird species are identified. No threatened or endangered mammals species were found on the island, and only few bird species in Olkiluoto have a high conservation value. The sea area off Olkiluoto is rather shallow and the water mixing conditions are favourable. The quality and biological production of the water are affected by the general state of the Bothian Sea, the loading brought by the Eurajoki and Lapinjoki Rivers and local wastewaters. Also the cooling waters from the local nuclear power plant impact the sea environment. The bottom vegetation varies from an algae-dominant to a vascular-plantdominant community. Amount of benthic fauna and its species composition has varied considerably, due to both variations of the quality of the bottom and eutrophication. The Eurajoki River represents the second largest river system in southwestern Finland. At its upper reaches, the river is classified as clean and suitable for recreational use. Intermittently, additional waters rich in nutrients flow into the river from ditches and tributaries. Diffuse pollution and the wastewaters of riverside municipalities and industry affect on the water of the lower course, where it is only mildly contaminated, hygienically fairly good and satisfactory for recreational use. The benthic fauna of the river is composed of oligochaetes, clams, leeches and larvae. The fish reserve is versatile in places due to stocking. The Eurajoensalmi Strait, the inlet of the river, is a transitional zone between the river and further sea environments. In the offshore area facing Olkiluoto, there

  16. Geochemical and mineralogical study of selected weathered samples from Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, A.

    2009-02-01

    Optical microscopy, chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction method were used to study the influence of weathering from 11 drill core samples from shallow depths (< 25 m). The samples, 4 to 22 cm in length were drilled from Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, and they represent the common rock types of local bedrock: mica gneiss, tonalitic and granodioritic gneiss. Two of the samples were macroscopically unweathered and 9 of them were remarkably altered. The alteration was shown as porosity, the abundance of chlorite instead of biotite and pink, unclear feldspars. Many samples also contained red-brown hematite and fractures, some of them coated with secondary minerals, even clay. Microscopically the most visible feature of weathering was the total alteration of plagioclase and cordierite to sericite. In many samples also biotite was richly altered to chlorite and opaque minerals. Microfractures were common and they were filled by hematite, kaolinite and fine-grained muscovite (sericite). Hematite was, in some cases, also largely replacing the weathered minerals, feldspars and cordierite. Chemical alteration was not clear, because the alteration of main minerals have produced secondary minerals with almost the same chemical composition without any reasonable depleting or enrichment of certain elements. X-ray diffraction determination of samples proved, that often plagioclase was replaced by mica and biotite by chlorite. In some cases the samples contained products of chemical weathering, kaolinite and smectite. (orig.)

  17. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Synthesis 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR 2012) and application for a construction licence for a spent nuclear fuel repository. Consistent with the Government Decisions-in- Principle, this foresees a repository developed in bedrock at the Olkiluoto site according to the KBS-3 method, designed to accept spent nuclear fuel from the lifetime operations of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa reactors. Synthesis 2012 presents a synthesis of Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio. It summarises the design basis for the repository at the Olkiluoto site, the assessment methodology and key results of performance and safety assessments. It brings together all the lines of argument for safety, evaluation of compliance with the regulatory requirements, and statement of confidence in long-term safety and Posiva's safety analyses. The TURVA-2012 safety case demonstrates that the proposed repository design provides a safe solution for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and that the performance and safety assessments are fully consistent with all the legal and regulatory requirements related to long-term safety as set out in Government Decree 736/2008 and in guidance from the nuclear regulator - the STUK. Moreover, Posiva considers that the level of confidence in the demonstration of safety is appropriate and sufficient to submit the construction licence application to the authorities. The assessment of long-term safety includes uncertainties, but these do not affect the basic conclusions on the long-term safety of the repository. (orig.)

  18. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  19. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2007. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Hakala, M.

    2008-06-01

    Posiva Oy has operated a local microseismic at Olkiluoto network since February 2002. During the monitoring in 2007, altogether 2207 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -2.1 to 1.5 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). All these events are explosions. Evidence of seismic activity that would have influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not been observed. One recorded event was a microearthquake of magnitude ML 1.9, which occurred in Laitila, approximately 40 km from Olkiluoto. The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Since then, altogether 24 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto. According to the time series of the GPS results, 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.21 mm/a ± 0.02 mm/a) In order to monitor vertical movements at Olkiluoto, precise leveling campaigns of the GPS stations were started in the area in autumn 2003. Since then, leveling campaigns have taken place in 2005 and 2007, including the leveling of the existing GPS network and line from Olkiluoto Island to Lapijoki at the main land. Additional smaller leveling campaigns took place in 2006. The campaign in autumn 2007 consisted of the levellings of all measured and undestroyed points of the earlier campaigns. Compared to the mean theoretical land uplift, the nodal bench mark near the crossing of Olkiluodontie and Satamatie had risen in four years 2.6 mm more than the nodal bench

  20. The analysis of the bedrock deformation in Olkiluoto using precise levelling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaranen, V.; Rouhiainen, P.; Suurmaeki, H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to research vertical bedrock deformations in the Olkiluoto area, Posiva Oy and the Finnish Geodetic Institute began monitoring with precise levelling in 2003. At the moment, the measuring plan includes a loop between the monitoring GPS stations around the island, a levelling line from the island to the mainland, levelling loops to ONKALO, the final disposal site, and VLJ, the low and intermediate level waste repository there. The levelling to the mainland has been performed every fourth year and the levelling of the GPS stations every second year. The micro loops (ONKALO and VLJ) have been measured annually. In this report, we use three-step method to research a vertical deformation of the Olkiluoto area. Firstly, the linear deformation rate in the area has been determined by the least squares adjustment of the levelling data. It varies from -0.2 mm/yr to +0.2 mm/yr. Secondly, local deformations have been analysed by comparing the height differences for different years. In this comparison a starting value for the yearly adjustment has been corrected for land uplift. Using this method the elevation changes are relative to the whole network. For a fixed benchmark, we correct its yearly deformation. Thirdly, the fault lines have been analysed by comparing the elevation changes between the successive benchmarks from one observation epoch to another. The results show that ONKALO and Lapijoki are in the subsidence area of the network, and VLJ has small uplift rate. On the island some deformations exist, but elevation difference from 2003 to 2011 is less than one millimetre at every benchmarks. The measurements in the Lapijoki-Olkiluoto line in 2003, 2007 and 2011 show that linear elevation change between the mainland and Olkiluoto island is a little since 2003. The elevation differences, from Olkiluoto to Lapijoki, measured in 2003 and 2011 differ less than one millimetre each other, but the 2007 observation differs three millimetres from the other measurements

  1. Hydrogeological structure model of the Olkiluoto Site. Update in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaittinen, T.; Ahokas, H.; Nummela, J.; Paulamaeki, S.

    2011-09-01

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, a hydrogeological structure model containing the hydraulically significant zones on Olkiluoto Island has been compiled. The structure model describes the deterministic site scale zones that dominate the groundwater flow. The main objective of the study is to provide the geometry and the hydrogeological properties related to the groundwater flow for the zones and the sparsely fractured bedrock to be used in the numerical modelling of groundwater flow and geochemical transport and thereby in the safety assessment. Also, these zones should be taken into account in the repository layout and in the construction of the disposal facility and they have a long-term impact on the evolution of the site and the safety of the disposal repository. The previous hydrogeological model was compiled in 2008 and this updated version is based on data available at the end of May 2010. The updating was based on new hydrogeological observations and a systematic approach covering all drillholes to assess measured fracture transmissivities typical of the site-scale hydrogeological zones. New data consisted of head observations and interpreted pressure and flow responses caused by field activities. Essential background data for the modelling included the ductile deformation model and the site scale brittle deformation zones modelled in the geological model version 2.0. The GSM combine both geological and geophysical investigation data on the site. As a result of the modelling campaign, hydrogeological zones HZ001, HZ008, HZ19A, HZ19B, HZ19C, HZ20A, HZ20B, HZ21, HZ21B, HZ039, HZ099, OL-BFZ100, and HZ146 were included in the structure model. Compared with the previous model, zone HZ004 was replaced with zone HZ146 and zone HZ039 was introduced for the first time. Alternative zone HZ21B was included in the basic model. For the modelled zones, both the zone intersections, describing the fractures with dominating groundwater

  2. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Hakala, M.

    2010-09-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and additionally extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually being in 2009 altogether 14. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semi-regional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale. The smaller target area is s called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. All the expected excavation induced events assumingly occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes 10 seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The seismic network has operated continuously in 2009 and during the year altogether 1256 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. Most of them (1161) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1135 events)

  3. Meteorological data and update of climate statistics of Olkiluoto 2005 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-10-01

    In this working report the data of some routine field observations of Posiva Oy and automatic measurements of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant weather station owned and operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oy is published for further reference. The data reported here covers observations in 2005-2006. First, a concise description of data acquisition methods and handling is provided. Thereafter the actual data is presented in the appendices. Weather measurements (e.g. temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity) and snow and ground frost observations are reported. (orig.)

  4. Reactive transport predictions for an Olkiluoto. Final repository tunnel unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.; Nordman, H.

    2007-09-01

    The presented hydrogeochemical reactive transport calculations concentrate to a defined unit piece (unit cell) of the planned Olkiluoto repository that is under design for spent nuclear fuel. The material properties assigned to the tunnel unit are based on literature as far as possible. Calculations make up geochemical future scenarios on the repository evolution. Most recent predictions on the potential future climate at Olkiluoto are utilised together with estimates how future hydraulic conditions affect the repository. Two climate scenarios are considered in detail. The Weichselian-R scenario is based on the repetition of the last glacial cycle, while the Emissions-M scenario attempts to predict the future groundwater conditions at Olkiluoto in the situation where the atmospheric greenhouse gasses delay the next glacial cycle at least for 100,000 years. The groundwater compositions, considered active at the repository depth in future, are judged in this study. Several geochemical processes are considered active at the repository depth. Calculations concentrate on the changes occurring with time within the tunnel unit. All simulations are done in geochemically reducing conditions. It turns out that sulphur cycling in these conditions is in central role considering the safety assessment studies of Olkiluoto repository. Furthermore, groundwater salinity and cation occupancy within the exchange sites of montmorillonite contributes to sealing properties of the engineered barrier system. Calculations attempt to estimate effects of possible future scenarios for the Olkiluoto repository. The results indicate that the buffer capacities assigned to the tunnel unit are large enough, at least to next 100,000 years, to maintain dissolved sulphide contents low in the groundwater infiltrating through the tunnel engineered barrier system. Geochemical reactions raise the bicarbonate levels within the groundwater. This is a useful buffer if low pH conditions emerge in the

  5. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Synthesis 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR 2012) and application for a construction licence for a spent nuclear fuel repository. Consistent with the Government Decisions-in- Principle, this foresees a repository developed in bedrock at the Olkiluoto site according to the KBS-3 method, designed to accept spent nuclear fuel from the lifetime operations of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa reactors. Synthesis 2012 presents a synthesis of Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio. It summarises the design basis for the repository at the Olkiluoto site, the assessment methodology and key results of performance and safety assessments. It brings together all the lines of argument for safety, evaluation of compliance with the regulatory requirements, and statement of confidence in long-term safety and Posiva's safety analyses. The TURVA-2012 safety case demonstrates that the proposed repository design provides a safe solution for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and that the performance and safety assessments are fully consistent with all the legal and regulatory requirements related to long-term safety as set out in Government Decree 736/2008 and in guidance from the nuclear regulator - the STUK. Moreover, Posiva considers that the level of confidence in the demonstration of safety is appropriate and sufficient to submit the construction licence application to the authorities. The assessment of long-term safety includes uncertainties, but these do not affect the basic conclusions on the long-term safety of the repository. (orig.)

  6. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oja, S.

    2006-11-01

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto was updated in February 2006. The estimate of game populations in Olkiluoto was done on the basis of interviews of local hunters and available statistical materials. The collected data were compared to earlier studies of game animals done in Olkiluoto. The populations of Elk and White-tailed Deer are stable, and the population of Roe Deer is increasing significantly. The populations of small mammal predators (American Mink, Raccoon Dog, Red Fox) are very high level, despite of intensive hunting. Other game animals like waterfowls are hunted moderately and the amount of catches are small. (orig.)

  7. Refraction seismic surveys in the investigation trench TK3 area in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihalainen, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-03-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, the ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) conducted refraction seismic surveys at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The work was ordered by Posiva Oy. The field work was carried out during May and June 2004. On five profiles S70-S74 totally 1002.5 m was surveyed. The purpose of the work was to determine the overburden thickness and to study bedrock properties, e.g. eventual fractured zones. The work consisted of staking, levelling, seismic measurements, interpretation and reporting. Fieldwork and interpretation were concluded by May and June 2004. Previously in 2000 and 2002 Smoy has carried out 33.0 km of seismic surveys in the area. (orig.)

  8. Optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy carried out optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2006. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  9. Chemical and physical properties of the surface sea sediments at the Olkiluoto offshore, South-Western Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Keskinen, A.

    2011-11-01

    Due to land uplift, the present sea sediments near Olkiluoto will be future land areas, and thus important for the transport of possible releases from nuclear waste repositories at the site. Coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The geochemical properties of the surface sediments at the Olkiluoto sea area are summarised in this report. Thirteen sediment samples were cored during the R/V Geomari cruise in autumn 2008. In addition, surface sediment samples from six transects, altogether 57 cores, were taken near the Olkiluoto shoreline by diving in the summer of 2008. The analysis procedure included pH, moisture, dry matter, ash and LOI contents, grain size distribution, carbon and nitrogen analyses and the total concentrations of thirtythree elements. The lateral and vertical distribution of element concentrations, especially heavy metals, is caused by variations in transport and sedimentation patterns of particulate matter, in the occurrence of migration processes and bonding types. The distribution pattern in most of the elements is strongly linked to that of organic matter, carbon and fine-grained material contents. The sediments are strongly enriched by some of the studied elements possibly due to anthropogenic load, while others are only moderately or slightly present. However, the source of different natural and anthropogenic loads is not easy to point out. (orig.)

  10. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2005. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2006-08-01

    Programme of Monitoring (Posiva 2003 b) was introduced to study Olkiluoto investigation are both during and following the excavation of underground test facility, ONKALO. Programme consists of four main headings: rock mechanics, hydrology and hydrogeology, geochemistry and other types of disturbance. Monitoring programme in year 2005 consist of three fields of research: microseismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling. This report presents Posiva's rock mechanical monitoring programme results from the year 2005. Report has been composed from annual reports of microseismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling by Sanna Riikonen. In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the year 2005. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The total duration of network failures has been about 8 hours. Altogether 2159 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -2.1to ML = 1.6 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of them are explosions. Three of the observed events are be classified as microearthquakes. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. The GPS based deformation studies has been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Twenty GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. The local velocity components are small but

  11. Fracture-specific pressure measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki drillhole OL-KR39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripatti, K.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2011-12-01

    An option was built to the Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF). A double packer device was combined together with a PFL DIFF probe. The new tool was needed for measurements of the very low hydraulic head. Indications of these were detected earlier in some fractures of drillhole OL-KR39. The target fractures could be measured with the accurate absolute pressure sensor in the PFL DIFF probe. Principles of the methods and the results of measurements are presented in this report. The measurements were carried out in drillhole OL-KR39 at the Olkiluoto investigation site between April 2011 and May 2011. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR measurement is used to place the device accurately on the chosen fracture. The section length limited by the packers is about 1 m. The measurements were carried out in natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The same measuring program was employed in all chosen fractures. Electrical conductivity (EC) of drillhole water and flow rate along the drillhole were also measured in conjunction with the pressure measurements. (orig.)

  12. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M [ed.; Siren, T

    2011-12-15

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010.

  13. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Siren, T.

    2011-12-01

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010

  14. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  15. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  16. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  17. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  18. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  19. Assessment of potential perturbations to Posiva's SF repository at Olkiluoto from the ONKALO Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Neall, F.B.

    2007-06-01

    Although the site of the proposed spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto in southwest Finland has been extensively investigated over the last fifteen years, Posiva decided to construct a rock characterisation facility (RCF) at the site to collect more detailed information on the host rock. The data provided by the ONKALO RCF will support the detailed repository design and safety assessment (SA) and will allow construction and disposal methods to be tested under relevant in situ conditions. ONKALO has been so designed that it can act as access routes and auxiliary rooms for the SF repository and so may be in use for the entire operational phase of the repository (currently up to 100 years). Extensive experience from deep mining suggests that such an extended period of operation could have a major impact on both the host rock formation and any nearby facilities, such as the SF repository, and, consequently, Posiva decided to investigate potential perturbations to the repository caused by the existence of ONKALO. A preliminary assessment was carried out in 2003, before construction of the RCF began, and this was recently partially updated in early 2006. This current report represents the most recent update of these reports and has the primary aims of: checking if the previous reports have missed any essential issues; evaluating whether the identified issues have been treated in an appropriate manner; updating the reports in the light of new information. This is carried out based on data from ONKALO itself and on improved understanding of some of the perturbation mechanisms identified in the original studies along with a consideration of newly identified processes. This report differs from the previous studies in addressing the issues in a more SA-oriented manner (for example, focussing the examination of potential perturbations on a re-worked FEP list), allowing the work reported here to be more easily dovetailed with future SA studies on the Olkiluoto repository

  20. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2006. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.

    2007-07-01

    Posiva Oy has operated a local microseismic at Olkiluto network since February 2002. During the monitoring in 2006, altogether 2041 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -1.1 to 3.1 (ML = magnitude in local Richter's scale). Most of the events are construction-related explosions but two of them are recorded as microearthquakes. Evidence of seismic activity that would have influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not been observed. The observed earthquakes that occurred in 2006 were small, with a magnitude of ML -0.6 and ML= -0.9. The earthquakes relate to small movements in brittle deformation zones OL-BFZ043 and OL-BFZ034. Estimated peak slip values of the earthquakes are 14 μm and 4 μm and the source radiuses 11 and 8 meters, respectively. The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. Since then, altogether 22 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto. According to the time series of the GPS results, 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than ± 0.22 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined (maximum velocity is -0.23 mm/a ± 0.023 mm/a) (orig.)

  1. Analysis of temperature data at the Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, M.; Bennett, D.; Masum, S.; Thomas, H. [Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    As part of the rock mechanics monitoring programme 2012 at Olkiluoto, temperature data have been recorded. Temperature data have been measured, collected and monitored at the Olkiluoto site and in ONKALO in various locations, by different methods and in conjunction with other investigations carried out at the site. This report provides a detailed description of the investigation and analysis carried out on temperature datasets. This report aims to provide a better understanding of the in-situ temperature of the rock and soil at the site. Three categories of datasets have been analysed and studied from the Posiva thermal monitoring programme. These consist of: (i) data collected from the various drillholes during geophysical logging and Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements, (ii) measurements in the ONKALO ramp, the investigation niche located at elevation -140 m and a technical room located at 437 m below the surface, and (iii) surface temperature measurements from four weather stations and four measurement ditches. Time-series data obtained from the groundwater temperature measurements during the 'Posiva Flow Log' (PFL) tests in drillholes OL-KR1 to KR55 at different depths and years have been analysed. Temperature at a depth of 400 m was found to be in the range of 10 to 11 deg C. The geothermal gradient obtained from the PFL data without pumping was found to be approximately 1.4 deg C/100m with relatively uniform temporal and spatial patterns at the repository depth, i.e. at 400 m.The geothermal gradient obtained from the results of the PFL measurements and geophysical loggings indicate similar temperature values at the repository depths, i.e. 400 m. The characteristics of the time series data related to the ONKALO measurements, have been obtained through a series of Non-uniform Discrete Fourier Transform analysis Datasets related to the various chainages and investigation niche at ONKALO have been studied. The largest variation in the temperature

  2. Analysis of temperature data at the Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, M.; Bennett, D.; Masum, S.; Thomas, H.; Johansson, E.

    2014-03-01

    As part of the rock mechanics monitoring programme 2012 at Olkiluoto, temperature data have been recorded. Temperature data have been measured, collected and monitored at the Olkiluoto site and in ONKALO in various locations, by different methods and in conjunction with other investigations carried out at the site. This report provides a detailed description of the investigation and analysis carried out on temperature datasets. This report aims to provide a better understanding of the in-situ temperature of the rock and soil at the site. Three categories of datasets have been analysed and studied from the Posiva thermal monitoring programme. These consist of: (i) data collected from the various drillholes during geophysical logging and Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements, (ii) measurements in the ONKALO ramp, the investigation niche located at elevation -140 m and a technical room located at 437 m below the surface, and (iii) surface temperature measurements from four weather stations and four measurement ditches. Time-series data obtained from the groundwater temperature measurements during the 'Posiva Flow Log' (PFL) tests in drillholes OL-KR1 to KR55 at different depths and years have been analysed. Temperature at a depth of 400 m was found to be in the range of 10 to 11 deg C. The geothermal gradient obtained from the PFL data without pumping was found to be approximately 1.4 deg C/100m with relatively uniform temporal and spatial patterns at the repository depth, i.e. at 400 m.The geothermal gradient obtained from the results of the PFL measurements and geophysical loggings indicate similar temperature values at the repository depths, i.e. 400 m. The characteristics of the time series data related to the ONKALO measurements, have been obtained through a series of Non-uniform Discrete Fourier Transform analysis Datasets related to the various chainages and investigation niche at ONKALO have been studied. The largest variation in the temperature amplitude of data

  3. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010 - Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) [Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2010. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to experiences gained from the modelling work and increased understanding of the site. Augmentations in 2010 include one previously unmonitored private drilled well, and sampling of crop plants, aquatic macrophytes, and bottom fauna, as well as soil and water in order to obtain more data on site-specific concentration ratios. In addition to Olkiluoto Island, two so called reference lakes have been included in the sampling. Studies have been going on on one reference mire, as well. Bottom fauna studies of River Eurajoki exist from late 1970s, but have not been presented here before. Dust produced during construction of the third nuclear power unit (OL3), ONKALO and related infrastructure can be seen in the analysis results of needle litter. The construction works and road traffic have a raising effect on the noise levels of the immediate surroundings. The land-use continues to change, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The young age of the soils and the closeness of the sea are reflected in the soil properties. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal

  4. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010 - Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, A.

    2011-10-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2010. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to experiences gained from the modelling work and increased understanding of the site. Augmentations in 2010 include one previously unmonitored private drilled well, and sampling of crop plants, aquatic macrophytes, and bottom fauna, as well as soil and water in order to obtain more data on site-specific concentration ratios. In addition to Olkiluoto Island, two so called reference lakes have been included in the sampling. Studies have been going on on one reference mire, as well. Bottom fauna studies of River Eurajoki exist from late 1970s, but have not been presented here before. Dust produced during construction of the third nuclear power unit (OL3), ONKALO and related infrastructure can be seen in the analysis results of needle litter. The construction works and road traffic have a raising effect on the noise levels of the immediate surroundings. The land-use continues to change, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The young age of the soils and the closeness of the sea are reflected in the soil properties. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal areas in

  5. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    This Summary Report describes the Finnish programme for the selection and characterisation of potential sites for the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel and explains the process by which Olkiluoto has been selected as the single site proposed for the development of a spent fuel disposal facility. Its aim is to provide an overview of this process, initiated almost twenty years ago, which has entered its final phase. It provides information in three areas: a review of the early site selection criteria, a description of the site selection process, including all the associated site characterisation work, up to the point at which a single site was selected and an outline of the proposed work, in particular that proposed underground, to characterise further the Olkiluoto site. In 1983 the Finnish Government made a policy decision on the management of nuclear waste in which the main goals and milestones for the site selection programme for the deep disposal of spent fuel were presented. According to this decision several site candidates, whose selection was to be based on careful studies of the whole country, should be characterised and the site for the repository selected by the end of the year 2000. This report describes the process by which this policy decision has been achieved. The report begins with a discussion of the definition of the geological and environmental site selection criteria and how they were applied in order to select a small number of sites, five in all, that were to be the subject of the preliminary investigations. The methods used to investigate these sites and the results of these investigations are described, as is the evaluation of the results of these investigations and the process used to discard two of the sites and continue more detailed investigations at the remaining three. The detailed site investigations that commenced in 1993 are described with respect to the overall strategy followed and the investigation techniques applied. The

  6. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  7. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  8. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2008. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, A.

    2009-09-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2008. These summary reports have been published since 2005 (target year 2004). The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground characterization facility. Although some of the nuclear power production related monitoring studies by TVO (the power company) have been going on from the 1970s, the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto Island has only recently been comprehensive. However, the monitoring programme evolves according to experiences from modelling work and increasing knowledge of most important site data. For example, in addition to the originally planned activities, in 2008 several studies on fauna were carried out, some soil and vegetation transects running from land to sea were established, a separate survey of water quality with automatic detectors was carried out and zooplankton and organic carbon studies were started in context of sea monitoring. In the monitoring data, the ongoing construction work (OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure) is seen for instance in raised levels of noise and some deposited elements. The land-use continues to change, but where there is natural environment is affected by the cooling water from the nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  9. Petrology of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerki, A.; Paulamaeki, S.

    2006-11-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto fall into four main groups: (1) gneisses, (2) migmatitic gneisses, (3) TGG-gneisses (TGG = tonalite-granodiorite-granite) and 4) pegmatitic granites. In addition, narrow diabase dykes occur sporadically. The gneisses include homogeneous mica-bearing quartz gneisses, banded mica gneisses and hornblende or pyroxene-bearing mafic gneisses. The migmatitic gneisses, which typically comprise 20 - 40% leucosome, can be divided into three subgroups in terms of their migmatite structures: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. The leucosomes of the veined gneisses show vein-like, more or less elongated traces with some features similar to augen structures. Planar leucosome layers characterize the stromatic gneisses, while the migmatite structure of the diatexitic gneisses is asymmetric and irregular. The TGG gneisses are medium-grained, relatively homogeneous rocks that can show a blastomylonitic foliation, but they can also resemble plutonic, unfoliated rocks. The pegmatitic granites are leucocratic, very coarse-grained rocks, which may contain large garnet, tourmaline and cordierite phenocrysts. Mica gneiss inclusions are typical of the larger pegmatitic bodies. Gneisses, which are weakly or not at all migmatitic, make ca. 9% of the bedrock. Migmatitic gneisses make up over 64% of the volume of the Olkiluoto bedrock, with the veined gneisses accounting for 43%, the stromatic gneisses for 0.4% and the diatexitic gneisses for 21%, based on drill core logging. Of the remaining lithologies, TGG gneisses constitute 8% and pegmatitic granites almost 20% by volume. The supracrustal rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into four series by reference to whole rock chemical composition: a T series, S series, P series and basic, volcanogenic gneisses. Rocks of the T, S and P series seem to make up 42%, 12% and 26%, respectively, of the volume of central part of the island of Olkiluoto, in addition to which, pegmatitic granites and diabases

  10. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  11. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature Supplement 2010: an Update of Posiva Working Report 2006-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A. (GEA Consulting, Corcelles (CH))

    2011-07-15

    Posiva Working Report 2006-25 arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating long-term safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust was reviewed up to and including year 2005. The result was a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, particularly heterogeneous migmatitic and metamorphic rocks like those that make up the Olkiluoto bedrock. The present report is a supplement to WR 2006-25, covering the 5-year period 2006-2010, with some key earlier references and an Annotated Bibliography. The present report is subdivided into five chapters, listing recent literature on (1) background subjects and basic principles, (2) the fabric of Olkiluoto-type intact rock (gneisses, migmatites, fault rocks), (3) formation and characteristics of brittle deformation features (fracture mechanics, brittle microtectonics), (4) fracture data acquisition and processing (statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems), and (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones (for deterministic and dynamic modelling), corresponding to the first five chapters of the earlier report

  12. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature Supplement 2010: an Update of Posiva Working Report 2006-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.

    2011-07-01

    Posiva Working Report 2006-25 arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating long-term safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust was reviewed up to and including year 2005. The result was a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, particularly heterogeneous migmatitic and metamorphic rocks like those that make up the Olkiluoto bedrock. The present report is a supplement to WR 2006-25, covering the 5-year period 2006-2010, with some key earlier references and an Annotated Bibliography. The present report is subdivided into five chapters, listing recent literature on (1) background subjects and basic principles, (2) the fabric of Olkiluoto-type intact rock (gneisses, migmatites, fault rocks), (3) formation and characteristics of brittle deformation features (fracture mechanics, brittle microtectonics), (4) fracture data acquisition and processing (statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems), and (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones (for deterministic and dynamic modelling), corresponding to the first five chapters of the earlier report

  13. Microbiology of transitional groundwater of the porous overburden and underlying fractured bedrock aquifers in Olkiluoto 2004, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2006-07-01

    following present day hypotheses can be drawn. Continued investigations will update and test them. 1. The transient between the shallow and deep biospheres occurs at a very shallow depth, typically within the first 15-25 m. 2. The shallow biosphere is dominated by oxygen consuming microorganisms that will block oxygen migration to deeper groundwater. 3. The groundwater depression caused by construction of ONKALO will most probably move the borderline between the shallow and deep biosphere downwards. 4. As the groundwater depression zone deepens, oxygen will intrude from above and microbial oxidation of ferrous iron and pyrite will occur with a concomitant decrease in pH and the deposition of ferric iron oxides in the aquifers. Later, when the repository is closed and the groundwater level is restored, those oxides will add to the radionuclide retention capacity of the rock. 5. At present, a deep biosphere signature is found at relatively shallow depths in Olkiluoto compared to other sites investigated with the same methods (The SKB sites Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Aespoe). (orig.)

  14. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  15. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Follin, Sven; Hermanson, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model

  16. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2004. Rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report presents Posiva Oy's results of the rock mechanical monitoring programme from the year 2004. Monitoring programme was established for long time monitoring of modifications in the bedrock during the excavation of the ONKALO underground research facility stated in Olkiluoto island. This is the first annual report where rock mechanical research work has being reported also from the monitoring point of view. Rock mechanical research work consists of both GPS measurements and microseismic measurements carried out in Olkiluoto island. Both measurements have been performed during several years even before monitoring programme was established. GPS measurements have been carried out since 1995 and microseismic network has operated since 2002. There have been no significant changes in observations when studying rock mechanical results from the year 2004 and comparing them to results from the previous years. Therefore it can be said, that so far ONKALO has barely had any effect on rock mechanics in Olkiluoto. Report has been composed from the annual reports of GPS measurements.(orig.)

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  19. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  20. Colloids or artefacts? A TVO/SKB cooperation project in Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.; Vuorinen, U.; Snellman, M.; Helenius, J.; Allard, B.; Pettersson, C.; Hinkkanen, H.

    1993-12-01

    TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Finland) initiated a co-operative task with SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) to critically evaluate colloid sampling methods at the test site in Olkiluoto, SW Finland. Three different colloid sampling methods were compared when sampling borehole OL-KR1 at 613-618 m depth. One possible way to make a conservative in-situ colloid estimation is to omit the contribution from calcite precipitation which is considered to be the main artefact. When this is made the inorganic colloid content (size 1-1000 nm) in Olkiluoto is 184 ±177 ppb consisting of clay minerals, silica, pyrite, goethite and magnesium oxide; the concentration of organic substances are around 100 ppb. The in-situ colloid concentration seems to be low which is in good agreement with experiences from years of sampling in similar environment and depths. The exercise shows the many difficulties encountered when sampling colloids. Small error in the planning, pump rate selection, a lack of precautionary measures, artefact sensitivity of the method etc have a tendency to affect significantly the results on the measured ppb colliod level

  1. Monitoring the bedrock stability in Olkiluoto. Summary of campaign based GPS measurements in 1996-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Haekli, P.; Jokela, J.; Koivula, H.; Saaranen, V.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has monitored crustal deformations in Olkiluoto since mid-1990s. This is a final report of campaign based GPS measurements carried out in 1996-2011. The aim of the research has been monitoring the bedrock stability in the Olkiluoto area. The research were started in 1995, when a local GPS network of ten pillars, called inner network, was established on Olkiluoto Island. The research area was expanded in 2003- 2005 with four new pillars (outer network) established at 5-10 km distances from the inner network. One of the pillar points is the Olkiluoto permanent GPS station. Regular biannual measurement campaigns have been carried out on other pillar points

  2. Estimating the mechanical properties of the brittle deformation zones at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.; Cosgrove, J.W.; Johansson, E.

    2008-09-01

    In rock mechanics modelling to support repository design and safety assessment for the Olkiluoto site, it is necessary to obtain the relevant rock mechanics parameters, these being an essential pre-requisite for the modelling. The parameters include the rock stress state, the properties of the intact rock and the rock mass, and the properties of the brittle deformation zones which represent major discontinuities in the rock mass continuum. However, because of the size and irregularity of the brittle deformation zones, it is not easy to estimate their mechanical properties, i.e. their deformation and strength properties. Following Section 1 explaining the motivation for the work and the objective of the Report, in Sections 2 and 3, the types of fractures and brittle deformation zones that can be encountered are described with an indication of the mechanisms that lead to complex structures. The geology at Olkiluoto is then summarized in Section 4 within the context of this Report. The practical aspects of encountering the brittle deformation zones in outcrops, drillholes and excavations are described in Sections 5 and 6 with illustrative examples of drillhole core intersections in Section 7. The various theoretical, numerical and practical methods for estimating the mechanical properties of the brittle deformation zones are described in Section 8, together with a Table summarizing each method's advantages, disadvantages and utility in estimating the mechanical properties of the zones. We emphasise that the optimal approach to estimating the mechanical properties of the brittle deformation zones cannot be determined without a good knowledge, not only of each estimation method's capabilities and idiosyncrasies, but also of the structural geology background and the specific nature of the brittle deformation zones being characterized. Finally, in Section 9, a Table is presented outlining each method's applicability to the Olkiluoto site. A flowchart is included to

  3. Means of achieving high load factors at Olkiluoto 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, E.

    2001-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy operates two BWR units Olkiluoto 1 and 2 that have achieved load factors typically higher than 90%. The operating experiences gained in the 1990s is summarised and the factors contributing to the high capacity factors are addressed. These include the general objectives for operation and maintenance, plant modernisation programme, maintenance principles, and outage policy and experiences. Finally, the international evaluations performed at Olkiluoto are mentioned. (author)

  4. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  5. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  6. Olkiluoto 3: Finland has chosen a EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummer, S.

    2003-01-01

    According to the Finn law any nuclear project has to be declared conformed to the general interest of the country by the government and then has to be approved by the parliament. In may 2002 the Finn parliament approved the project of the TVO company: the construction of a new nuclear unit on the Olkiluoto site and the direct and definitive disposal of spent fuels in the granite underground layers of the same site. The project was agreed with 109 votes for and 92 against. In september 2002 an international invitation to tender was launched and 4 companies made proposals: Westinghouse, Atomstroexport, Framatome-ANP and General Electric. Westinghouse withdrew its offer some time later. In october 2003 TVO announced that the unit will be a 1600 MW EPR (European pressurized reactor) built by Framatome-ANP. The construction work will begin in spring 2005 and the unit is scheduled to enter into service in 2009. At that time the contribution of nuclear energy to the Finn energy production will reach 35%. (A.C.)

  7. Regulatory aspects of Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant (EPR-1600) (Draft, 12 Sept. 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.; Tiippana, P.

    2005-01-01

    A 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) supplied by the Framatome ANP - Siemens Consortium is under construction at the Olkiluoto site in Finland. Current international safety requirements and especially French and German operating experience have been applied in the design. Finnish requirements and operating experience have also been applied, especially regarding site-specific features. Severe accidentmanagement and protection against a collision of a large passenger airplane are implemented in the plant design. The plant safety features, licensing procedure, Finnish regulatory requirements, changes to the original EPR design, project quality management and regulatory control are discussed. (author)

  8. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  9. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  10. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [ed.

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  11. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  12. Site descriptive modelling - strategy for integrated evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2003-02-01

    The current document establishes the strategy to be used for achieving sufficient integration between disciplines in producing Site Descriptive Models during the Site Investigation stage. The Site Descriptive Model should be a multidisciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using site investigation data from deep bore holes and from the surface as input. The modelling comprise the following iterative steps, evaluation of primary data, descriptive and quantitative modelling (in 3D), overall confidence evaluation. Data are first evaluated within each discipline and then the evaluations are checked between the disciplines. Three-dimensional modelling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space and its uncertainty) is made in a sequence, where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological model and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modelling etc. The three-dimensional description should present the parameters with their spatial variability over a relevant and specified scale, with the uncertainty included in this description. Different alternative descriptions may be required. After the individual discipline modelling and uncertainty assessment a phase of overall confidence evaluation follows. Relevant parts of the different modelling teams assess the suggested uncertainties and evaluate the feedback. These discussions should assess overall confidence by, checking that all relevant data are used, checking that information in past model versions is considered, checking that the different kinds of uncertainty are addressed, checking if suggested alternatives make sense and if there is potential for additional alternatives, and by discussing, if appropriate, how additional measurements (i.e. more data) would affect confidence. The findings as well as the modelling results are to be documented in a Site Description

  13. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  14. Migmatites and migmatite-like rocks of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerki, A.

    2015-02-01

    Bedrock of the Olkiluoto Island in the western end of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Accretionary Arc Complex, SW Finland is composed of high-grade metamorphic pelites, arenites and intermediate, arc type metavolcanic rocks intruded by granodioritic to tonalitic plutonic rocks. Regional metamorphism culminated with voluminous migmatization in the temperature of 660 - 700 deg C and relatively low pressure of about 3.5 - 4 kbar. The end result of polyphase metamorphism and deformation is a metamorphic rock succession composed of diverse migmatite rocks, metatexites and diatexites. Metatexites are migmatites in which several, discrete components can be detected, and in which the paleosome with some pre-partial-melting textures is identifiable. Diatexites are more advanced migmatites in which the pre-migmatization structures are often totally destroyed and the rock is dominated by different neosome components meaning leucosome, melanosome or mesosome. Based on the migmatite structures the metatexites of Olkiluoto have been classified into six subgroups. Dike-structured metatexites are composed of well preserved paleosome intruded by one single set of narrow, subparallel leucosome dikes which cover ca. 5 - 10 % of the whole rock volume. Net-structure is composed of a network of narrow leucosome dikes which show a reticulated structure in a plane section and cover less than 30 % of the whole rock volume. Breccia-structure is composed of angular or rounded paleosome blocks surrounded by moderate amount of leucosome. Patch-structure is composed of irregular leucosome patches which intruded the well preserved paleosome and compose typically 20 - 70 % of the rock volume. Layer-structure is characterized by more or less regular leucosome dikes sub-parallel to the foliation of the well preserved paleosome. Vein-structured metatexites and also diatexites include a set of pipe-like, longish leucosome veins most probably generated by synchronous melting and deformation

  15. Migmatites and migmatite-like rocks of Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerki, A. [Kivitieto Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Bedrock of the Olkiluoto Island in the western end of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Accretionary Arc Complex, SW Finland is composed of high-grade metamorphic pelites, arenites and intermediate, arc type metavolcanic rocks intruded by granodioritic to tonalitic plutonic rocks. Regional metamorphism culminated with voluminous migmatization in the temperature of 660 - 700 deg C and relatively low pressure of about 3.5 - 4 kbar. The end result of polyphase metamorphism and deformation is a metamorphic rock succession composed of diverse migmatite rocks, metatexites and diatexites. Metatexites are migmatites in which several, discrete components can be detected, and in which the paleosome with some pre-partial-melting textures is identifiable. Diatexites are more advanced migmatites in which the pre-migmatization structures are often totally destroyed and the rock is dominated by different neosome components meaning leucosome, melanosome or mesosome. Based on the migmatite structures the metatexites of Olkiluoto have been classified into six subgroups. Dike-structured metatexites are composed of well preserved paleosome intruded by one single set of narrow, subparallel leucosome dikes which cover ca. 5 - 10 % of the whole rock volume. Net-structure is composed of a network of narrow leucosome dikes which show a reticulated structure in a plane section and cover less than 30 % of the whole rock volume. Breccia-structure is composed of angular or rounded paleosome blocks surrounded by moderate amount of leucosome. Patch-structure is composed of irregular leucosome patches which intruded the well preserved paleosome and compose typically 20 - 70 % of the rock volume. Layer-structure is characterized by more or less regular leucosome dikes sub-parallel to the foliation of the well preserved paleosome. Vein-structured metatexites and also diatexites include a set of pipe-like, longish leucosome veins most probably generated by synchronous melting and deformation

  16. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  18. Rock mechanics stability at Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.; Rautakorpi, J.

    2000-02-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the suitability of the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel at four sites, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Romuvaara in Kuhmo. To enable the rock properties to be specified in great detail, the site-selection research programme has included rock mechanics investigations such as the measurement of in-situ rock stress and laboratory tests on rock samples. This report presents the results of the rock mechanics analyses performed on the main rock types at the Olkiluoto, Romuvaara, Kivetty and Haestholmen sites. The objective of this study was to assess the near-field stability of the final disposal tunnels and deposition holes at each of the investigation sites. Two empirical methods and a numerical method based on three-dimensional element code (3DEC) were used the analysis tools. A statistical approach was used to select the necessary input data and to specify the cases being analysed. The stability of the KBS-3 and MLH (Medium Long Hole) repository concepts during the pre-closure and post-closure phases was analysed. The repository depths investigated lay between 300 m and 700 m. The empirical methods are based on the study of the ratios between rock strength and the in-situ stress which could result in possible fracturing of the rock mass. Interpretation of the numerical analyses is based on the assumption of an elastic distribution of stress around the disposal tunnel and the deposition hole and the brittle rock strength criterion. The results obtained in this study indicate that in general, the rock mechanics conditions during the pre-closure and post-closure phases at each of the investigated sites remain good and stable between the studied depth levels, especially when the deposition rooms are oriented in a direction parallel to the major in-situ stress. If the disposal tunnels are orientated in a direction perpendicular to the major in-situ stress, the resultant

  19. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    During 2002, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is starting investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian basement of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Forsmark, which lies in the municipality of Oesthammar, on the east coast of Sweden, about 150 kilometres north of Stockholm. The site description should present all collected data and interpreted parameters of importance for the overall scientific understanding of the site, for the technical design and environmental impact assessment of the deep repository, and for the assessment of long-term safety. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. The site descriptive models are devised and stepwise updated as the site investigations proceed. The point of departure for this process is the regional site descriptive model, version 0, which is the subject of the present report. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. This information, with the exception of data from tunnels and drill holes at the sites of the Forsmark nuclear reactors and the underground low-middle active radioactive waste storage facility, SFR, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. For this reason, the Forsmark site descriptive model, version 0, as detailed in the present report, has been developed at a regional scale. It covers a rectangular area, 15 km in a southwest-northeast and 11 km in a northwest-southeast direction, around the

  20. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-05-15

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m{sup 2}), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m{sup 2}), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  1. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L.

    2006-05-01

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m 2 ), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m 2 ), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  2. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  3. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  4. Olkiluoto hydrogeochemistry. A 3-D modelling approach for sparce data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, A.; Partamies, S.; Pitkaenen, P.

    2003-07-01

    Olkiluoto at Eurajoki has been selected as a candidate site for final disposal repository for the used nuclear waste produced in Finland. In the long term safety assessment, one of the principal evaluation tools of safe disposal is hydrogeochemistry. For assessment purposes Posiva Oy excavates in the Olkiluoto bedrock an underground research laboratory (ONKALO). The complexity of the groundwater chemistry is characteristic to the Olkiluoto site and causes a demand to examine and visualise these hydrogeochemical features in 3-D together with the structural model. The need to study the hydrogeochemical features is not inevitable only in the stable undisturbed (pre-excavational) conditions but also in the disturbed system caused by the construction activities and open-tunnel conditions of the ONKALO. The present 3-D approach is based on integrating the independently and separately developed structural model and the results from the geochemical mixing calculations of the groundwater samples. For spatial geochemical regression purposes the study area is divided into four primary sectors on the basis of the occurrence of the samples. The geochemical information within the four primary sector are summed up in the four sector centroids that sum-up the depth distributions of the different water types within each primary sector area. The geographic locations of the centroids are used for secondary division of the study area into secondary sectors. With the aid of secondary sectors spatial regressions between the centroids can be calculated and interpolation of water type fractions within the centroid volume becomes possible. Similarly, extrapolations outside the centroid volume are possible as well. The mixing proportions of the five detected water types in an arbitrary point in the modelling volume can be estimated by applying the four centroids and by using lateral linear regression. This study utilises two separate data sets: the older data set and the newer data set. The

  5. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK18 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as part of Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The E-W striking, ca. 55 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island adjacent to investigation trenches OL-TK12 and OL-TK4. The trench was cleaned with a pressure washer and pressurized air. The rock types were determined macroscopically. The rock types in investigation trench OL-TK18 is of heterogeneous character, with a large variation in their composition. The rocks vary from tonalitic-granodioritic gneiss to diatexitic gneiss, with portions of K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. Inclusions of mica gneiss and a well-preserved schollen migmatite is encountered. The trench ends in a feldspar-rich pegmatoid. The most dominant tectonic feature is D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain and associated S{sub 4} foliation. This domain and hence the S{sub 4} foliation is striking NE-SW with a moderate dip towards SE. Both ends of the trench are dominated by the earlier deformation phase, showing S{sub 3} foliation striking ENE-WSW and roughly dipping towards the S. The S{sub 3} foliation is associated with small-scaled granitic leucosome veining, while the S{sub 4} foliation have a schistose character and it is more sheared. D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain is also characterised by a sheared blastomylonitic rock having growth of roundish feldspar porphyroblasts and BTschlierens indicating high alteration of the protolith. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 117 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency of the trench is 2.11 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations one main set can be distinguished striking NE-SW (foliation parallel) with a moderate dip towards the SE. The median fracture trace length is 1.6 m and over half of the fractures exceed 1.5 m trace length, the longest

  6. In-situ experiments to investigate rock matrix retention properties in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutilainen, Mikko; Helariutta, Kerttuli [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Poteri, Antti [Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT (Finland); and others

    2015-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants, owned by TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) and Fortum, is planned to be disposed to a repository at a depth of more than 400 meters in the bedrock of Olkiluoto (Eurajoki, Finland). The repository system of multiple release barriers consists of both manmade and natural barriers. The surrounding rock acts as the last barrier if other barriers fail during passage of the millennia. Therefore, safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel requires information on the radionuclide transport and retention properties within the porous and water-containing rock matrix along the water conducting flow paths. To this end, various types of experiments are being performed and planned within ONKALO, the underground rock characterization facility in Olkiluoto, as part of the project @''rock matrix REtention PROperties'' (REPRO). The research site is located at a depth of 420 meters close to the repository site. The aim is to study the diffusion and sorption properties of nuclear compounds in the rock matrix under real in-situ conditions. The first in-situ experiment was performed during 2012 using HTO, Na-22, Cl-36 and I-125 as tracer nuclides. Breakthrough curves show retention and asymptotic behavior that are in-line with those caused by matrix diffusion and sorption were observed in their breakthrough curves. Weak sorption was also observed in the breakthrough curves of Na-22 and I-125.

  7. The Finnish final disposal programme proceeds to the site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, T.

    1999-01-01

    Research for the selection of the final disposal site has been carried out already since the beginning of 1980's. Field studies were started in 1987: In the recent years, studied sites have included Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Romuvaara in Kuhmo and Kivetty in Aeaenekoski. Based on 40 years operation of four power plant units, the estimate for the accumulation of spent fuel to be disposed of in Finland is 2,600 tU. A 'Decision in Principle' is needed from the Finnish government to select the final disposal site, Posiva submitted the application for a policy decision in May 1999. The intended site of the facility is Olkiluoto which produces most of the spent fuel in Finland: A disposal would minimise the need of transports. In a poll among the inhabitants of Eurajoki, 60 per cent approved the final disposal facility. After a positive decision of the government, Posiva will construct an underground research facility in Olkiluoto. The construction of the final disposal facility will take place in the 2010's, the facility should be operational in 2020. (orig.) [de

  8. Safety assessment of Olkiluoto NPP units 1 and 2. Decision of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority regarding the periodic safety review of the Olkiluoto NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    In this safety assessment the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has evaluated the safety of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2 in connection with the periodic safety review. This safety assessment provides a summary of the reviews, inspections and continuous oversight carried out by STUK. The issues addressed in the assessment and the related evaluation criteria are set forth in the nuclear energy and radiation safety legislation and the regulations issued thereunder. The provisions of the Nuclear Energy Act concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, security and emergency preparedness arrangements, and waste management are specified in more detail in the Government Decrees and Regulatory Guides issued by STUK. Based on the assessment, STUK consideres that the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2 meet the set safety requirements for operational nuclear power plants, the emergency preparedness arrangements are sufficient and the necessary control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been appropriately arranged. The physical protection of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is not yet completely in compliance with the requirements of Government Decree 734/2008, which came into force in December 2008. Further requirements concerning this issue based also on the principle of continuous improvement were included in the decision relating to the periodic safety review. The safety of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant was assessed in compliance with the Government Decree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (733/2008), which came into force in 2008. The decree notes that existing nuclear power plants need not meet all the requirements set out for new plants. Most of the design bases pertaining to the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear power plant units were set in the 1970s. Substantial modernisations have been carried out at the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear power plant units since their commissioning to improve safety. This is in line with

  9. Climate scenarios for Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 120,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenoff, N.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Jaervinen, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Posiva Oy is planning to dispose of spent nuclear fuel in a repository, to be constructed at a depth of 400 m in the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto, Finland. Planning the storage requires careful consideration of many aspects, including an assessment of long-term repository safety. For estimating possible climate states at Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 120,000 years, we analyze climate simulations of an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (CLIMBER-2) coupled with an ice sheet model (SICOPOLIS). The simulations into the future clearly show that the onset of the next glaciation is strongly dependent on the Earth's orbital variations and the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. It is evident that due to global warming, the climate of the next centuries will be warmer and wetter than at present. Most likely, due to global warming and low variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun, the present interglacial will last for at least the next 30,000 years. Further, the future simulations showed that the insolation minima on the Northern Hemisphere 50,000-60,000 and 90,000-100,000 years after the present hold a potential for the onset of the next glaciation. Hence, on a time-scale of 120,000 years, one must take into account climate periods lasting several thousand years having the following features: an interglacial climate, a periglacial climate, a climate with an ice sheet margin near Olkiluoto, a glacial climate with an ice sheet covering Olkiluoto, and a climate with Olkiluoto being depressed below sea level after glaciation due to isostatic depression. Due to the uncertainties related to the evolution of the future climate, it is recommended the simulations into the far future to be used only qualitatively. Quantitative information about glacial climate is achieved from the reconstructions and simulations of the past climate. (orig.)

  10. Climate scenarios for Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 120,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenoff, N.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Jaervinen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Posiva Oy is planning to dispose of spent nuclear fuel in a repository, to be constructed at a depth of 400 m in the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto, Finland. Planning the storage requires careful consideration of many aspects, including an assessment of long-term repository safety. For estimating possible climate states at Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 120,000 years, we analyze climate simulations of an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (CLIMBER-2) coupled with an ice sheet model (SICOPOLIS). The simulations into the future clearly show that the onset of the next glaciation is strongly dependent on the Earth's orbital variations and the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. It is evident that due to global warming, the climate of the next centuries will be warmer and wetter than at present. Most likely, due to global warming and low variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun, the present interglacial will last for at least the next 30,000 years. Further, the future simulations showed that the insolation minima on the Northern Hemisphere 50,000-60,000 and 90,000-100,000 years after the present hold a potential for the onset of the next glaciation. Hence, on a time-scale of 120,000 years, one must take into account climate periods lasting several thousand years having the following features: an interglacial climate, a periglacial climate, a climate with an ice sheet margin near Olkiluoto, a glacial climate with an ice sheet covering Olkiluoto, and a climate with Olkiluoto being depressed below sea level after glaciation due to isostatic depression. Due to the uncertainties related to the evolution of the future climate, it is recommended the simulations into the far future to be used only qualitatively. Quantitative information about glacial climate is achieved from the reconstructions and simulations of the past climate. (orig.)

  11. Climate scenarios for Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 100,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenoff, N.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Jaervinen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Posiva Oy is planning to dispose of spent nuclear fuel in a repository, to be constructed at a depth of 400 m in the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto, Finland. Planning the storage requires careful consideration of many aspects, including an assessment of long-term repository safety. For estimating possible climate states at Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 100,000 years, we analyze climate simulations of an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (CLIMBER-2) coupled with an ice sheet model (SICOPOLIS). The simulations into the future clearly show that the onset of the next glaciation is strongly dependent on the Earth's orbital variations and the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. It is evident that due to global warming, the climate of the next centuries will be warmer and wetter than at present. Most likely, due to global warming and low variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun, the present interglacial will last for at least the next 30,000 years. Further, the future simulations showed that the insolation minima on the Northern Hemisphere 50,000-60,000 and 90,000-100,000 years after the present hold a potential for the onset of the next glaciation. Hence, on a time-scale of 100,000 years, one must take into account climate periods lasting several thousand years having the following features: an interglacial climate, a periglacial climate, a climate with an ice sheet margin near Olkiluoto, a glacial climate with an ice sheet covering Olkiluoto, and a climate with Olkiluoto being depressed below sea level after glaciation due to isostatic depression. Due to the uncertainties related to the evolution of the future climate, it is recommended the simulations into the far future to be used only qualitatively. Quantitative information about glacial climate is achieved from the reconstructions and simulations of the past climate. (orig.)

  12. Ground water chemistry and water-rock interaction at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Front, K.

    1992-02-01

    Bedrock investigations for the final repository for low- and intermediate level wastes (VLJ repository) generated at the Olkiluoto (TVO-I and TVO-II) nuclear power plant, stareted in 1980. Since 1988 the area has been investigated for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the report the geochemistry at the nuclear waste investigation site, Olkiluoto, is evaluated. The hydrogeological data are collected from boreholes drilled down to 1000-m depth into Proterozoic crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed. The groundwater types are characterized by water-rock interaction but they also show features of other origins. The fresh and brackish waters are contaminated by varying amounts of young meteoric water and brackish seawater. The saline water contains residues of possibly ancient hydrothermal waters, imprints of which are occasionally seen in the rock itself. Different mixing phenomenas are indicated by the isotope contents (O-l8/H-2, H-3) and the Ca/Cl, Na/Cl, HCO 3 /Cl, SO 4 /Cl, Br/Cl, SI(calcite)/SI(dolomite) ratios. The interaction between bedrock and groundwater is reflected by the behaviour of pH, Eh, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO 3 and S0 4 . Dissolution and precipitation of calcite and pyrite, and aluminosilicate hydrolysis play the major role in defining the groundwater composition of the above components

  13. Chlorine isotopes and their application to groundwater dating at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.

    2014-09-01

    The chlorine isotopes 36 Cl and 37 Cl have been shown to be useful tracers of groundwater, and for investigations of sources of dissolved Cl, mixing of fluids, water-rock interactions in sedimentary environments and in identifying solute sources and transport mechanisms. In addition, the radioactive isotope, 36 Cl, is a useful tracer for determining the residence time of groundwater. This report examines the results of Cl isotopic analysis of groundwaters from as deep as 1000 m at the Olkiluoto site in southwest Finland. Thirty-four samples were analysed for 36 Cl/Cl and 29 were analysed for 37 Cl (expressed as δ 37 Cl). The value δ 37 Cl was found to stabilize at higher salinities and the maximum range of δ 37 Cl was from about - 0.6 to +0.6 per mille. Because of this limited range and the relatively large error margins associated with the δ 37 Cl measurement, the usefulness of this ratio appears to be limited. Therefore, the main part of this report is largely focused on 36 Cl. Estimation of residence time of 36 Cl gives results that support the presence of at least five groundwater types at Olkiluoto. The consistency of 36 Cl/Cl ratios in groundwaters of several widely separated, deep locations and different rock compositions, suggests that these deeper groundwaters are in secular equilibrium and, therefore, likely to be older than 1.5 million years. (orig.)

  14. Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive modelling of

  15. Transition from site selection to site confirmation phase: New challenge to Posiva's communication and public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, Timo

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, Posiva Oy is responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In the 1990's investigations have been carried out on four intended sites for final disposal. Posiva implemented Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on the investigation sites in 1997-1999. The results of the EIA procedure were published in the EIA report which was attached to the application filed to the Government in May 1999 for a policy decision on the construction of the final disposal facility in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. In December 2000, the Finnish Government made a favourable policy decision ( D ecision in Principle ) on the construction of final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. According to the decision, the facility is in line with the overall good of the society. According to the Government's decision the prerequisites of the policy decision had been met. The municipality of Eurajoki supported the construction of the facility in Olkiluoto and STUK, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, also approved of the advancement of the project. The positive policy decision of the Government will still need to be ratified by the Parliament. The parliamentary proceedings of the policy decision will probably start in February 2001. The policy decision will make it possible for Posiva to concentrate the future site confirmation studies in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, and construct an underground research facility there. The excavation of the research facility in the bedrock is planned to start in a few years' time. The construction of the final disposal facility is scheduled to start after the year 2010. The transition from the site selection to the site confirmation phase in Eurajoki means a new challenge not only to Posiva's research work but also to Posiva's communication. In addition to meeting the safety criteria, Posiva's activities shall in the future also meet all the criteria specified by the surrounding society

  16. Olkiluoto 1 and 2 - Plant efficiency improvement and lifetime extension-project (PELE) implemented during outages 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, M.; Hakola, M. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, F- 27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) is a non-listed public company founded in 1969 to produce electricity for its stakeholders. TVO is the operator of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. TVO follows the principle of continuous improvement in the operation and maintenance of the Olkiluoto plant units. The PELE project (Plant Efficiency Improvement and Lifetime Extension), mainly completed during the annual outages in 2010 and 2011, and forms one part of the systematic development of Olkiluoto units. TVO maintains a long-term development program that aims at systematically modernizing the plant unit systems and equipment based on the latest technology. According to the program, the Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 plant units are constantly renovated with the intention of keeping them safe and reliable, The aim of the modernization projects is to improve the safety, reliability, and performance of the plant units. PELE project at Olkiluoto 1 was done in 2010 and at Olkiluoto 2 in 2011. The outage length of Olkiluoto 1 was 26 d 12 h 4 min and Olkiluoto 2 outage length was 28 d 23 h 46 min. (Normal service-outage is about 14 days including refueling and refueling-outage length is about seven days. See figure 1) The PELE project consisted of several single projects collected into one for coordinated project management. Some of the main projects were as follows: - Low pressure turbines: rotor, stator vane, casing and turbine instrumentation replacement. - Replacement of Condenser Cooling Water (later called seawater pumps) pumps - Replacement of inner isolation valves on the main steam lines. - Generator and the generator cooling system replacement. - Low voltage switchgear replacement. This project will continue during future outages. PELE was a success. 100 TVO employees and 1500 subcontractor employees participated in the project. The execution of the PELE projects went extremely well during the outages. The replacement of the low pressure turbines and seawater pumps improved the

  17. Olkiluoto 1 and 2 - Plant efficiency improvement and lifetime extension-project (PELE) implemented during outages 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosonen, M.; Hakola, M.

    2012-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) is a non-listed public company founded in 1969 to produce electricity for its stakeholders. TVO is the operator of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. TVO follows the principle of continuous improvement in the operation and maintenance of the Olkiluoto plant units. The PELE project (Plant Efficiency Improvement and Lifetime Extension), mainly completed during the annual outages in 2010 and 2011, and forms one part of the systematic development of Olkiluoto units. TVO maintains a long-term development program that aims at systematically modernizing the plant unit systems and equipment based on the latest technology. According to the program, the Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 plant units are constantly renovated with the intention of keeping them safe and reliable, The aim of the modernization projects is to improve the safety, reliability, and performance of the plant units. PELE project at Olkiluoto 1 was done in 2010 and at Olkiluoto 2 in 2011. The outage length of Olkiluoto 1 was 26 d 12 h 4 min and Olkiluoto 2 outage length was 28 d 23 h 46 min. (Normal service-outage is about 14 days including refueling and refueling-outage length is about seven days. See figure 1) The PELE project consisted of several single projects collected into one for coordinated project management. Some of the main projects were as follows: - Low pressure turbines: rotor, stator vane, casing and turbine instrumentation replacement. - Replacement of Condenser Cooling Water (later called seawater pumps) pumps - Replacement of inner isolation valves on the main steam lines. - Generator and the generator cooling system replacement. - Low voltage switchgear replacement. This project will continue during future outages. PELE was a success. 100 TVO employees and 1500 subcontractor employees participated in the project. The execution of the PELE projects went extremely well during the outages. The replacement of the low pressure turbines and seawater pumps improved the

  18. Landscape modelling case studies for Olkiluoto site in 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broed, R.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents the landscape modelling test cases implemented in the fall of 2005, complemented in 2006. The objective of the report is to illustrate the application of the landscape modelling methodology, to investigate the important factors of influence and to clarify methodological aspects. The results of this analysis are intended to serve as a basis for future assessments. Landscape modelling represents an approach for estimating doses to inhabitants of a landscape consisting of several interacting ecosystems which are affected by the contamination from potential radionuclide releases from a deep geological repository. From the model outputs, Landscape Dose Conversion Factors (LDFs) are calculated. These represent, for each radionuclide of concern, an estimate of the equilibrium dose arising from a constant unit release of activity into the landscape objects. Modelling is undertaken in the current report for static landscapes corresponding to future landscape configurations forecasted for four different points in time. The results of this modelling are not yet suitable for practical application to estimate doses which could result from the planned repository at the Olkiluoto site. To suit this eventual purpose, refinements of the modelling and reduced uncertainty of the important parameters used in the models will be necessary. The current report intends rather to investigate the important factors influencing modelled future doses arising from the planned repository and to clarify methodological aspects. Notwithstanding the restrictions of the current modelling, important conclusions already can be drawn from the results presented in this report. Several methodological aspects are addressed in this report. These are, in particular, the impact of the landscape configurations on the resulting dose estimates, the importance of model parameters and assumptions for the assessment results, the database for radionuclides requiring consideration, the importance

  19. Mise-a-la-Masse Measurements at Olkiluoto in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2010-10-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy carried out Mise-a-la-Masse measurements at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during March-June 2010. The survey consisted of measurements in 9 drillholes and on 76 surface profiles. The measured drillholes were OL-KR11, OL-KR40, OLKR44, OL-KR45 and OL-KR49..OL-KR53. Surface measurements were carried out at 4 different areas. Current electrodes were placed in drillholes OL-KR49 - OL-KR53. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work. This report describes the field operation, the equipment and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in Microsoft Ecxel format. (orig.)

  20. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-Soundings at Olkiluoto 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2006-08-01

    In the beginning of summer 2006 Geological Survey of Finland carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (called also Sampo) at Onkalo situated in Olkiluoto nuclear power plant area. The same soundings sites were the first time measured and marked in 2004 and repeated in 2005. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. The total number of the soundings was 48 but at 8 stations the measurement did not succeed because of strong electromagnetic noise. The numerous power lines and the cables of the area generate local 3-D effects on the sounding curves, but the repeatability of the results is good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong 3-D effects. Comparison of results 2004-2006 shows small differences at some sounding sites. (orig.)

  1. Seismic signal in Olkiluoto. Preliminary comparison of underground and surface recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-02-01

    Seismic hazard studies in Finland relate to nuclear power plant sites on the Earth's surface. The impact of seismic waves is different on structures on the surface than underground. The purpose of this study is to approximate how ground motions recorded in the ONKALO compare with those on the surface above the ONKALO. Broadband seismometers were installed on the surface and at the depth of 400 m inside the ONKALO in November 2013. The operation time of the seismometers was about nine months. The analysed signals included background noise, teleseismic earthquakes, regional earthquake, local explosions and explosions from the ONKALO site. The studies in Olkiluoto demonstrated that, in general, there is a de-amplification of ground motions in the ONKALO relative to those on the surface, or there is no significant difference between the recordings. The result is likely associated with the type of the seismic source and the relatively shallow depth (400 m) of the underground station. Observed relative amplification related only to nearfield events: the recorded velocity amplitudes on the surface were 2 - 10 times larger than underground. One opposite relation was found in the study: the vertical component of the velocity amplitude of a regional earthquake seems to be about three times larger in ONKALO than on the surface between frequencies 50 Hz and 80 Hz. Definite conclusions concerning amplification or de-amplification cannot be based on the result of this study. In practice, any set of recordings cannot give a comprehensive description of the possible variations, like how the wavefield reflected from the surface interacts with the wavefield coming towards the surface. Numerical modeling is suggested for further studies of this subject. (orig.)

  2. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Description of the disposal system 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Description of the Disposal System sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective presenting the initial state of the disposal system for the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Finland. Disposal system is an entity composed of a repository system and surface environment. The repository system includes the spent nuclear fuel, canister, buffer, backfill, and closure components as well as the host rock. The repository system components have assigned safety functions (except for the spent nuclear fuel) and are subject to requirements. The initial state is presented for each component, and references to the main supporting reports are given to guide the reader for more details. Conditions for each component vary in time and space, due to the time of emplacement and due to the tolerances set for the compositions, geometries and other properties depending on the component. The disposal operation is foreseen to commence ∼ 2020. At the beginning of the postclosure period, around 2120, all the engineered components have been installed and the operation is finalised. The system evolution during the operational phase is discussed in detail in Performance Assessment. The initial state for the host rock is defined to be essentially equal to the baseline conditions prior to starting the construction of the underground characterisation facility ONKALO. For the surface environment, the initial state is the present conditions prevailing. For any other component of the disposal system, the initial state is defined as the state it has when the direct control over that specific part of the system ceases and only limited information can be made available on the subsequent development of conditions in that part of the system or its near field. (orig.)

  3. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Description of the disposal system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Description of the Disposal System sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective presenting the initial state of the disposal system for the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Finland. Disposal system is an entity composed of a repository system and surface environment. The repository system includes the spent nuclear fuel, canister, buffer, backfill, and closure components as well as the host rock. The repository system components have assigned safety functions (except for the spent nuclear fuel) and are subject to requirements. The initial state is presented for each component, and references to the main supporting reports are given to guide the reader for more details. Conditions for each component vary in time and space, due to the time of emplacement and due to the tolerances set for the compositions, geometries and other properties depending on the component. The disposal operation is foreseen to commence {approx} 2020. At the beginning of the postclosure period, around 2120, all the engineered components have been installed and the operation is finalised. The system evolution during the operational phase is discussed in detail in Performance Assessment. The initial state for the host rock is defined to be essentially equal to the baseline conditions prior to starting the construction of the underground characterisation facility ONKALO. For the surface environment, the initial state is the present conditions prevailing. For any other component of the disposal system, the initial state is defined as the state it has when the direct control over that specific part of the system ceases and only limited information can be made available on the subsequent development of conditions in that part of the system or its near field. (orig.)

  4. Site-to-canister scale flow and transport in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Laitinen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    Radioactive waste is originating from production of electricity in nuclear power plants. Most of the waste has only low or intermediate levels of radioactivity. However, the spent nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and it has to be isolated from the biosphere. The current nuclear waste management plan in Finland is based on direct disposal of the spent nuclear fuel deep underground. The only feasible mechanism for the radionuclides to escape from an underground repository is to be carried by the groundwater flow after the failure of waste containers. The scope of this study is to examine the groundwater flow situation and transport properties in the vicinity of the disposal canister and along the potential release paths from the repository into the biosphere. The results of this study are further applied in the site specific safety analysis of a spent fuel repository. Synthesis is made of the porous medium estimates of the groundwater flow in the regional and site scales and the detailed fracture network analysis of the flow in the canister scale. This synthesis includes estimation of the transport properties from the canister into the biosphere and flow rates around the deposition holes of the waste canisters. The modelling has been carried out for four different sites: Hastholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romavaara. According to the simulations groundwater flow rate around the deposition holes is less than about 1 litre/a for about 75 % of the deposition holes. For about 5 % of the deposition holes the flow rates are a few litres per year or higher. The highest flow rates resulted at Hastholmen, in fresh water conditions 10 000 years after present, and at Kivetty. The transport resistances were calculated for the `worst` flow paths that might have impact on the safety of the repository. The total transport resistances from the repository into the biosphere along those flow paths varied between about 40 000 a/m and 5-10{sup 6} a/m. Most of the total transport

  5. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  6. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions

  7. Characterization of Olkiluoto bacterial and archaeal communities by 454 pyrosequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomberg, M.; Nyyssoenen, M.; Itaevaara, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    Recent advancement in sequencing technologies, 'Next Generation Sequencing', such as FLX 454 pyrosequencing has made it possible to obtain large amounts of sequence data where previously only few sequences could be obtained. This technique is especially useful for the study of community composition of uncultured microbial populations in environmental samples. In this project, the FLX 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to obtain up to 20 000 16S rRNA sequences or 10 000 mRNA sequences from each sample for identification of the microbial species composition as well as for comparison of the microbial communities between different samples. This project focused on the characterization of active microbial communities in the groundwater at the final disposal site of high radioactive wastes in Olkiluoto by FLX 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA as well as of the mRNA transcripts of the dsrB gene and mcrA gene of sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea, respectively. Specific emphasis was put on studying the relationship of active and latent sulphate reducers and methanogens by qPCR due to their important roles in deep geobiochemical processes connected to copper corrosion. Seven packered boreholes were sampled anaerobically in Olkiluoto during 2009-2010. Groundwater was pumped from specific depths and the microbial cells werecollected by filtration on a membrane. Active microbial communities were studied based on RNA extracted from the membranes and translated to copy DNA, followed by sequencing by 454 Tag pyrosequencing. A total of 27 different bacterial and 17 archaeal taxonomic groups were detected.

  8. Characterization of Olkiluoto bacterial and archaeal communities by 454 pyrosequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomberg, M; Nyyssoenen, M; Itaevaara, M [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    Recent advancement in sequencing technologies, 'Next Generation Sequencing', such as FLX 454 pyrosequencing has made it possible to obtain large amounts of sequence data where previously only few sequences could be obtained. This technique is especially useful for the study of community composition of uncultured microbial populations in environmental samples. In this project, the FLX 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to obtain up to 20 000 16S rRNA sequences or 10 000 mRNA sequences from each sample for identification of the microbial species composition as well as for comparison of the microbial communities between different samples. This project focused on the characterization of active microbial communities in the groundwater at the final disposal site of high radioactive wastes in Olkiluoto by FLX 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA as well as of the mRNA transcripts of the dsrB gene and mcrA gene of sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea, respectively. Specific emphasis was put on studying the relationship of active and latent sulphate reducers and methanogens by qPCR due to their important roles in deep geobiochemical processes connected to copper corrosion. Seven packered boreholes were sampled anaerobically in Olkiluoto during 2009-2010. Groundwater was pumped from specific depths and the microbial cells werecollected by filtration on a membrane. Active microbial communities were studied based on RNA extracted from the membranes and translated to copy DNA, followed by sequencing by 454 Tag pyrosequencing. A total of 27 different bacterial and 17 archaeal taxonomic groups were detected.

  9. Characterization of Olkiluoto bacterial and archaeal communities by 454 pyrosequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, M.; Nyyssoenen, M.; Itaevaara, M.

    2012-06-01

    Recent advancement in sequencing technologies, 'Next Generation Sequencing', such as FLX 454 pyrosequencing has made it possible to obtain large amounts of sequence data where previously only few sequences could be obtained. This technique is especially useful for the study of community composition of uncultured microbial populations in environmental samples. In this project, the FLX 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to obtain up to 20 000 16S rRNA sequences or 10 000 mRNA sequences from each sample for identification of the microbial species composition as well as for comparison of the microbial communities between different samples. This project focused on the characterization of active microbial communities in the groundwater at the final disposal site of high radioactive wastes in Olkiluoto by FLX 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA as well as of the mRNA transcripts of the dsrB gene and mcrA gene of sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea, respectively. Specific emphasis was put on studying the relationship of active and latent sulphate reducers and methanogens by qPCR due to their important roles in deep geobiochemical processes connected to copper corrosion. Seven packered boreholes were sampled anaerobically in Olkiluoto during 2009-2010. Groundwater was pumped from specific depths and the microbial cells werecollected by filtration on a membrane. Active microbial communities were studied based on RNA extracted from the membranes and translated to copy DNA, followed by sequencing by 454 Tag pyrosequencing. A total of 27 different bacterial and 17 archaeal taxonomic groups were detected

  10. Ageing study of protection automation components of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Haenninen, S.

    1993-07-01

    A study on ageing of reactor protection system of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is described. The objective of the study was to present an ageing analysis approach and apply in to the automation chains of reactor protection system of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The study includes the measuring instrumentation, the protection logics, and the control electronics of some pumps and valves. The analysis is based on the information collected on the structure of the system, environmental conditions and maintenance practices of components, and operating experience. Based on this information, the possible ageing effects of equipment and their safety significance are evaluated. (orig.). (15 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.)

  11. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2007. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.

    2008-06-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2007. These summary reports have been published since 2005 (target year 2004). The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground characterization facility. Although some of the nuclear power production related monitoring studies by TVO (the power company) have been going on from the 1970s, the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto Island has only recently been comprehensive. In the monitoring data, the ongoing construction work (OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure) is seen for instance in raised noise levels and deposition of base cations and iron. The land-use continues to change, but where there is natural environment, it resembles other coastal locations. The nearby marine environment is affected by the cooling water from the nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  12. Feasibility study and technical proposal for seismic monitoring of tunnel boring machine in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A. (AF-Consult Ltd, Vantaa (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are described. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. The presented technical proposal for seismic monitoring of TBM in Olkiluoto is capable to detect and locate TBM coming outside the ONKALO area about two months before it would reach the ONKALO. (orig.)

  13. Feasibility study and technical proposal for seismic monitoring of tunnel boring machine in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are described. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. The presented technical proposal for seismic monitoring of TBM in Olkiluoto is capable to detect and locate TBM coming outside the ONKALO area about two months before it would reach the ONKALO. (orig.)

  14. Confidence assessment. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Forsmark). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. The confidence in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface-based site investigations, have been assessed by exploring: Confidence in the site characterisation data base; Key remaining issues and their handling; Handling of alternative models; Consistency between disciplines; and, Main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. It is generally found that the key aspects of importance for safety assessment and repository engineering of the Forsmark site descriptive model are associated with a high degree of confidence. Because of the robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in Forsmark site descriptive model is judged to be high. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models. Most, but not all, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for long-term safety. Poor precision in the measured data are judged to have limited impact on uncertainties on the site descriptive model, with the exceptions of inaccuracy in determining the position of some boreholes at depth in 3-D space, as well as the poor precision of the orientation of BIPS images in some boreholes, and the poor precision of stress data determined by overcoring at the locations where the pre

  15. Results of forest monitoring on Olkiluoto island in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, L.; Huhta, A.-P.; Hoekkae, H.; Lindroos, A.-J.; Rautio, P.; Helmisaari, H.-S.

    2011-11-01

    Forest investigations carried out on Olkiluoto aim to monitor the state of the forest ecosystems, quantify Olkiluoto-specific processes taking place in the forests producing input data for the safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal, and follow possible changes in the forest condition resulting from the intensive construction activities currently being carried out in the area. The forest investigations form a part of the monitoring programme being carried out on Olkiluoto Island under the management of Posiva Oy. This report focuses on activities performed on bulk deposition and forest intensive monitoring plots (MRK and FIP plots) in 2010. In general, the deposition levels in 2010 in the open area and in stand throughfall were quite comparable to those in earlier years, although sulphur and calcium depositions were somewhat higher in the open area than in earlier years (2004-2008). The soil solution quality in 2010 was also quite comparable to that in earlier years. The NH 4 -N and NO 3 -N concentrations were low at all depths in the mineral soil of the FIP plots 4, 10 and 11. Instead, nitrate concentrations were high in the soil solution on FIP14. There appeared to be a clear overall increase in sulphate concentrations with increasing depth on FIP4 and FIP10. Chloride concentrations in the soil solution were extremely high at all depths on all FIP plots throughout the monitoring period; it is clear that there is a considerable input of NaCl in the deposition derived from the sea. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) in the soil solution at all depths at Olkiluoto during 2004-2010 continued in many cases to be close to or below the limit of quantification. In 2010 the monthly level of transpiration in the Scots pine dominated stand was smaller in May and bigger in July than during previous years (2007-2009). Monthly transpiration in the Norway spruce dominated stand was clearly lower in 2010 than in 2007-2009, and there is a decreasing

  16. Results of forest monitoring on Olkiluoto island in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, L.; Huhta, A.-P.; Hoekkae, H.; Lindroos, A.-J.; Rautio, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland); Helmisaari, H.-S. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Forest investigations carried out on Olkiluoto aim to monitor the state of the forest ecosystems, quantify Olkiluoto-specific processes taking place in the forests producing input data for the safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal, and follow possible changes in the forest condition resulting from the intensive construction activities currently being carried out in the area. The forest investigations form a part of the monitoring programme being carried out on Olkiluoto Island under the management of Posiva Oy. This report focuses on activities performed on bulk deposition and forest intensive monitoring plots (MRK and FIP plots) in 2010. In general, the deposition levels in 2010 in the open area and in stand throughfall were quite comparable to those in earlier years, although sulphur and calcium depositions were somewhat higher in the open area than in earlier years (2004-2008). The soil solution quality in 2010 was also quite comparable to that in earlier years. The NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N concentrations were low at all depths in the mineral soil of the FIP plots 4, 10 and 11. Instead, nitrate concentrations were high in the soil solution on FIP14. There appeared to be a clear overall increase in sulphate concentrations with increasing depth on FIP4 and FIP10. Chloride concentrations in the soil solution were extremely high at all depths on all FIP plots throughout the monitoring period; it is clear that there is a considerable input of NaCl in the deposition derived from the sea. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) in the soil solution at all depths at Olkiluoto during 2004-2010 continued in many cases to be close to or below the limit of quantification. In 2010 the monthly level of transpiration in the Scots pine dominated stand was smaller in May and bigger in July than during previous years (2007-2009). Monthly transpiration in the Norway spruce dominated stand was clearly lower in 2010 than in 2007-2009, and there is a

  17. Simpevarp - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    During 2002, SKB is starting detailed investigations at two potential sites for a deep repository in the Precambrian rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield. The present report concerns one of those sites, Simpevarp, which lies in the municipality of Oskarshamn, on the southeast coast of Sweden, about 250 kilometres south of Stockholm. The site description will have two main components: a written synthesis of the site, summarising the current state of knowledge, as documented in the databases containing the primary data from the site investigations, and one or several site descriptive models, in which the collected information is interpreted and presented in a form which can be used in numerical models for rock engineering, environmental impact and long-term safety assessments. SKB maintains two main databases at the present time, a site characterisation database called SICADA and a geographic information system called SKB GIS. The site descriptive model will be developed and presented with the aid of the SKB GIS capabilities, and with SKBs Rock Visualisation System (RVS), which is also linked to SICADA. The version 0 model forms an important framework for subsequent model versions, which are developed successively, as new information from the site investigations becomes available. Version 0 is developed out of the information available at the start of the site investigation. In the case of Simpevarp, this is essentially the information which was compiled for the Oskarshamn feasibility study, which led to the choice of that area as a favourable object for further study, together with information collected since its completion. This information, with the exception of the extensive data base from the nearby Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, is mainly 2D in nature (surface data), and is general and regional, rather than site-specific, in content. Against this background, the present report consists of the following components: an overview of the present content of the databases

  18. Fracture toughness properties of rocks in Olkiluoto: Laboratory measurements 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, T.

    2012-05-15

    In Olkiluoto an underground rock characterization facility (ONKALO) for the final disposal site of spent nuclear fuel has been under thorough research many years, but further knowledge is needed on fracture toughness parameters. Fracture toughness parameters are important for example in fracture mechanics prediction for Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE). This working report describes a laboratory campaign that was done between 2008 and 2009. The campaign aimed at determining the fracture mechanics parameters as well as density and ultrasonic velocities for Olkiluoto rocks. The specimens delivered were selected by Posiva; the core showed no damage and the quality of the delivered cores was good with varying sample diameter. Most of the test samples (9 out of 12) are gneissic rock. The Mode I fracture toughness was determined using two different methods to account for two different fracturing directions. The methods are the Chevron Bend (CB) test as proposed in the ISRM Suggested Method and a method based on the Brazilian Disk (BD) experiment. The Mode II fracture toughness was determined using the Punch-Through Shear with Confining Pressure experiment on the remaining pieces from the CB testing. The scatter in the results is very large, even within one piece of core sample. Usually the scatter of results is less than 5 %. The high scatter in the data at hand is believed to be due to the very inhomogeneous nature of the rock material. The magnitude of the determined Mode I fracture toughness compares well with available reported data for medium to coarse grained granitoide rocks. However the scatter of the mode II fracture toughness values is higher than experienced on other rock types, but the variability is reasonable for the inhomogeneous rock type. Distinguishing the fracture toughness values for different anisotropy directions would require more thorough testing with quality samples at different anisotropy directions. However since fracture

  19. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2012. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, A.

    2014-04-01

    In 2003, Posiva Oy presented a programme for monitoring at Olkiluoto during construction and operation of ONKALO. In 2012 the monitoring programme was updated to concern the years 2012-2018. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2012. Results are presented under five topics: 1. Evolution of geosphere, 2. Biosphere modelling input data, 3. Interaction between surface environment and groundwater in bedrock, 4. Environmental impact and 5. Baseline of monitoring of radioactive releases. Concerning the evolution of geosphere, LIDAR-scannings were done in the Olkiluoto area in 2012. The acquired data can be used for elevation and other modelling purposes. The soil solution quality in 2012 was quite comparable to that in earlier years. Proximity of the sea and the young age of soils are seen in soil solution results. Biosphere modelling input data in 2012 included e.g. continuous tree litterfall and transpiration data, as well as updated game statistics and population estimates of fauna, a fishery survey from the River Eurajoki (2011) and basic monitoring data from Olkiluoto offshore properties. Interaction between surface environment and groundwater in bedrock includes e.g. weather and surface water monitoring data. Environmental impact analyses included e.g. monitoring of noise, air quality, effluent waters and private drilled wells. Noise monitoring in the vicinity of ONKALO showed that in the case of raised noise levels the sources are mainly the traffic on Olkiluodontie road, the air conditioning of ONKALO and occasional sources such as springtime bird sounds. Construction activities in the area were seen in increased amount of NO 3 -N in the bulk deposition, and Al and Fe accumulating on needle surfaces in areas close to the rock piling and crushing area. Scots

  20. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2012. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) [Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    In 2003, Posiva Oy presented a programme for monitoring at Olkiluoto during construction and operation of ONKALO. In 2012 the monitoring programme was updated to concern the years 2012-2018. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2012. Results are presented under five topics: 1. Evolution of geosphere, 2. Biosphere modelling input data, 3. Interaction between surface environment and groundwater in bedrock, 4. Environmental impact and 5. Baseline of monitoring of radioactive releases. Concerning the evolution of geosphere, LIDAR-scannings were done in the Olkiluoto area in 2012. The acquired data can be used for elevation and other modelling purposes. The soil solution quality in 2012 was quite comparable to that in earlier years. Proximity of the sea and the young age of soils are seen in soil solution results. Biosphere modelling input data in 2012 included e.g. continuous tree litterfall and transpiration data, as well as updated game statistics and population estimates of fauna, a fishery survey from the River Eurajoki (2011) and basic monitoring data from Olkiluoto offshore properties. Interaction between surface environment and groundwater in bedrock includes e.g. weather and surface water monitoring data. Environmental impact analyses included e.g. monitoring of noise, air quality, effluent waters and private drilled wells. Noise monitoring in the vicinity of ONKALO showed that in the case of raised noise levels the sources are mainly the traffic on Olkiluodontie road, the air conditioning of ONKALO and occasional sources such as springtime bird sounds. Construction activities in the area were seen in increased amount of NO{sub 3}-N in the bulk deposition, and Al and Fe accumulating on needle surfaces in areas close to the rock piling and crushing area

  1. Operation set for 2018 as regulator considers olkiluoto-3 licence application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Finland has announced progress with its delayed nuclear project and has confirmed it will not be affected by anomalies discovered in some components manufactured for EPRs in France. The Olkiluoto-3 European Pressurised Reactor (EPR) nuclear plant under construction in Finland is on schedule to begin commercial operation in 2018 with the country's regulator preparing a safety assessment that will pave the way for fuel loading. Jouni Silvennoinen, senior vice-president for Olkiluoto-3 at Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), told NucNet that fuel loading at the EPR plant, which is nine years behind schedule, is expected in the spring of 2018. He said construction and licensing of the plant are progressing.

  2. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-Soundings at Olkiluoto 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2007-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2007 Geological Survey of Finland carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) at Onkalo situated in Olkiluoto nuclear power plant area. The same soundings sites were the first time measured and marked in 2004 and repeated after it yearly. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. The total number of the soundings stations is 48. In 2007 at 8 sounding stations the transmitter and/or receiver sites were changed and the line L11.400 was substituted by line L11.500. Some changes helped but anyway there were 6 stations that could not be measured because of the strong electromagnetic noise. The numerous power lines and the cables of the area generate local 3-D effects on the sounding curves, but the repeatability of the results is good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong 3-D effects. Comparison of results 2004-2007 shows small differences at some sounding sites. (orig.)

  3. Compilation and analysis of hydrogeological responses to field activities in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaittinen, T.; Nummela, J.; Ahokas, H.

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater flow characteristics provide essential input for the construction and safety assessment of a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. On the Olkiluoto site flow connections have been studied in deep drillholes by means of long-term pumping tests, varying interference tests, and by interpreting the measured hydraulic heads. This report focuses on the assessment of measured hydraulic heads. Hydraulic heads have been measured both in open and in packed-off drillholes since 1991. The interpretation of the hydraulic connections is based on observed changes in hydraulic head distribution caused by certain investigation activities on the site. Field activities may increase the head, e.g. drilling, or more typically decrease the head, e.g. flush pumping after drilling, difference flow logging with pumping, and groundwater sampling. All the measured head observations have been gathered to binary files and a code has been developed to enable inquiries of head values for selected field activities. The main improvement has been the possibility for easy comparison of head observations in several drillholes. This report contains a short description of the pumping and the over-pressure tests, hydraulic head observations in packed-off drillholes until the end of 2005, and an interpretation of the selected representative cases. The presented cases highlight both the advantages and the difficulties related to the interpretation of the available hydraulic head data. Based on the head observations in packed-off drillholes, sub-horizontal hydraulic zones seem to form a layered system and indicate weak sub-vertical connections. The results of the pumping tests carried out between 1991 and 1998 are the most valuable, because the drillholes were mostly packed-off during the tests. Later, observations have suffered from open drillholes, which spread the head changes to all intersected hydrogeological zones. Due to the open drillholes, the existence of sub-vertical hydraulic

  4. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK9 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbaeck, N.; Talikka, M.

    2006-07-01

    Geological mapping of trench OL-TK9 was carried out the by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, southwestern Finland, as a part of Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The NW-SE striking trench, which is about 371 metres in length and 0.4-2.5 metres in width, is situated to the west from the OL-TK3 in the northwestern part of the study site. The rock types were determined macroscopically and the main rock types were further investigated microscopically. On the basis of the migmatite structure, the migmatitic gneisses at Olkiluoto can be divided into three groups: veined gneiss, stromatic gneiss and diatexitic gneiss. Most of the migmatitic gneisses in the trench are veined gneisses and only a few short sections of the diatexitic gneiss or K-feldspar porphyry exist. Stromatic gneisses were not encountered. The leucosome of the veined gneiss show vein like, more or less linear traces with some features similar to large-scale augen structures, whereas the migmatitic structure of the diatexitic gneiss is more asymmetric and irregular. The southernmost part of the trench is dominated by mica gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The mica gneiss is homogenous mica-rich rock that contains less than 10 % granite leucosome material. The pegmatitic granite shows variations in grain size, colour, and mode of occurrence. The veined gneiss dominates the central part of the trench. The northernmost part of the trench is mainly comprised of tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss, which has an igneous character. Most rocks in the trench are altered, the intensity of the alteration varies from weak to strong, and the most common alteration type is chloritisation. The intense alteration has resulted in pervasive softening and weathering of the bedrock in places and up to four meters thick layers of strongly weathered rocks were observed on the edges of the trench. The foliation S2B

  5. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK14 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordbaeck, N.

    2007-12-01

    Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK14 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as part of Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The E-W striking, ca. 215 m long trench is located in the eastern part of the Olkiluoto Island adjacent to boreholes OL-KR40 and OL-KR45. The trench was cleaned with a pressure washer and pressurized air. The rock types were determined macroscopically. Five samples were also investigated microscopically. The main rock type in the trench is veined gneiss. A few less than 0.5 m wide coarsegrained pegmatitic granite dykes are also encountered. Furthermore a large number of mica gneiss, quartz gneiss and skarn inclusions are present in the veined gneiss, being often elongated and parallel to the foliation. The most dominant tectonic feature is the foliation S2 and associated intense granitic leucosome veining. The foliation strikes ENE-WSW and dips steeply towards SES. Intensely to moderately banded rocks dominate the trench. The sparse F3 folds observed in OL-TK14 are small-scale tight folds in leucosome veins. A large-scale (10 m) open bending of the foliation that could be a result of D4 folding was also observed. Shearbands and other signs of ductile shearing were observed on many locations in the trench and in the eastern part there is a high-grade ductile shear zone intersection. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 684 fractures were recorded. The average fracture density of the trench is 3.18 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations three main sets can be distinguished: 1) a set striking N-S with vertical dip, 2) a ENE-WSW striking set with varying dips towards the SSE (parallel to the foliation) and 3) a NE-SW striking set with sub-vertical dip towards the SE or the NW. Most of the measured fractures are short due to the

  6. Gefinex 400S (Sampo) EM-soundings at Olkiluoto 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.

    2008-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2008 Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out electromagnetic frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) in the vicinity of ONKALO at the Olkiluoto site investigation area. The same soundings sites were first time measured and marked in 2004 and has been repeated after it yearly in the same season. The aim of the measurements is to monitor the changes of groundwater conditions by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The measurements form two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The profiles have been measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. Because of the strong electromagnetic noise all planned sites (48) could not be measured. In 2008 the measurements were performed at the sites that were successful in 2007 (43 soundings). The numerous power lines and cables in the area generate local disturbances on the sounding curves, but the signal/noise also with long coil separations and the repeatability of the results is reasonably good. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong surficial 3D effects. Comparison of the results of 2004 to 2008 surveys shows differences on some ARD (Apparent resistivity-depth) curves. Those are mainly results of the modified man-made structures. The effects of changes in groundwater conditions are obviously slight. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  8. Facility Description 2012. Summary report of the encapsulation plant and disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomaeki, J.; Ristimaeki, L.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the facility description is to be a specific summary report of the scope of Posiva's nuclear facilities (encapsulation plant and disposal facility) in Olkiluoto. This facility description is based on the 2012 designs and completing Posiva working reports. The facility description depicts the nuclear facilities and their operation as the disposal of spent nuclear fuel starts in Olkiluoto in about 2020. According to the decisions-in-principle of the government, the spent nuclear fuel from Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in operation and in future cumulative spent nuclear fuel from Loviisa 1 and 2, Olkiluoto 1, 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is permitted to be disposed of in Olkiluoto bedrock. The design of the disposal facility is based on the KBS-3V concept (vertical disposal). Long-term safety concept is based on the multi-barrier principle i.e. several release barriers, which ensure one another so that insufficiency in the performance of one barrier doesn't jeopardize long-term safety of the disposal. The release barriers are the following: canister, bentonite buffer and deposition tunnel backfill, and the host rock around the repository. The canisters are installed into the deposition holes, which are bored to the floor of the deposition tunnels. The canisters are enveloped with compacted bentonite blocks, which swell after absorbing water. The surrounding bedrock and the central and access tunnel backfill provide additional retardation, retention, and dilution. The nuclear facilities consist of an encapsulation plant and of underground final disposal facility including other aboveground buildings and surface structures serving the facility. The access tunnel and ventilation shafts to the underground disposal facility and some auxiliary rooms are constructed as a part of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility during years 2004-2014. The construction works needed for the repository start after obtaining the construction

  9. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M. (Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the spring 2010, and compared with earlier studies. Population size estimates are based on interviews of local hunters, and on other material available. No elk nor deer inventories were made in the winter 2009-2010. The elk population is still slightly decreasing. The white-tailed deer population was made smaller by hunting. The changes in the roe deer population are not known accurately, but population size varies somewhat from year to year. The number of hunted small predators approximately doubled in the latest hunting season. Altogether 17 waterfowl were hunted in 2009 (none in the previous year). The populations of mountain hare and red squirrel are abundant. The brown hare population is still small, even though there was one brood in Olkiluoto in 2009. (orig.)

  10. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2009-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.

    2010-10-01

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the spring 2010, and compared with earlier studies. Population size estimates are based on interviews of local hunters, and on other material available. No elk nor deer inventories were made in the winter 2009-2010. The elk population is still slightly decreasing. The white-tailed deer population was made smaller by hunting. The changes in the roe deer population are not known accurately, but population size varies somewhat from year to year. The number of hunted small predators approximately doubled in the latest hunting season. Altogether 17 waterfowl were hunted in 2009 (none in the previous year). The populations of mountain hare and red squirrel are abundant. The brown hare population is still small, even though there was one brood in Olkiluoto in 2009. (orig.)

  11. An approach to palaeoseismicity in the Olkiluoto (sea) area during the early holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutri, K.L.

    2007-06-01

    Olkiluoto Island is situated in the northern Baltic Sea, near the southwestern coast of Finland, and is the proposed location of a spent nuclear fuel repository. This study examined Holocene palaeoseismicity in the Olkiluoto area and in the surrounding sea areas by computer simulations together with acoustic-seismic, sedimentological and dating methods. The most abundant rock type on the island is migmatic mica gneiss, intruded by tonalites, granodiorites and granites. The surrounding Baltic Sea seabed consists of Palaeoproterozoic crystalline bedrock, which is to a great extent covered by younger Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks. The area contains several ancient deep-seated fracture zones that divide it into bedrock blocks. The response of bedrock at the Olkiluoto site was modelled considering four future ice-age scenarios. Each scenario produced shear displacements of fractures with different times of occurrence and varying recovery rates. Generally, the larger the maximum ice load, the larger were the permanent shear displacements. For a basic case, the maximum shear displacements were a few centimetres at the proposed nuclear waste repository level, at proximately 500 m b.s.l. high-resolution, low-frequency echo-sounding was used to examine the Holocene submarine sedimentary structures and possible direct and indirect indicators of palaeoseismic activity in the northern Baltic Sea. Echo-sounding profiles of Holocene submarine sediments revealed slides and slumps, normal faults, debris flows and turbidite-type structures. The profiles also showed pockmarks and other structures related to gas or groundwater seepages, which might be related to fracture zone activation. Evidence of postglacial reactivation in the study area was derived from the spatial occurrence of some of the structures, especial the faults and the seepages, in the vicinity of some old bedrock fracture zones. Palaeoseismic event(s) (a single or several events) in the Olkiluoto area were dated

  12. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  13. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-04-01

    The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Prospective descriptive study. In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  14. Stress evolution and fault stability at Olkiluoto during the Weichselian glaciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, B.; Schmidt, P.

    2011-06-01

    In this study we investigate how a model of the Weichselian glacial cycle affects the state of stress in the Earth, and how those changes in stress influence the stability of faults. The main objectives for this study are the evolution of the glacially induced stresses at repository depth in Olkiluoto, Finland, and the stability field at seismogenic depths below the proposed repository. The analysis presented here is similar to the study by Lund et al. (2009) for the proposed Swedish nuclear waste repository sites of Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Along the lines of Lund et al. (2009), this study is a modeling study, where we use three-dimensional ice and earth models to calculate the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), i.e. the response of the Earth to an ice load, examining both displacements and stresses

  15. Modelling of the in situ stress state at Olkiluoto Site, Western Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valli, J.; Kuula, H.; Hakala, M.

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the interaction of in situ stress and geological features at Olkiluoto with the ONKALO area under more specific focus, stress modelling work was launched in 2009. This entailed updating a previously used model geometry to suit current needs whilst also updating interpreted brittle deformation zones according to the data provided by Posiva in the beginning of 2010. The previous model geometry was originally used for seismic and glacial load simulations. Brittle deformation zones were updated in the model according to a new selection criterion which added a number of brittle deformation zones. Changes in the geometry of certain brittle deformation zones were also necessary to better fit the early 2010 interpretations from Posiva. Modelling goals were to clarify the effect of joint parameters on stress magnitude and orientation and which of the major brittle deformation zones detected in the ONKALO region could have potential effects on local in situ stress states. Additional goals included modelling the effect of several optional thrust boundary conditions and an ice-age. Compression from the northwest-southeast was used as the default approach whilst north-south, east-west and northeast-southwest were optional conditions. A simplified glaciation cycle was also simulated. Results were clear in demonstrating the critical effect of joint cohesion and joint friction angle, i.e. shear strength, on stress-geology interaction, essentially in this order of importance. The case that utilised both drillhole core-logging and ONKALO tunnel mapping results did not exhibit much if any stress-geology interactions as BFZ strength parameters were too high in order to allow any interactions to occur. The geometry and orientation of brittle deformation zones was found to be of significant importance; deformation zones with a shallow dip roughly in the direction of applied compression were optimal for causing stress rotations and the increase of stress magnitude

  16. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR54 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-11-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a 500.18 m deep drillhole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - August 2010. The identification number of the drillhole is OL-KR54. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling, washing and flushing water was 382 m 3 . The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole was 334 m 3 . The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 111.5 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 43.7 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.17. The main rock types are diatexitic and veined gneisses, pegmatitic granite and mafic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 1.6 pcs/m and the average RQD value is 97.6 %. Nine fractured zones were penetrated by the drillhole. (orig.)

  17. Microbiology of transitional groundwater of the porous overburden and underlying shallow fractured bedrock aquifers in Olkiluoto, Finland. October 2005 - January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2007-05-01

    The subsurface biosphere on Earth appears to be far more expansive and metabolically and phylogenetically complex than previously thought. A diverse suite of subsurface environments has been reported to support microbial ecosystems, extending from a few meters below the surface to several thousand meters. The discovery of a deep biosphere will have several important implications for underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The main potential effects of microorganisms in the context of a KBS-3 type repository for spent fuel in the bedrock of Olkiluoto are: (1) Oxygen reduction and maintenance of anoxic and reduced conditions. (2) Bio-immobilisation and bio-mobilisation of radionuclides, and the effects from microbial metabolism on radionuclide mobility. (3) Sulphate reduction to sulphide and the risk for copper sulphide corrosion. The main objective of this study was to characterize the geochemistry, biomass and microbial diversity of shallow subsurface groundwater at Olkiluoto, from 4.0 m down to 14.9 m. This objective also permitted the determination of whether or not there is any transition in the shallow depths at Olkiluoto to microbial conditions associated with the deep subsurface. This was the second investigation that covered both shallow and some moderately deep groundwater microbiology in Olkiluoto. The analysis of microbiology is very important for proper understanding of the evolution of geochemical processes in and around the underground research facility ONKALO being constructed at Olkiluoto by Posiva since autumn 2004, as well as for the planned KBS-3 type spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto. There are several conclusions from this investigation that are of importance for ONKALO. The following present day conclusions can be drawn. Continued investigations will update and test them: The shallow biosphere was dominated by oxygen consuming microorganisms that block oxygen migration to deeper groundwater. This effect was most pronounced during the

  18. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somu Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. Aims: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. Settings and Design: Prospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3% had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%, followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%, omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%, and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit.

  19. Analysis of laparoscopic port site complications: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Somu; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Shibumon, Mundunadackal Madhavan; Pai, Manohar Varadaraya

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of port site complications following conventional laparoscopic surgery is about 21 per 100,000 cases. It has shown a proportional rise with increase in the size of the port site incision and trocar. Although rare, complications that occur at the port site include infection, bleeding, and port site hernia. AIMS: To determine the morbidity associated with ports at the site of their insertion in laparoscopic surgery and to identify risk factors for complications. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present descriptive study, a total of 570 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgeries for various ailments between August 2009 and July 2011 at our institute were observed for port site complications prospectively and the complications were reviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. The statistical software, namely, SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, 17 (3%) had developed complications specifically related to the port site during a minimum follow-up of three months; port site infection (PSI) was the most frequent (n = 10, 1.8%), followed by port site bleeding (n = 4, 0.7%), omentum-related complications (n = 2; 0.35%), and port site metastasis (n = 1, 0.175%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgeries are associated with minimal port site complications. Complications are related to the increased number of ports. Umbilical port involvement is the commonest. Most complications are manageable with minimal morbidity, and can be further minimized with meticulous surgical technique during entry and exit. PMID:23741110

  20. Long-term development of the super-regional area of Olkiluoto/Forsmark/Laxemar. Minutes from the Posiva and SKB workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Rubio Lind, Lotta (eds.)

    2006-12-15

    minutes were delimited in the description of the surface system part of the geosphere-biosphere system and its development in time, primarily in terms of geometry and sea water salinity. However, no effort was made to discuss the geological evolution of the area or any parameter in the bedrock separately. Instead, the focus was to list, describe and suggest the parameters and variables of the surface system that can be described in a common way for the three sites Olkiluoto (Finland), Forsmark and Laxemar (both in Sweden)

  1. Long-term development of the super-regional area of Olkiluoto/Forsmark/Laxemar. Minutes from the Posiva and SKB workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Rubio Lind, Lotta

    2006-12-01

    minutes were delimited in the description of the surface system part of the geosphere-biosphere system and its development in time, primarily in terms of geometry and sea water salinity. However, no effort was made to discuss the geological evolution of the area or any parameter in the bedrock separately. Instead, the focus was to list, describe and suggest the parameters and variables of the surface system that can be described in a common way for the three sites Olkiluoto (Finland), Forsmark and Laxemar (both in Sweden)

  2. Precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto in 2012-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaranen, V.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2014-08-01

    In order to research vertical bedrock deformations in the Olkiluoto area, Posiva Oy and the Finnish Geodetic Institute began monitoring with precise levelling in 2003. At the moment, the measuring plan includes a loop between the GPS stations around the island, a levelling line from the island to the mainland, levelling loops over the ONKALO, the characterization facility for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and VLJ, the low and intermediate level waste repository. The levelling to the mainland has been performed every fourth year and the levelling of the GPS stations every second year. The micro loops (ONKALO and VLJ) have been measured annually. In this report, we present the Olkiluoto levelling observations, performed in 2012 and 2013. Local deformations have been analysed by comparing the height differences for different years. In the Olkiluoto strait area, the height changes from 2011 to 2012 were within ± 0.1 mm. In the GPS station loop, in 2011-2013, the height of benchmark (BM) GPS3 changed + 0.69 mm. It is the only benchmark, which height has changed more than one millimetre from the year 2003. Second largest deformation happened at GPS1. Its height changed - 0.49 mm from 2011 to 2013. In the ONKALO loop, largest height change, from 2011 to 2012 was - 0.37 mm. From 2012 to 2013, the largest height changes was - 0.4 mm. In the VLJ loop, the most active deformation is related to the control benchmarks of GPS9. In 2012, these benchmarks were 0.6 mm lower level than 2011. From 2012 to 2013, both benchmarks rebounded so that deformation from 2011 to 2013 is - 0.38 mm. The other benchmarks have deformation within ± 0.11 mm, from 2011 to 2013. In 2011, a new GPS station GPS16 was established. The GPS station has three control benchmarks on bedrock and one benchmark is part of a pillar. The height of the control benchmark fastened to pillar changed one millimetre, from 2011 to 2013, relative to the control benchmarks on bedrock. (orig.)

  3. Groundwater salinity at Olkiluoto and its effects on a spent fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The Olkiluoto island rose from the Baltic Sea 2500 to 3000 years ago. The layered sequence of groundwaters can be related to climatic and shoreline changes from modern tune through former Baltic stages to the deglaciation phase about 10 000 years ago and even to preglacial times. Fresh groundwater is found to the depth of about 150 metres, brackish between 100 and 400 metres, deeper groundwaters are saline. At the depth of 500 meters, the content of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies between 10 and 25 g/l. The most saline waters at depths greater than 800 metres have TDS values between 30 and 75 g/l. These deep saline waters seem to have been undisturbed during the most recent glaciation and even much longer in the past. Today fresh water infiltrating at the surface gradually displaces brackish and saline groundwater in the bedrock. Due to the still ongoing postglacial land uplift, Olkiluoto is likely to become an inland site with brackish or fresh groundwater at the depth of 500 metres within the next 10 000 years. During the construction and operation phases groundwater will be drawn into the repository from the surrounding bedrock. As a consequence, more saline groundwaters, presently laying 100 to 200 metres below the repository level, may rise to the disposal level. After the closing of the repository the salinity distribution will gradually return towards the natural state. During the glacial cycle groundwater salinity may increase, for example, during freezing of groundwater into permafrost, when dissolved solids concentrate in the remaining water phase, and in a situation where deep saline groundwaters from under the centre of the glacier are pushed to the upper parts of the bedrock at the periphery of the glacier. The most significant open issue related to saline groundwater is the performance of the tunnel backfill which in the BS-3 concept has been planned to consist of a mixture of crushed rock and 10-30% of bentonite. Saline groundwater may

  4. Modelling of salt water upconing in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.; Poteri, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    2010-04-01

    Posiva Oy is preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the crystalline bedrock in Finland. Olkiluoto in Eurajoki has been selected as the primary site for the repository, subject to further detailed characterisation, which is currently focused on the construction of an underground rock characterisation and research facility (the ONKALO). During the repository operation the open tunnels and shafts of the ONKALO, and the subsequent repository, are likely to create a hydraulic disturbance to the site's groundwater system for hundreds of years (the greatest impact concerns only the time of the operational period, i.e., c. 100 years). In particular, during the operational phase of the repository upward flow below the tunnels may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater up to the planned repository rock volume, which is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. This study concerns the supporting groundwater flow analysis for the Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC) programme, which has been set up to develop host rock requirements for the repository design and layout adaptation. The objective is to assess the potential upconing of deep highly saline groundwater into the planned repository rock volume. The work is divided into three separate sub-tasks: characterization of the expected upconing on the basis of 1) observations in the drillholes, 2) numerical groundwater flow modelling, and 3) the analytic groundwater flow modelling

  5. Cross-Borehole research with EMRE-system. Radiofrequency measurements in drillhole section OL-KR40 - OL-KR45 at Olkiluoto, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpisalo, A.; Niemelae, M.

    2010-04-01

    Posiva Oy carries out research and development work for the spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The repository will be constructed deep in the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto island in Eurajoki. Construction of the underground characterization facility ONKALO started in 2004. Posiva Oy has been actively reviewing the methods for examining granitic i.e. crystalline bedrock properties. One of the considered methods was electromagnetic cross-borehole survey. This report describes the field work carried out in 2009 and the interpretation of the continuous wave device in one drillhole panel at 100-750 m depth level. Panel was conic in shape thus the collars were in close vicinity (about 10 m) at the earth surface and diverged in deeper parts being several hundreds of meters from each others. The works were carried out by Geological Survey of Finland. After the pioneering work in 2005 the device was repaired thoroughly and the proper functioning of the device was ensured after several tests. Geological-geophysical characterization of Olkiluoto site has been run since 1989, and more than 40 drillholes have been prepared

  6. Simulation of hydraulic disturbances caused by the underground rock characterisation facility in Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.; Ferenc, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in a repository to be excavated in crystalline bedrock at a depth of 400-700 metres in Olkiluoto. The extensive site investigations carried out since the early 1980's will next focus on the construction of an underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) in 2004-2010. The open tunnel system will constitute a major hydraulic disturbance for the site's groundwater conditions for hundreds of years. Especially, inflow of groundwater into the tunnels results in a drawdown of groundwater table and upcoming of deep saline groundwater, which the present study aimed to assess by means of a 3D finite element simulation. The modelled bedrock volume, which horizontally covered the whole Olkiluoto island, was conceptually divided into hydraulic units, planar fracture zones and sparsely fractured rock between the zones, which were both separately treated as porous media. The geometry of the fracture zones was based on the geological bedrock model. Simulations showed that without engineering measures (e.g. grouting) taken to limit inflow of groundwater into the open tunnels, the hydraulic disturbances could be drastic. The tunnels draw groundwater from all directions in the bedrock. A major part of inflow comes from the well-conductive subhorizontal fracture zones intersected by the access tunnel and the shaft. The simulations show that the resulting drawdown of groundwater table may be from tens to hundreds of metres and the depressed area may extend over the area of the island. The results also indicate that the salinity of groundwater is gradually rising around and below the tunnel system, and locally concentration (TDS) may rise rather high in the vicinity of the tunnels. However, the disturbances can significantly be reduced by the grouting of rock. (orig.)

  7. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-PP66 - OL-PP69

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69 at the Olkiluoto investigation site in August 2008. All the drillholes discussed in this report are ground holes. The same measuring programme was employed in all four drillholes. The section length of the flow guide was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the hydraulic head (h) of the zones are shown in the results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in some of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  8. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern [ed.

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  9. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2008-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  10. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  11. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroma, E.; Nordbaeck, N.; Engstroem, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    In October 2012, the geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK19 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site. The SE-NW trending, ca. 85 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island next to investigation trenches OL-TK18 and OL-TK4. The lithology in investigation trench OL-TK19 is of heterogeneous character, with rock type varying from veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss to pegmatitic granite, along with portions of mica gneiss and K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. In addition, inclusions of mica gneiss, quartz gneiss and skarn are encountered. The rocks have been subjected to a multiphase ductile deformation and the trench is situated in an area where the latest ductile deformation phase, D4 prevails. The investigation trench can be divided into three domains according to its dominant deformation phase and foliation; the eastern part of the trench is dominated by the D3 deformation phase whereas the middle and western parts are dominated by the D4 deformation phase. The S3 foliation has a more ENE-WSW oriented direction whereas the S4 is trending NE-SW. In addition to this difference in orientation, the different structural signature of these two deformation types is observed, the S3 foliation is defined by smaller scaled granitic leucosome veining whereas the S4 foliation is intensely sheared and have a schistose character. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 132 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency 1.53 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations, three fracture sets can be defined. The first set is vertical and NW-SE trending, second set strikes NE-SW with a moderate dip towards the SE and the third set is vertical and NE-SW trending. The median fracture length is 1.38 m and most fractures do not exceed 0.5 m in length, the longest measured fracture being 5.30 m in length. Fracture fillings are mostly

  12. Mise-a-la masse survey 2012-2013 in Olkiluoto and modelling of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, T.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaeki, S.; Korhonen, K.; Tiensuu, K.

    2014-07-01

    This report describes the Mise-a-la-masse (MAM) survey carried out in the Olkiluoto area in 2012 - 2013 and the modelling of the data. The aim of the survey was to find out the continuation of some electrically conductive zones intersected by drillholes drilled in the eastern part of the Olkiluoto island. In the modelling of the data both theoretical calculations and manual modelling were used to get more reliability to the modelling results. Also all the geological information of the known brittle fault zones was taken into account in the modelling. The modelling results will be used in the updates of the geological and hydrogeological models of the Olkiluoto area. Many of the electrically conductive zones modelled from the surveyed data coincide with the brittle deformation zones presented in the present geological model. The results showed also possibilities to join some modelled brittle zones together. According to the modelling results many brittle zones, especially the brittle and hydraulically conductive zone BFZ019C/HZ19C, has a quite complex structure. Many brittle zones also seem to have galvanic connections between each other. (orig.)

  13. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes

  14. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  15. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) (Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2009. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to the experiences gained from the modelling work and an increased understanding of the site. Augmentations in 2009 include e.g. establishment of a new forest intensive monitoring plot (FIP14), continuation of studies on fine roots and on the species composition and abundances of small mammals. Line transect samplings of ants, terrestrial snails and earthworms were carried out and a systematic monitoring of island birds was started. In addition, a project was started where the sediment load and factors affecting the sediment transportation into Eurajoensalmi bay is examined. Dust produced during construction of the third nuclear power unit (OL3), ONKALO and related infrastructure can be seen in the soil solution and deposition results. Furthermore, the construction works and road traffic have a raising effect on the noise levels of the immediate surroundings. The land-use continues to change, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The young age of the soils and the closeness of the sea are reflected in the soil properties. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal

  16. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, A.

    2010-10-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2009. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to the experiences gained from the modelling work and an increased understanding of the site. Augmentations in 2009 include e.g. establishment of a new forest intensive monitoring plot (FIP14), continuation of studies on fine roots and on the species composition and abundances of small mammals. Line transect samplings of ants, terrestrial snails and earthworms were carried out and a systematic monitoring of island birds was started. In addition, a project was started where the sediment load and factors affecting the sediment transportation into Eurajoensalmi bay is examined. Dust produced during construction of the third nuclear power unit (OL3), ONKALO and related infrastructure can be seen in the soil solution and deposition results. Furthermore, the construction works and road traffic have a raising effect on the noise levels of the immediate surroundings. The land-use continues to change, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The young age of the soils and the closeness of the sea are reflected in the soil properties. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal

  17. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37b and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September and October 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  18. Microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater. Results and interpretations 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Eriksson, S.; Hallbeck, M.; Johansson, J.; Jaegevall, S.; Karlsson, L.

    2008-09-01

    Research in 2007 continued the general program of analysing microorganisms and gas in deep groundwater. New tasks examined the presence of anaerobic methane oxidation, the growth of slime on the tunnel walls of ONKALO, and the possible presence of microorganisms that produce complexing agents in groundwater and the slime. Microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas data were assembled in 2007 from three deep drillholes in Olkiluoto, Finland, ranging in depth from 39.5 to 294.0 m and in 2005-2007 from six drillholes in ONKALO ranging in depth from 7.1 to 78.5 m. In addition, 24 analyses of gas from nine deep drillholes ranging in depth from 16 to 490 m and one analysis of gas from an ONKALO drillhole of a depth of 14.6 m were executed. The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater from Olkiluoto had previously been analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggested that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth of approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms was deemed necessary before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto groundwater could be accepted. Part of the research on behalf of Posiva Oy in 2007 therefore was focused on the development and testing of methods for detecting ANME microorganisms. The groundwater from the ONKALO tunnel was also analysed, and slimy biofilms were found growing on the rock walls at some positions in ONKALO late 2006. It was assumed that the ONKALO slime microbes were growing on various substances added to the shotcrete, the injected concrete, or both. Part of the 2007 research focused on detailed analysis of the slime microorganisms and their potential for acid production. The presence of microorganisms that produce complexing agents, for example, siderophores such as pyoverdin and ferrioxamine, was indicated in 2006 in the ONKALO slime as judged from DNA diversity data. It

  19. Standarized input for Hanford environmental impact statements. Part II: site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: summary description; location and physiography; geology; seismology; hydrology; meteorology; ecology; demography and land use; and radiological condition. Five appendixes are included on the 100N, 200 east, 200 west, 300, and 400 areas. This report is intended to provide a description of the Hanford Site against which the environmental impacts of new projects at Hanford can be assessed. It is expected that the summary description amplified with material from the appropriate appendix, will serve as the basic site description section of environmental impact statements prepared to address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act

  20. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K d ) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K d values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO 3 -HF extraction. The 'in situ' K d values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH 4 Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K d values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K d data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of processes into a single value, but the data also vary

  1. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO{sub 3}-HF extraction. The 'in situ' K{sub d} values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K{sub d} values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K{sub d} data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of

  2. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-02-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  3. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Berglund, Johan; Follin, Sven; Hakami, Eva; Halvarson, Jan; Hermanson, Jan; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Rhen, Ingvar; Wahlgren, C.H.

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline and after this

  4. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This report presents the radionuclide release scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them. The formulation of scenarios takes into account the regulatory framework, the knowledge acquired in the present safety case as well as in previous safety assessments, the safety functions of the barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report Performance Assessment, the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEPs affecting the characteristics and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately for assessing radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together Biosphere Description and the surface environment FEPs and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios analysed in Biosphere Assessment. (orig.)

  5. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Terrain and ecosystems development modelling in the biosphere assessment BSA-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This report is one of the four supporting reports for the three main biosphere reports in the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, 'TURVA-2012'. The focus of this report is to detail the scenario analysis of terrain and ecosystems development at the Olkiluoto repository site within a time frame of 10 000 years, whereas the input data to this modelling is detailed in the Data Basis report. The results are used further especially in the surface and near-surface hydrological modelling and in the biosphere radionuclide transport and dose modelling, both part of the biosphere assessment 'BSA-2012' feeding into the safety case. Based on the results of the 18 cases simulated in the scenario analysis, it can be outlined that the most significant differences in respect of the dose implications of the repository arise from the inputs and settings affecting the rate of coastline retreat (i.e. land uplift and sea level) and determining whether there are croplands or not in the area. (orig.)

  6. Standarized input for Hanford environmental impact statements. Part II: site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: summary description; location and physiography; geology; seismology; hydrology; meteorology; ecology; demography and land use; and radiological condition. Five appendixes are included on the 100N, 200 east, 200 west, 300, and 400 areas. This report is intended to provide a description of the Hanford Site against which the environmental impacts of new projects at Hanford can be assessed. It is expected that the summary description amplified with material from the appropriate appendix, will serve as the basic site description section of environmental impact statements prepared to address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

  7. TURVA-2012 safety case for licensing a spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, Juhani; Snellman, Margit

    2014-01-01

    In 2001, the Finnish Parliament endorsed a decision-in-principle (DiP) whereby the spent nuclear fuel produced by the operating nuclear reactors at Olkiluoto and Loviisa will be disposed of in a geological repository at Olkiluoto, on the south-western coast of Finland. Subsequently, additional DiPs were issued allowing the extension of the repository to accommodate spent nuclear fuel from additional reactors that are under construction or in planning at Olkiluoto, which means a total of 9 000 tU of spent nuclear fuel to be disposed of. In accordance with the decision of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) in 2003, Posiva submitted an application for a license to construct a disposal facility at Olkiluoto in 2012, consisting of an encapsulation facility and an underground deep geological repository. The application included a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and a long-term safety case, TURVA-2012. Assuming a positive outcome of the current licensing review, the next step would be the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) in support of an operational licence application around 2020. The disposal method is based on the same KBS-3 concept that the Swedish SKB has used as basis for their license application in 2010. Accordingly, the spent nuclear fuel will be encapsulated in water- and gas-tight copper canisters equipped with a load-bearing insert and emplaced in a deep geological repository constructed in the bedrock. The canisters will be surrounded by a swelling clay buffer material that isolates them from the bedrock. The deposition tunnels and the central tunnels and the other underground openings will be backfilled with materials of low permeability. The repository will be at a depth of about 400-450 m below ground. The primary role of the bedrock is to provide sufficiently stable conditions for the engineered barrier system and to make inadvertent human intrusion unlikely. In case of EBS failure, the bedrock shall also retain and retard the possible

  8. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR39 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 502.97 m and 45.11 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in August- October 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 415m{sup 3} and 25 m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 175 m{sup 3} and 7 m{sup 3} in boreholes OLKR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 110 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 49 GP a and the average Poisson' s ratio is 0.25. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fracture is the most common

  9. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR37 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 350.00 m and 45.10 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in June- August 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR37 and OL-KR37B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 273 m{sup 3} and 21m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 221m{sup 3} and 16m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR37 and OL-KR37B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106 MPa, the average Young's modulus is 40 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.20. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss, granite and tonalite. Filled

  10. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR39 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinimaeki, R.

    2005-11-01

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 502.97 m and 45.11 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in August- October 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 415m 3 and 25 m 3 and the measured volumes of the returning water were 175 m 3 and 7 m 3 in boreholes OLKR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 110 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 49 GP a and the average Poisson' s ratio is 0.25. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fracture is the most common fracture type. The average fracture

  11. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR46 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2007-09-01

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 600.10 m and 45.16 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May - June 2007. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR46 and OL-KR46B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning water, and the volume of drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 466 m 3 and 20 m 3 in boreholes OL-KR46 and OL-KR46B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 407 m 3 in borehole OL-KR46 and 12 m 3 in borehole OL-KR46B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is 116.5 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 31.5 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.20. The main rock types are veined gneiss, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss and pegmatite

  12. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR45 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2007-11-01

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1023.30 m and 44.75 m deep drillholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in June - September 2007. The identification numbers of the drillholes are OL-KR45 and OL-KR45B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling waters were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and washing water were 1186 m 3 and 19 m 3 in drillholes OL-KR45 and OL-KR45B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 962 m 3 in drillhole OL-KR45 and 15 m 3 in drillhole OL-KR45B. The deviation of the drillholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor II. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is 126.2 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 42.5 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.21. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and tonalitic

  13. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the interim version (model version 1.1) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for Forsmark. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from Forsmark that were available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS at April 30, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data acquired during the initial site investigation phase to the date of data freeze 1.1 constitute the basis for the updating of version 0 to version 1.1. These data originate from surface investigations on the candidate area with its regional environment and from drilling and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were rather extensive whereas the data sets from boreholes were limited to information from one 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KFM01A) and eight 150 to 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes in the Forsmark candidate area. Discipline specific models are developed for a selected regional and local model volume and these are then integrated into a site description. The current methodologies for developing the discipline specific models and the integration of these are documented in methodology reports or strategy reports. In the present work, the guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible with the data and information available at the time for data freeze for model version 1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version 1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and much higher resolution surface data. The existence of highly fractured sub-horizontal zones has been verified and these are now part of the model of the deformation zones. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model has also been developed. The rock mechanics model is based on strength information from SFR and an empirical

  14. Site descriptive modelling during characterization for a geological repository for nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Andersson, J.; Skagius, K.; Winberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect to layout and construction, and safety assessment, with respect to long-term performance. The development of site-descriptive models involves a multi-disciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using input in the form of available data for the surface and from deep boreholes

  15. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2005-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  16. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  17. Raise Boring of the ventilation shaft in Olkiluoto, 17. - 23.5.2006. Preliminary analysis of seismic signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A. [AaF-Enprima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are analysed. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. (orig.)

  18. Raise Boring of the ventilation shaft in Olkiluoto, 17. - 23.5.2006. Preliminary analysis of seismic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Lakio, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to the ONKALO, have been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in the ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal excavation by blasts. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of illegal excavation done by tunnel boring machine has been investigated. Characteristics of the seismic signal generated by the raise boring machine are analysed. According to this study, it can be concluded that the generated seismic signal can be detected and the source of the signal can be located. However, this task calls for different kind of monitoring system than that, which is currently used for monitoring microearthquakes and explosions. (orig.)

  19. Operational safety analysis of the Olkiluoto disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Suolanen, V.

    2013-11-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facilities, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facilities to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. First the normal encapsulation process is described and then possible incident and accident cases associated to that are identified for this assessment. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Radioactive releases and radiation doses are evaluated as a consequence of normal operation and some essential incident and accident cases. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered (activated when necessary) both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. In addition the results for unfiltered releases are also presented e.g. for the emergency planning. During about 30 operation years of our four nuclear power plant units there have been found 58 fuel pins failures. Roughly estimating there has been one fuel leakage per year in a facility (includes two units). Based on this and adopting a conservative approach, it is estimated that one fuel pin per year could leak in normal operation during encapsulation process. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The most exposed group of inhabitants is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the most exposed group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  2. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF Geologic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hakami, Eva [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Halvarson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar [Sweco VBB/VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden); Wahlgren, C.H. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline

  3. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR56 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a 1201.65 m deep drillhole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in October 2011 - January 2012. The identification number of the drillhole is OL-KR56. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling, washing and flushing water was 1628 m{sup 3}. The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole was 1142 m{sup 3}. The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments Reflex EMS and Reflex Gyro. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and mica gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.4 pcs/m and the average RQD value is 96.2 %. Fifty fractured zones were penetrated by the drillhole. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 120.0 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 38.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.22. (orig.)

  4. Seismic VSP Investigations at Olkiluoto, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L. (Vibrometric, Vantaa (Finland))

    2007-08-15

    Posiva Oy carries out R and D related tasks for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The site characterization has been conducted since 1987 in Olkiluoto in western Finland. The ONKALO underground characterization facility has been under construction since 2004. Vibrometric Oy has been contracted to carry out seismic VSP survey in four drillholes in the immediate vicinity of ONKALO, for the characterization of the seismically responsive structures. Four drillholes, KR8, KR27, KR29 and KR38 were included to the project. Seven seismic source locations on ground surface were used for each drillhole. The source locations were optimized with respect to the drillhole and ONKALO and were configured as linear arrays to produce optimum imaging focused on the ONKALO volume. A mechanical Vibsist source, using a hydraulic rock breaker mounted on a 22 t excavator, was used as source of seismic signal. The signal was recorded with downhole 3-component geophones. The recording array was 8-level long, with 5 m spacing between levels. Acquisition was run throughout the drillholes. Processing of the VSP profiles consisted of time decoding of the impact sequences, filtering and image point (IP) transform. The interpretation was carried out interactively, seeking for best match of orientation of each reflection according to different borehole profiles where the features were seen. The interpretations were built as an add-on to a previous seismic model of the site. The most distinct reflectors were interpreted, compiled to as a part of a terrain model composed of 3D surfaces, and transferred digitally together with other results (3D elements of reflector locations) into Posiva's 3D modeling system. Some of the reflectors have already received direct confirmation from ONKALO observations. (orig.)

  5. Seismic VSP Investigations at Olkiluoto, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Balu, L.

    2007-08-01

    Posiva Oy carries out R and D related tasks for spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The site characterization has been conducted since 1987 in Olkiluoto in western Finland. The ONKALO underground characterization facility has been under construction since 2004. Vibrometric Oy has been contracted to carry out seismic VSP survey in four drillholes in the immediate vicinity of ONKALO, for the characterization of the seismically responsive structures. Four drillholes, KR8, KR27, KR29 and KR38 were included to the project. Seven seismic source locations on ground surface were used for each drillhole. The source locations were optimized with respect to the drillhole and ONKALO and were configured as linear arrays to produce optimum imaging focused on the ONKALO volume. A mechanical Vibsist source, using a hydraulic rock breaker mounted on a 22 t excavator, was used as source of seismic signal. The signal was recorded with downhole 3-component geophones. The recording array was 8-level long, with 5 m spacing between levels. Acquisition was run throughout the drillholes. Processing of the VSP profiles consisted of time decoding of the impact sequences, filtering and image point (IP) transform. The interpretation was carried out interactively, seeking for best match of orientation of each reflection according to different borehole profiles where the features were seen. The interpretations were built as an add-on to a previous seismic model of the site. The most distinct reflectors were interpreted, compiled to as a part of a terrain model composed of 3D surfaces, and transferred digitally together with other results (3D elements of reflector locations) into Posiva's 3D modeling system. Some of the reflectors have already received direct confirmation from ONKALO observations. (orig.)

  6. Hanford Site existing irradiated fuel storage facilities description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, W.L.

    1995-01-11

    This document describes facilities at the Hanford Site which are currently storing spent nuclear fuels. The descriptions provide a basis for the no-action alternatives of ongoing and planned National Environmental Protection Act reviews.

  7. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  8. 18O, 2H and 3H isotopic composition of precipitation and shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriksson, N.; Karhu, J.; Niinikoski, P.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in local precipitation is a key parameter in the modelling of local water circulation. This study was initiated in order to provide systematic monthly records of the isotope content of atmospheric precipitation in the Olkiluoto area and to establish the relation between local rainfall and newly formed groundwater. During January 2005 - December 2012, a total of 85 cumulative monthly rainfall samples and 68 shallow groundwater samples were collected and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was recorded for all those samples. Tritium values are available for 79 precipitation and 65 groundwater samples. Based on the 8-year monitoring, the long-term weighted annual mean isotope values of precipitation and the mean values of shallow groundwater are -11.59 per mille and -11.27 per mille for δ 18 O, - 82.3 per mille and -80.3 per mille for δ 2 H and 9.8 and 9.1 TU for tritium, respectively. Based on these data, the mean stable isotope ratios of groundwater represent the long-term mean annual isotopic composition of local precipitation. The precipitation data were used to establish the local meteoric water line (LMWL) for the Olkiluoto area. The line is formulated as: δ 2 H = 7.45 star δ 18 O + 3.82. The isotope time series reveal a change in time. The increasing trend for the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values may be related to climatic variability while the gradual decline observed in the 3 H data is attributed to the still continuing decrease in atmospheric 3 H activity in the northern hemisphere. The systematic seasonal and long-term tritium trends suggest that any potential ground-level tritium release from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plants is insignificant. The d-excess values of Olkiluoto precipitation during the summer period indicated that a notable amount of re-cycled Baltic Sea water may have contributed to precipitation in the Finnish southern coast. Preliminary estimates of the evaporated Baltic Sea water

  9. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, I. (Turku Univ., Satakunta Environmental Research Inst., Pori (Finland)); Nieminen, M. (Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in April 2009, and compared with earlier studies. Population size estimates are based on interviews of local hunters, and other available material. Conclusions of changes in game populations are based on rough estimates primarily from interviews, only in Elk and Deer also on inventories. Elk population is still slightly decreasing. The growth of the White-tailed Deer population is slowing down. The changes in the Roe Deer population are not precisely known, but it is seemingly varying to some extent in different years. The populations of small predators (American Mink, Raccoon Dog and Red Fox) are still strong in Olkiluoto, partly because of very dense population of voles during the hunting season. The Raccoon Dog population has been diminished due to shooting several individuals during the Elk and Deer hunting. The Red Fox population is obviously increasing. The Mountain Hare population is strong and it increased in 2008. However, the Brown Hare population is apparently decreasing, probably due to kills by mammalian predators, eagles and traffic. Currently, other game animals (e.g. waterfowl) are hardly ever hunted. (orig.)

  10. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, I.; Nieminen, M.

    2009-10-01

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in April 2009, and compared with earlier studies. Population size estimates are based on interviews of local hunters, and other available material. Conclusions of changes in game populations are based on rough estimates primarily from interviews, only in Elk and Deer also on inventories. Elk population is still slightly decreasing. The growth of the White-tailed Deer population is slowing down. The changes in the Roe Deer population are not precisely known, but it is seemingly varying to some extent in different years. The populations of small predators (American Mink, Raccoon Dog and Red Fox) are still strong in Olkiluoto, partly because of very dense population of voles during the hunting season. The Raccoon Dog population has been diminished due to shooting several individuals during the Elk and Deer hunting. The Red Fox population is obviously increasing. The Mountain Hare population is strong and it increased in 2008. However, the Brown Hare population is apparently decreasing, probably due to kills by mammalian predators, eagles and traffic. Currently, other game animals (e.g. waterfowl) are hardly ever hunted. (orig.)

  11. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Hallbeck, Lotta [Microbial Analytics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Molinero, Jorge [Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Waber, Nick [Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  12. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus; Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Gimeno, Maria; Hallbeck, Lotta; Molinero, Jorge; Waber, Nick

    2008-12-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  13. Ecosystem description of a drainage area - a strategy in biosphere descriptions during site investigations for a repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, T.; Lofgren, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Novel methods based on systems and landscape ecology are developed to understand and model the radionuclide flow in the biosphere using site specific data for a safety assessment. This work describes the strategy for development of a descriptive ecosystem model for the surface ecosystem. The site description is needed to: a) perform a safety assessment that describes and analyzes different scenarios for radionuclide releases into the ecosystem and possible pathways for dispersal or accumulation radionuclides in the ecosystem, b) detect changes caused by the construction of a repository, c) establish a baseline for detecting long-term effects of the repository. The description adopts a site-specific approach focusing on the quantification of the properties that will constitute the descriptive model. The aim is also to present the methodology for determining the properties, to describe the development of the framework for the descriptive ecosystem models by integrating use of different properties, and finally, to present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology. The safety assessment will use an approach, among other methods, where transport and accumulation of radionuclides will be modelled by quantifying biogeochemical pathways of matter. The descriptive ecosystem model applied to the site was therefore built to describe and quantify processes affecting i.e. turnover of matter in a drainage area. The conclusions from applying this approach was that by have estimating the flow of matter the ecological and physical constrains on the system reduces the potential variations in outcome of future states of the ecosystem and thus also reduces the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  14. Safety assessment of spent fuel disposal in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara - TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants is planned to be disposed of in copper-iron canisters emplaced in a KBS-3 type repository constructed at a depth of about 500 metres at one of the four candidate sites investigated. The disposal concept aims at long-term isolation of the spent fuel assemblies from the biosphere and even from the geosphere. The evaluation of the normal evolution of the disposal system accords with the conclusions of the previous Finnish, Swedish and Canadian safety assessments of similar disposal concepts. Subject to the influence of the expected, normal evolution of the repository, initially intact copper-iron canisters will most likely preserve their integrity for more than one million years at any of the candidate sites. Consequently, the best-estimate assessment is that there never will be any significant releases of radionuclides from the repository into the geosphere. Consequences of potential canister failures have been evaluated using conservative assumptions, models and data. The results show that at any of the sites a large number of canisters could be assumed to be initially defective or to `disappear` simultaneously after some time without that the proposed constraints for release rates into the biosphere or dose rates were exceeded. In most cases this conclusion is valid for all canisters failing simultaneously, even if rather pessimistic flow and transport data is used. In the sensitivity and `what if` analyses where very high flow rates of saline groundwater are assumed, highest release and dose rates are caused by weakly-sorbing cations Sr-90 and Ra-226. The most important differences between the sites are related to the coastal location and brackish/saline groundwater of Haestholmen and Olkiluoto, and on the other hand to the inland location and fresh groundwater of Kivetty and Romuvaara. Because of the ongoing postglacial land uplift at the coast of the Baltic Sea, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen, too, may become

  15. Safety assessment of spent fuel disposal in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara - TILA-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H.

    1999-03-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants is planned to be disposed of in copper-iron canisters emplaced in a KBS-3 type repository constructed at a depth of about 500 metres at one of the four candidate sites investigated. The disposal concept aims at long-term isolation of the spent fuel assemblies from the biosphere and even from the geosphere. The evaluation of the normal evolution of the disposal system accords with the conclusions of the previous Finnish, Swedish and Canadian safety assessments of similar disposal concepts. Subject to the influence of the expected, normal evolution of the repository, initially intact copper-iron canisters will most likely preserve their integrity for more than one million years at any of the candidate sites. Consequently, the best-estimate assessment is that there never will be any significant releases of radionuclides from the repository into the geosphere. Consequences of potential canister failures have been evaluated using conservative assumptions, models and data. The results show that at any of the sites a large number of canisters could be assumed to be initially defective or to 'disappear' simultaneously after some time without that the proposed constraints for release rates into the biosphere or dose rates were exceeded. In most cases this conclusion is valid for all canisters failing simultaneously, even if rather pessimistic flow and transport data is used. In the sensitivity and 'what if' analyses where very high flow rates of saline groundwater are assumed, highest release and dose rates are caused by weakly-sorbing cations Sr-90 and Ra-226. The most important differences between the sites are related to the coastal location and brackish/saline groundwater of Haestholmen and Olkiluoto, and on the other hand to the inland location and fresh groundwater of Kivetty and Romuvaara. Because of the ongoing postglacial land uplift at the coast of the Baltic Sea, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen, too, may become

  16. Probabilistic Description of a Clay Site using CPTU tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sarah; Lauridsen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of...... a geotechnical assessment of a site, using both the method for classifying soil behaviour types and applying statistics, yield a new level of information, and certainty about the estimates of the strength parameters which are the important outcome of such a site description.......A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of 1...... meter in thickness. For each slice, a map of the variation of the undrained shear strength is created through Kriging and the probability of finding weak zones in the deposit is calculated. This results in a description of the spatial variation of the undrained shear strength at the site. Making...

  17. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  18. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  19. Gefinex 400S (SAMPO) EM-soundings at Olkiluoto 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, T.; Lehtimaeki, J.; Korhonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    In the beginning of June 2009 Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) carried out electromagnetic (EM) frequency soundings with Gefinex 400S equipment (Sampo) in the vicinity of ONKALO at the Olkiluoto site investigation area. The EM-monitoring sounding program started in 2004 and has been repeated since yearly in the same season. The aim of the study is to monitor the variations of the groundwater properties down to 500 m depth by the changes of the electric conductivity of the earth at ONKALO and repository area. The original measurement grid was based on two 1400 m long broadside profiles, which have 200 m mutual distance and 200 m station separation. The receiver and transmitter sites are marked with stakes and the profiles were measured using 200, 500, and 800 m coil separations. The measurement program was revised in 2007 and then again in 2009. Now 15 noisy soundings were removed from the program and 3 new points were selected from the area to the east from ONKALO. The new receiver/transmitter sites, called ABC-points were marked with stakes and the points were measured using transmitter-receiver separations 200, 400 and 800 meters. In 2009 the new EM-Sampo monitoring program included 28+9 soundings. The numerous power lines and cables in the area generate local disturbances on the sounding curves, but the SN (signal to noise) ratio and the repeatability of the results is reasonably good even with long coil separations. However, most suitable for monitoring purposes are the sites without strong shallow 3D effects. Comparison of the new results to old 2004-2008 surveys shows differences on some ARD (apparent resistivity-depth) curves. Those are mainly results of the modified shallow structures. The changes in groundwater conditions based on the monitoring results seem insignificant. (orig.)

  20. Greenland Analogue Project - Hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains at Forsmark, Laxemar and Olkiluoto for usage together with Geomodel version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Rhen, Ingvar; Engstroem, Jon; Klint, Knut Erik

    2011-05-01

    The database of the GAP site is under development. In order to meet the data needs of the different modelling teams working with groundwater flow modelling it has been decided to compile trial data sets comprising structural-hydraulic properties suitable for flow modelling on different scales. The properties provided in this report are based on data and groundwater flow modelling studies conducted for three sites located in the Fennoscandian Shield, two of which are studied by SKB, Forsmark and Laxemar, and one by Posiva, Olkiluoto. The provided hydraulic properties provided here are simplified to facilitate a readily usage together with the GAP Geomodel version 1

  1. Greenland Analogue Project - Hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains at Forsmark, Laxemar and Olkiluoto for usage together with Geomodel version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden)); Stigsson, Martin (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (Sweco Environment AB (Sweden)); Engstroem, Jon (Geologian tutkimuskeskus (Finland)); Klint, Knut Erik (De Nationale Geologiske Undersoegelser for Danmark og Groenland (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    The database of the GAP site is under development. In order to meet the data needs of the different modelling teams working with groundwater flow modelling it has been decided to compile trial data sets comprising structural-hydraulic properties suitable for flow modelling on different scales. The properties provided in this report are based on data and groundwater flow modelling studies conducted for three sites located in the Fennoscandian Shield, two of which are studied by SKB, Forsmark and Laxemar, and one by Posiva, Olkiluoto. The provided hydraulic properties provided here are simplified to facilitate a readily usage together with the GAP Geomodel version 1.

  2. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-15

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  3. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T.; Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-01

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified with other

  4. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility.

  5. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility

  6. Results of forest monitoring on Olkiluoto island in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, L.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Hoekkae, H.; Lindroos, A.-J.; Rautio, P.; Derome, J. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland))

    2010-11-15

    Forest investigations carried out on Olkiluoto aim to monitor the state of the forest ecosystems, quantify Olkiluoto-specific processes taking place in the forests producing input data for the safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal, and follow possible changes in the forest condition resulting from the intensive construction activities currently being carried out in the area. The forest investigations form a part of the monitoring programme being carried out on Olkiluoto Island under the management of Posiva Oy. This report focuses on activities performed on bulk deposition and forest intensive monitoring plots (MRK and FIP plots) in 2009. In general, the deposition levels in 2009 in the open area and in stand throughfall were quite comparable to those in earlier years, although sulphur and calcium depositions were somewhat higher in the open area than in earlier years. The soil solution quality in 2009 was also quite comparable to that in earlier years. The NH{sub 4}-N and NO{sub 3}-N concentrations were low at all depths in the mineral soil of the FIP plots. There appeared to be a gradual decrease in sulphate concentrations in the mineral soil during the monitoring period. In 2009 the monthly level of transipiration in the Scots pine dominated stand was comparable to previous years (2007-2008). Instead, monthly transpiration in the Norway spruce dominated stand was clearly lower in 2009 than in 2007-2008. Annual total litterfall production was smaller in 2008 than in 2007. The most notable differences between the plots were detected in Al and N concentrations. The Al concentration was higher in living pine needles than in spruce needles. High Al and Fe concentrations were found in remaining litter, and are most likely due to soil dust. The average defoliation level of the pines was 4.6 % and of the spruces 24.1 %, indicating a good crown condition: the pines were classified as non-defoliated and the spruces as slightly defoliated. The minirhizotrone

  7. Results of forest monitoring on Olkiluoto island in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, L.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Hoekkae, H.; Lindroos, A.-J.; Rautio, P.; Derome, J.

    2010-11-01

    Forest investigations carried out on Olkiluoto aim to monitor the state of the forest ecosystems, quantify Olkiluoto-specific processes taking place in the forests producing input data for the safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal, and follow possible changes in the forest condition resulting from the intensive construction activities currently being carried out in the area. The forest investigations form a part of the monitoring programme being carried out on Olkiluoto Island under the management of Posiva Oy. This report focuses on activities performed on bulk deposition and forest intensive monitoring plots (MRK and FIP plots) in 2009. In general, the deposition levels in 2009 in the open area and in stand throughfall were quite comparable to those in earlier years, although sulphur and calcium depositions were somewhat higher in the open area than in earlier years. The soil solution quality in 2009 was also quite comparable to that in earlier years. The NH 4 -N and NO 3 -N concentrations were low at all depths in the mineral soil of the FIP plots. There appeared to be a gradual decrease in sulphate concentrations in the mineral soil during the monitoring period. In 2009 the monthly level of transipiration in the Scots pine dominated stand was comparable to previous years (2007-2008). Instead, monthly transpiration in the Norway spruce dominated stand was clearly lower in 2009 than in 2007-2008. Annual total litterfall production was smaller in 2008 than in 2007. The most notable differences between the plots were detected in Al and N concentrations. The Al concentration was higher in living pine needles than in spruce needles. High Al and Fe concentrations were found in remaining litter, and are most likely due to soil dust. The average defoliation level of the pines was 4.6 % and of the spruces 24.1 %, indicating a good crown condition: the pines were classified as non-defoliated and the spruces as slightly defoliated. The minirhizotrone images

  8. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO 4 , HCO 3 , HPO 4 and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never detrimentally affect

  9. TKS-2006. Nuclear waste management of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa power plants: Programme for research, development and technical design for 2007-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The report at hand describes the status and near-term future plans of the research and technology development (RTD) for the nuclear waste management of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa nuclear power plants. Since the facilities for the management and disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes have already been built and are in operation, and the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant will only take place far away in the future, the emphasis of this report is on the RTD related to the disposal of spent fuel. For the RTD programme on spent fuel disposal the report is also a part of the interim reporting proposed by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in the early 2000's. Other reports related to the interim reporting include the updated facility description and the separate reports on the expected evolution of the spent fuel repository, the summary of the biosphere studies and the updated site description ('Site 2006'). Pursuant to the guidelines given by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) Posiva aims at submission of the application of the construction license for the disposal facility by the end of the year 2012. By the end of 2009 Posiva will present an outline of the whole documentation intended for the application. In practice this requires that the components of the disposal system are specified in sufficient detail for the actual implementation. Accordingly, the principal goals of the next three-year period 2007 - 2009 will be: to define the performance goals for the main components of the disposal system in a way that the system as a whole fulfils the safety requirements set for disposal, and to demonstrate that these requirements can be met by the technology available. The report reviews the present status of the performance goals for the main components. For most main components (release barriers) the principal performance goals have already been defined and their feasibility has been demonstrated. The encapsulation technology

  10. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  11. Modelling end-glacial earthquakes at Olkiluoto. Expansion of the 2010 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faelth, B.; Hoekmark, H. [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    The present report is an extension of Posiva working report 2011-13: 'Modelling end-glacial earthquakes at Olkiluoto'. The modelling methodology and most parameter values are identical to those used in that report. The main objective is the same: to obtain conservative estimates of fracture shear displacements induced by end-glacial earthquakes occurring on verified deformation zones at the Olkiluoto site. The remotely activated rock fractures (with their fracture centres positioned at different distances around the potential earthquake fault being considered) are called 'target fractures'. As in the previous report, all target fractures were assumed to be perfectly planar and circular with a radius of 75 m. Compared to the previous study, the result catalogue is more complete. One additional deformation zone (i.e. potential earthquake fault) has been included (BFZ039), whereas one deformation zone that appeared to produce only insignificant target fracture disturbances (BFZ214) is omitted. For each of the three zones considered here (BFZ021, BFZ039, and BFZ100), four models, each with a different orientation of the target fractures surrounding the fault, are analysed. Three of these four sets were included in the previous report, however not as systematically as here where each of the four fracture orientations is tried in all fracture positions. As in the previous study, seismic moments and moment magnitudes are as high as reasonably possible, given the sizes and orientations of the zones, i.e., the earthquakes release the largest possible amount of strain energy. The strain energy release is restricted only by a low residual fault shear strength applied to suppress post-rupture fault oscillations. Moment magnitudes are: 5.8 (BFZ021), 3.9 (BFZ039) and 4.3 (BFZ100). For the BFZ100 model, the sensitivity of the results to variations in fracture shear strength is checked. The BFZ021 and BFZ100 models are analyzed for two additional in situ stress

  12. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the interim version (model version 1.1) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for Forsmark. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from Forsmark that were available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS at April 30, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data acquired during the initial site investigation phase to the date of data freeze 1.1 constitute the basis for the updating of version 0 to version 1.1. These data originate from surface investigations on the candidate area with its regional environment and from drilling and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were rather extensive whereas the data sets from boreholes were limited to information from one 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KFM01A) and eight 150 to 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes in the Forsmark candidate area. Discipline specific models are developed for a selected regional and local model volume and these are then integrated into a site description. The current methodologies for developing the discipline specific models and the integration of these are documented in methodology reports or strategy reports. In the present work, the guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible with the data and information available at the time for data freeze for model version 1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version 1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and much higher resolution surface data. The existence of highly fractured sub-horizontal zones has been verified and these are now part of the model of the deformation zones. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model has also been developed. The rock mechanics model is based on strength information from SFR and an empirical

  13. Preliminary modelling of the 2010 MAM survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahokas, T.

    2010-10-01

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel into bedrock focusing in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The ONKALO underground characterization premises have been constructed since 2004. Posiva Oy is aiming for submitting the construction licence application in 2012. To support the compilation of the safety case and repository and ONKALO underground characterisation facility design and construction, a series of Olkiluoto Site Descriptive Model including six parts: the surface system geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry and migration, have been compiled. To support the next update of the Olkiluoto Site Description and especially, the geological and hydrogeological sub-models, the preliminary modelling of the recent mise-a-la-masse (MAM) surveys has been carried out. This report discusses the mise-a-la-masse (MAM) surveys carried out in the Olkiluoto area in 2010 and aims to find out the continuation of some electrically conductive zones intersected by drillholes OL-KR49 ...OL-KR53 in the eastern part of the Olkiluoto island. Several electrically conductive zones were modelled from the examined data, many of them coincide with the brittle deformation zones presented in the geological model, but also indications of some so far unknown zones were detected. The complexity and the extent of the group of zones including the hydraulically conductive zones HZ19A, HZ19B and HZ19C (Vaittinen et al. 2009) emerged from the data during this work. Modelling of this group in detail needs more information from both geological and hydrogeological investigations. (orig.)

  14. Flow measurements and hydraulic interference tests at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR14, OL-KR30, OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The measurements described in this report are part of the infiltration experiment carried out at Olkiluoto. The emphasis of these measurements is on obtaining more detailed data on hydraulically significant fractures in the infiltration experiment area. The selected fractures or sections were pumped in turn and flow responses were observed in the other holes by the PFL DIFF-tool. The flow measurements were carried out in drillholes OL-KR14, OL-KR30, OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69 on the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2013 and July 2013. Two different flowmeters were used for the measurements. Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in the drillholes. PFL DIFF flow logging was conducted in all the drillholes mentioned above. Posiva Flow Log, Transverse flow method (PFL TRANS) was used to determine groundwater flow direction and flow rate across a drillhole. The transverse flow method was used in drillholes OL-KR14 and OL-PP69. PFL DIFF and PFL TRANS measurements had been carried out earlier in drillholes OL-PP66, OL-PP67, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69. The most recent measurements were conducted in 2011. Those measurements were carried out when drillhole OL-KR14 was pumped at packed-off section 13 m - 18 m. Both PFL DIFF and PFL TRANS flowmeters include an electrode for measuring single point resistance (SPR). The device has a high depth resolution and the results were used for depth synchronisation between consecutive DIFF and TRANS measurements. (orig.)

  15. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR50 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2009-02-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 939.33 m and 45.44 m deep drillholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in September - November 2008. The identification numbers of the drillholes are OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and washing water were 1135 m 3 and 20 m 3 in the drillholes OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B, respectively. The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole OL-KR50 was 954 m 3 . The deviation of the drillholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor II. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 129.7 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 45.8 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.15. The main rock types were veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and tonaliticgranodioritic-granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.0 pcs/m in drillhole OL KR50 and 3.6 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR50B. The average RQD values are 96.1 % and 94.3 %, respectively. 39 fractured zones were penetrated by drillhole OL-KR50 and four by drillhole OL-KR50B. (orig.)

  16. Geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging of the borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging surveys of the borehole OL-KR24 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 1.10.2005 - 4.10.2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are caliper survey and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of surveys, interpretation and processing of the data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  17. Preliminary site description. Simpevarp area - version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2004-08-01

    Site characterisation in the Oskarshamn area is currently conducted at two adjoining localities, the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. This report presents the interim version (model version Simpevarp 1.1 of S1.1 for short) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for the Simpevarp subarea. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from the Simpevarp subarea (and in part from the Laxemar area) available in the SKB SICADA and GIS data bases as of July 1, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data collected during the initial site investigation phase up till the date of data freeze S1.1 constitute the basis for the update of version 0 to version S1.1. These data include results from surface investigations in the subarea with its regional environment and from drillings and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were, in a relative sense, extensive compared with data sets from boreholes, were the information largely was limited to information from one c. 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KSH01A), two existing cored boreholes and three c. 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes. Discipline-specific models are developed for the selected regional and local model volumes and these models are subsequently integrated into a unified site description. The current methodologies for developing discipline-specific models and their integration are documented in methodology/ strategy reports. In the present work, the procedures and guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible given the data and information available at the time of data freeze for model version S1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version S1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and surface data of much higher

  18. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR43 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1000.26 m and 45.01 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - October 2006. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 1103 m{sup 3} and 16 m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 916m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43 and 13m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 131 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 37 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.19. The main rock types are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  20. A proposed descriptive methodology for environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a descriptive methodology for use in environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization. The method uses traditional sedimentologic descriptions augmented by environmental data needs, and facies analysis. Most other environmental methodologies for soil and sediment characterization use soil engineering and engineering geology techniques that classify by texture and engineering properties. This technique is inadequate for envirogeologic characterization of sediments. In part, this inadequacy is due to differences in the grain-size between the Unified soil Classification and the Udden-Wentworth scales. Use of the soil grain-size classification could easily cause confusion when attempting to relate descriptions based on this classification to our basic understanding of sedimentary depositional systems. The proposed envirogeologic method uses descriptive parameters to characterize a sediment sample, suggests specific tests on samples for adequate characterization, and provides a guidelines for subsurface facies analysis, based on data retrieved from shallow boreholes, that will allow better predictive models to be developed. This methodology should allow for both a more complete site assessment, and provide sufficient data for selection of the appropriate remediation technology, including bioremediation. 50 refs

  1. Layout Determining Features, their Influence Zones and Respect Distances at the Olkiluoto Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pere, T.; Ahokas, H.; Vaittinen, T.; Wikstroem, L.

    2012-12-01

    Fault zones located at the site of an underground nuclear waste repository may pose a risk to the repository by acting as potential hosts for earthquakes during the present day or future stress fields and having the possibility to induce secondary displacements on nearby large fractures, which may damage the nuclear waste canisters, if being intersected by such fractures. The fault zones may additionally provide possible flow routes, important for the transport of radionuclides and the chemical stability of the repository. It is therefore important to identify such structures, defined as layout determining features (LDF), and to assess their influence on the surrounding host rock and to determine respect volumes to the structures, which are avoided in the layout planning in order to mitigate the possible harmful effects to the repository. Fault zones with a trace length of 3 km or more are considered as layout determining features as these can potentially host an earthquake of a magnitude of 5.5 or more and may thus induce secondary displacements larger than 5 cm on nearby fractures, which is held as the current canister damage threshold premise. Fault zones with a size less than 3 km are considered unlikely candidates to induce secondary displacements of 5 cm or larger. In addition to the earthquake potential, hydrogeological zones with high T -value (geometrical mean T ≤ 10 -6 m 2 /s) and large dimensions (at least several hundred metres) are also defined as layout determining features. For each layout determining feature an influence zone is defined, depicting a volume around a fault zone or a hydrogeological zone with increased fracture density and permeability, often also called as damage zones in the scientific literature. Influence zones are therefore considered as mechanically weak and/or transmissive parts of the host rock, which may cause harmful effects to the performance of the repository if intersecting deposition tunnels or deposition holes. In

  2. The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agincourt demographic and health study - site description, baseline findings and implications. Stephen M Tollman, Kobus Herbst, Michel Garenne, John S.S. Gear, KathJeen Kahn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. Local negotiation on compensation siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the local negotiation process between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the nuclear power company Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) and the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy. The aim of the negotiations was to find an acceptable form of compensation for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto, Finland. The paper includes background information on the siting process in Finland, the local political setting in the Municipality of Eurajoki and a description of the negotiation process. The analysis of the negotiations on compensation is important for better understanding the progress of the Finnish siting process. The paper describes the picture of the contest to host the spent nuclear fuel repository. It also provides more information on the relationship between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the power company TVO. The negotiations on compensation and the roles of various players in the negotiations have not been studied in detail because the minutes of the Vuojoki liaison group were not available before the decision of the Supreme Administrative Court in May 2006. (author)

  4. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  5. Preliminary site description. Simpevarp area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders [ed.

    2004-08-01

    Site characterisation in the Oskarshamn area is currently conducted at two adjoining localities, the Simpevarp and Laxemar subareas. This report presents the interim version (model version Simpevarp 1.1 of S1.1 for short) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for the Simpevarp subarea. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from the Simpevarp subarea (and in part from the Laxemar area) available in the SKB SICADA and GIS data bases as of July 1, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data collected during the initial site investigation phase up till the date of data freeze S1.1 constitute the basis for the update of version 0 to version S1.1. These data include results from surface investigations in the subarea with its regional environment and from drillings and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were, in a relative sense, extensive compared with data sets from boreholes, were the information largely was limited to information from one c. 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KSH01A), two existing cored boreholes and three c. 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes. Discipline-specific models are developed for the selected regional and local model volumes and these models are subsequently integrated into a unified site description. The current methodologies for developing discipline-specific models and their integration are documented in methodology/ strategy reports. In the present work, the procedures and guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible given the data and information available at the time of data freeze for model version S1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version S1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and surface data of much higher

  6. Safety Assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Neall, F.; Snellman, M.; Pastina, B.; Hjerpe, T.; Nordman, H.; Johnson, L.

    2007-12-01

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RD and D) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific R and D and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic difference analysis of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the event of

  7. Indicator value of certain aquatic organisms for radioactive substances in the sea areas off the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants (Finland)[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Vartti, V.P.; Mattila, J. [STUK - radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The results of the marine radioecology studies carried out in 2000-2001 in the sea areas off the Loviisa and Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants (South and West coast of Finland) are reported. Extensive regular monitoring programmes of environmental radioactivity have been carried out already for about 30 years in these areas. The aim of the present study was to compare the indicator value of the various members of the aquatic ecosystem with respect to environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from 27 species including phytoplankton (9 samples), zooplankton (9 samples), periphyton (12 samples), macroalgae and vascular plants (16 samples), benthic animals (8 samples), fish (20 samples) and birds (6). Special attention was paid to different tissues and organs of fish and birds, such as flesh, liver, entrails, bones, milt, spawn, eggs, egg shells etc. (in total 64 samples), because there has been a lot of debate among the opponents of nuclear power in the course of time about the role these objects in the environmental monitoring of the power plants. The samples were taken from relatively small areas both in Loviisa and Olkiluoto, which makes the results well comparable inside each of the sites. (au)

  8. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  9. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  10. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  11. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  12. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  13. Bedrock transport properties. Preliminary site description Simpevarp subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byegaard, Johan; Gustavsson, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    This report presents the site descriptive model of transport properties developed as a part of the Simpevarp 1.2 site description. The main parameters included in the model, referred to as retardation parameters, are the matrix porosity and diffusivity, and the matrix sorption coefficient K{sub d}. The model is based on the presently available site investigation data, mainly obtained from laboratory investigations of core samples from boreholes within the Simpevarp subarea, and on data from previous studies at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Aespoe HRL). The modelling is a first attempt, based on limited data, to obtain a description of the retardation parameters. Further refinement of the model is foreseen when more data becomes available for future versions of the Simpevarp site description. The modelling work included descriptions of rock mass geology, the fractures and deformation zones, the hydrogeochemistry and also the available results from the site specific porosity, sorption and diffusivity measurements. The description of the transport related aspects of the data and models presented by other modelling disciplines is an important part of the transport description. In accordance with the strategy for the modelling of transport properties, the results are presented as a 'retardation model', in which a summary of the transport data for the different geological compartments is given. Concerning the major rock types, Aevroe granite, quartz monzodiorite and fine-grained dioritoid are identified as the rock types dominating the main rock domains identified and described in the site descriptive model of the bedrock geology. However, relatively large parts of the rock consist of altered rock and the open fracture frequency appears to be correlated to the altered/oxidised parts of the rock. This implies that transport in open fractures to a large extent takes place in the altered parts of the rock. For the fracture mineralogy, it is found that the

  14. Precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto in 2006 - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmuskoski, P.

    2008-04-01

    The GPS observation network of Olkiluoto was constructed in 1994 for monitoring crustal deformations in the investigation area. To fulfil a better vertical control of the GPS network, precise levellings were started in the area in autumn 2003. The GPS network was first connected at Lapijoki to the precise levelling network of Finland to control the vertical movements of the whole island of Olkiluoto. Then the GPS network was levelled. It consisted of the reserve marks of eight GPS pillars and five levelling bench marks, two of which constituted the nodal bench mark pair. The second precise levelling campaign on the area was carried out in autumn 2005. Now only the GPS network added with the antenna platforms of nine GPS pillars were levelled. Compared to the other points, the elevation difference of two reserve mark pairs had changed significantly during two years, about one millimetre. The reason may be the blasting of the rock in the neighbourhood of these points and deformation of the rock after the blasting. Inspired by the observed elevation changes in 2005, micro loops were established and levelled onto the ONKALO and the VLJ Repository in autumn 2006. The micro loops consisted of seven and five bench marks the mean interval being about 300 metres. The campaign in autumn 2007 consisted of the levellings of all measured and undestroyed points of the earlier campaigns. The most interesting results were: (1) Compared to the mean theoretical land uplift the nodal bench mark 03216 near the crossing of Olkiluodontie and Satamatie had risen in four years 2.6 mm more than the nodal bench mark of Lapijoki and 1.9 mm of this occurred within the 0.8 mm long interval which separates the island and the continent. (2) During four years the northern part of the island had risen about one millimetre more than the middle part, where the before mentioned 03216 is located. (3) The elevation differences between the bench marks of the ONKALO micro loop were changed even one

  15. Technical know-how of site descriptive modeling for site characterization - 59089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Doke, Ryosuke; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The site descriptive model covering the current status of characteristics of geological environment and the site evolution model for estimation of the long-term evolution of site conditions are used to integrate multi-disciplinary investigation results. It is important to evaluate uncertainties in the models, to specify issues regarding the uncertainties and to prioritize the resolution of specified issues, for the planning of site characterization. There is a large quantity of technical know-how in the modeling process. It is important to record the technical know-how with transparency and traceability, since site characterization projects generally need long duration. The transfer of the technical know-how accumulated in the research and development (R and D) phase to the implementation phase is equally important. The aim of this study is to support the planning of initial surface-based site characterizations based on the technical know-how accumulated from the underground research laboratory projects. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment and provide a technical basis for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, a comprehensive task flow from acquisition of existing data to planning of field investigations through the modeling has been specified. Specific task flow and decision-making process to perform the tasks have been specified. (authors)

  16. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, Paul; Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola; Snellman, Margit

    2008-05-01

    transformation or cementation processes. A preliminary study yielded ambiguous results. The data suggested that an increase in hydraulic conductivity but no effect on swelling properties had occurred, which might be due to some cementation process. It is important to note that, at least to our knowledge, natural analogue examples displaying typical cementation features under anoxic conditions are lacking. This is contrary to examples from oxic conditions where iron oxides frequently form cementation products. The extent of iron-bentonite interaction in a KBS-3H repository was assessed by means of (1) a mass balance estimate and (2) reactive transport modelling. The mass balance results indicated that a maximum of 10-30% of the montmorillonite in the buffer could be converted to a non-swelling Fe(II)-rich clay if all the iron from the supercontainer steel shell reacted with the clay. In the reactive transport model, site-specific geochemical data from Olkiluoto, corrosion data, Fe(II) sorption data and thermodynamic and kinetic clay data were included in a 1D diffusion model. A number of limiting test cases was run to explore the sensitivity of the results towards uncertainties in data and model assumptions. The general conclusion from the preliminary modelling study is that the extent of the zone transformed to non-swelling material is likely to remain spatially limited (a few centimetres) for very long times. Given the proximity of the physically affected area around the supercontainer steel shell to the tunnel boundary, however the potential impacts of an altered zone consisting of corrosion products and transformed clay material need to be considered in performance assessment calculations. In order to decrease the uncertainty of the effect of the supercontainer steel shell on the buffer's stability, careful experimental studies on Fe-bentonite interaction under anoxic conditions and including measurements of physical properties should be carried out. The studies should also

  17. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    montmorillonite transformation or cementation processes. A preliminary study yielded ambiguous results. The data suggested that an increase in hydraulic conductivity but no effect on swelling properties had occurred, which might be due to some cementation process. It is important to note that, at least to our knowledge, natural analogue examples displaying typical cementation features under anoxic conditions are lacking. This is contrary to examples from oxic conditions where iron oxides frequently form cementation products. The extent of iron-bentonite interaction in a KBS-3H repository was assessed by means of (1) a mass balance estimate and (2) reactive transport modelling. The mass balance results indicated that a maximum of 10-30% of the montmorillonite in the buffer could be converted to a non-swelling Fe(II)-rich clay if all the iron from the supercontainer steel shell reacted with the clay. In the reactive transport model, site-specific geochemical data from Olkiluoto, corrosion data, Fe(II) sorption data and thermodynamic and kinetic clay data were included in a 1D diffusion model. A number of limiting test cases was run to explore the sensitivity of the results towards uncertainties in data and model assumptions. The general conclusion from the preliminary modelling study is that the extent of the zone transformed to non-swelling material is likely to remain spatially limited (a few centimetres) for very long times. Given the proximity of the physically affected area around the supercontainer steel shell to the tunnel boundary, however the potential impacts of an altered zone consisting of corrosion products and transformed clay material need to be considered in performance assessment calculations. In order to decrease the uncertainty of the effect of the supercontainer steel shell on the buffer's stability, careful experimental studies on Fe-bentonite interaction under anoxic conditions and including measurements of physical properties should be carried out. The

  18. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2012-07-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m 3 and 16.8 m 3 , respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  19. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m{sup 3} and 16.8 m{sup 3}, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  20. Electrical model of Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paananen, M.; Lehtonen, T.; Korhonen, K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (FI))

    2007-05-15

    The goal of this work is to construct a composite electrical model of Olkiluoto, focussing on integration of four separate geophysical methods: mise-a-la-masse (MAM), SAMPO EM soundings, Slingram (HLEM) and single-hole electrical soundings. The electrical structure of Olkiluoto is rather complex, dominated by mineral electrical conductors such as sulphide minerals and graphite. The basic idea of this work is the fact that the sulphide-rich zones and fracturing appear to coincide frequently. Accordingly, knowing the geometry of the major electric conductors would facilitate the interpretation of brittle deformation zones. The work consists of three separate phases: method-specific interpretation, integration and block modelling. In the single-hole interpretation, locations of electric conductors (resistivity < 1000 ohmm), based on long normal survey have been determined in 42 drillholes. Since MAM survey does not cover all the conductive sections and drillholes and SAMPO EM has its own limitations in sensitivity and resolution, a proportion of the conductive sections have been combined between the drillholes using only the single-hole data and the geological idea of features dipping gently to SE - S. The MAM survey has been done in numerous drillholes in order to find galvanic connections between the drillholes. Based on MAM, geometry of numerous electric conductors has been determined. Generally the results indicate continuous, gently dipping semiplanar features intersected by several drillholes. The Slingram survey and interpretation have been done on the ground surface to map electric conductors located at shallow depths (some tens of meters at maximum). A number of conductive zones have been delineated, trending mainly from ENE to WSW. The conductors have also been classified according to their in-phase/quadrature-ratio, and in some cases, also numerical modelling has been done. The SAMPO EM soundings and interpretations have been done to map subsurface electric

  1. Electrical model of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.; Lehtonen, T.; Korhonen, K.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this work is to construct a composite electrical model of Olkiluoto, focussing on integration of four separate geophysical methods: mise-a-la-masse (MAM), SAMPO EM soundings, Slingram (HLEM) and single-hole electrical soundings. The electrical structure of Olkiluoto is rather complex, dominated by mineral electrical conductors such as sulphide minerals and graphite. The basic idea of this work is the fact that the sulphide-rich zones and fracturing appear to coincide frequently. Accordingly, knowing the geometry of the major electric conductors would facilitate the interpretation of brittle deformation zones. The work consists of three separate phases: method-specific interpretation, integration and block modelling. In the single-hole interpretation, locations of electric conductors (resistivity < 1000 ohmm), based on long normal survey have been determined in 42 drillholes. Since MAM survey does not cover all the conductive sections and drillholes and SAMPO EM has its own limitations in sensitivity and resolution, a proportion of the conductive sections have been combined between the drillholes using only the single-hole data and the geological idea of features dipping gently to SE - S. The MAM survey has been done in numerous drillholes in order to find galvanic connections between the drillholes. Based on MAM, geometry of numerous electric conductors has been determined. Generally the results indicate continuous, gently dipping semiplanar features intersected by several drillholes. The Slingram survey and interpretation have been done on the ground surface to map electric conductors located at shallow depths (some tens of meters at maximum). A number of conductive zones have been delineated, trending mainly from ENE to WSW. The conductors have also been classified according to their in-phase/quadrature-ratio, and in some cases, also numerical modelling has been done. The SAMPO EM soundings and interpretations have been done to map subsurface electric

  2. Surface and near-surface hydrological model of Olkiluoto island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a 3D-model that calculates the overall water balance components of Olkiluoto Island in the present-day condition utilizing the existing extensive data sets available. The model links the unsaturated and saturated soil water in the overburden and groundwater in bedrock to a continuous pressure system. The parameterization of land use and vegetation was done in such a way that the model can later on be used for description of the past evolution of the overburden hydrology at the site and overburden's hydrological evolution in the future. Measured groundwater level in overburden tubes, pressure heads in shallow bedrock holes, snow depth, soil temperature, frost depth and discharge measurements were used in assessing the performance of the models in the calibration period (01.05.2001- 31.12.2005). Computed groundwater level variation can be characterized by variables ΔH MEAS and ΔH COMP , which are the difference between maximum and minimum measured and computed groundwater level value during the calibration period. Average ΔH MEAS for all tubes located in fine-textured till soil was 1.99 m and the corresponding computed value ΔH COMP was 1.83 m. Average ΔH MEAS for all tubes located in sandy till soil was 2.12 m and the corresponding computed value ΔH COMP was 1.93 m. The computed results indicate that in future studies it is necessary to divide the two most important soil types into several subclasses. In the present study the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was carried out through a parameter uncertainty framework known as GLUE. According to the uncertainty analysis the average yearly runoff was around 175 mm a -1 and 50 % confidence limits were 155 and 195 mm a -1 . Measured average yearly runoff during the calibration period was 190 mm a -1 . Average yearly evapotranspiration estimate was 310 mm a -1 and the 50 % confidence limits were 290 and 330 mm a -1 . Average value for recharge through the bedrock system was 1

  3. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2011-08-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled three drillholes ONK-KR13 (120.45 m), ONK-KR14 (75.27 m) and ONK-KR15 (79.96 m) in ONKALO, at Olkiluoto in June 2010 - March 2011. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water, and the drillholes were washed and flushed after the drilling. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. The core samples were logged according to Posiva's normal procedure for drillholes. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses and pegmatitic granite. The average natural fracture frequencies and RQDs of the core samples are 1.6 pcs/m and 97.0 % (ONK-KR13), 0.5 pcs/m and 99.3 % (ONK-KR14) and 1.6 pcs/m and 97.3 % (ONK-KR15). In drillhole ONK-KR13 one, and in drillhole ONK-KR15 three fractured zones were intersected. There was no fractured zones in drillhole ONK-KR14. Rock mechanical tests were performed to core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 143.2 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 57.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.25. (orig.)

  4. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy A

    2013-09-11

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  5. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2016, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2016 (prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2017). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological settings and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  7. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  8. {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H and {sup 3}H isotopic composition of precipitation and shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriksson, N. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Karhu, J.; Niinikoski, P. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    The isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in local precipitation is a key parameter in the modelling of local water circulation. This study was initiated in order to provide systematic monthly records of the isotope content of atmospheric precipitation in the Olkiluoto area and to establish the relation between local rainfall and newly formed groundwater. During January 2005 - December 2012, a total of 85 cumulative monthly rainfall samples and 68 shallow groundwater samples were collected and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen was recorded for all those samples. Tritium values are available for 79 precipitation and 65 groundwater samples. Based on the 8-year monitoring, the long-term weighted annual mean isotope values of precipitation and the mean values of shallow groundwater are -11.59 per mille and -11.27 per mille for δ{sup 18}O, - 82.3 per mille and -80.3 per mille for δ{sup 2}H and 9.8 and 9.1 TU for tritium, respectively. Based on these data, the mean stable isotope ratios of groundwater represent the long-term mean annual isotopic composition of local precipitation. The precipitation data were used to establish the local meteoric water line (LMWL) for the Olkiluoto area. The line is formulated as: δ{sup 2}H = 7.45 star δ{sup 18}O + 3.82. The isotope time series reveal a change in time. The increasing trend for the δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values may be related to climatic variability while the gradual decline observed in the {sup 3}H data is attributed to the still continuing decrease in atmospheric {sup 3}H activity in the northern hemisphere. The systematic seasonal and long-term tritium trends suggest that any potential ground-level tritium release from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plants is insignificant. The d-excess values of Olkiluoto precipitation during the summer period indicated that a notable amount of re-cycled Baltic Sea water may have contributed to precipitation in the Finnish southern coast. Preliminary estimates

  9. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, SKB commenced site characterisation investigations using deep boreholes at different sites. As an integral part of the planning work SKB has prepared a strategy to develop a Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model; similar strategies have been developed for the other major geoscience disciplines. The main objectives of the Hydrogeochemical Site Descriptive Model are to describe the chemistry and distribution of the groundwater in the bedrock and overburden and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in its origin and evolution. This description is based primarily on measurements of the groundwater composition but incorporates the use of available geological and hydrogeological site descriptive models. The SKB hydrogeochemistry programme is planned to fulfil two basic requirements: 1) to provide representative and quality assured data for use as input parameter values in calculating long-term repository safety, and 2) to understand the present undisturbed hydrogeochemical conditions and how these conditions will change in the future. Parameter values for safety analysis include pH, Eh, S, SO{sub 4}, HCO{sub 3}, HPO{sub 4} and TDS (mainly cations), together with colloids, fulvic and humic acids, other organics, bacteria and nitrogen. These values will be used to characterise the groundwater environment at, above and below repository depths. In the hydrogeochemical site investigation programme the number and location of the sampling points will be constrained by: a) geology (e.g. topography, overburden types, bedrock structures etc), b) hydrogeology (e.g. groundwater recharge/discharge areas, residence times), c) reliability (e.g. undisturbed vs disturbed groundwater chemical conditions), and d) resources (e.g. number and type of samples, and also available personnel, may be restricted by budgetary and schedule concerns). Naturally a balance is required between these constraints and the scientific aims of the programme. The constraints should never

  10. Eurajoki Olkiluoto study on species of ground beetles and ants 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaharju, J.; Helminen, S.-L.; Yrjoelae, R.

    2009-02-01

    The species of ants and Ground beetles at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki were studied in the summer of 2008 during two trapping periods: in June and August. The research goal was to clarify the species on Olkiluoto island of the earlier mentioned groups, at least at the family level, and to collect samples for further examination by Posiva. The trapping areas were selected at Olkiluoto in Posiva test monitoring sectors, a part of the trapping areas was the same as the earlier study. Species of ants, depending on their particular species, are a very dominating group of insects. The ants are the most important predators, scavengers and soil movers in Finnish forests. It looks as if the biomass of ants may be more than 10% of the biomass of all animals in certain areas of Finnish forests. In Finland there are about 60 species of ants that have been observed. They have been divided into four sub-groups, which are Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae. In Finland there are close to 300 species of ground beetles (Carabidae), which are divided into dozens of different families. The species, to a great extent, consist mostly of predatory insects that prey on microbes in field layers, but a part of them are specialized in feeding on flora. Ground beetles are usually divided into three groups according to their choice of habitat: Species that favour open biotopes, species that favour forests, and generalist species that can thrive in a variety of environments. Ground beetles also reflect changes in their living environment, and possibly they can be significant as socalled bio-indicators. Pitfall traps were used as the method of research. The preservative fluid used was ethanol (50%) with dishwashing liquid to remove surface tension. The points were located in various different biotopes in fields, meadows and forests. The data collected was defined as a minimum for the family level of Ground beetles and for ants to the species or species pairs. The species of Ground

  11. Eurajoki Olkiluoto study on species of ground beetles and ants 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaharju, J.; Helminen, S.-L.; Yrjoelae, R. (Environmental Research Yrjoelae Ltd, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The species of ants and Ground beetles at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki were studied in the summer of 2008 during two trapping periods: in June and August. The research goal was to clarify the species on Olkiluoto island of the earlier mentioned groups, at least at the family level, and to collect samples for further examination by Posiva. The trapping areas were selected at Olkiluoto in Posiva test monitoring sectors, a part of the trapping areas was the same as the earlier study. Species of ants, depending on their particular species, are a very dominating group of insects. The ants are the most important predators, scavengers and soil movers in Finnish forests. It looks as if the biomass of ants may be more than 10% of the biomass of all animals in certain areas of Finnish forests. In Finland there are about 60 species of ants that have been observed. They have been divided into four sub-groups, which are Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae. In Finland there are close to 300 species of ground beetles (Carabidae), which are divided into dozens of different families. The species, to a great extent, consist mostly of predatory insects that prey on microbes in field layers, but a part of them are specialized in feeding on flora. Ground beetles are usually divided into three groups according to their choice of habitat: Species that favour open biotopes, species that favour forests, and generalist species that can thrive in a variety of environments. Ground beetles also reflect changes in their living environment, and possibly they can be significant as socalled bio-indicators. Pitfall traps were used as the method of research. The preservative fluid used was ethanol (50%) with dishwashing liquid to remove surface tension. The points were located in various different biotopes in fields, meadows and forests. The data collected was defined as a minimum for the family level of Ground beetles and for ants to the species or species pairs. The species of Ground

  12. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 7: Site-specific natural geochemical concentrations and fluxes at four repository investigation sites in Finland for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Loefman, J.; Luukkonen, A.; Partamies, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report concerns site-specific data achieved during the studies of four Finnish candidate sites for nuclear fuel repository. The aims are to examine the level of radioactive concentrations (U, Rn, K, Rb, Cs, Ra, Th), their sources and their fluxes at different sites and at different depths, and whether differences in chemical conditions result from the geology or hydrogeology. The sites cover virtually the formation history of Finnish Precambrian bedrock and differ geochemically significantly. Romuvaara represents Archean basement gneisses with low K and U contents. Proterozoic migmatitic mica gneisses at Olkiluoto represent a very reducing geochemical environment with graphite and sulphides. Oxidising conditions have characterised the formation of early synkinematic granitoids at Kivetty and as well as anorogenic rapakivi granite Haestholmen. Particularly the rapakivi granite is enriched with incompatible elements such as K, Rb, U and Th. Hydrogeologically the sites differ as well. The inland sites, Romuvaara and Kivetty, have been above the highest shoreline since the retreat of the ice of the Weichselian glaciation, whereas the coastal sites have been below sea level. Hydraulic gradient is also higher inland than on shore. The contents of radioactive elements vary significantly between the sites and between deep and shallow groundwaters. Uranium concentrations at each site decrease mainly with the increasing depth, and they correlate relatively with bedrock contents between the sites. However, the observed exceptionally low contents are considered to result from a short water-rock interaction time in shallow groundwaters at Kivetty and from actively reducing groundwater conditions in deep groundwaters at Olkiluoto. Radon contents correlate mainly with U-concentrations, suggesting that Rn derives predominantly from dissolved U. Potassium and rubidium concentrations correlate with salinity, indicating that their main source is seawater or ancient brine

  13. Increasing the reliability of the Olkiluoto surface and near-surface hydrological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to improve the reliability of the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model that calculates the overall water balance components of Olkiluoto Island. ONKALO and Korvensuo reservoir were added as explicit structures to the model. The model links the unsaturated and saturated soil water in the overburden and groundwater in bedrock to a continuous pressure system. With the model it is possible to evaluate the influence of water leaking to ONKALO on groundwater level in overburden soils and pressure head in shallow bedrock drillholes. Anisotropy was added to the surface hydrological model and several model runs were carried out using anisotropy factors 1, 5 and 10. Anisotropy factor of 10 is used in the 2008 version of the deep hydrogeological model and the same anisotropy will be used in future calculations of the surface hydrological model to ensure consistency of the parameter values in the two models. The correspondence between measured and computed groundwater levels has been improved due to new soil type delineation and the calibration of the soil water retention curve parameters. Computed groundwater level variation can be characterized by a measure ΔH COMP , which is difference between maximum and minimum value during the calibration period. Average ΔH COMP in groundwater tubes was 1.98 m and the corresponding measured value ΔH MEAS was 2.08 m, i.e. the difference between measured and computed value was around 0.1 m (0.16 m in the 2007 version). Temporal variation (difference between maximum and minimum pressure head) was simulated well also in most of the shallow bedrock drillholes. ONKALO was added to the 2008 version of the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model. Influence of ONKALO is taken into account by giving the total discharge as input data from existing measurements or from calculations of the deep hydrogeological model of the Olkiluoto Island. The computed results show that ONKALO has a temporal effect on groundwater level in

  14. Lithological history and ductile deformation: the lessons for long-term stability of large-scales structures in the olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstrom, L.; Aaltonen, I.; Mattila, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Olkiluoto site has been chosen as a repository site for the high-level nuclear waste in 2001. Investigations in the site have been ongoing since 1987. The basic idea in the crystalline nuclear waste site still is that the solid repository block surrounded by deformation zones can host a safe repository. It is impossible to say that neither the major ductile nor large-scale brittle deformation zones are stable, but it is possible to say that the tectonic processes have been active in a stable way for billions of years by reactivating the old features time after time and there are no signs of new large features formed in the vicinity of the site during the present time including post-glacial period. Understanding the geological history, especially the ductile deformation and over thrusting, begins from the understanding of the lithological features, mainly rock types, in the island. Vice versa, the occurrence and location of the lithological features are interpreted according to ductile deformation. In addition, you cannot study only present brittle deformation but you need to understand also older ductile and lithological features to be able to understand why these brittle features are where they are and to be able to predict them. (authors)

  15. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  16. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  17. Geological mapping of investigation Trench OL-TK13 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talikka, M.

    2007-04-01

    Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK13 was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as a part Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The east-west striking, ca. 250 m long trench is located in the vicinity of boreholes OL-KR23 and OL-KR27, ca. 250 m east of the ONKALO research facility. The mapping was performed from washed bedrock surface and rock types were determined macroscopically. The main rock types in OL-TK13 are diatexitic gneiss, veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and K-feldspar porphyry. Mica gneiss and granite/granitized mica gneiss exist to a lesser extent. The diatexitic gneiss is the dominant rock type in the western part and the veined gneiss in the eastern part of the trench. The veined gneiss consists of pelitic mica gneiss paleosome and pegmatitic granite leucosome veins that are parallel to the foliation. In the diatexitic gneiss, the proportion of the leucosome veins and patches is over 50 % and the rock has an ambiguous texture. The pegmatitic granite also occurs as wider sections in the western part of the trench. The K-feldspar porphyry is characterized by potassium feldspar phenocrysts (diameter 4 deformation phase. The migmatitic gneisses were folded during the D 3 deformation phase resulting in small scale, tight and asymmetrical F 3 folds plunging moderately to the NE. During the fracture mapping, all fractures longer than one metre and all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated. Measurements including orientation, length, fillings, Jr-value, Ja-value and undulation were recorded for a total of 860 fractures. The mean fracture density is 3.5 fracture/m. From the orientation data, three fracture sets were identified: (1) fractures parallel to the foliation, (2) subvertical N-S trending factures and (3) fractures dipping steeply to the N. ∼45 % of all fractures are 0.5-1.5 m in length and

  18. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a 'normal' site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author)

  19. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a `normal` site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author) 155 refs.

  20. Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Olkiluoto Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellae, P.; Vaittinen, T.; Saksa, P.; Nummela, J.

    2004-11-01

    Posiva Oy is carrying out investigations for the disposal of the spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in SW Finland. The investigations have focused on the central part of the island. The layout design of the entire repository requires characterization of notably larger areas and must rely at least at the current stage on borehole information from a rather sparse network and on the geophysical soundings providing information outside and between the holes. In this work, the structural data according to the current version of the Olkiluoto bedrock model is analyzed. The bedrock model relies much on the borehole data although results of the seismic surveys and, for example, pumping tests are used in determining the orientation and continuation of the structures. Especially in the analysis, questions related to the frequency of structures and size of the structures are discussed. The structures observed in the boreholes are mainly dipping gently to the southeast. About 9 % of the sample length belongs to structures. The proportion is higher in the upper parts of the rock. The number of fracture and crushed zones seems not to depend greatly on the depth, whereas the hydraulic features concentrate on the depth range above -100 m. Below level -300 m, the hydraulic conductivity occurs in connection of fractured zones. Especially the hydraulic features, but also fracture and crushed zones often occur in groups. The frequency of the structure (area of structures per total volume) is estimated to be of the order of 1/100m. The size of the local structures was estimated by calculating the intersection of the zone to the nearest borehole where the zone has not been detected. Stochastic models using the Fracman software by Golder Associates were generated based on the bedrock model data complemented with the magnetic ground survey data. The seismic surveys (from boreholes KR5, KR13, KR14, and KR19) were used as alternative input data. The generated models were tested by

  1. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Paul; Neall, Fiona; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Nordman, Henrik; Johnson, Lawrence; Hjerpe, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific RandD and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic 'difference analysis' of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the event of

  2. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Neall, Fiona; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Nordman, Henrik; Johnson, Lawrence; Hjerpe, Thomas

    2008-03-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific RandD and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic 'difference analysis' of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the

  3. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. (ed.) [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M{sub L} = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms

  4. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.

    2014-10-01

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M L = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms of

  5. Electromagnetic Sampo monitoring soundings at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, K.; Korpisalo, A.; Ojamo, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Finland has carried out electromagnetic frequency-domain depth soundings at fixed measurement stations in Olkiluoto annually since 2004. The purpose of the soundings is to monitor the groundwater conditions in the vicinity of the ONKALO rock characterization facility which will ultimately be part of the final nuclear waste disposal facility for the Finnish nuclear power companies. A new monitoring survey was carried out at the turn of May-June 2010. The survey resulted in 38 successfully performed soundings at 10 stations. The data set spanning the time period of 2004 to 2010 was interpreted with layered-earth models. Most of the interpretations indicate no systematic changes in the level of deep saline groundwater. However, at one station there are indications of a systematic rise in the groundwater level. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of the radioactive waste characterisation at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekki, T.; Titta, A.

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, chemical and radiological characterisation, handling and documentation of the radioactive waste packages to be disposed of in the VLJ-repository at the Olkiluoto NPP. A comparison with the current practices in Europe, based on information from Sweden, Spain and Czech Republic, is made. The report presents recommendations for STUK to harmonise the LILW waste management practises in Finland with those in Europe. (orig.)

  7. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  8. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The

  9. Regional distribution of microbes in groundwater from Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, S.A.; Nilsson, E.L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater was sampled with the PAVE groundwater sampling system from eight boreholes at Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland, in 1998 and 1999, for investigation of microbial populations. The groundwater samples had a wide range of salinity and chemistry and contained 104-105 cells per ml, which is typical for subsurface groundwater. In preparing culture media, two approaches were used and compared. Natural, groundwater-based media were prepared from groundwater from the same section of each borehole tested, and synthetic media were prepared based on groundwater chemistry data. No significant difference was observed between the two types of media for brackish and saline groundwater. The groundwater to a depth of 750 m contained mainly sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), ironreducing bacteria (IRB) and heterotrophic acetogenic (HA) bacteria. Autotrophic acetogenic (AA) bacteria and methanogenic archaea were found in some samples. Iron-reducing and HA bacteria predominated in brackish groundwater from Haestholmen, with SRB present in smaller numbers. A different microbial population was found in deep saline groundwater from Haestholmen and Olkiluoto that consists of a large proportion of a saline or brine end member. No SRB or AA bacteria were cultured; instead, the microbial population consisted of HA bacteria and either IRB or methanogens. In Olkiluoto, SRB predominated in the brackish and saline groundwater at depths to about 500 m, while methanogens were found in deeper saline groundwater. Stable isotope data (C-13) indicated that the methanogens are part of an autotrophic population consuming dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and hydrogen and producing methane and organic carbon. This deep ecosystem may be independent of surface life processes. A high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at 500 m depth in the Fennoscandian Shield will be inhabited by SRB, IRB and acetogens. Methanogens may also be present. These anaerobic micro

  10. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, P. (Gruner AG, Basel (Switzerland)); Birgersson, M.; Olsson, S.; Karnland, O. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Snellman, M. (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2007-12-15

    in principle be affected by montmorillonite transformation or cementation processes. A preliminary study carried out by Carlson et al. (2006) yielded ambiguous results. The data suggested that an increase in hydraulic conductivity but no effect on swelling properties had occurred, which might be due to some cementation process. It is important to note that, at least to our knowledge, natural analogue examples displaying typical cementation features under anoxic conditions are lacking. This is contrary to examples from oxic conditions where iron oxides frequently form cementation products. The extent of iron-bentonite interaction in a KBS-3H repository was assessed by means of (1) a mass balance estimate and (2) reactive transport modelling. The mass balance results indicated that a maximum of 10 - 30 % of the montmorillonite in the buffer could be converted to a non-swelling Fe(II)-rich clay if all the iron from the supercontainer steel shell reacted with the clay. In the reactive transport model, site-specific geochemical data from Olkiluoto, corrosion data, Fe(II) sorption data and thermodynamic and kinetic clay data were included in a 1D diffusion model. A number of limiting test cases was run to explore the sensitivity of the results towards uncertainties in data and model assumptions. The general conclusion from the preliminary modelling study is that the extent of the zone transformed to non-swelling material is likely to remain spatially limited (a few centimetres) for very long times. Given the proximity of the physically affected area around the supercontainer steel shell to the tunnel boundary, however the potential impacts of an altered zone consisting of corrosion products and transformed clay material need to be considered in performance assessment calculations. In order to decrease the uncertainty of the effect of the supercontainer steel shell on the buffer's stability, careful experimental studies on Fe-bentonite interaction under anoxic

  11. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Birgersson, M.; Olsson, S.; Karnland, O.; Snellman, M.

    2007-12-01

    affected by montmorillonite transformation or cementation processes. A preliminary study carried out by Carlson et al. (2006) yielded ambiguous results. The data suggested that an increase in hydraulic conductivity but no effect on swelling properties had occurred, which might be due to some cementation process. It is important to note that, at least to our knowledge, natural analogue examples displaying typical cementation features under anoxic conditions are lacking. This is contrary to examples from oxic conditions where iron oxides frequently form cementation products. The extent of iron-bentonite interaction in a KBS-3H repository was assessed by means of (1) a mass balance estimate and (2) reactive transport modelling. The mass balance results indicated that a maximum of 10 - 30 % of the montmorillonite in the buffer could be converted to a non-swelling Fe(II)-rich clay if all the iron from the supercontainer steel shell reacted with the clay. In the reactive transport model, site-specific geochemical data from Olkiluoto, corrosion data, Fe(II) sorption data and thermodynamic and kinetic clay data were included in a 1D diffusion model. A number of limiting test cases was run to explore the sensitivity of the results towards uncertainties in data and model assumptions. The general conclusion from the preliminary modelling study is that the extent of the zone transformed to non-swelling material is likely to remain spatially limited (a few centimetres) for very long times. Given the proximity of the physically affected area around the supercontainer steel shell to the tunnel boundary, however the potential impacts of an altered zone consisting of corrosion products and transformed clay material need to be considered in performance assessment calculations. In order to decrease the uncertainty of the effect of the supercontainer steel shell on the buffer's stability, careful experimental studies on Fe-bentonite interaction under anoxic conditions and including

  12. Olkiluoto surface and near-surface hydrological modelling in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-08-01

    The modeling approaches carried out with the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD) include palaeohydrological evolution of the Olkiluoto Island, examination of the boundary condition at the geosphere-biosphere interface zone, simulations related to infiltration experiment, prediction of the influence of ONKALO on hydraulic head in shallow and deep bedrock and optimisation of the shallow monitoring network. A so called short-term prediction system was developed for continuous updating of the estimated drawdowns caused by ONKALO. The palaeohydrological simulations were computed for a period starting from the time when the highest hills on Olkiluoto Island rose above sea level around 2 500 years ago. The input data needed in the model were produced by the UNTAMO-toolbox. The groundwater flow evolution is primarily driven by the postglacial land uplift and the uncertainty in the land uplift model is the biggest single factor that influences the accuracy of the results. The consistency of the boundary condition at the geosphere-biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) was studied during 2010. The comparison carried out during 2010 showed that pressure head profiles computed with the SHYD model and deep groundwater flow model FEFTRA are in good agreement with each other in the uppermost 100 m of the bedrock. This implies that flux profiles computed with the two approaches are close to each other and hydraulic heads computed at level z=0 m with the SHYD can be used as head boundary condition in the deep groundwater flow model FEFTRA. The surface hydrological model was used to analyse the results of the infiltration experiment. Increase in bedrock recharge inside WCA explains around 60-63 % from the amount of water pumped from OL-KR14 and 37-40 % of the water pumped from OL-KR14 flows towards pumping section via the hydrogeological zones. Pumping from OL-KR14 has only a minor effect on heads and fluxes in zones HZ19A and HZ19C compared to responses caused by leakages into

  13. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-09-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  14. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  15. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan

    2007-09-01

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  16. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  17. Tomographic imaging of 12 fracture samples selected from Olkiluoto deep drillholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuva, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Timonen, J.; Aaltonen, I.

    2010-06-01

    Rock samples from Olkiluoto were imaged with X-ray tomography to analyze distributions of mineral components and alteration of rock around different fracture types. Twelve samples were analyzed, which contained three types of fractures, and each sample was scanned with two different resolutions. Three dimensional reconstructions of the samples with four or five distinct mineral components displayed changes in the mineral distribution around previously water conducting fractures, which extended to a depth of several millimeters away from fracture surfaces. In addition, structure of fracture filling minerals is depicted. (orig.)

  18. Paleohydrogeological implications from fracture calcites and sulfides in a major hydrogeological zone HZ19 at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlstedt, E.; Karhu, J.; Rinne, K.

    2009-08-01

    30 samples of fracture mineral fillings in or near water conducting fractures at Olkiluoto were collected from 10 drill cores for fracture mineral studies. The aim of the study was to obtain information about past hydrogeochemical conditions at Olkiluoto using the calcite morphology, the chemical characteristics and the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen in calcite. The chemical composition of fracture calcites at Olkiluoto is nearly stoichiometric CaCO 3 . Most variation in the composition of calcite is due to differences in the Mn content, which could indicate variations in groundwater redox conditions. Meaningful REE patterns were obtained for the calcites. REE patterns showed generally negative Eu anomalies, but one fracture calcite specimen had a distinct positive Eu anomaly. This positive anomaly could be related to ancient hydrothermal conditions, although derivation of the anomaly from the host rock cannot be excluded. Preliminary results for calcite U-Th dating of fracture calcites are reported. The isotopic composition of U and Th were analysed by a new multiple collector LA-ICPMS instrument. U and Th concentrations in fracture calcites are generally 18 O values of calcite range from -17 to -7 per mille. Most of the calcites may have been precipitated in the presence of waters with oxygen isotope ratios similar to those in the present-day groundwaters at Olkiluoto. Two samples with an oxygen isotopic composition highly depleted in 18 O were interpreted to have been precipitated at elevated temperatures. The δ 13 C values of calcite showed a wide range of values from -26 to +35 per mille. Multiple sources for carbon are implied. The highest δ 13 C values indicate methanic conditions in the fracture at the time of calcite precipitation. It appears that the methanic environment has earlier extended to shallower depths compared to the location of the methanic environment in the present-day fracture system (> 300 m). Ten pyrite samples were analysed

  19. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2011. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. [Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2011. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to experiences gained from the modelling work and increased understanding of the site. Monitoring activities in 2011 proceeded according to the plans. The land-use of the island continues to change due to the construction work of OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The amount of nitrogen in the bulk deposition increased in 2011, whereas that of sulphur decreased. Some litterfall fractions showed higher Al and Fe values than earlier, likely caused by soil dust. Proximity of the sea is seen in wet deposition and soil solution results. Soil solution also reflects the young age of soils. Undestorey vegetation has shown no essential changes during the monitoring period. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal areas in Southwestern Finland. Game catches vary according to hunting pressure and natural variation in populations. The condition of the nearby sea is affected by the continuous land uplift, the shallowness of the area, the weather conditions, the general condition of the Bothnian Sea, the nutrient and sediment loads

  20. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2011. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, A.

    2012-11-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2011. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to experiences gained from the modelling work and increased understanding of the site. Monitoring activities in 2011 proceeded according to the plans. The land-use of the island continues to change due to the construction work of OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The amount of nitrogen in the bulk deposition increased in 2011, whereas that of sulphur decreased. Some litterfall fractions showed higher Al and Fe values than earlier, likely caused by soil dust. Proximity of the sea is seen in wet deposition and soil solution results. Soil solution also reflects the young age of soils. Undestorey vegetation has shown no essential changes during the monitoring period. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal areas in Southwestern Finland. Game catches vary according to hunting pressure and natural variation in populations. The condition of the nearby sea is affected by the continuous land uplift, the shallowness of the area, the weather conditions, the general condition of the Bothnian Sea, the nutrient and sediment loads

  1. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2011. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) [Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2011. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to experiences gained from the modelling work and increased understanding of the site. Monitoring activities in 2011 proceeded according to the plans. The land-use of the island continues to change due to the construction work of OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The amount of nitrogen in the bulk deposition increased in 2011, whereas that of sulphur decreased. Some litterfall fractions showed higher Al and Fe values than earlier, likely caused by soil dust. Proximity of the sea is seen in wet deposition and soil solution results. Soil solution also reflects the young age of soils. Undestorey vegetation has shown no essential changes during the monitoring period. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal areas in Southwestern Finland. Game catches vary according to hunting pressure and natural variation in populations. The condition of the nearby sea is affected by the continuous land uplift, the shallowness of the area, the weather conditions, the general condition of the Bothnian Sea, the nutrient and sediment

  2. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  4. Prediction of long-term influence of ONKALO and Korvensuo reservoir on groundwater level and water balance components on Olkiluoto island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2010-08-01

    The Olkiluoto surface hydrological model was used to compute the influence of various ONKALO leakage scenarios on changes in groundwater level in overburden soils and hydraulic heads in the bedrock. Moreover, the model effect of ONKALO leakages on water balance components of the Olkiluoto Island (runoff, evapotranspiration, discharge to the sea area through the bedrock and discharge from the Korvensuo reservoir) and on the thickness and area of unsaturated bedrock layer were computed. Leakages into ONKALO lower the groundwater level in overburden soils especially during those years when precipitation is smaller than the long-term average value 550 mm a -1 . According to model results groundwater level can be below sea level if leakage rate into ONKALO is 180 l/min or more. If leakage rate is smaller than 180 l/min groundwater level is above sea level all the time also during dry years. The modelling results show that there are local water divides inside the island both on the southern and northern side of ONKALO at all time points and for all leakage rates. The local water divides ensure that sea water cannot intrude to ONKALO via surface waters. A more detailed version of the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model was developed for the area around the infiltration experiment. Site scale data were available for the location of the most transmissive hydrogeological zones. The analysis of hydraulic responses has shown that there are local connections between different areas around the pumping drillhole OL-KR14. The importance of the local responses was verified by an additional small hydrogeological zone HZInf connecting HZ19A, HZ19C, OL-KR14, OL-PP66, OL-PP68 and OL-PP69 that was added to the model. In future studies it is necessary to describe the local zones explicitly in the model to allow more realistic flow simulations. Discharge has been measured manually in four measuring weirs since March 2003. The old V-shaped measuring weirs were replaced by new automatic

  5. World-class outage performance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, M.

    1998-01-01

    The production of the Olkiluoto power plant units covered 17% of the electricity consumption in Finland in 1997; the total share of nuclear energy was 27% of the electricity consumed in the country. Based on Finnish experience, nuclear energy is a safe, environmentally friendly and economic way to produce electricity provided that the plants and their personnel are well taken care of. TVO's policy is to keep the plant units in good condition and technically modern. This requires continuous investments in the plant. In maintenance, attention is paid to monitoring the condition of the plant and to preventive maintenance aiming at avoiding disturbances in production. TVO has chosen continuous development as the operational line develops the plant by annual investments and performs the necessary modifications during planned annual outages trying to avoid long production interruptions. The load factors of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant have been high. The average load factor during the last decade was over 93%. The most significant single factor in the production deficits is the amount or electricity, which has not been produced because of the annual outages. Due to this, special attention has been paid to the performance of the annual outages. TVO aims at continuous development of the annual outage procedure. A centralized task management system makes it possible to perform simultaneously more tasks than before. The company has also invested in equipment and systems, which ease and speed up servicing. Normal outage length varies between 10 and 16 days. By keeping the plant units as modern as possible and in good condition we facilitate reaching TVO's target, which is also stated in TVO's slogan 'always 40 years lifetime'. (author)

  6. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S.; Paananen, M.; Kuivamaki, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Two power companies, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, are preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel deep in the Finnish bedrock. In the initial phase of the site selection process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) examined the general bedrock factors that would have to be taken into account in connection with final disposal with reference to the international guidelines adapted to Finnish conditions. On the basis of extensive basic research data, it was concluded that it is possible to find a potential disposal site that fulfils the geological safety criteria. In the subsequent site selection survey covering the whole of Finland, carried out by GTK in 1983-1985, 101 potential investigation areas were discovered. Eventually, five areas were selected by TVO for preliminary site investigations: Romuvaara and Veitsivaara in the Archaean basement complex, Kivetty and Syyry in the Proterozoic granitoid area, and Olkiluoto (TVO's NPP site) in the Proterozoic migmatite area. The preliminary site investigations at the selected sites in 1987-1992 comprised deep drillings together with geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations. A conceptual geological bedrock model was constructed for each site, including lithology, fracturing, fracture zones and hydrogeological conditions. On the basis of preliminary site investigations, TVO selected Romuvaara, Kivetty and Olkiluoto for detailed site investigations to be carried out during 1993-2000. After the feasibility studies, the island of Haestholmen, where Fortum's Loviisa nuclear power plant is located, was added to the list of potential disposal sites. In the detailed site investigations, additional data on bedrock were gathered, the previous conceptual geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models were complemented, the rock mechanical properties of the bedrock were examined, and the constructability

  7. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S; Paananen, M; Kuivamaki, A [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Two power companies, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, are preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel deep in the Finnish bedrock. In the initial phase of the site selection process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) examined the general bedrock factors that would have to be taken into account in connection with final disposal with reference to the international guidelines adapted to Finnish conditions. On the basis of extensive basic research data, it was concluded that it is possible to find a potential disposal site that fulfils the geological safety criteria. In the subsequent site selection survey covering the whole of Finland, carried out by GTK in 1983-1985, 101 potential investigation areas were discovered. Eventually, five areas were selected by TVO for preliminary site investigations: Romuvaara and Veitsivaara in the Archaean basement complex, Kivetty and Syyry in the Proterozoic granitoid area, and Olkiluoto (TVO's NPP site) in the Proterozoic migmatite area. The preliminary site investigations at the selected sites in 1987-1992 comprised deep drillings together with geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations. A conceptual geological bedrock model was constructed for each site, including lithology, fracturing, fracture zones and hydrogeological conditions. On the basis of preliminary site investigations, TVO selected Romuvaara, Kivetty and Olkiluoto for detailed site investigations to be carried out during 1993-2000. After the feasibility studies, the island of Haestholmen, where Fortum's Loviisa nuclear power plant is located, was added to the list of potential disposal sites. In the detailed site investigations, additional data on bedrock were gathered, the previous conceptual geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models were complemented, the rock mechanical properties of the bedrock were examined, and the constructability and the

  8. Site descriptions for preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, W.E.; Jones, C.H.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-07-01

    The environmental contexts of four sites, previously under investigation by UK Nirex Ltd. as potential locations for low-level waste disposal facilities, are described. Information on geographical setting, climate, surface hydrology, land use, agriculture, fisheries, geology and hydrogeology is presented. The geological and hydrogeological data are interpreted with the support of deterministic modelling of groundwater conditions. The routes by which radionuclides may migrate from the site are identified and reduced to 1D statistical descriptions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments. Additional data required to improve the assessment of the performance of the site are identified. (author)

  9. Preliminary Hydrogeochemical Site Description SFR (version 0.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB, Uppaala (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive operational waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, is to undergo a future extension. The present on-going project, scheduled from 2007 to 2011, is to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository. This will include the drilling and geoscientific evaluation of seven core-drilled and four percussion boreholes as well as subsequent interpretation and modelling based on the obtained results in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents a preliminary hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site and should be considered as an early progress report rather than a complete hydrochemical site descriptive model. The completed hydrogeochemical field investigations have yielded chemical data from a total of 12 borehole sections in five boreholes and additional data from the entire length of two open boreholes in connection with hydraulic tests. These data, together with data from a total of 18 early boreholes in the present SFR tunnel system, were used in the interpretation work. The main part of the data consisted of basic groundwater analyses including major ions and isotopes. Some sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data are available, but these are either not treated in this report, or are only briefly discussed. This was due to time constraints since special care is needed when interpreting few data of varying quality. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a maximum depth down to about .400 masl and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the delta18O values show a wide variation (-1.55 to -0.75% V-SMOW) similar to that reported from the Forsmark site investigations. At the SFR, marine indicators such as Mg/Cl, K/Cl and Br/Cl also show relatively large variations considering the limited salinity range. From very few measured Eh values, and

  10. Preliminary Hydrogeochemical Site Description SFR (version 0.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Smellie, John

    2010-05-01

    The final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive operational waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, is to undergo a future extension. The present on-going project, scheduled from 2007 to 2011, is to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository. This will include the drilling and geoscientific evaluation of seven core-drilled and four percussion boreholes as well as subsequent interpretation and modelling based on the obtained results in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents a preliminary hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site and should be considered as an early progress report rather than a complete hydrochemical site descriptive model. The completed hydrogeochemical field investigations have yielded chemical data from a total of 12 borehole sections in five boreholes and additional data from the entire length of two open boreholes in connection with hydraulic tests. These data, together with data from a total of 18 early boreholes in the present SFR tunnel system, were used in the interpretation work. The main part of the data consisted of basic groundwater analyses including major ions and isotopes. Some sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data are available, but these are either not treated in this report, or are only briefly discussed. This was due to time constraints since special care is needed when interpreting few data of varying quality. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a maximum depth down to about .400 masl and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the δ 18 O values show a wide variation (-1.55 to -0.75% V-SMOW) similar to that reported from the Forsmark site investigations. At the SFR, marine indicators such as Mg/Cl, K/Cl and Br/Cl also show relatively large variations considering the limited salinity range. From very few measured Eh values, and

  11. Examination of some assumed severe reactor accidents at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, E.; Rossi, J.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge and analysis methods of severe accidents at nuclear power plants and of subsequent response of primary system and containment have been developed in last few years to the extent that realistic source tems of the specified accident sequences can be calculated for the Finnish nuclear power plants. The objective of this investigation was to calculate the source terms of off-site consequences brought about by some selected severe accident sequences initiated by the total loss of on-site and off-site AC power at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The results describing the estimated off-site health risks are expressed as conditional assuming that the accident has taken place, because the probabilities of the occurence of the accident sequences considered have not been analysed in this study. The range and probabilities of occurence of health detriments are considered by calculating consequences in different weeather conditions and taking into account the annual frequency of each weather condition and statistical population distribution. The calculational results indicate that the reactor building provides and additional holdup and deposition of radioactive substance (except coble gases) released from the containment. Furthermore, the release fractions of the core inventory to the environment of volatile fission products such as iodine, cesium and tellurium remain under 0.03. No early health effects are predicted for the surrounding population in case the assumed short-tem countermeasures are performed effectively. Acute health effects are extremely improbable even without any active countermeasure. By reducing the long-term exposure from contaminated agricultural products, the collective dose from natural long-term background radiation, for instance in the sector of 30 degrees towards the southern Finland up to the distance of 300 kilometers, would be expected to increase with 2-20 percent depending on the release considered

  12. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Station and Site Description Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, site inspection trips were carried out by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Risø DTU in April and June of 2011. A total of 10 sites featuring instrumented 60-m masts were visited; the present report summarises...... the findings of the site inspection teams. The main results are descriptions and documentation of the meteorological masts, instruments and site conditions. For each site, the location and magnetic declination have been determined, as well as the sensor boom directions on the mast. Elevation maps have been...... constructed to show the surrounding terrain and photos taken to document the land cover. Finally, the observed wind roses and wind speed distribution as of 1 October 2013 are shown....

  13. Operating experience feedback program at Olkiluoto NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosonen, Mikko

    2002-01-01

    Recent review and development of the operating experience feedback program will be described. The development of the program has been based on several reviews by outside organizations. Main conclusions from these review reports and from the self assessment of safety performance, safety problems and safety culture on the basis of the operational events made by ASSET-method will be described. An approach to gather and analyze small events - so-called near misses - will be described. The operating experience program has been divided into internal and external operating experience. ASSET-methodology and a computer program assisting the analysis are used for the internal operating experience events. Noteworthy incidents occurred during outage are analyzed also by ASSET-method. Screening and pre analysis of the external operating experience relies on co-operation with ERFATOM, an organization of Nordic utilities for the exchange of nuclear industry experience. A short presentation on the performance of the Olkiluoto units will conclude the presentation. (author)

  14. Mise-a-la-masse measurements in drillholes OL-KR4, OL-KR30 and OL-KR14 - OL-KR18 in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansson, S.; Heikkinen, P.

    2009-02-01

    Mise-a-la-masse measurements were conducted in the Olkiluoto investigation site in the time period from May to November 2007. Measurements were carried out in drillholes OL-KR4, OL-KR30 and OL-KR14 - OL-KR18. The purpose of the study was to collect data for geological modelling. The aim is to evaluate the continuity of fractures and other geological structures from a drillhole to another drillhole and from a drillhole to the ground surface. Posiva has developed electrodes for mise-a-la-masse method measurements, where the location of the electrode is between rubber disks similar to the flow guide. Rubber disks prevent leakage of current along the drillhole and focus current directly to a specific fracture. (orig.)

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  16. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity st