WorldWideScience

Sample records for olkiluoto birdlife survey

  1. Refraction seismic surveys in the investigation trench TK3 area in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihalainen, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-03-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, the ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) conducted refraction seismic surveys at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki. The work was ordered by Posiva Oy. The field work was carried out during May and June 2004. On five profiles S70-S74 totally 1002.5 m was surveyed. The purpose of the work was to determine the overburden thickness and to study bedrock properties, e.g. eventual fractured zones. The work consisted of staking, levelling, seismic measurements, interpretation and reporting. Fieldwork and interpretation were concluded by May and June 2004. Previously in 2000 and 2002 Smoy has carried out 33.0 km of seismic surveys in the area. (orig.)

  2. Forest soil survey and mapping of the nutrient status of the vegetation on Olkiluoto island. Results from the first inventory on the FEH plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminen, P.; Aro, A.; Salemaa, M. (Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2007-09-15

    The aim of the inventory was to determine the status of the forest soils and to map the current nutrient status of forest vegetation on Olkiluoto Island in order to create a basis for monitoring future changes in the forests and to provide data for a biospheric description of the island. The study was carried out on 94 FEH plots, which were selected from the forest extensive monitoring network (FET plots) on the basis of the forest site type distribution and tree stand characteristics measured on the island during 2002 - 2004. Forest soils on Olkiluoto are very young and typical of soils along the Finnish coast, i.e. stony or shallow soils overlying bedrock, but with more nutrients than the forest soils inland. In addition to nutrients, the heavy metal concentrations are clearly higher on Olkiluoto than the average values for Finnish forest soils. The soil in the alder stands growing along the seashore is different from the other soils on Olkiluoto and the control soils inland. These soils are less acidic and have large reserves of sodium, magnesium and nitrogen. Macronutrient concentrations in vascular plant species were relatively similar to those reported for Southern Finland. However, it is obvious that the accumulation of particulate material on the vegetation, especially on forest floor bryophytes, has increased due to emissions derived from the construction of roads, drilling and rock crushing, as well as the other industrial activities on Olkiluoto Island. Leaf and needle analysis indicated that the tree stands had, in the main, a good nutrient status on Olkiluoto Island. The surveying methods used on Olkiluoto are better suited to detect systematic changes over a larger area or within a group of sample plots than the changes on individual plots. (orig.)

  3. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  4. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M.; Ahola, J. (Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland))

    2010-06-15

    The GPS based deformation studies have been made at the investigation areas of Posiva since 1995, when the network of ten GPS pillars was established at Olkiluoto. One pillar in the investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995. According to the time series of the GPS results 1/3 of the baselines at Olkiluoto have statistically significant change rates. However, the observed movements are smaller than +-0.20 mm/a. There are five pillars, which have statistically significant horizontal velocities at Olkiluoto. These local velocity components are small but taking into account the standard deviations the largest velocity components seems to be reliably determined. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured using EDM instruments in connection to the GPS observations. Changes in he difference between the GPS and EDM results indicate the systematic change in GPS results. No corrections based on only one baseline were not applied to GPS vectors. The GPS network at Olkiluoto was extended in 2003. The new pillars were built close to Kuivalahti village and on a small island of Iso Pyrekari. According to the geological evidence it is expected that a fracture zone is located between the new stations, thus enabling the determination of possible deformations along the fracture zone. The new pillars have been observed since 2003 and now we have computed the first deformation analysis from the six years data. Four new permanent stations will be established in summer 2010 at Olkiluoto. We have automated the processing of the campaign data by using the Bernese processing engine (BPE) together with our own Perl scripts. The local crustal deformations have been studied in GeoSatakunta project, too. This GPS network is located in Cities of Pori and Rauma and their neighbouring municipalities. Two new pillars

  5. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2012. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) [Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    In 2003, Posiva Oy presented a programme for monitoring at Olkiluoto during construction and operation of ONKALO. In 2012 the monitoring programme was updated to concern the years 2012-2018. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2012. Results are presented under five topics: 1. Evolution of geosphere, 2. Biosphere modelling input data, 3. Interaction between surface environment and groundwater in bedrock, 4. Environmental impact and 5. Baseline of monitoring of radioactive releases. Concerning the evolution of geosphere, LIDAR-scannings were done in the Olkiluoto area in 2012. The acquired data can be used for elevation and other modelling purposes. The soil solution quality in 2012 was quite comparable to that in earlier years. Proximity of the sea and the young age of soils are seen in soil solution results. Biosphere modelling input data in 2012 included e.g. continuous tree litterfall and transpiration data, as well as updated game statistics and population estimates of fauna, a fishery survey from the River Eurajoki (2011) and basic monitoring data from Olkiluoto offshore properties. Interaction between surface environment and groundwater in bedrock includes e.g. weather and surface water monitoring data. Environmental impact analyses included e.g. monitoring of noise, air quality, effluent waters and private drilled wells. Noise monitoring in the vicinity of ONKALO showed that in the case of raised noise levels the sources are mainly the traffic on Olkiluodontie road, the air conditioning of ONKALO and occasional sources such as springtime bird sounds. Construction activities in the area were seen in increased amount of NO{sub 3}-N in the bulk deposition, and Al and Fe accumulating on needle surfaces in areas close to the rock piling and crushing area

  6. GPS operations at Olkiluoto in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivula, H.; Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in co-operation with Posiva Oy since 1995. At Olkiluoto a total of 32 GPS campaigns have been carried out at inner network since 1995 and 17 campaigns at outer network since 2003. Kivetty and Romuvaara were not measured in 2011. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the estimated change rates are smaller than 0.10 mm/a. One third of the change rates are statistically significant. They are mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillars GPS6 and GPS13. The change rates related to GPS6 are not realistic due to the site-specific changes affecting the time series. The maximum change rate (-0.20 mm/a {+-} 0.05 mm/a) is related to GPS13. The time series of GPS13 is half the length of other pillars and therefore, the change rates are more uncertain. In the Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rate is between GPS1-GPS11 (0.39 mm/a {+-} 0.06 mm/a). Pillar GPS12 was not observed this year. The change rates of baselines GPS1-GPS14 and GPS1-GPS15 are first time statistically significant. The change rates indicate a small movement of the GPS1 pillar. The baseline GPS1-GPS11 crosses an old fracture zone locating in the direction of the Eurajoensalmi, which might be a reason for the deformation. On the other hand, the Onkalo excavations in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) may cause some movement. Electronic distance measurements have been performed at Olkiluoto at the baseline GPS7-GPS8 using the Mekometer since 2002. The measurements have been carried out simultaneously with GPS campaigns. Based on 19 measurements in 10 years, the trends of the two time series seems to be similar. Due to unmodelled or dismodelled geometrical offsets and the scale difference between GPS measurements and EDM there is about 0.3 mm difference between distances GPS7-GPS8 derived from GPS measurements and EDM

  7. Evolution of the Olkiluoto site. Palaeohydrogeochemical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. (ed.) [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Koskinen, L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Over the past 20 years a considerable amount of work has been carried out to establish a palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Olkiluoto site and surrounding area, and to integrate this knowledge into the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological descriptive and modelling programmes. This has involved not only a wide range of well established disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry, but also the extraction and determination of rock matrix porewaters by out-diffusion, a relatively new approach in crystalline rock. This required a sophisticated laboratory based input, not only to extract and analyse the porewaters, but also to take into consideration any effects associated to, for example, connected physical porosity and/or geochemical porosity in the rock matrix. In general, there is a good integrated understanding of the Olkiluoto site in terms of the geology, mineralogy, hydrology, hydrochemistry and the overall palaeohydrogeochemical model. The Olkiluoto site has had a complex geological and environmental history from Precambrian to the Quaternary as shown by fluid inclusions in quartz grains and fracture calcites. The Quaternary time period has been dominated by a large climatic variation of cold glacial cycles with temperate interglacials and sea-level changes, all of which have contributed to the hydrogeochemical evolution at the Olkiluoto site. All data indicate that infiltration of aerobic water has systematically been limited to few metres depth in the bedrock at Olkiluoto. Today at about the -300 m elevation level, there exists a distinct change in groundwater chemistry and mean residence time including a redox divide supported by a significant reduction in both the intensity and transmissivity of the water connected fracture networks. These indicate that long term stability (over the time span of glacial cycles) and sufficient buffering capacity of the water-rock system against aerobic infiltration, has dominated continuously until

  8. Simulations of permafrost evolution at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, J. [Aalto Univ., Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This report provides numerical estimations of the evolution of permafrost and perennially frozen ground at Olkiluoto on time-scales of 60,000 and 125,000 years using Olkiluoto's site-specific information on time histories of ground level temperatures, ice sheet thickness, basal conditions, shoreline migration, soil and vegetation cover as well as heat generation from the spent fuel at a depth of 420 metres. When considering environmental conditions akin to the last glacial cycle for a 125,000 years long period, the maximum permafrost depth over the repository area can exceed the depth of 300 m and the maximum depth of perennially frozen ground the depth of 270 m. If Olkiluoto, after a 50,000 years long temperate phase of boreal climate, was subjected to a 10,000 years long periglacial period with air temperature decreased between -5 deg C and -10 deg C, the maximum permafrost depth would range between 60 and 240 m and the maximum depth of perennially frozen ground between 50 and 220 m. Furthermore, permafrost would reach the repository depth in 10,000 years, if the air temperature was lowered down to -15 deg C and the ground surface had a very thin vegetation and snow cover. Alternatively, if Olkiluoto experienced a 125,000 years long glacial cycle with a very long periglacial periods of low air temperatures and thin vegetation and snow cover and without any ice sheet development, permafrost would reach the depth of 400 m in 98,000 years and perennially frozen ground in 101,000 years. The areal distribution of permafrost and perennially frozen ground are broadly affected by the snow cover, lakes and the peat areas, especially when an extensive peat growth occurs. The lack of snow cover can enhance the evolution of the maximum depth of permafrost and perennially frozen ground by over 50 %. In addition, ground thermal conditions and the heat generation from the spent fuel modify the spatial and temporal development of permafrost and perennially frozen ground. A

  9. Analysis of hydrogeological flow responses in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Rouhiainen, P.; Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    As part of the programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, an analysis of the flow responses caused by ONKALO leakages or other activities on the site has been compiled. Leakages into ONKALO or other activities, such as pumping in connection with groundwater sampling, cause changes in flow conditions in adjacent drillholes. Flows in open drillholes have been measured with the PFL-tool (PFL-DIFF), several times in some holes, as part of Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO) or in conjunction of interference test campaigns carried out in Olkiluoto. The main objective of the study is to analyse differences detected between flow measurements without pumping. PFL-measurements were started in 1997 and all the holes have been measured. In total, measurements have been repeated in 32 holes, which enables a study of possible changes. The development of interpretation methods to detect and quantify flow changes was an important part of this work. The determination of the exact flow response is a challenging task. Changes are caused in flow also by seasonal effects, which complicate an unambiguous analysis of the observed parameters. Overlapping activities (sinks) behind flow changes make the analysis difficult. In addition, the role of other open holes close to the observation hole can be significant. They may cause flow responses, which would not have been detected without their existence. Nevertheless, unambiguous flow responses caused by the pumping of a drillhole or leaking tunnels have been detected in scales from ca. 10 m to over 1 km. (orig.)

  10. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    Groundwater flow modelling on the site scale has been an essential part of site investigation work carried out at different locations since 1986. The objective of the modelling has been to provide results that characterise the groundwater flow conditions deep in the bedrock. The main result quantities can be used for evaluation of the investigation sites and of the preconditions for safe final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This study represents the latest modelling effort at Olkiluoto (Finland), and it comprises the transient flow analysis taking into account the effects of density variations and the repository as well as the post-glacial land uplift. The analysis is performed by means of numerical finite element simulation of coupled and transient groundwater flow and solute transport carried out up to 10000 years into the future. This work provides also the results for the site-specific data needs for the block scale groundwater flow modelling at Olkiluoto. Conceptually the fractured bedrock is divided into hydraulic units: the planar fracture zones and the remaining part of the bedrock. The equivalent-continuum (EC) model is applied so that each hydraulic unit is treated as a homogeneous and isotropic continuum with representative average characteristics. All the fracture zones are modelled explicitly and represented by two-dimensional finite elements. A site-specific simulation model for groundwater flow and solute transport is developed on the basis of the latest hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical field investigations at Olkiluoto. The present groundwater table and topography together with a mathematical model describing the land uplift at the Olkiluoto area are employed as a boundary condition at the surface of the model. The overall flow pattern is mostly controlled by the local variations in the topography. Below the island of Olkiluoto the flow direction is mostly downwards, while near the shoreline and below the sea water flows horizontally and

  11. GPS operations at Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, U.; Nyberg, S.; Koivula, H.; Jokela, J.; Poutanen, M. [Finnish Geodetic Institute, Masala (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) has studied crustal deformations in co-operation with the Posiva Oy since 1994, when a network of ten pillars for GPS observations was established at Olkiluoto. In 2010 the local GPS network at Olkiluoto consisted of 14 concrete pillars. The whole network has been measured twice a year in the static GPS campaigns with 24 h sessions. The four new pillars were established in 2010 and the permanent measurements on them will start in 2011. The network of seven GPS pillars was built at Kivetty and Romuvaara during the year 1996. One pillar in each investigation area belongs to the Finnish permanent GPS network, FinnRef. A total of 28 GPS measurement campaigns have been carried out at Olkiluoto since 1995, and 18 campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara. At Olkiluoto a baseline for electronic distance measurements (EDM) was built in 2002. The baseline has been measured in connection to the GPS observations using the EDM instrument Kern ME5000 Mekometer. The GPS operations in 2010 included the two GPS campaigns at Olkiluoto, GPS campaigns at Kivetty and Romuvaara, EDM baseline measurements at Olkiluoto, and the control marker measurements with the tachymeter at Olkiluoto. All GPS data history was reprocessed with Bernese GPS software using the new processing strategy tested in 2009. The results were analysed by computing the change rates of the baselines and estimating horizontal velocities for the pillars using the barycenter of the velocities as a reference. In the Olkiluoto inner network 80 percent of the change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/a. Roughly one fourth of the change rates could be considered as statistically significant (change rate larger than 3 {sigma}. The statistically significant change rates were mainly related to the Olkiluoto permanent station (GPS1) and to the pillar GPS5, which had also the maximum change rate (0.21 {+-} 0.03 mm/a). In Olkiluoto outer network the maximum and statistically significant change rates

  12. Drillhole gamma-ray spectrum logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julkunen, A.; Kallio, L.; Kuusisto, M. (Astrock Oy, Sodankylae (Finland))

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the detailed drillhole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out drillhole spectrometer logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 2007 and 2008. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results. For the first time the results contains moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio, because the variability of Th/K ratio is a reasonably good indicator of alteration zones. This report includes also moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio from earlier measured and reported drillholes OL-KR40-43 and OL-KR40B-43B. (orig.)

  13. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Rock Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. (ed.); Siren, T.

    2011-12-15

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2010 the permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km *2 km *2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2010.

  14. Seafloor mapping at Olkiluoto western coast of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmarinen, K.; Leinikki, J.; Oulasvirta, P. (Alleco Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the seafloor of shallow areas around Olkiluoto island, western Finland. The surveys were carried out by Alleco Ltd. Posiva will use the data for modeling purposes. The investigations included bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling and assessment of benthic macrophytes and macrozoobenthos in the underwater parts of six pre-defined survey transects extending from land to the sea. Sediment sampling and the assessment of benthic organisms were done by SCUBA diving. The study area showed a great variation in environmental conditions. Olkiluoto stands between almost open sea and extremely sheltered river mouth area of Lapinjoki. Two of the transects were more than 7 meters deep and included both hard and soft sand bottom. Whereas rest of the transects were shallow with mostly soft clay, mud and silt bottom. Altogether 27 species of algae including five species of stoneworts (Charophyta), one species of water moss (Bryophyta) and 16 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) were found. The most abundant group was vascular plants, between the other groups of macroalgae big differences in the abundance were not seen. Furthermore altogether 43 species of macrozoobenthos (Invertebrata) were found, of which six species were sessile bottom fauna (permanently attached fauna). The most abundant groups in the bottom samples were bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) (996 individuals per m2), snails (Gastropoda) (739 individuals per m2) and polychaetes (Polychaeta) (542 individuals per m2). The total abundance of macrozoobenthos on all transects was 2 899 individuals per m2. The biggest groups by biomass were bivalves (fresh weight 87 054 mg per m2) and polychaetes (fresh weight 12 983 mg per m2). Transect 1 was the richest in number of species of the deep and exposed transects 1 and 2. The transect 5 had the highest diversity of all the shallow soft bottom transects 3, 4, 5 and 5a. The high diversity of the transect 1 and 5 may be explained by

  15. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. (ed.) (Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)); Hakala, M. (KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland))

    2010-09-15

    The rock mechanical monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The construction of ONKALO is not expected to induce large-scale movements of the rock blocks or affect the rate of isostatic uplift but the evaluation of any tectonic events is important for the safety assessment. The monitoring consists of seismic measurements, GPS measurements and precise levelling campaigns at Olkiluoto and vicinity and additionally extensometer and convergence measurements carried out in ONKALO. Posiva established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto in 2002. The number of seismic stations has increased gradually being in 2009 altogether 14. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semi-regional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale. The smaller target area is s called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km 2 km 2 km cube surrounding the ONKALO. All the expected excavation induced events assumingly occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes 10 seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. The seismic network has operated continuously in 2009 and during the year altogether 1256 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. Most of them (1161) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1135 events)

  16. Analysis of temperature data at the Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, M.; Bennett, D.; Masum, S.; Thomas, H. [Cardiff Univ. (United Kingdom); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    As part of the rock mechanics monitoring programme 2012 at Olkiluoto, temperature data have been recorded. Temperature data have been measured, collected and monitored at the Olkiluoto site and in ONKALO in various locations, by different methods and in conjunction with other investigations carried out at the site. This report provides a detailed description of the investigation and analysis carried out on temperature datasets. This report aims to provide a better understanding of the in-situ temperature of the rock and soil at the site. Three categories of datasets have been analysed and studied from the Posiva thermal monitoring programme. These consist of: (i) data collected from the various drillholes during geophysical logging and Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements, (ii) measurements in the ONKALO ramp, the investigation niche located at elevation -140 m and a technical room located at 437 m below the surface, and (iii) surface temperature measurements from four weather stations and four measurement ditches. Time-series data obtained from the groundwater temperature measurements during the 'Posiva Flow Log' (PFL) tests in drillholes OL-KR1 to KR55 at different depths and years have been analysed. Temperature at a depth of 400 m was found to be in the range of 10 to 11 deg C. The geothermal gradient obtained from the PFL data without pumping was found to be approximately 1.4 deg C/100m with relatively uniform temporal and spatial patterns at the repository depth, i.e. at 400 m.The geothermal gradient obtained from the results of the PFL measurements and geophysical loggings indicate similar temperature values at the repository depths, i.e. 400 m. The characteristics of the time series data related to the ONKALO measurements, have been obtained through a series of Non-uniform Discrete Fourier Transform analysis Datasets related to the various chainages and investigation niche at ONKALO have been studied. The largest variation in the temperature

  17. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  18. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  19. KBS-3H layout adaptation 2007 for the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Erik; Hagros, Annika; Autio, Jorma; Kirkkomaeki, Timo (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    As part of the KBS-3H design an Olkiluoto-specific layout of a KBS-3H repository has been produced based on the latest Olkiluoto data and the bedrock model. One of the main goals of this work was to support the evaluation of the feasibility of the one layer KBS-3H concept and to compare the layouts based on the KBS-3H and KBS-3V disposal concepts. The layout presented in this work can be considered only preliminary and involves a number of uncertainties. The percentage of unusable host rock was assumed to be 25% in this work but can change due to the further design of the different components of the KBS-3H disposal system and further development of the host rock criteria. The layout is also significantly affected by the layout-determining fracture zones. In this work 11 major (highly transmissive) fracture zones interpreted to intersect the -420 m level were considered deterministically. The KBS-3H layout requires a larger area than the KBS-3V repository and takes up most of the available area between the major fracture zones HZ20 and HZ21. This is mainly due to the long drift sections occupied by the compartment plugs (30 m) and the bentonite blocks in the blank zones (10 m), which reduces the usability of the host rock and results in larger canister spacings than in the KBS-3V concept, where the positioning of the deposition holes is very flexible and narrow zones with a moderate transmissivity usually have only a minor effect on the locations of the canisters. According to the results, there is enough bedrock in the current investigation area at central Olkiluoto for KBS-3H layout in one layer. However the layout takes up nearly all of the potential bedrock resource and therefore the result is quite sensitive to possible changes in the design bases

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  1. ONKALO 3D tunnel seismic investigations, Olkiluoto 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enescu, N.; Cosma, C.; Crawford, J. [Vibrometric Oy Cosma, Perttula (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    POSIVA Oy conducts bedrock investigations at the spent nuclear fuel final disposal site at Olkiluoto, in western Finland. The purpose of these efforts, which include a significant R and D component, is to ensure compliance with the requirements set forth for the long-term safety of final disposal. The excavation of the access tunnel to the repository hosts the ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. The investigations carried out in ONKALO focus on the bedrock and groundwater conditions prevailing on the final disposal site and how construction work affects them. Deformation zones and hydraulically conductive zones can limit the areas which are suitable for a deposition hole to be placed. The main objective of the tunnel seismic investigations presented here is to develop a seismic investigation technique for deposition area characterization. The field work consisted of 3 receiver lines using 3-component geophones and sources locations using the Vibsist-500 for 6 profiles, the Vibsist-20 for 1 profile (sparse), and a mechanical borehole hammer, MH-70, for 5 profiles for a total of 12 profiles. This investigation took place in the ONKALO demonstration area. Design of the seismic field work is based on previous tunnel seismic works in ONKALO (Cosma et al. 2008 and 2011) and pre-survey numerical modeling for field data and processing (Heinonen et al. 2013). The fieldwork was carried out in June 2013. Tomographic inversion of P-wave first arrival times was done on combined data sets, containing data from several shot-receiver configurations along tunnels and boreholes. The velocity distributions derived by tomographic inversion were verified by comparison with the forward modeled profiles. The Image Point (IP) migration method is characterized by is its ability to accumulate reflection events measured in the time distance data sets into points in the IP domain, which permits the enhancement of coherent backscattered events. The result of the 3D IP migration

  2. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  3. Migmatites and migmatite-like rocks of Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerki, A. [Kivitieto Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Bedrock of the Olkiluoto Island in the western end of the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Accretionary Arc Complex, SW Finland is composed of high-grade metamorphic pelites, arenites and intermediate, arc type metavolcanic rocks intruded by granodioritic to tonalitic plutonic rocks. Regional metamorphism culminated with voluminous migmatization in the temperature of 660 - 700 deg C and relatively low pressure of about 3.5 - 4 kbar. The end result of polyphase metamorphism and deformation is a metamorphic rock succession composed of diverse migmatite rocks, metatexites and diatexites. Metatexites are migmatites in which several, discrete components can be detected, and in which the paleosome with some pre-partial-melting textures is identifiable. Diatexites are more advanced migmatites in which the pre-migmatization structures are often totally destroyed and the rock is dominated by different neosome components meaning leucosome, melanosome or mesosome. Based on the migmatite structures the metatexites of Olkiluoto have been classified into six subgroups. Dike-structured metatexites are composed of well preserved paleosome intruded by one single set of narrow, subparallel leucosome dikes which cover ca. 5 - 10 % of the whole rock volume. Net-structure is composed of a network of narrow leucosome dikes which show a reticulated structure in a plane section and cover less than 30 % of the whole rock volume. Breccia-structure is composed of angular or rounded paleosome blocks surrounded by moderate amount of leucosome. Patch-structure is composed of irregular leucosome patches which intruded the well preserved paleosome and compose typically 20 - 70 % of the rock volume. Layer-structure is characterized by more or less regular leucosome dikes sub-parallel to the foliation of the well preserved paleosome. Vein-structured metatexites and also diatexites include a set of pipe-like, longish leucosome veins most probably generated by synchronous melting and deformation

  4. Characterization of Olkiluoto bacterial and archaeal communities by 454 pyrosequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomberg, M.; Nyyssoenen, M.; Itaevaara, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    Recent advancement in sequencing technologies, 'Next Generation Sequencing', such as FLX 454 pyrosequencing has made it possible to obtain large amounts of sequence data where previously only few sequences could be obtained. This technique is especially useful for the study of community composition of uncultured microbial populations in environmental samples. In this project, the FLX 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to obtain up to 20 000 16S rRNA sequences or 10 000 mRNA sequences from each sample for identification of the microbial species composition as well as for comparison of the microbial communities between different samples. This project focused on the characterization of active microbial communities in the groundwater at the final disposal site of high radioactive wastes in Olkiluoto by FLX 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial and archaeal ribosomal RNA as well as of the mRNA transcripts of the dsrB gene and mcrA gene of sulphate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea, respectively. Specific emphasis was put on studying the relationship of active and latent sulphate reducers and methanogens by qPCR due to their important roles in deep geobiochemical processes connected to copper corrosion. Seven packered boreholes were sampled anaerobically in Olkiluoto during 2009-2010. Groundwater was pumped from specific depths and the microbial cells werecollected by filtration on a membrane. Active microbial communities were studied based on RNA extracted from the membranes and translated to copy DNA, followed by sequencing by 454 Tag pyrosequencing. A total of 27 different bacterial and 17 archaeal taxonomic groups were detected.

  5. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2009. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) (Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2009. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to the experiences gained from the modelling work and an increased understanding of the site. Augmentations in 2009 include e.g. establishment of a new forest intensive monitoring plot (FIP14), continuation of studies on fine roots and on the species composition and abundances of small mammals. Line transect samplings of ants, terrestrial snails and earthworms were carried out and a systematic monitoring of island birds was started. In addition, a project was started where the sediment load and factors affecting the sediment transportation into Eurajoensalmi bay is examined. Dust produced during construction of the third nuclear power unit (OL3), ONKALO and related infrastructure can be seen in the soil solution and deposition results. Furthermore, the construction works and road traffic have a raising effect on the noise levels of the immediate surroundings. The land-use continues to change, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The young age of the soils and the closeness of the sea are reflected in the soil properties. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal

  6. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013, rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. (ed.) [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    The rock mechanics monitoring at Olkiluoto concentrates on the assessment of potential tectonic movements and stability of the bedrock. The rock mechanics monitoring programme 2013 consisted of seismic measurements, GPS measurements, surface levelling measurements and temperature measurements at Olkiluoto and vicinity and displacement measurements, temperature measurements and visual tunnel observations made in the ONKALO. The Posiva's microseismic network consists of 17 seismic stations and 21 triaxial sensors. Five stations are in the ONKALO. In spite of few breaks the network operated continuously and well during 2013. The number of located events (436) was slightly more than in 2012, but much less than in 2011. Nearly half of the observed explosions (237) in 2013 occurred inside the seismic semi-regional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (137). One small induced earthquake (M{sub L} = -1.8) was detected at the depth of 429 m and was probably associated with smaller branches of the brittle fracture zone (OL-BFZ045). According to the seismic monitoring the rock mass has been stable in 2013. The local GPS network consists of 18 stations. Six new stations were set up for permanent tracking during 2013 and in total 12 permanent stations are now operating continuously. Manual measurements were carried out twice in 2013. Most of the inner network baselines showed very small motions as in the previous years: 75% of change rates were smaller than 0.10 mm/y. Roughly one third of the change rates are statistically significant. The surface levelling network currently consists of 87 fixed measuring points. During 2013 all the measuring loops were measured. The results indicated local subsidence area in the ONKALO loop and the rising area in the VLJ loop. Mean deformation rate has been +0.05 mm/y. Only elevation of one benchmark in the GPS station loop has changed more than one millimetre. The continuous displacement measurements in the technical rooms

  7. Rock mechanics stability at Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E.; Rautakorpi, J. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-02-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the suitability of the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel at four sites, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski and Romuvaara in Kuhmo. To enable the rock properties to be specified in great detail, the site-selection research programme has included rock mechanics investigations such as the measurement of in-situ rock stress and laboratory tests on rock samples. This report presents the results of the rock mechanics analyses performed on the main rock types at the Olkiluoto, Romuvaara, Kivetty and Haestholmen sites. The objective of this study was to assess the near-field stability of the final disposal tunnels and deposition holes at each of the investigation sites. Two empirical methods and a numerical method based on three-dimensional element code (3DEC) were used the analysis tools. A statistical approach was used to select the necessary input data and to specify the cases being analysed. The stability of the KBS-3 and MLH (Medium Long Hole) repository concepts during the pre-closure and post-closure phases was analysed. The repository depths investigated lay between 300 m and 700 m. The empirical methods are based on the study of the ratios between rock strength and the in-situ stress which could result in possible fracturing of the rock mass. Interpretation of the numerical analyses is based on the assumption of an elastic distribution of stress around the disposal tunnel and the deposition hole and the brittle rock strength criterion. The results obtained in this study indicate that in general, the rock mechanics conditions during the pre-closure and post-closure phases at each of the investigated sites remain good and stable between the studied depth levels, especially when the deposition rooms are oriented in a direction parallel to the major in-situ stress. If the disposal tunnels are orientated in a direction perpendicular to the major in-situ stress, the resultant

  8. Summary report - development of laboratory tests and the stress- strain behaviour of Olkiluoto mica gneiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M.; Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    1997-05-01

    This work summarizes the project aimed at developing and qualifying a suitable combination of laboratory tests to establish a statistically reliable stress-strain behaviour of the main rock types at Posiva Oy`s detailed investigation sites for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The work includes literature study of stress-strain behaviour of brittle rock, development and qualification of laboratory tests, suggested test procedures and interpretation methods and finally testing of Olkiluoto mica gneiss. The Olkiluoto study includes over 130 loading tests. Besides the commonly used laboratory tests, direct tensile tests, damage controlled tests and acoustic emission measurements were also carried out. (orig.) (54 refs.).

  9. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  10. Studies on the aquatic environment at Olkiluoto and reference area. 1: Olkiluoto, reference lakes and Eurajoki and Lapijoki rivers in 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, V. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase Ltd., Pori (Finland); Helin, J.

    2014-03-15

    This working report presents the first results of a sampling campaign at Olkiluoto and reference lakes and rivers selected to resemble the aquatic systems expected to form at the site in the future with the post-glacial crustal rebound (land uplift). In 2009-2010, the aim of the studies was to improve the knowledge of the aquatic systems and to produce input data to the safety case for the spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. The first main objective was to estimate the areal biomass distribution and measure the dimensions of characteristic aquatic plants and animals. Another objective was to estimate the transfer of different elements from water to the aquatic organisms paying special attention on key elements (Ag, Cl, I, Mo, Nb and Se) in the dose assessment within the safety case. Surface water, sediment, macrophyte, fish and macrobenthos samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area and from the reference lakes for biomass and dimension measurements and analysis of element concentration. Water-to-biota concentration ratios were estimated for the coastal area and for the reference lakes. From rivers, only water samples were collected at this stage. In 2009-2010, sampling procedures and pre-treatment methods were developed and analytical methods were optimised. Thus, the results reported here are indicative by their nature. After 2010, the studies have been continued with better established methods, and the more recent results will be reported later. (orig.)

  11. Results of Monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2011. Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, A. (ed.) [Haapanen Forest Consulting, Vanhakylae (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    This Working Report presents the main results of Posiva Oy's environmental monitoring programme on Olkiluoto Island in 2011. These summary reports have been published since 2005. The environmental monitoring system supervised by Posiva Oy produces input for biosphere modelling for long-term safety purposes as well as for monitoring the state of the environment during the construction (and later operation) of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility. Part of the monitoring is performed by the company running the nuclear power plants on the island, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Monitoring has been carried out for varying periods of time depending on the sector: some monitoring activities performed by TVO originate from the 1970s and the repository-related environmental monitoring of Olkiluoto from the early 2000s. The monitoring programme evolves according to experiences gained from the modelling work and increased understanding of the site. Monitoring activities in 2011 proceeded according to the plans. The land-use of the island continues to change due to the construction work of OL3, ONKALO and related infrastructure, but the remaining natural environment resembles other coastal locations. The amount of nitrogen in the bulk deposition increased in 2011, whereas that of sulphur decreased. Some litterfall fractions showed higher Al and Fe values than earlier, likely caused by soil dust. Proximity of the sea is seen in wet deposition and soil solution results. Soil solution also reflects the young age of soils. Undestorey vegetation has shown no essential changes during the monitoring period. Mammalian fauna on the island is typical of coastal areas in Southwestern Finland. Game catches vary according to hunting pressure and natural variation in populations. The condition of the nearby sea is affected by the continuous land uplift, the shallowness of the area, the weather conditions, the general condition of the Bothnian Sea, the nutrient and sediment

  12. Site scale groundwater flow in Olkiluoto - complementary simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefman, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    This work comprises of the complementary simulations to the previous groundwater flow analysis at the Olkiluoto site. The objective is to study the effects of flow porosity, conceptual model for solute transport, fracture zones, land uplift and initial conditions on the results. The numerical simulations are carried out up to 10000 years into the future employing the same modelling approach and site-specific flow and transport model as in the previous work except for the differences in the case descriptions. The result quantities considered are the salinity and the driving force in the vicinity of the repository. The salinity field and the driving force are sensitive to the flow porosity and the conceptual model for solute transport. Ten-fold flow porosity and the dual-porosity approach retard the transport of solutes in the bedrock resulting in brackish groundwater conditions at the repository at 10000 years A.P. (in the previous work the groundwater in the repository turned into fresh). The higher driving forces can be attributed to the higher concentration gradients resulting from the opposite effects of the land uplift, which pushes fresh water deeper and deeper into the bedrock, and the higher flow porosity and the dual-porosity model, which retard the transport of solutes. The cases computed (unrealistically) without fracture zones and postglacial land uplift show that they both have effect on the results and can not be ignored in the coupled and transient groundwater flow analyses. The salinity field and the driving force are also sensitive to the initial salinity field especially at the beginning during the first 500 years A.P. The sensitivity will, however, diminish as soon as fresh water dilutes brackish and saline water and decreases the concentration gradients. Fresh water conditions result in also a steady state for the driving force in the repository area. (orig.)

  13. Climate scenarios for Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 120,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenoff, N.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Jaervinen, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Posiva Oy is planning to dispose of spent nuclear fuel in a repository, to be constructed at a depth of 400 m in the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto, Finland. Planning the storage requires careful consideration of many aspects, including an assessment of long-term repository safety. For estimating possible climate states at Olkiluoto on a time-scale of 120,000 years, we analyze climate simulations of an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (CLIMBER-2) coupled with an ice sheet model (SICOPOLIS). The simulations into the future clearly show that the onset of the next glaciation is strongly dependent on the Earth's orbital variations and the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. It is evident that due to global warming, the climate of the next centuries will be warmer and wetter than at present. Most likely, due to global warming and low variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun, the present interglacial will last for at least the next 30,000 years. Further, the future simulations showed that the insolation minima on the Northern Hemisphere 50,000-60,000 and 90,000-100,000 years after the present hold a potential for the onset of the next glaciation. Hence, on a time-scale of 120,000 years, one must take into account climate periods lasting several thousand years having the following features: an interglacial climate, a periglacial climate, a climate with an ice sheet margin near Olkiluoto, a glacial climate with an ice sheet covering Olkiluoto, and a climate with Olkiluoto being depressed below sea level after glaciation due to isostatic depression. Due to the uncertainties related to the evolution of the future climate, it is recommended the simulations into the far future to be used only qualitatively. Quantitative information about glacial climate is achieved from the reconstructions and simulations of the past climate. (orig.)

  14. Fracture calcites at Olkiluoto. Evidence from quaternary infills for palaeohydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehoer, S.; Kaerki, A.; Taikina-aho, O. [Kivitieto Oy (Finland); Karhu, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Loefman, J. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Pitkaenen, P. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [TUKES, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    Recently formed secondary minerals, predominantly calcite, occur in varying amounts as fracture infills, and the calcite types, their chemical compositions and isotope ratios reflect the compositions and physicochemical factors of the groundwater system in which they were formed. Fluid inclusions trapped in calcites give direct evidence of trapping temperatures and past salinities and of the chemical compositions of the palaeo fluids. A wide range of mineralogical and geochemical examinations were carried out within the EQUIP project to examine features of this kind. The fracture calcites at the Olkiluoto site are of various origins and represent several textural types. The exact number of calcite-producing events is unknown, but the duration of the period that was appropriate for the precipitation of low temperature calcite is estimated to have exceeded 1000 Ma. Thus the number of genetically related calcite units is assumed to be considerable. This study was focused on the petrogenesis of calcites crystallized in fractures of high water conductivity during the latest stages of geological evolution. The majority of these late stage calcites form physically homogeneous, scaly layers, and in a few cases thin layers composed of idiomorphic crystals. Chemically these are almost stoichiometric calcites (CaCO{sub 3}). The MnO content may exceed 1%, while the amounts of other elements present are minor, although the trace element concentrations, particularly those of large ionic trace elements, can be used as distinguishing features for the recognition of individual precipitates representing different calcite generations. Evidence from fluid inclusions, or more correctly from the absence of these in the late stage calcites, can be interpreted as an indication of slow rates of crystallization under cool conditions. Many chemical variables, e.g. oxygen isotope ratios, demonstrate an equilibrium between the latest calcites and water similar to the present groundwater. Older

  15. Evaluation of the radioactive waste characterisation at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekki, T.; Titta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, chemical and radiological characterisation, handling and documentation of the radioactive waste packages to be disposed of in the VLJ-repository at the Olkiluoto NPP. A comparison with the current practices in Europe, based on information from Sweden, Spain and Czech Republic, is made. The report presents recommendations for STUK to harmonise the LILW waste management practises in Finland with those in Europe. (orig.)

  16. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J. [Enprima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. In the beginning, the network consisted of six seismic stations. Later, in June 2004, the seismic network was expanded with two new seismic stations. At that time started the excavation of the underground characterisation facility (the ONKALO) and the basic operation procedure was changed more suitable for the demands of the new situation. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the ONKALO. This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during the years 2002 - 2004. Also the changes in the structure and the operation procedure of the network are described. The network has operated nearly continuously. The longest interruption occurred 16.-17.6.2004, when two new seismic stations were installed in the network and the operation procedure was changed. Altogether 757 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area. The magnitudes of the observed events range from ML = -3.5 to ML = 1.2. All of them are explosions or other artificial events. So far, none of the 757 observed events can be classified as microearthquakes. Five of the events have characteristics that make the origin of the recorded signal uncertain. They are quite unlikely microearthquakes, but they are not typical examples of artificial seismic signals either. When the experience and the data set of the Olkiluoto microearthquakes increase the identification of events will be more definite. Evidence of activity that would has influence on the safety of the ONKALO, have not found. (orig.)

  17. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at Olkiluoto in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)); Heikkinen, E. (Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between August 2010 and January 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. New focused resistivity, susceptibility, natural gamma and density probes were tested and compared with old probes. This report describes the major features of new probes and the comparison with old probes. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  18. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  19. Concentration ratios to great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Olkiluoto repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Haavisto, Fiia [FM Meri and Erae Oy, Seijaistentie 133a, 21230 Lemu (Finland); Salmi, Juhani A. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 3, 20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. The great cormorant was a common species in the Finnish coastal area and possibly also a resource for human uses before the decline of the cormorant population in the 18. century. During the last decade, the great cormorant has become again a relevant part of food web in the Bothnian Sea coastal area. Due to the regulatory requirements, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the adequate literature data on common waterfowl is sparse or in some cases lacking, samples of adult cormorants, eggs and guano together with water and fish samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area. This contribution will present concentration ratios of stable element based on these samples with focus on the elements of a high relevance to the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository together with discussion on the role of food (fish) versus the application of the water-to-bird concentration ratio. (authors)

  20. Geomicrobial investigations of groundwaters from Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, S.A.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Groundwater from four deep hard rock sites being considered for nuclear waste disposal in Finland (Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara) were investigated for microbial populations. Bacteria will be present in a waste disposal vault, so it is important to understand the microbiology of any potential site. Groundwater samples were collected from 200 to 950 m depth and included fresh, brackish and saline waters. Samples were collected with a pressurized groundwater sampler, PAVE, which is an excellent tool for microbiological sampling. Total cell numbers were typical for deep groundwater, 105 to 106 cells/ml. Growth media designed using groundwater chemistry data were used for enumeration of methanogens, acetogens, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB). Microbial populations varied between sites. Iron sulfide fracture minerals are common in the brackish high sulfate groundwaters of Olkiluoto, where SRB predominated. Haestholmen groundwater has high dissolved iron, iron hydroxide fracture minerals and IRB were the main microbial population. Kivetty and Romuvaara had mixed populations. It has been proposed that deep subsurface ecosystems are based on hydrogen and carbon dioxide which provide energy and carbon to support the food chain. Signs of such an ecosystem were seen in Olkiluoto. More study is needed to understand the basis for deep subsurface life. From a microbiological point of view, all sites investigated are equally suitable for nuclear waste disposal. (orig.) 66 refs.

  1. Core drilling of hydco drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for HYDCO-program in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2010. The drillhole ONK-PP262 was drilled in May 2010 and the drillhole ONK-PP274 in December 2010. The lengths of the drillholes are 25.02 and 23.88 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in the investigation niche 4 at the access tunnel chainage 3747. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in both drill cores are 1.4 pcs/m. The average RQD values in the drillcores are 97.2 % (ONK-PP262) and 98.6 % (ONK-PP274). (orig.)

  2. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PVA9 and ONK-PVA10 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for groundwater monitoring stations in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2011. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in March 2011 and the drillhole ONK-PVA10 in June 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are 15.95 and 20.10 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in a niche of the access tunnel at chainage 4366 and the ONK-PVA10 in the access tunnel wall at chainage 3851. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in drill cores are 2.9 pcs/m (ONK-PVA9) and 2.3 pcs/m (ONK-PVA10) and the average RQD values 81.6 % and 96.2 % respectively. (orig.)

  3. Core Drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP72...OL-PP89 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled eighteen drillholes to survey the ground and bedrock conditions in the encapsulation plant building site at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011. Soil quality, bedrock depth and quality of near surface bedrock were investigated in this project. The drillholes were drilled between 19th of October and 8th of November 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are mostly between 7 to 9 metres, except for the drillhole OL-PP79, which is 15 metres by length. The drillholes are 76 mm by diameter, and the core diameter is 60.2 mm. The lightweight GM75 drilling rig with rubber tracks was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO area research building freshwater pipeline and sodium fluorescein was added as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were not left open. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The average natural fracture frequencies of the drillcores range from 2.5 pc/m (OL-PP77) to 11.8 pc/m (OL-PP86). The average RQD ranges from 55.1 % (OL-PP86) to 96.4 % (OL-PP77). The penetrated soils are mostly ground fill (blast rock), but some clays and sands are lying below the fill layer. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Olkiluoto (Finland) and Forsmark (Sweden) candidate sites for radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J. E.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Site characterizations for deep radioactive-waste repositories consider rock properties, groundwater conditions, and the influences of regional settings and site-specific evolution. We present a comparison of these aspects for two candidate repository sites that have similar rocks and coastal settings, but are 200 km apart on opposite sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. The Olkiluoto site in Finland and the Forsmark site in Sweden are both in hard crystalline rock (migmatite gneiss and metagranite, respectively) with groundwater flow mainly via fractures. Both sites are undergoing licensing for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. The licensing is stepwise in Finland, and operation in both countries will be strictly regulated, but all responsibility lies with the implementers until accepted closure. The comparison reveals many expected similarities but also unexplained differences, which illustrate the complexities of site characterization in fractured crystalline rock. Both sites underwent a similar sequence of hydrologic conditions over the Weichselian and earlier glacial cycles. Hydrogeologically, Forsmark has more conductive upper bedrock, contributing to a very flat water table. Deep bedrock at Olkiluoto is more fractured in the horizontal plane. At repository depth and below, Forsmark likely contains larger volumes of low-conductivity rock. At both sites, the local model is connected to regional-scale boundaries via submarine deformation zones which (especially at Olkiluoto) are poorly characterized. Stress measurements at the two sites have shown that vertical stress is in agreement with the weight of overburden while horizontal stresses differ in magnitude and orientation. Interpreted overcoring stress measurements from Forsmark are almost twice the magnitudes estimated from hydraulic methods. Rock mechanical differences include the possibility that Olkiluoto bedrock is more prone to spalling than Forsmark. Olkiluoto bedrock is more anisotropic in terms of

  5. Bentonite as a colloid source in groundwaters at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, U. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Hirvonen, H.

    2005-02-15

    In this work bentonite was studied as a potential source of colloids in Olkiluoto groundwaters. Samples were collected at two groundwater stations, PVA1 at 37.5 m dept and PVA3 at 95.6 m depth, in the VLJ-tunnel. The deeper groundwater at PVA3 was more saline (2.6g/L of Cl-) than the shallow at PVA1 (0.8g/L of Cl-). A bentonite source had been assembled at each groundwater station so that two sample lines were available for water samples; one for collecting a sample before and the other for collecting a sample after interaction with bentonite. Before starting the actual colloid sampling groundwaters from both sample lines at both stations were analysed. Only minor alterations, mostly within the uncertainty limits of the analysis methods, were brought about in the water chemistries after interaction with the bentonite sources. The only clear changes were seen in the concentration of iron which decreased after interaction with bentonite in the groundwaters at both stations. After groundwater sampling the actual colloid sampling was performed. The water samples were collected and treated inside a movable nitrogen filled glove-box. The samples could be collected from each sampling line directly in the glove-box via two quick-couplings that had been assembled on the front face of the box. The sample lines had been assembled with 0.45 {mu}m filters before entering the glove-box, because only colloids smaller than 0.45 {mu}m were of interest, as they are not prone to sedimentation in slow groundwater flows and therefore could act as potential radionuclide carriers. Colloid samples were collected and treated similarly from both sampling lines at both groundwater stations. For estimating the colloid content the groundwater samples were filtered with centrifugal ultrafiltration tubes of different cut-off values (0.3 {mu}m, 300kD and 10kD). The ultrafiltrations produced the colloid-containing concentrate fractions and the soluble substances-containing filtrate fractions. In

  6. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  7. Regional distribution of microbes in groundwater from Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, S.A.; Nilsson, E.L.; Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Groundwater was sampled with the PAVE groundwater sampling system from eight boreholes at Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara, Finland, in 1998 and 1999, for investigation of microbial populations. The groundwater samples had a wide range of salinity and chemistry and contained 104-105 cells per ml, which is typical for subsurface groundwater. In preparing culture media, two approaches were used and compared. Natural, groundwater-based media were prepared from groundwater from the same section of each borehole tested, and synthetic media were prepared based on groundwater chemistry data. No significant difference was observed between the two types of media for brackish and saline groundwater. The groundwater to a depth of 750 m contained mainly sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), ironreducing bacteria (IRB) and heterotrophic acetogenic (HA) bacteria. Autotrophic acetogenic (AA) bacteria and methanogenic archaea were found in some samples. Iron-reducing and HA bacteria predominated in brackish groundwater from Haestholmen, with SRB present in smaller numbers. A different microbial population was found in deep saline groundwater from Haestholmen and Olkiluoto that consists of a large proportion of a saline or brine end member. No SRB or AA bacteria were cultured; instead, the microbial population consisted of HA bacteria and either IRB or methanogens. In Olkiluoto, SRB predominated in the brackish and saline groundwater at depths to about 500 m, while methanogens were found in deeper saline groundwater. Stable isotope data (C-13) indicated that the methanogens are part of an autotrophic population consuming dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and hydrogen and producing methane and organic carbon. This deep ecosystem may be independent of surface life processes. A high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at 500 m depth in the Fennoscandian Shield will be inhabited by SRB, IRB and acetogens. Methanogens may also be present. These anaerobic micro

  8. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto - Synthesis 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR 2012) and application for a construction licence for a spent nuclear fuel repository. Consistent with the Government Decisions-in- Principle, this foresees a repository developed in bedrock at the Olkiluoto site according to the KBS-3 method, designed to accept spent nuclear fuel from the lifetime operations of the Olkiluoto and Loviisa reactors. Synthesis 2012 presents a synthesis of Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio. It summarises the design basis for the repository at the Olkiluoto site, the assessment methodology and key results of performance and safety assessments. It brings together all the lines of argument for safety, evaluation of compliance with the regulatory requirements, and statement of confidence in long-term safety and Posiva's safety analyses. The TURVA-2012 safety case demonstrates that the proposed repository design provides a safe solution for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and that the performance and safety assessments are fully consistent with all the legal and regulatory requirements related to long-term safety as set out in Government Decree 736/2008 and in guidance from the nuclear regulator - the STUK. Moreover, Posiva considers that the level of confidence in the demonstration of safety is appropriate and sufficient to submit the construction licence application to the authorities. The assessment of long-term safety includes uncertainties, but these do not affect the basic conclusions on the long-term safety of the repository. (orig.)

  9. In-situ experiments to investigate rock matrix retention properties in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutilainen, Mikko; Helariutta, Kerttuli [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry; Poteri, Antti [Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT (Finland); and others

    2015-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants, owned by TVO (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) and Fortum, is planned to be disposed to a repository at a depth of more than 400 meters in the bedrock of Olkiluoto (Eurajoki, Finland). The repository system of multiple release barriers consists of both manmade and natural barriers. The surrounding rock acts as the last barrier if other barriers fail during passage of the millennia. Therefore, safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel requires information on the radionuclide transport and retention properties within the porous and water-containing rock matrix along the water conducting flow paths. To this end, various types of experiments are being performed and planned within ONKALO, the underground rock characterization facility in Olkiluoto, as part of the project @''rock matrix REtention PROperties'' (REPRO). The research site is located at a depth of 420 meters close to the repository site. The aim is to study the diffusion and sorption properties of nuclear compounds in the rock matrix under real in-situ conditions. The first in-situ experiment was performed during 2012 using HTO, Na-22, Cl-36 and I-125 as tracer nuclides. Breakthrough curves show retention and asymptotic behavior that are in-line with those caused by matrix diffusion and sorption were observed in their breakthrough curves. Weak sorption was also observed in the breakthrough curves of Na-22 and I-125.

  10. Nuclear power plant Olkiluoto 3. Containment leakage test under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleckenstein, Tobias [TUEV SUED Industrie Service GmbH, Munich (Germany). Measaruement Technology Dept.

    2015-01-15

    Modern nuclear power plants place high demands on the design and execution of safety checks. TUEV SUED supported the containment leakage test for the largest- capacity third generation nuclear power plant in the world - Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. The experts successfully met the challenges presented by exceptional parameters of the project. The containment of Olkiluoto 3 is unique in that the vessel's volume is 80,000 m{sup 3} while measurements were carried out over a period of ten days. To execute the test, 75 temperature and 15 humidity sensors had to be installed and correctly interlinked by more than ten kilometres of cable. These instruments also needed to withstand an absolute pressure of 6 bar, ambient temperatures of 30 C and high levels of humidity. These conditions required comprehensive preparation and a high amount of qualification tests. Parts of the qualifications were carried out at the autoclave system of the Technical University in Munich, Germany, where the project test conditions could be simulated. The software required to determine the tests was developed by TUEV SUED and verified by German's national accreditation body DAkkS under ISO 17025. TUEV SUED enabled the test schedule to continue without delay by analysing all recorded data continuously on site, including pressure, temperature, humidity and leakage mass flow curves. With the comprehensive preparation, data acquisition system recording measurements continuously and the on-time result calculation, all components of the leak-tightness assessment were successfully completed in accordance with requirements.

  11. Local seismic network at the Olkiluoto site. Annual report for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report gives the results of microseismic monitoring during 2011. Excavation of the underground characterisation facility called ONKALO started in 2004. Before that, in February 2002, Posiva Oy established a local seismic network of six stations on the island of Olkiluoto. After that the number of seismic stations has increased gradually. In 2011 Posiva's permanent seismic network consists of 15 seismic stations and 20 triaxial sensors. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The investigation area includes two target areas. The larger target area, called seismic semiregional area, covers the Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The purpose is to monitor explosions and tectonic earthquakes in regional scale inside that area. The smaller target area is called the seismic ONKALO block, which is a 2 km x 2 km x 2 km cube surrounding ONKALO. It is assumed that all the expected excavation induced events occur within this volume. At the moment the seismic ONKALO block includes ten seismic stations. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of the construction of ONKALO. The configuration of the seismic network as well as the software packages applied in data processing and analyses have remained during the previous year. The design model of ONKALO and the brittle fault zone model of the Olkiluoto of the seismic visualization package Jdi were upgraded in 2011. The network has operated nearly continuously. There was a 14 minutes and 30 second long operation failure in December 2011. That was the first network operation failure in five years. Altogether 1223 events have been located in the Olkiluoto area, in the reported time period. Most of them (1098) are explosions that occurred inside the seismic semiregional area and especially inside the seismic ONKALO block (1064 events). The magnitudes of the observed explosions inside the

  12. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR43 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1000.26 m and 45.01 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - October 2006. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 1103 m{sup 3} and 16 m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 916m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43 and 13m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 131 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 37 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.19. The main rock types are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss

  13. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR3B at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 530.60 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in summer 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock in the area, where a new shaft with a diameter of 3 m is planned to be located. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR38. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 473m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 38m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR38. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Devitool Peewee. The results of the EMS measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR38 deviates 1.02 m south and 0.58 m west from the target point at the borehole depth of 525 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106

  14. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR37 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 350.00 m and 45.10 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in June- August 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR37 and OL-KR37B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 273 m{sup 3} and 21m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 221m{sup 3} and 16m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR37 and OL-KR37B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106 MPa, the average Young's modulus is 40 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.20. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss, granite and tonalite. Filled

  15. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR39 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 502.97 m and 45.11 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in August- October 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 415m{sup 3} and 25 m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 175 m{sup 3} and 7 m{sup 3} in boreholes OLKR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 110 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 49 GP a and the average Poisson' s ratio is 0.25. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fracture is the most common

  16. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR36 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R.; Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 205.17 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR36. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling measurements. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 117 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 51m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR36. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR36 deviates 10.34 m left and 7.11 m up at the borehole depth of 204 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 126

  17. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR34 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 100.07 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in April 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR34. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 37m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 18m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR34. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OLKR34 deviates 0.84 m right and 0.15 m up at the borehole depth of 99 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 142 MPa, the

  18. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR35 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 100.87 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR35. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 53 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 25 m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR35. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR35 deviates 0.49 m right and 0.30 m up at the borehole depth of 99 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 90 MPa, the

  19. Ecosystem characterization strategy at a repository site - Olkiluoto as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, Tuomas [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, 27160 Eurajoki (Finland); Kangasniemi, Ville [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kaironiementie 15, 39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Posiva Oy is constructing an underground research facility ONKALO in Olkiluoto, located in the municipality of Eurajoki, Finland. This is part of the plan for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel produced by Posiva's owners: Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oyj. Posiva has applied for construction license for an underground repository, which is planned to start its operation around the year 2020. The final disposal of high-level radioactive waste poses questions of long-term safety and possible processes of radionuclide release in the EBS (Engineered Barrier System) and the geosphere are also modelled as well as possible transport routes in the bedrock. Posiva has also established a monitoring program for the environment and is also conducting modelling of the surface environment and biosphere in Olkiluoto and the surrounding reference area. These serve the purpose of both, site description and modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment and biosphere. The process of modelling used by Posiva requires the division of the surface environment and biosphere into several categories. In Posiva's classification, ecosystems are divided to two categories: terrestrial and aquatic with terrestrial divided to forests and agricultural areas. These categories are further divided to ecosystem types which include: lake, river, forest, cropland and sea (with coastal sea as a separate type). These types are even further divided to 14 ecosystem sub-types and behind these sub-types, a total of 24 biotopes exist. Soil and sediment types are also classified to 7 classes. The methodology behind the selection of these biotopes and their connection to the modelling of radionuclide transport in the surface environment is further described in the text. Some of the ecosystem types and biotopes are absent in present-day Olkiluoto area, which necessitates the use of reference targets, such as lakes, rivers

  20. Fracture toughness properties of rocks in Olkiluoto: Laboratory measurements 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, T.

    2012-05-15

    In Olkiluoto an underground rock characterization facility (ONKALO) for the final disposal site of spent nuclear fuel has been under thorough research many years, but further knowledge is needed on fracture toughness parameters. Fracture toughness parameters are important for example in fracture mechanics prediction for Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE). This working report describes a laboratory campaign that was done between 2008 and 2009. The campaign aimed at determining the fracture mechanics parameters as well as density and ultrasonic velocities for Olkiluoto rocks. The specimens delivered were selected by Posiva; the core showed no damage and the quality of the delivered cores was good with varying sample diameter. Most of the test samples (9 out of 12) are gneissic rock. The Mode I fracture toughness was determined using two different methods to account for two different fracturing directions. The methods are the Chevron Bend (CB) test as proposed in the ISRM Suggested Method and a method based on the Brazilian Disk (BD) experiment. The Mode II fracture toughness was determined using the Punch-Through Shear with Confining Pressure experiment on the remaining pieces from the CB testing. The scatter in the results is very large, even within one piece of core sample. Usually the scatter of results is less than 5 %. The high scatter in the data at hand is believed to be due to the very inhomogeneous nature of the rock material. The magnitude of the determined Mode I fracture toughness compares well with available reported data for medium to coarse grained granitoide rocks. However the scatter of the mode II fracture toughness values is higher than experienced on other rock types, but the variability is reasonable for the inhomogeneous rock type. Distinguishing the fracture toughness values for different anisotropy directions would require more thorough testing with quality samples at different anisotropy directions. However since fracture

  1. On detonation dynamics in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures: Theory and application to Olkiluoto reactor building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silde, A.; Lindholm, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-02-01

    This report consists of the literature study of detonation dynamics in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures, and the assessment of shock pressure loads in Olkiluoto 1 and 2 reactor building under detonation conditions using the computer program DETO developed during this work at VTT. The program uses a simple 1-D approach based on the strong explosion theory, and accounts for the effects of both the primary or incident shock and the first (oblique or normal) reflected shock from a wall structure. The code results are also assessed against a Balloon experiment performed at Germany, and the classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory. The whole work was carried out as a part of Nordic SOS-2.3 project, dealing with severe accident analysis. The initial conditions and gas distribution of the detonation calculations are based on previous severe accident analyses by MELCOR and FLUENT codes. According to DETO calculations, the maximum peak pressure in a structure of Olkiluoto reactor building room B60-80 after normal shock reflection was about 38.7 MPa if a total of 3.15 kg hydrogen was assumed to burned in a distance of 2.0 m from the wall structure. The corresponding pressure impulse was about 9.4 kPa-s. The results were sensitive to the distance used. Comparison of the results to classical C-J theory and the Balloon experiments suggested that DETO code represented a conservative estimation for the first pressure spike under the shock reflection from a wall in Olkiluoto reactor building. Complicated 3-D phenomena of shock wave reflections and focusing, nor the propagation of combustion front behind the shock wave under detonation conditions are not modeled in the DETO code. More detailed 3-D analyses with a specific detonation code are, therefore, recommended. In spite of the code simplifications, DETO was found to be a beneficial tool for simple first-order assessments of the structure pressure loads under the first reflection of detonation shock waves. The work on assessment

  2. Eurajoki Olkiluoto study on species of ground beetles and ants 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaharju, J.; Helminen, S.-L.; Yrjoelae, R. (Environmental Research Yrjoelae Ltd, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The species of ants and Ground beetles at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki were studied in the summer of 2008 during two trapping periods: in June and August. The research goal was to clarify the species on Olkiluoto island of the earlier mentioned groups, at least at the family level, and to collect samples for further examination by Posiva. The trapping areas were selected at Olkiluoto in Posiva test monitoring sectors, a part of the trapping areas was the same as the earlier study. Species of ants, depending on their particular species, are a very dominating group of insects. The ants are the most important predators, scavengers and soil movers in Finnish forests. It looks as if the biomass of ants may be more than 10% of the biomass of all animals in certain areas of Finnish forests. In Finland there are about 60 species of ants that have been observed. They have been divided into four sub-groups, which are Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae. In Finland there are close to 300 species of ground beetles (Carabidae), which are divided into dozens of different families. The species, to a great extent, consist mostly of predatory insects that prey on microbes in field layers, but a part of them are specialized in feeding on flora. Ground beetles are usually divided into three groups according to their choice of habitat: Species that favour open biotopes, species that favour forests, and generalist species that can thrive in a variety of environments. Ground beetles also reflect changes in their living environment, and possibly they can be significant as socalled bio-indicators. Pitfall traps were used as the method of research. The preservative fluid used was ethanol (50%) with dishwashing liquid to remove surface tension. The points were located in various different biotopes in fields, meadows and forests. The data collected was defined as a minimum for the family level of Ground beetles and for ants to the species or species pairs. The species of Ground

  3. Stable isotope signatures of gases liberated from fluid inclusions in bedrock at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F. (Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (DE)); Meier, D.; Haemmerli, J.; Diamond, L. (Bern Univ. (CH), RWI, Institute of Geological Sciences)

    2010-12-15

    Fluid inclusions in quartzes of the Olkiluoto bedrock contain gaseous N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and higher hydrocarbons in varying proportions. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of the gas phases give valuable information on their origin and the formation conditions. In previous studies, a method to liberate and quantify the gases trapped in fluid inclusions was developed. It allowed determining the carbon isotope signatures of liberated CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and higher hydrocarbons (HHC), but no hydrogen isotope data were acquired. The method was advanced and, in this study, also stable hydrogen isotopes of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} liberated from fluid inclusions could be analysed. The stable carbon signatures of methane and higher hydrocarbons, as well as the hydrogen isotope signatures of methane indicate a predominant thermogenic provenance for those gases. (orig.)

  4. Groundwater salinity at Olkiluoto and its effects on a spent fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-06-01

    The Olkiluoto island rose from the Baltic Sea 2500 to 3000 years ago. The layered sequence of groundwaters can be related to climatic and shoreline changes from modern tune through former Baltic stages to the deglaciation phase about 10 000 years ago and even to preglacial times. Fresh groundwater is found to the depth of about 150 metres, brackish between 100 and 400 metres, deeper groundwaters are saline. At the depth of 500 meters, the content of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies between 10 and 25 g/l. The most saline waters at depths greater than 800 metres have TDS values between 30 and 75 g/l. These deep saline waters seem to have been undisturbed during the most recent glaciation and even much longer in the past. Today fresh water infiltrating at the surface gradually displaces brackish and saline groundwater in the bedrock. Due to the still ongoing postglacial land uplift, Olkiluoto is likely to become an inland site with brackish or fresh groundwater at the depth of 500 metres within the next 10 000 years. During the construction and operation phases groundwater will be drawn into the repository from the surrounding bedrock. As a consequence, more saline groundwaters, presently laying 100 to 200 metres below the repository level, may rise to the disposal level. After the closing of the repository the salinity distribution will gradually return towards the natural state. During the glacial cycle groundwater salinity may increase, for example, during freezing of groundwater into permafrost, when dissolved solids concentrate in the remaining water phase, and in a situation where deep saline groundwaters from under the centre of the glacier are pushed to the upper parts of the bedrock at the periphery of the glacier. The most significant open issue related to saline groundwater is the performance of the tunnel backfill which in the BS-3 concept has been planned to consist of a mixture of crushed rock and 10-30% of bentonite. Saline groundwater may

  5. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  6. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finnish bedrock. Olkiluoto site report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Fintact Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Front, K. [VTT Communication and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    Posiva Oy is studying the Finnish bedrock for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The study is based on the site selection research programme started originally in 1983. The programme is in accordance with the decision in principle by the Council of State in 1983 and aims at the selection of one site in 2000. Four sites, Haestholmen in Loviisa, Kivetty in Aeaenekoski, Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and Romuvaara in Kuhmo, have been studied in detail. This report summarises the results of the site investigations carried out at Olkiluoto. The bedrock of the Olkiluoto site consists of Svecofennian metasediments and platonic rocks, 1800-1900 million years in age. Migmatitic mica gneiss is the most abundant rock type, and is intruded by foliated tonalites and granodiorites and massive coarse-grained granites and pegmatites. Five successive plastic deformation phases have been defined. In total, 30 bedrock structures (R-structures) have been modelled at the site. Most of these represent steeply dipping fracture zones, but several sub-horizontal zones, gently dipping to the SE, have also been identified. The rock mass between the fracture zones represents what is termed `intact rock`, which is typically hard, unweathered and sparsely fractured. The R-structures are generally hydraulically more conductive than the intact rock and their mean transmissivity is 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/s. The corresponding mean of the hydraulic conductivity values for the intact rock measured using a 2 m packer interval, is 8 x 10{sup -13} m/s, if a lognormal distribution for all measured values is assumed. A clear decrease in hydraulic conductivity with depth has been found for the intact rock, and there seems to be a parallel decrease in the transmissivity of structures. In addition, the hydraulically conductive fractures seem to be more frequent and their transmissivities higher in the uppermost 100 - 200 m of the bedrock than at greater depths. The groundwater chemistry reflects the

  7. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  8. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR56 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a 1201.65 m deep drillhole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in October 2011 - January 2012. The identification number of the drillhole is OL-KR56. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling, washing and flushing water was 1628 m{sup 3}. The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole was 1142 m{sup 3}. The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments Reflex EMS and Reflex Gyro. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and mica gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.4 pcs/m and the average RQD value is 96.2 %. Fifty fractured zones were penetrated by the drillhole. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 120.0 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 38.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.22. (orig.)

  9. GPS monitoring of bedrock stability at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site in Finland from 1996 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

    2013-09-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site since mid-90's. Biannual GPS measurement has been carried out in two local GPS networks. This paper analyses the GPS data processing effects on the coordinate solutions and presents the results of GPS monitoring from 1996 to 2012. The GPS data was processed using Bernese GPS Software 5.0. The GPS data processing and baseline analysis showed a 1.0 mm (max RMS) level agreement of observation and high bedrock stability in the area. Most of the horizontal trends were smaller than 0.1 mm/a. The troposphere estimation strategy had a clear effect on the horizontal trends at some sites. The strain rates were all very small, but we could detect motions near the Olkiluoto permanent station.

  10. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at Olkiluoto in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between November 2009 and February 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR45, OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging, acoustic imaging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR45 (re-measurements), OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during January-November 2009. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. The missing density logging of drillhole OL-KR45 was carried out successfully. Dynamic rock mechanical parameters and natural gamma data were re-processed and this report includes updated WellCAD and Excel files. Acoustic imaging was also carried out in OL-KR45 after 700 meters depth. Acoustic imaging was used instead of optical imaging after 350 meters in OL-KR49 and 700 meters in OL-KR50. (orig.)

  12. Geochemical modelling of groundwater evolution and residence time at the Olkiluoto site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Luukkonen, A. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P. [Fintact Oy (Finland); Leino-Forsman, H.; Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    An understanding of the geochemical evolution of groundwater is an essential part of the performance assessment and safety analysis of the final disposal of radioactive waste into the bedrock. The performance of technical barriers and migration of possibly released radionuclides depend on chemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions which control chemical conditions in groundwater. The objective of this study is to interpret the processes and factors which control the hydrogeochemistry, such as pH and redox conditions. A model of the hydrogeochemical progress in different parts of the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto has been created and the significance of chemical reactions and groundwater mixing along different flowpaths calculated. Long term hydrodynamics have also been evaluated. The interpretation and modelling are based on water samples (63 altogether) obtained from precipitation, Baltic Sea, soil layer, shallow wells in the bedrock, and eight deep boreholes in the bedrock for which a comprehensive data set on dissolved chemical species and isotopes was available. Some analyses of dissolved gases and fracture calcite and their isotopic measurements were also utilised. The data covers the bedrock at Olkiluoto to a depth of 1000 m. The results from groundwater chemistry, isotopes, petrography, hydrogeology of the site, geomicrobial studies, and PCA and speciation calculations were used in the evaluation of evolutionary processes at the site. The geochemical interpretation of water-rock interaction, isotope-chemical evolution and mixing of palaeo water types were approached by mass-balance calculations (NETPATH). Reaction-path calculations (EQ3/6) were used to verify the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction models obtained. The interpretation and calculation of hydrochemical data from Olkiluoto reveals the complex nature of hydrogeochemical evolution at the site. Changes in

  13. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Neall, Fiona; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Nordman, Henrik; Johnson, Lawrence; Hjerpe, Thomas

    2008-03-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. This safety assessment is summarised in the present report. The scientific basis of the safety assessment includes around 30 years of scientific RandD and technical development in the Swedish and Finnish KBS-3V programmes. Much of this scientific basis is directly applicable to KBS-3H. This has allowed the KBS-3H safety studies to focus on those issues that are unique to this design alternative, identified in a systematic 'difference analysis' of KBS-3H and KBS-3V. This difference analysis has shown that the key differences in the evolution and performance of KBS-3H and KBS-3V relate mainly to the engineered barrier system and to the impact of local variations in the rate of groundwater inflow on buffer saturation along the KBS-3H deposition drifts. No features or processes specific to KBS-3H have been identified that could lead to a loss or substantial degradation of the safety functions of the engineered barriers over a million year time frame. Radionuclide release from the repository near field in the

  14. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m{sup 3} and 16.8 m{sup 3}, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  15. Discrete fracture network modelling of a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanyon, G.W. (Fracture Systems Ltd, St Ives (United Kingdom)); Marschall, P. (Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland))

    2008-06-15

    This report presents Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models of groundwater flow around a KBS-3H repository situated at Olkiluoto. The study was performed in support of the Safety Case for the KBS-3H Concept, being jointly studied by SKB and Posiva. As part of the preliminary assessment of long term safety of a KBS-3H repository, a Process Report and an Evolution Report (evolution of the disposal system from the emplacement of the first canister to the long term) are being produced. In the course of the task definition the project team identified the need for complementary modelling studies aimed at increasing insight into the hydrodynamic evolution of the disposal system after waste emplacement. In particular, the following issues were identified as requiring input from hydrodynamic models: Probability of high inflow points which may cause buffer erosion. Time transients of inflows after construction of deposition drifts. Interference between deposition drifts and transport tunnels. The DFN models represent the fault and fracture system in the planned repository volume at Olkiluoto. In particular, they represent the hydro geologically significant features. The types of hydrogeological features included in the models are: Major Fracture Zones (MFZs). Local Fracture Zones (LFZs) and associated water conducting features (LFZ-WCFs). Water Conducting Features in the background rock (BR-WCFs). These feature types are derived from the current geological and hydrogeological interpretations developed by Posiva. Several model variants were developed during the study and these variants were used for geometric simulations of the WCF network around the deposition drifts. A simple layout adaptation scheme has been applied to the network models to derive statistics for performance measures relating to the deposition drifts, compartments, plugs and super-containers. A single fracture transient flow model was developed to provide insight to transient flow behaviour around

  16. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-15

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto

  17. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  18. Safety assessment of spent fuel disposal in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara - TILA-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants is planned to be disposed of in copper-iron canisters emplaced in a KBS-3 type repository constructed at a depth of about 500 metres at one of the four candidate sites investigated. The disposal concept aims at long-term isolation of the spent fuel assemblies from the biosphere and even from the geosphere. The evaluation of the normal evolution of the disposal system accords with the conclusions of the previous Finnish, Swedish and Canadian safety assessments of similar disposal concepts. Subject to the influence of the expected, normal evolution of the repository, initially intact copper-iron canisters will most likely preserve their integrity for more than one million years at any of the candidate sites. Consequently, the best-estimate assessment is that there never will be any significant releases of radionuclides from the repository into the geosphere. Consequences of potential canister failures have been evaluated using conservative assumptions, models and data. The results show that at any of the sites a large number of canisters could be assumed to be initially defective or to `disappear` simultaneously after some time without that the proposed constraints for release rates into the biosphere or dose rates were exceeded. In most cases this conclusion is valid for all canisters failing simultaneously, even if rather pessimistic flow and transport data is used. In the sensitivity and `what if` analyses where very high flow rates of saline groundwater are assumed, highest release and dose rates are caused by weakly-sorbing cations Sr-90 and Ra-226. The most important differences between the sites are related to the coastal location and brackish/saline groundwater of Haestholmen and Olkiluoto, and on the other hand to the inland location and fresh groundwater of Kivetty and Romuvaara. Because of the ongoing postglacial land uplift at the coast of the Baltic Sea, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen, too, may become

  19. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  20. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp. dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp. below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems.

  1. Summary of overburden studies at Olkiluoto with an emphasis on geosphere-biosphere interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenpera, A.-M.; Palmen, J.; Hella, P. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-03-15

    The aim of this work is to synthesize the existing geotechnical, geochemical, mineralogical and hydraulic data from the overburden at the Olkiluoto site. The data has been collected in different studies as a part of the characterisation program for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel mainly during 1998-2004. Soil and peat samples from open test pits at various depths have been taken and analysed. The extent of the analyses programme has varied between the sampling. Quaternary deposits in the study area were studied in 13 soils test pits dug by excavator and four peat test cores. Standard procedures were applied in logging physical properties. Two extractions were used to emulate different environmental conditions in soils. Following determinations and chemical analyses were carried out: pH, water content, organic matter, anions (Cl, F, NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}) and metals (Al, Ca, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Na, U and Sr). In addition, Summary tables most of the available physicochemical data from soil and peat samples were prepared. The hydraulic conductivity in overburden has been measured in the groundwater observation tubes (PVP-holes). The measurements were conducted by using the so called slug-test technique. The fluctuation of water table, dry top layer vs. ground surface elevation and dry top layer thickness vs. overburden thickness in shallow boreholes and uppermost levels of multi level piezometers (EP-holes) are also presented. (orig.)

  2. Distribution coefficients of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium on Olkiluoto soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, M.; Lusa, M.; Virtanen, S.; Vaelimaa, I.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland); Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Retention of caesium, chlorine, iodine, niobium, selenium and technetium was investigated on soil samples from Olkiluoto using laboratory batch sorption experiments. Distribution coefficients were measured for both dried and sieved and untreated (wet, not sieved) mineral soil and humus in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD-analysis. Caesium was sorbed efficiently on mineral soil samples and less efficiently on humus. Sorption decreased with decreasing cation exchange capacity and clay fraction content. The effect of competing cations decreased in the order Cs{sup +}>NH{sub 4}{sup +}>K{sup +}>Ca{sup 2+}>Na{sup +}. Chlorine was not retained by mineral soil samples, and the sorption was weak on humus. The sorption of iodine was the strongest on humus and the weakest on the untreated mineral soil samples in the anaerobic conditions. In the mineral soil samples, the sorption decreased with decreasing organic matter content and increasing pH. The retention of niobium on soil samples was the most efficient among the studied elements. The retention was high regardless of the aeration conditions. Sorption on humus was smaller. Selenium was retained efficiently on humus. Sorption on mineral soil samples was stronger in aerobic conditions. Sorption increased with time. Technetium was sorbed well on humus and anaerobic, untreated mineral soil samples. Sorption increased with increasing organic matter content and decreasing redox potential. The results from the sorption experiments are used in the site specific radionuclide migration modelling. (orig.)

  3. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Pitkänen, Petteri; Lehtinen, Anne; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland) using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ) at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp.) dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG) were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems. PMID:26425566

  4. Characterisation of matrix pore water at the Olkiluoto investigation site, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F.L.

    2006-12-15

    Pore water that resides in the interconnected pore space between minerals and along grain boundaries in crystalline rocks of low permeability has been extracted successfully by tested laboratory out-diffusion methods using drillcore samples from borehole KR 39 located in the Olkiluoto subarea. The obtained experiment solutions have been characterised chemically and isotopically and related to the in situ pore water composition of the rock. In addition, the method of extraction, together with interfaced measurements of interconnected porosity, provided the opportunity to derive diffusion coefficient values of potential use in predicting future rates of solute transport. Because of the very small volumes of pore water extracted, and the possibility of rock stress release occurring during drilling which might: (a) lead to contamination by drilling fluid, (b) affect the derivation of rock porosity values, and (c) result in input of fluids from ruptured fluid inclusions, great care was taken to avoid such problems or, at least further understand the repercussions. Interpretations of the extracted pore waters are supported by investigations of the rock mineralogy, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry, mineral fluid inclusions, and crush-leach experiments. (orig.)

  5. In-situ failure test in the research tunnel at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Johansson, E.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [Gridpoint Finland Oy (Finland); Heikkilae, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Rock Engineering

    2000-05-01

    A failure test suitable for execution in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto has been planned to study the failure of rock in-situ. The objectives of the in-situ failure test is to assess the applicability of numerical modelling codes and methods to the study of rock failure and associated crack propagation and to develop a novel technique to be used to determine the strength of rock in-situ. The objective of this study was to make a preliminary design of the failure test, assess the technical feasibility of the test and to give input information for further numerical modelling of the test. The design of the failure test is reported and results of preliminary modelling are given. The input information for future modelling includes a study of rock properties, fracture propagation in rock, in-situ stresses and the development of techniques for using the expanding agent to produce artificial stress field. The study showed that mechanical properties such as strength of gneissic tonalite, the main rock type in the Research Tunnel, depends highly on the orientation of schistocity. The in-situ failure test was shown to be technically feasible and a state of stress high enough to cause failure can be created artificially by using a proper expansive agent and design. (orig.)

  6. Game statistics for the Island of Olkiluoto in 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, M.; Nieminen, M. [Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jussila, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the summer 2012 and compared with earlier statistics. Population size estimates are based on interviews of the local hunters. No moose or deer inventories were made in the winter 2011-2012. The moose population has been decreasing slightly during the past ten years. The increasing lynx population has decreasing effect on small ungulate (white-tailed deer and roe deer) populations. The number of hunted mountain hares and European brown hares decreased when comparing the previous year. In addition, the number of hunted raccoon dogs was about 50 per cent lower than in the year 2010. Altogether 27 waterfowls were hunted in 2011. The population of mountain hare is abundant, despite that there were lynx living on the eastern part of island during the winter 2011. Based on track observations, there are pine martens living on the area as well. In addition, there were some observations of wolves visiting on the area. The winter 2011-2012 was milder than the previous one, and it seemed that young swans wintering on the area survived better that in the previous winter. (orig.)

  7. The estimation of future surface water bodies at Olkiluoto area based on statistical terrain and land uplift models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, J.; Turunen, J.; Lipping, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Ikonen, A.

    2014-03-15

    In this working report the modelling effort of future landscape development and surface water body formation at the modelling area in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island is presented. Estimation of the features of future surface water bodies is based on probabilistic terrain and land uplift models presented in previous working reports. The estimation is done using a GIS-based toolbox called UNTAMO. The future surface water bodies are estimated in 10 000 years' time span with 1000 years' intervals for the safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site. In the report a brief overview on the techniques used for probabilistic terrain modelling, land uplift modelling and hydrological modelling are presented first. The latter part of the report describes the results of the modelling effort. The main features of the future landscape - the four lakes forming in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto Island - are identified and the probabilistic model of the shoreline displacement is presented. The area and volume of the four lakes is modelled in a probabilistic manner. All the simulations have been performed for three scenarios two of which are based on 10 realizations of the probabilistic digital terrain model (DTM) and 10 realizations of the probabilistic land uplift model. These two scenarios differ from each other by the eustatic curve used in the land uplift model. The third scenario employs 50 realizations of the probabilistic DTM while a deterministic land uplift model, derived solely from the current land uplift rate, is used. The results indicate that the two scenarios based on the probabilistic land uplift model behave in a similar manner while the third model overestimates past and future land uplift rates. The main features of the landscape are nevertheless similar also for the third scenario. Prediction results for the volumes of the future lakes indicate that a couple of highly probably lake formation scenarios can be identified

  8. Modelling of the in situ stress state at Olkiluoto Site, Western Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valli, J.; Kuula, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland)

    2011-06-15

    In order to determine the interaction of in situ stress and geological features at Olkiluoto with the ONKALO area under more specific focus, stress modelling work was launched in 2009. This entailed updating a previously used model geometry to suit current needs whilst also updating interpreted brittle deformation zones according to the data provided by Posiva in the beginning of 2010. The previous model geometry was originally used for seismic and glacial load simulations. Brittle deformation zones were updated in the model according to a new selection criterion which added a number of brittle deformation zones. Changes in the geometry of certain brittle deformation zones were also necessary to better fit the early 2010 interpretations from Posiva. Modelling goals were to clarify the effect of joint parameters on stress magnitude and orientation and which of the major brittle deformation zones detected in the ONKALO region could have potential effects on local in situ stress states. Additional goals included modelling the effect of several optional thrust boundary conditions and an ice-age. Compression from the northwest-southeast was used as the default approach whilst north-south, east-west and northeast-southwest were optional conditions. A simplified glaciation cycle was also simulated. Results were clear in demonstrating the critical effect of joint cohesion and joint friction angle, i.e. shear strength, on stress-geology interaction, essentially in this order of importance. The case that utilised both drillhole core-logging and ONKALO tunnel mapping results did not exhibit much if any stress-geology interactions as BFZ strength parameters were too high in order to allow any interactions to occur. The geometry and orientation of brittle deformation zones was found to be of significant importance; deformation zones with a shallow dip roughly in the direction of applied compression were optimal for causing stress rotations and the increase of stress magnitude

  9. Studies of quaternary deposits in Olkiluoto in 2004; Maaperaetutkimukset tutkimuskaivannoissa TKB ja TK9 Olkiluodossa 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhta, P. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    The study sections (trenches) TK 8 and TK 9 in Olkiluoto were studied according to the contract in autumn 2004. The investigations were carried out in three phases as the excavation progressed. Samples for grain size determinations were taken from vertical profiles, placed 25 m apart along the trench, with the profiles extending from the soil surface down to bedrock or, if the bedrock was covered with water, to the water table. Between 6 and 7 kg of sediment was taken in a bucket with a shovel and placed in plastic bags for transport to the laboratory. The samples were first dried in the laboratory after which they were sieved. In addition, grain size distribution of the < 63 {mu}m fraction was analyzed with the Micromeritics 5000 ET Sedigraph. Sedimentological observations of the sampling profiles were documented in field by drawing (on a field observation form) and the profiles were photographed using a digital camera. In addition, the excavated sections were photographed along their whole length. The length of the TK 8 trench is approximately 730 m and 30 profiles were sampled from it. The height of the profiles varied from 6 m to 0.8 m with an average of 2.6 m. The till in the trench TK 8 is classified as having a normal amount of cobbles and boulders with the size of the larger clasts varying from 6 to 60 cm. The clasts are normally rounded or sub-angular. Both the size and number of cobbles increases with depth, as does their angularity. In places the till is overlain by postglacial clays/silts and littoral sands. With the exception of one sample, all samples from the TK 8 section can be classified as sandy tills based on the d50 grain size. According to the guidelines for mapping of Quatemary deposits one third of the samples is classified as fine-grained tills. This is because of the high percentages of silt and clay size particles that affect the frost heaving properties of the tills as well as their suitability for construction. A till is considered fine

  10. Isotopic Evidence for Microbial Activity in Crystalline Bedrock Fractures - a Case Study from Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, E. K.; Karhu, J.; Pitkänen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the geochemical environment in crystalline bedrock fractures were investigated using the stable isotopes of C, O and S in fracture filling minerals as tracers. Of special interest were the possible changes which may occur in the subsurface at low temperatures. Especially, the influence of microbial activity was recognized as a catalyst for inducing changes in the geochemical environment. The study site is the Olkiluoto island located on the western coast of Finland, planned to host a geological repository for nuclear waste. Fracture surfaces were investigated to recognize the latest mineralizations at the site. These fillings were comprised of thin plates or small euhedral crystals of calcite and pyrite. The carbon and sulfur isotope compositions of calcite and pyrite were measured from bulk material by conventional IRMS, and in situ by secondary ion mass spectrometry. A notable feature of the late-stage fillings was high variabilities in the δ13C values of calcite and the δ34S values of pyrite, which ranged from -53.8 ‰ to +31.6 ‰ and from -50.4 ‰ to +77.7 ‰, respectively. Based on the isotopic compositions of the fillings, several features in the past hydrogeochemical environment could be recognized. The isotopic composition of the fracture fillings indicate an environment which was stratified with respect to depth. Characteristic features include bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) occurring at depths 50 m. It appears that methanic conditions were replaced by sulfate reduction at depths >50 m likely due to infiltration of SO42--rich brackish waters. Sulfate reducing bacteria used mainly surface derived organic carbon as electron donors. Some indication of minor methanotrophic activity was recognized in anomalously low δ13C values of calcite, down to -53.8 ‰, at the depth range of 34-54 m. This methanotrophic activity may have been related to bacteria using CH4 as an electron donor in BSR.

  11. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2013-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, M.; Nieminen, M. [Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-05-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the summer 2014 and compared with earlier statistics. In addition, the estimated biomass of hunted animals was calculated. The reported game bag and population size estimates are based on the annual action report of local hunting club (Olkiluodon Metsaestysseura ry) and interviews of hunting club's secretary. No moose or deer inventories were made in the winter 2013-2014. The moose population has been a slightly increasing when comparing the previous year; there were 4-6 individuals on the island after hunting season. The number of moose varies because they tend to move between the island and mainland. Winter 2013-2014 was relatively easy for white-tailed deer and roe deer but the predation caused by lynxes inhibits the increase of populations. However, the current amount of lynxes on the island is unknown because the lack of snow in the winter 2013-2014. In the summer of 2014, there were several lynx observations. The number of hunted raccoon dogs was almost four times as large as in the previous year; altogether 26 individuals were killed. There were no noticeable changes in the number of other hunted small or medium-sized predators. American minks were not killed at all. The total number of hunted hares decreased from eleven to seven. Once again, mallard was the most common hunted bird species followed by hooded crow. Other bird species hunted were wood pigeon, herring gull, hazel grouse, wigeon, teal and common pochard. The total biomass hunted was approximately 1 225 kilos (1 170 for mammals and 55 for birds) which was 305 kilos more than in the previous year. The biomass destined to human consumption (i.e. game meat) was approximately 415 kilos (400 kilos for mammals, 15 for birds). (orig.)

  12. Mineralogical study on quaternary soils of the Olkiluoto investigation trench OL-TK19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukkari, S.; Marmo, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Six till samples representing three vertical profiles in a research trench OL TK19 from Olkiluoto were studied for their mineralogy. The client, Posiva Oy, was interested especially in carbonates and sulphides. The study is based on size and density classified subsamples. Mineral distributions were determined by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), using the INCA FEATURE phase detection and classification software. Lithologies within the cobble fraction are also measured. The study revealed unhomogeneity in the sample material. Sample TK 19/2 POH is rich in calcareous sedimentary rocks and older till compared to the other samples. Three main carbonate-bearing sedimentary rock types are: limestone, carbonate cemented quartz feldspar rock, and quartz graywacke, containing clasts of the carbonate cemented quartz feldspar rock. The contents of heavy minerals (0.1-1.2%) and semi heavy minerals (1.3-3.3%) are low in every sample. Carbonate concentrates of the semi heavy mineral separates are low (0.04-0.57 %). Sulfide is predominately pyrite (1.3-8.6%). Pyrite grains have commonly goethite crusts, which are ubiquitous in the surface samples. Both sulphide and carbonate occurs as liberated grains and as fine grained matrix, enveloping other mineral grains. Phosphorites and phosphorous rock fragments are also common in the till samples. The mode of occurrence of phosphate resembles that of carbonate and sulphides that makes the quantification of these buffer minerals impossible. Sedimentary rocks are interpreted to have been derived from the sedimentary rock pile preserved under the Gulf of Bothnia. (orig.)

  13. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community.

  14. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eSohlberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 m to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community.

  15. Revealing the unexplored fungal communities in deep groundwater of crystalline bedrock fracture zones in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin; Miettinen, Hanna; Nyyssönen, Mari; Salavirta, Heikki; Vikman, Minna; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and functional role of fungi, one of the ecologically most important groups of eukaryotic microorganisms, remains largely unknown in deep biosphere environments. In this study we investigated fungal communities in packer-isolated bedrock fractures in Olkiluoto, Finland at depths ranging from 296 to 798 m below surface level. DNA- and cDNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene markers was used to examine the total fungal diversity and to identify the active members in deep fracture zones at different depths. Results showed that fungi were present in fracture zones at all depths and fungal diversity was higher than expected. Most of the observed fungal sequences belonged to the phylum Ascomycota. Phyla Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were only represented as a minor part of the fungal community. Dominating fungal classes in the deep bedrock aquifers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes from the Ascomycota phylum and classes Microbotryomycetes and Tremellomycetes from the Basidiomycota phylum, which are the most frequently detected fungal taxa reported also from deep sea environments. In addition some fungal sequences represented potentially novel fungal species. Active fungi were detected in most of the fracture zones, which proves that fungi are able to maintain cellular activity in these oligotrophic conditions. Possible roles of fungi and their origin in deep bedrock groundwater can only be speculated in the light of current knowledge but some species may be specifically adapted to deep subsurface environment and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients and thus sustaining the deep subsurface microbial community. PMID:26106376

  16. Disposal of spent fuel in Olkiluoto bedrock. Programme for research, development and technical design for the pre-construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The spent fuel from the nuclear power plants at Olkiluoto and Loviisa will be disposed of in Finnish bedrock. Posiva aims at starting the construction of the disposal facility in the 2010's and the actual disposal operations in 2020. In May 1999 Posiva submitted an application for the so-called Decision-in-Principle (DiP) on the facility to the Finnish Government. According to the application the repository would be based on a KBS-3 type concept and sited at Olkiluoto. The application was approved by the Government in December 2000 and will go next to the Parliament for final approval. However, Posiva has already started the planning for the next programme phase on the assumption that a positive decision will be made. The purpose of the present document is to describe the objectives and major items of research, development, technical planning and design work for the period preceding the construction license. According to the current official guidelines Posiva should prepare for submitting the application for the license in 2010. For the technical development and design work the main target for the starting programme phase is to reach the maturity of design and technical plans that allows the specification of work packages for bid calls and gives sufficient confidence in the technical feasibility of planned operations at the encapsulation facility and in the repository. The main objectives for the complementary characterisation work at Olkiluoto consist of the verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, the definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and the characterisation of the target host rock for repository design, safety assessment and planning of construction work. The technical design and demonstration work together with the results of complementary site characterisation will provide the basis of the safety case prepared as the support for the construction license application. An integrated safety

  17. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2006-09-15

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality

  18. Operational safety analysis of the Olkiluoto encapsulation plant and disposal facility; Olkiluodon kapselointi- ja loppusijoituslaitoksen kaeyttoeturvallisuusanalyysi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J.; Suolanen, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facilities to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. In addition the results for unfiltered releases are also presented. This research is limited to the deterministic analysis. During about 30 operation years of our four nuclear power plant units there have been found 58 broken fuel pins. Roughly estimating there has been one fuel leakage per year in a facility (includes two units). Based on this and adopting a conservative approach, it is estimated that one fuel pin per year could leak in normal operation during encapsulation process. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The most exposed group of inhabitants is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the most exposed group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the most exposed group is less than 0.001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety

  19. Geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR43, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR46B, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B and OL-KR48, at Olkiluoto 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi OY, Espoo (Finland)); Heikkinen, E. (Poeyry Environment Oy (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR43, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR46B, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B and OL-KR48 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2007, May 2008. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  20. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagros, Annika (Sannio and Riekkola OY (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  1. Site-to-canister scale flow and transport in Haestholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romuvaara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, A.; Laitinen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    Radioactive waste is originating from production of electricity in nuclear power plants. Most of the waste has only low or intermediate levels of radioactivity. However, the spent nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and it has to be isolated from the biosphere. The current nuclear waste management plan in Finland is based on direct disposal of the spent nuclear fuel deep underground. The only feasible mechanism for the radionuclides to escape from an underground repository is to be carried by the groundwater flow after the failure of waste containers. The scope of this study is to examine the groundwater flow situation and transport properties in the vicinity of the disposal canister and along the potential release paths from the repository into the biosphere. The results of this study are further applied in the site specific safety analysis of a spent fuel repository. Synthesis is made of the porous medium estimates of the groundwater flow in the regional and site scales and the detailed fracture network analysis of the flow in the canister scale. This synthesis includes estimation of the transport properties from the canister into the biosphere and flow rates around the deposition holes of the waste canisters. The modelling has been carried out for four different sites: Hastholmen, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Romavaara. According to the simulations groundwater flow rate around the deposition holes is less than about 1 litre/a for about 75 % of the deposition holes. For about 5 % of the deposition holes the flow rates are a few litres per year or higher. The highest flow rates resulted at Hastholmen, in fresh water conditions 10 000 years after present, and at Kivetty. The transport resistances were calculated for the `worst` flow paths that might have impact on the safety of the repository. The total transport resistances from the repository into the biosphere along those flow paths varied between about 40 000 a/m and 5-10{sup 6} a/m. Most of the total transport

  2. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Complementary evaluations of safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neall, Fiona; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit; Smith, Paul; Gribi, P.; Johnson, Lawrence

    2008-12-15

    The KBS-3H design is a variant of the more general KBS-3 method for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. In the KBS-3H design, multiple assemblies containing spent fuel are emplaced horizontally in parallel, approximately 300 m long, slightly inclined deposition drifts. The copper canisters, each with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, are placed in perforated steel shells prior to deposition in the drifts; the assembly is called the 'supercontainer'. The other KBS-3 variant is the KBS-3V design, in which the copper canisters are emplaced vertically in individual deposition holes surrounded by bentonite clay but without steel supercontainer shells. SKB and Posiva have conducted a Research, Development and Demonstration programme over the period 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to KBS-3V. As part of this programme, the long-term safety of a KBS-3H repository has been assessed in the KBS-3H safety studies. In order to focus the safety studies, the Olkiluoto site in the municipality of Eurajoki, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland, was used as a hypothetical site for a KBS-3H repository. The present report is part of a portfolio of reports discussing the long-term safety of the KBS-3H repository. The overall outcome of the KBS-3H safety studies is documented in the summary report, 'Safety assessment for a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto'. The purpose and scope of the KBS-3H complementary evaluations of safety report is provided in Posiva's Safety Case Plan, which is based on Regulatory Guide YVL 8.4 and on international guidelines on complementary lines of argument to long-term safety that are considered an important element of a post-closure safety case for geological repositories. Complementary evaluations of safety require the use of evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments

  3. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Process report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribi, Peter; Johnson, Lawrence; Suter, Daniel; Smith, Paul; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the main processes potentially affecting the long-term safety of the system, covering radiation-related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical (including microbiological) and radionuclide transport-related processes. The process descriptions deal sequentially with the main sub-systems: fuel/cavity in canister, cast iron insert and copper canister, buffer and other bentonite components, supercontainer

  4. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Evolution report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Johnson, Lawrence; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Gribi, Peter

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007, have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is pre-packaged in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement in the deposition drift; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the repository evolution in successive time frames, including key uncertainties. The description of evolution starts with the initial conditions at the time of emplacement of the first canisters. The repository evolves through an early, transient phase to a state where evolution is far slower. Particular attention is given to describing the transient phase, since this is where most of the

  5. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Evolution report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul; Johnson, Lawrence; Snellman, Margit; Pastina, Barbara; Gribi, Peter

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007, have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is pre-packaged in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement in the deposition drift; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the repository evolution in successive time frames, including key uncertainties. The description of evolution starts with the initial conditions at the time of emplacement of the first canisters. The repository evolves through an early, transient phase to a state where evolution is far slower. Particular attention is given to describing the transient phase, since this is where most of the

  6. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Process report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribi, Peter; Johnson, Lawrence; Suter, Daniel; Smith, Paul; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the main processes potentially affecting the long-term safety of the system, covering radiation-related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical (including microbiological) and radionuclide transport-related processes. The process descriptions deal sequentially with the main sub-systems: fuel/cavity in canister, cast iron insert and copper canister, buffer and other bentonite components, supercontainer

  7. Comparable investigation of the molecular size distribution and the amount of humic substances isolated from ONKALO, Olkiluoto, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.; Maekelae, J.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    The humic substances (HS) at groundwater from ONKALO, Olkiluoto were studied in order to determine the apparent molecular size distribution and the amount of humic substances. Humic substances were isolated from the water sample using DAX-8 resin and eluted with 0.1 M NaOH. The molecular size distribution was defined using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and ultraviolet (UV) and refractive index (RI) detector. In the SEC calibration (polystyrene sulfonate) sodium salts (PSS) were employed. Different eluents (NaNO{sub 3}, Na-acetate and asetonitrile) with phosphate buffer and distinct ionic strengths were studied in order to optimize the determination method. The amount of humic substances was determined using total organic carbon (TOC) measurements. The results were compared with the previous ones in order to find out the variation of different methods (HPSEC) and to follow up the HS quantity (TOC). The method developed during the study is considered to be suitable for the HS molecular size distribution follow up, although the method development is suggested to be continued. (orig.)

  8. Submarine Holocene sedimentary disturbances in the Olkiluoto area of the Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic Sea: a case of postglacial palaeoseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Hutri, Kaisa-Leena

    2004-05-01

    High-resolution echo soundings were used to study the fault activity in the Olkiluoto area of the Gulf of Bothnia, southwestern Finland. Echo-sounding profiles in Holocene submarine sediments show normal faults, structures related to gas or groundwater seepage, submarine slides and slumps, and debris-flow type structures. The faults and other 'disturbance structures' occur along two bedrock lineaments. All faults occur at the same stratigraphical level, whose age is estimated at ˜10,700 calendar years BP (˜9500 radiocarbon years BP). It is suggested that their movement has been triggered by palaeoseismic event(s) when the Late Weichselian ice sheet was retreating from the site and bedrock stresses were released through lineaments and fracture zones. These are the first observations of postglacial fault movements in Quaternary sediments from southern Finland, but, the timing of these movements is contemporaneous with the incidence of postglacial bedrock faulting (˜9000-10,000 radiocarbon years BP) in northern Fennoscandia. The origin of the gas/groundwater seepages remains unclear. Their reflections in the echo-sounding profiles imply that part of the gas is derived from the organic-bearing Litorina and recent gyttja clays. However, at least some part of the gas is derived from the bedrock (deep gas).

  9. Greenland Analogue Project - Hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains at Forsmark, Laxemar and Olkiluoto for usage together with Geomodel version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden)); Stigsson, Martin (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (Sweco Environment AB (Sweden)); Engstroem, Jon (Geologian tutkimuskeskus (Finland)); Klint, Knut Erik (De Nationale Geologiske Undersoegelser for Danmark og Groenland (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    The database of the GAP site is under development. In order to meet the data needs of the different modelling teams working with groundwater flow modelling it has been decided to compile trial data sets comprising structural-hydraulic properties suitable for flow modelling on different scales. The properties provided in this report are based on data and groundwater flow modelling studies conducted for three sites located in the Fennoscandian Shield, two of which are studied by SKB, Forsmark and Laxemar, and one by Posiva, Olkiluoto. The provided hydraulic properties provided here are simplified to facilitate a readily usage together with the GAP Geomodel version 1.

  10. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Description of the disposal system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Description of the Disposal System sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective presenting the initial state of the disposal system for the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Finland. Disposal system is an entity composed of a repository system and surface environment. The repository system includes the spent nuclear fuel, canister, buffer, backfill, and closure components as well as the host rock. The repository system components have assigned safety functions (except for the spent nuclear fuel) and are subject to requirements. The initial state is presented for each component, and references to the main supporting reports are given to guide the reader for more details. Conditions for each component vary in time and space, due to the time of emplacement and due to the tolerances set for the compositions, geometries and other properties depending on the component. The disposal operation is foreseen to commence {approx} 2020. At the beginning of the postclosure period, around 2120, all the engineered components have been installed and the operation is finalised. The system evolution during the operational phase is discussed in detail in Performance Assessment. The initial state for the host rock is defined to be essentially equal to the baseline conditions prior to starting the construction of the underground characterisation facility ONKALO. For the surface environment, the initial state is the present conditions prevailing. For any other component of the disposal system, the initial state is defined as the state it has when the direct control over that specific part of the system ceases and only limited information can be made available on the subsequent development of conditions in that part of the system or its near field. (orig.)

  11. Review of the GPS deformation monitoring studies commissioned by Posiva Oy on the Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara sites, 1994-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeer, M

    2002-05-01

    This report reviews the work done by scientists from the Finnish Geodetic Institute at the three sites Olkiluoto, Kivetty and Romuvaara over the years 1994-2000, with a view to detecting and measuring possible local crustal movements by means of geodetic GPS. The work, which consisted of measurements, computations and analysis, was reported in seven technical reports of Posiva Oy. Reviewed was also the work related to the three permanent stations established in these three sites, which have operated as part of the twelve-station national FinnRef network. The conclusion was that on the whole, the work has been performed professionally using state of the art equipment, measurement and analysis techniques by competent and experienced personnel. A number of suggestions for improvement and future work are given, mainly concerning the way the modelling of atmospheric propagation effects was done and how that affects the scale of the network computation, a proposal for monitoring the absolute scale, as well as remarks concerning the regular re-measurement of reserve marker ties, and the importance of continuing monitoring for a full solar activity cycle. The importance of interdisciplinarity is stressed. This review report is an outcome of the Bedrock Movements Investigations Group which supports STUKs regulatory activities related to confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto. (orig.)

  12. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  13. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Surface and near-surface hydrological modelling in the biosphere assessment BSA-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvonen, T. [WaterHope, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-05-15

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. This study is part of the biosphere assessment (BSA-2012) within the safety case for the repository. The surface hydrological modelling described in this report is aimed at providing link between radionuclide transport in the geosphere and in the biosphere systems. The SVAT-model and Olkiluoto site scale surface hydrological model were calibrated and validated in the present day conditions using the input data provided by the Olkiluoto Monitoring Programme (OMO). During the next 10 000 years the terrain and ecosystem development is to a large extent driven by the postglacial crustal uplift. UNTAMO is a GIS toolbox developed for simulating land-uplift driven or other changes in the biosphere. All the spatial and temporal input data (excluding meteorological data) needed in the surface hydrological modelling were provided by the UNTAMO toolbox. The specific outputs given by UNTAMO toolbox are time-dependent evolution of the biosphere objects. They are continuous and sufficiently homogeneous sub-areas of the modelled area that could potentially receive radionuclides released from the repository. Possible ecosystem types for biosphere objects are coast, lake, river, forest, cropland, pasture and wetland. The primary goal of this study was to compute vertical and horizontal water fluxes in the biosphere objects. These data will be used in the biosphere radionuclide transport calculations. The method adopted here is based on calculating average vertical and horizontal fluxes for biosphere objects from the results of the full 3D-model. It was not necessary to develop any simplified hydrological model for the biosphere objects. This report includes modelling results from for the Reference Case (present day climate) and Terr{sub M}axAgri Case (maximum extent of agricultural areas

  14. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO{sub 3}-HF extraction. The 'in situ' K{sub d} values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K{sub d} values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K{sub d} data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of

  15. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  16. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, Borehole OL-KR15 and OL-KR15B, Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H.

    2005-07-01

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out in borehole OL-KR15 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2003-2004 in two phases. The total length of the borehole OL-KR15 is 518,85 m and 158 45,14 m. Of the 471 ,5 m + 44,5 m total measurable length 414 m was covered with 237 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the research plan, partly with 1 m overlaps. 259 tests were initiated, but some of them ended to hardware or software errors or unsuitable parameter values. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the stabilisation or injection stage lasted several hours. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  17. Installation of groundwater observation tubes OL-PVP36-38 and drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP70-71 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    In order to widen the groundwater monitoring network at Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy contracted Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to install new groundwater observation tubes to three locations and to drill two shallow drillholes with standpipes. The identification numbers of the groundwater observation tubes are OL-PVP36, OL-PVP37A, 37B, 37C, OL-PVP38A, 38B, 38C and 38D, and the shallow drillholes are named OL-PP70 and OL-PP71. The observation tubes were installed and the shallow holes drilled between September 22nd and October 12th in 2011. The drilling rig used in the installation work was a GM-200 rig. Drilling equipment consisted of casing tubes (90/77 mm) with drilling bit, 55 mm geo rods and 64 mm drilling bits and T76-equipment for drilling the shallow holes. Monitoring pipes (PVC, 60/52 mm) were lowered into the holes inside the casings. The monitoring pipes consist of a lower section of riser pipe, a middle section of screen pipe and an upper section of riser pipe. The screen pipe slot size is 0.3 mm and the length of the screen section is two metres. Protective stainless steel covers with lock-up caps were installed around the monitoring tubes and the shallow drillholes. In addition to the installation of the tubes, the work included water level measurements after installation. The core samples of the shallow drillholes were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. (orig.)

  18. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, Boreholes OL-KR16, 16B, 17, 17B, 18 and 18B, Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H.

    2005-07-01

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic con- ductivity measurements were carried out in boreholes OL-KR16, 16B, 17, 17 B, 18 and 18B at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during spring-summer 2004. The total lengths of the boreholes are: OL-KR16 170,20 m, OL-KR17 157,13 m and OL-KR18 125,49 m. Corresponding B-holes are around 45 m deep, parallel and adjacent to their 'parent' holes so representing the cased sections of them. The conbined measurable length of the holes is about 453,57 m, of which 429,15 m was covered with 217 standard tests at 2 m packer separation as specified in the research plan. 246 tests were initiated, but some had to be cancelled due to errors or unsuitable control parameters. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the stabilisation, injection or fall-off stage lasted several hours. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  19. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR52 and OL-KR47 in 2013 and 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurmerinta, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-09-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with the HTU-equipment in drillholes OL KR52 and OL KR47 on the Olkiluoto investigation site. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. In OL-KR52 measurements were carried out between February 2013 and April 2013 and in OL-KR47 between October 2013 and February 2014. The total length of the drillhole OL-KR52 is 427.35 m, 376.00 m of which was covered by 188 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR47 is 1008.76 m long and 312 similar tests were conducted in it covering 624.00 m of the drillhole. These numbers include one equipment test measurement near the surface in OL-KR47. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended if longer times were needed to obtain correct results or when suited to the working schedule. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Poeyry Finland Oy in co-operation with Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  20. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of different extractions of the soil samples OL-FEH914254, OL-FEH917258 and OL-FIP10, Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The seven different extractions are used to evaluate and compare the element concentrations and solubility both dried/sieved and fresh mineral soil samples OLFEH914254, OL-FEH917258, OL-FIP10 and OL-FIP10 and humus sample OL-FIP10 taken from the Olkiluoto Island in 2010. The study focuses on the key elements assigned top priority in the biosphere assessments: Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr. The priority grouping of radionuclides is based on their expected relevance for long-term safety using a simple screening evaluation applied on the calculations cases analysed in the biosphere analyses in the safety case studies and the cases to be analysed from the radionuclide transport model. The extractions included: total, aqua regia, NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5) and water leach extractions. The sequential extractions consisted of: exchangeable, acid-soluble/bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual fractions, in addition, separate aqua regia extraction was included. Molybdenum, niobium and selenium concentrations were higher in aqua regia extraction than in the total extraction. Aqua regia extractions were analysed by using different methods in two different laboratories, and thus the results are not completely comparable for the most of the elements. In addition, dry and organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity and grain size distribution were measured. The pH values measured in the deionised water were on average 0.5 units higher than pH values extracted by 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}. The CEC was significantly higher in the humus sample than in the mineral soil samples. In modelling migration of elements in ecosystems, especially radionuclides, it is used distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) and concentration ratios (CR), both including a component of concentration in the solids. Solubility of different solid elements varies widely depending the used methods and extracts. (orig.)

  2. Geophysical logging and imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-274 at Olkiluoto in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 at ONKALO in the investigation niche ONK-TKU-4 (Hydco) in May and in December 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  3. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    Steel components are unstable in EBS environments. They will corrode to fairly insoluble corrosion products, such as magnetite, and also react with the smectitic matrix of the bentonite buffer. In this study, the impact of reduced iron on the buffer's stability has been assessed within the framework of the KBS-H concept. Our work includes two parts. In the first part, available data from experimental and modelling studies have been compiled and interpreted. In the second part, a relatively simple geochemical modelling exercise on the iron-bentonite interaction in the current KBS-3H disposal system has been performed using Olkiluoto as test case. The iron in this case stems from the perforated supercontainer steel shell foreseen to be emplaced around the buffer material. The iron-bentonite interaction under reducing conditions may involve different processes including sorption, redox and dissolution/precipitation reactions, the details of which are not yet understood. One process to consider is the sorption of corrosion-derived Fe(II). This process is fast and leads to strong binding of Fe(II) at the smectite surface. Whether this sorption reaction is accompanied by a redox and surface precipitation reaction is presently not clear. A further process to consider under very reducing conditions is the reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay which may destabilise the montmorillonite structure. The process of greatest relevance for the buffer's performance is montmorillonite transformation in contact with reduced iron. This process is very slow and experimentally difficult to investigate. Current data suggest that the transformation process may either lead to a Fe-rich smectite (e.g. saponite) or to a non-swelling clay (berthierine or chlorite). In addition, cementation due to precipitation of iron corrosion products or of SiO{sub 2} resulting from montmorillonite transformation may occur. Physical properties of the buffer may in principle be affected by

  4. Impact of corrosion-derived iron on the bentonite buffer within the KBS-3H disposal concept. The Olkiluoto site as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wersin, Paul (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)); Birgersson, Martin; Olsson, Siv; Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Snellman, Margit (Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    Steel components are unstable in EBS environments. They will corrode to fairly insoluble corrosion products, such as magnetite, and also react with the smectitic matrix of the bentonite buffer. In this study, the impact of reduced iron on the buffer's stability has been assessed within the framework of the KBS-H concept. Our work includes two parts. In the first part, available data from experimental and modelling studies have been compiled and interpreted. In the second part, a relatively simple geochemical modelling exercise on the iron-bentonite interaction in the current KBS-3H disposal system has been performed using Olkiluoto as test case. The iron in this case stems from the perforated supercontainer steel shell foreseen to be emplaced around the buffer material. The iron-bentonite interaction under reducing conditions may involve different processes including sorption, redox and dissolution/precipitation reactions, the details of which are not yet understood. One process to consider is the sorption of corrosion-derived Fe(II). This process is fast and leads to strong binding of Fe(II) at the smectite surface. Whether this sorption reaction is accompanied by a redox and surface precipitation reaction is presently not clear. A further process to consider under very reducing conditions is the reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay which may destabilise the montmorillonite structure. The process of greatest relevance for the buffer's performance is montmorillonite transformation in contact with reduced iron. This process is very slow and experimentally difficult to investigate. Current data suggest that the transformation process may either lead to a Fe-rich smectite (e.g. saponite) or to a non-swelling clay (berthierine or chlorite). In addition, cementation due to precipitation of iron corrosion products or of SiO{sub 2} resulting from montmorillonite transformation may occur. Physical properties of the buffer may in principle be affected by

  5. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  6. [Book review] Stevenson, H.M. & Anderson, B.H. 1994. The Birdlife of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The book consists of species accounts of each species including, where information is available, such topics as overall distribution, Florida status, relative abundance, migration, haunts and habits, adverse factors, problems of identification, variation, references and a distribution map symbolically showing seasonal distribution records by county. The book also has an addendum of records in 1993-1994 and an extensive bibliography. Any faunistic treatment of Florida or study of the status of any Florida species will need to use the text as a starting point, although not necessarily an ending point. Those concerned with having the most solidly verified species list would be best advised to continue to use Robertson and Woolfenden's Annotated List and its successors. But for a compendium of information on the birds of this fascinating peninsula, one could do no better.

  7. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm{sup 3} in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD

  8. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  9. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  10. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  11. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  12. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  13. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  14. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  15. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  16. Results of sampling and analysis of groundwater from multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 between spring 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program (OMO) during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1 (151.2-156.8 m, 311.2-336.8 m and 524.4-528.4 m), OL-KR3 (242.6-253.2 m), OL-KR5 (277.2-284.6 m and 457.2-476.2 m), OL-KR9 (468.2-482.2 m), OL-KR11 (597.5-628.1 m) and OLKR12 (363-368 m). The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's (1967) classification, the collected groundwater samples represent either the borehole water type Na-Cl (OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OLK-R1/ T/311.2-336.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.6 m, OL-KR11/ T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m) or Na-Ca-Cl (OL-KR1/T/524.4- 528.4 m, OL-KR5/T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m). The groundwater samples from OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6- 253.2 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.2 m, OL-KR11/T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m were brackish (1000 mg/L < TDS < 10000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples (OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m), were saline (TDS> 10000 mg/L). Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes were seen between samplings done at the different times. Only the groundwater sampled from OL-KR1/T/311.2-336.8 m had significant changes in its chemical composition during the reference period, but also in OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T

  17. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  18. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  19. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2005-01-01

    This paper focusses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focusses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. ...

  20. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M.H.; Weale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  1. Survey expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Weale, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  2. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  3. Contextual assessment of maintenance culture at Olkiluoto and Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Eriksson, I. [Maelardalen University (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    The study aims to characterise, assess and develop the organisational cultures of participating nuclear power companies' maintenance units. The assessment is made by the means of maintenance core task modelling that has already been started in previous studies. The theoretical core task model is used in evaluating the characteristics of the organisational culture. We aim to identify what are the strengths and weaknesses of the case organisation's culture in relation to its core task. The study also aims to validate the methodology for contextual assessment of organisational culture. In addition to case specific results, the study acts as a benchmark between the participating companies and gives a chance to compare the different culture profiles between the companies. Similarities and differences between the organisational cultures at the maintenance units were identified. The purpose is not however to evaluate which organisation is better, but to raise issues that require attention at the organisations. When evaluative statements are made, the criteria are formed on the basis of the core task model: Even though the practices differ, from the perspective of the maintenance core task they might both be as effective. (au)

  4. Microstructure, porosity and mineralogy around fractures in Olkiluoto bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuva, J. (ed.); Myllys, M.; Timonen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Kelokaski, M.; Ikonen, J.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Aaltonen, I.

    2012-01-15

    3D distributions of minerals and porosities were determined for samples that included waterconducting fractures. The analysis of these samples was performed using conventional petrography methods, electron microscopy, C-14-PMMA porosity analysis and X-ray tomography. While X-ray tomography proved to be a very useful method when determining the inner structure of the samples, combining tomography results with those obtained by other methods turned out to be difficult without very careful sample preparation design. It seems that the properties of rock around a water-conducting fracture depend on so many uncorrelated factors that no clear pattern emerged even for rock samples with a given type of fracture. We can conclude, however, that a combination of different analysis methods can be useful and used to infer novel structural information about alteration zones adjacent to fracture surfaces. (orig.)

  5. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2013. Hydrology and hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaittinen, T.; Ahokas, H.; Komulainen, J.; Nummela, J.; Pentti, E.; Turku, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Karvonen, T. [WaterHope, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.

    2014-12-15

    The impact of the construction of ONKALO is monitored by measuring and observing numerous different parameters related to hydrology, geochemistry, environment, rock mechanics and foreign materials. The Hydrological Monitoring Programme consists of the following parameters: groundwater level, hydraulic head, flow conditions in open drillholes, transverse flow, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff), infiltration, ground frost, leakages in tunnels, and water balance in the tunnel system and in Korvensuo Reservoir. This Report focuses on hydrogeological parameters. Other parameters, like precipitation, ground frost etc. will be reported in the Monitoring Report of Environment. Updated monitoring program was introduced in the beginning of 2012. The updated program will be used for the period before repository operation. Only minor changes were implemented. Monitoring has been carried out according to plan. This Report presents the results for the year 2013. Excavation of the access tunnel was completed in 2012. Demonstration tunnels 3 and 4 were excavated and central tunnel 1 was continued from chainage 4366-22 m to chainage 4366-60 m in 2013. Total inflow into ONKALO down to chainage 4580 m including shaft ONK-KU2 down to level -437 m was on average 35 l/min in 2013. The mapping of water leakages and moisture conditions on the tunnel walls and the ceiling has been continued. The general pattern of leakages has remained similar during the construction of ONKALO. Most significant differences are caused by seasonal effects like condensation of warm ventilation air on tunnel walls and ceiling. The changes observed in the groundwater level in observation tubes in the overburden and in shallow drillholes in the bedrock are not necessarily caused by the construction of ONKALO. However, weak indications of a local decrease in groundwater level have been observed. Effects on the head deeper in the bedrock have been both short-term and long-term. In 2013, short-term effects were connected to the drilling of pre-grouting holes in the shafts running through the HZ20 zones. Long-term changes, i.e. a decrease in pressure heads near ONKALO have remained at the same level as in 2012. Drawdown in heads averagely varies between 11 and 13 m within the HZ20 system and between 1 and 2 m within the HZ19 system. Due to the intersection of the HZ056 zone and a few local features, long-term drawdowns of over 20 m have occurred and the water level has decreased below the measurable drillhole depth in ten monitoring sections. Flow-based monitoring using the PFL (DIFF tool and TRANS tool) was carried out in seven drillholes in 2013. The changes detected in drillhole OL-KR40 in flow and calculated parameters are most likely caused by direct connections to ONKALO along zones HZ20B and HZ056. Also, indications of other connections to ONKALO were revealed by the PFL-tool in OL-KR40. A systematic decrease of in situ EC in OL-KR40 at almost all depths has been caused by contamination of inflowing water from the depth of 284 m into the outflowing depths where hydraulic connections to ONKALO are evident. Slug tests were performed in 22 shallow holes. The interpreted hydraulic conductivity was in some measurements remarkably different from earlier results, probably because the water table was unusually close to the measured depth. (orig.)

  6. Microstructure, porosity and mineralogy around fractures in Olkiluoto bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuva, J. (ed.); Myllys, M.; Timonen, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Kelokaski, M.; Ikonen, J.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Lindberg, A. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Aaltonen, I.

    2012-01-15

    3D distributions of minerals and porosities were determined for samples that included waterconducting fractures. The analysis of these samples was performed using conventional petrography methods, electron microscopy, C-14-PMMA porosity analysis and X-ray tomography. While X-ray tomography proved to be a very useful method when determining the inner structure of the samples, combining tomography results with those obtained by other methods turned out to be difficult without very careful sample preparation design. It seems that the properties of rock around a water-conducting fracture depend on so many uncorrelated factors that no clear pattern emerged even for rock samples with a given type of fracture. We can conclude, however, that a combination of different analysis methods can be useful and used to infer novel structural information about alteration zones adjacent to fracture surfaces. (orig.)

  7. Results of monitoring at Olkiluoto in 2010. Hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaittinen, T.; Ahokas, H.; Klockars, J.; Nummela, J.; Pentti, E.; Penttinen, T.; Poellaenen, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland); Karvonen, T. [WaterHope, Helsinki (Finland); Lindgren, S.

    2012-03-15

    The impact of the construction of ONKALO is monitored by measuring and observing numerous different parameters related to hydrology, geochemistry, environment, rock mechanics and foreign materials. The Hydrological Monitoring Programme consists of the following parameters: groundwater level, hydraulic head, flow conditions in open boreholes, cross drillhole flow, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff), infiltration, ground frost, leakages in tunnels, and water balance in the tunnel system and in Korvensuo Reservoir. This Report focuses on hydrogeological parameters. Other parameters, like precipitation, ground frost etc. will be reported in the Monitoring Report of Environment. Monitoring has primarily been carried out according to plan. This Report presents the results for the year 2010. A significant change took place in the Monitoring Programme when most of the open drillholes were packed-off before the excavation of the ONKALO access tunnel through the hydrogeological HZ20 zones began in June 2008. Prior to packing-off, open drillholes connected the main hydrogeological features, the HZ19 and HZ20 systems, to each other. Due to the packing-off of open drillholes, the number of flow logging and hydraulic testing (HTU) measurements has decreased considerably. The mapping of water leakages and moisture conditions in tunnel walls and roof has been continued. Some changes have been observed in the pattern of moisture content. The changes have probably been caused by shotcreting, postgrouting and possibly also by seasonal effects. The changes have so far not been analysed. The changes observed in the groundwater level in shallow observation tubes in the overburden and in shallow drillholes in the bedrock are not necessarily caused by the construction of ONKALO. However, weak indications of a decrease in groundwater level have been observed. Effects on the head deeper in the bedrock have been both short-term and long-term. In 2010, short-term effects were mostly connected to the drilling of pre-grouting holes in the shafts running through the HZ20 zones. Long-term changes, i.e. a decrease in pressure heads near ONKALO, vary between 10 and 12 m within the HZ20 system and between 1 and 2 m within the HZ19 system. Due to the intersection of the new HZ056 zone, a long-term drawdown of over 20 m occurred and the groundwater level has decreased below measurable drillhole depth in three monitoring section. Flow-based monitoring using the PFL-tool was carried out in four drillholes in 2010. The several locally strong changes in flow and calculated head are most likely caused by direct connections along the HZ19 and HZ20 zones as well as along zone HZ056. In addition, several other local connections to ONKALO were revealed by the PFLtool. Some minor changes in in situ EC values were also observed. Changes in hydraulic conductivities were measured with the HTU-tool in two drillholes and with the Slug-test in 29 shallow holes. (orig.)

  8. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  9. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  10. Robotic Surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  11. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  12. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to ti

  13. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  14. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  15. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Boci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the identification and treatment of outliers, and analyses of coefficient of variation. It provides sources of errors and gives recommendations of how to improve them throw sample survey techniques.

  16. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  17. Handbook of web surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bethlehem, Jelke

    2011-01-01

    BEST PRACTICES TO CREATE AND IMPLEMENTHIGHLY EFFECTIVE WEB SURVEYS Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to tips for detecting error, this book thoroughly introduces readers to the this cutting-edge technique and offers tips for creating successful web surveys. The authors provide a history of web surveys and go on to explore the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of dat

  18. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Koji,; Kawabata, S; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Paolo,; Mazzali,; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2x2.2 deg field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a three-minute exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g~20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since April 2012. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of order of 1 during our 3-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  19. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mazzali, Paolo; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-12-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2° × 2.2° field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g ˜ 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  20. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  1. SURVEY, MCLEOD COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  3. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  4. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  5. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  6. SURVEY, CHARLES COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  7. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  8. SURVEY, SOLANO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Solano County California, hydrographic survey data collected by Harned Surveying and Engineering (HSE). Data collection period January 1, 2011 through March 1, 2011.

  9. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, BENTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, TUSCALOSAA COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, FREMONT COUNTY, COLORADO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, OCONTO COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, SANDERS COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  19. SURVEY, CALHOUN COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  1. SURVEY, CALVERT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  2. SURVEY, VICTORIA COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, Somerset COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  4. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. 1998 Harrisburg Airport Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data collected in 1998 to evaluate the ability of lidar to survey airport obstructions in collaboration with NOAA National Geodetic Survey....

  6. Water Use: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  7. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. SURVEY, CITRUS County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, NANTUCKET COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. Surveys: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2004-10-01

    Surveys are a valuable research tool for studying the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a study population. This article explores quantitative analyses of written questionnaires as instruments for survey research. Obtaining accurate and precise information from a survey requires minimizing the possibility of bias from inappropriate sampling or a flawed survey instrument, and this article describes strategies to minimize sampling bias by increasing response rates, comparing responders to nonresponders, and identifying the appropriate sampling population. It is crucial that the survey instrument be valid, meaning that it actually measures what the investigator intends it to measure. In developing a valid survey instrument, it can be useful to adapt survey instruments that were developed by other researchers and to conduct extensive pilot-testing of your survey instrument.

  13. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. Global Land Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Land Survey (GLS) datasets are a collection of orthorectified, cloud-minimized Landsat-type satellite images, providing near complete coverage of the...

  1. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  2. SURVEY, Baltomore City, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  3. SURVEY, Poquoson City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  4. SURVEY, Caroline COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  5. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, GRAFTON COUNTY, NH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  8. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  9. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  10. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  11. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  12. SURVEY, Cecil County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  13. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  15. China Executive Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWEIXIAN

    2005-01-01

    Beiiing-based CTR Market Research recently completed a survey named China Business Executive Survey in the four Chinese dries of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The survey identified 340,000 senior executives in the four cities and found that around 20,000 ofthem have annual income of over 200,000yuan (US$24,000).

  16. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  19. Surveying your internal customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  20. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  1. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  2. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys. Coll

  3. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys.

  4. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2011-01-01

    Since the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) first began conducting its Alumni Perspectives Surveys 11 years ago, several "truths" about graduate business school alumni have consistently stood the test of time: They are and remain eminently employable. They constantly rate the value of the degree highly. This year's results are…

  5. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  6. Survey team on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on ‘Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research’. It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master...

  7. Reflexive cacti: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bojana Mihailović; Marija Rašajski; Zoran Stanić

    2016-01-01

    A graph is called reflexive if its second largest eigenvalue does not exceed 2. We survey the results on reflexive cacti obtained in the last two decades. We also discuss various patterns of appearing of Smith graphs as subgraphs of reflexive cacti. In the Appendix, we survey the recent results concerning reflexive bipartite regular graphs.

  8. Sandhills native bee survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes the results of a bee survey conducted in Sandhills region of north and south Carolina on May 18th and 19th 2006. Part of the survey was...

  9. EHRA research network surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos;

    2015-01-01

    of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over...

  10. And the Survey Says...

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Last month we highlighted our Quadrennial Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Using data from the survey, we have looked at the availability of high school physics. We report that about 95% of high school seniors attend a high school where physics is offered regularly--either every year or every other year. A U.S. Department of Education…

  11. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  12. Annual HR Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    A trainers' salary survey collected data on 1,091 companies, 31,615 employees, and 97 human resource jobs. Results show pay for human resource professionals is continuing to rise. The survey contains information on base salaries, annual bonuses and incentives, and long-term eligibility incentives. (JOW)

  13. The FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Markova, N; Bastian, N; Beletsky, Y; Bestenlehner, J; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; Carraro, G; Clark, J; Crowther, P; de Koter, A; de Mink, S; Doran, E; Dufton, P; Dunstall, P; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Henault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Howarth, I; Langer, N; Lennon, D; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Smartt, S; Stroud, V; Taylor, W; van Loon, J; Vink, J; Walborn, N

    2011-01-01

    The Tarantula survey is an ESO Large Programme which has obtained multi-epochs spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Dor region in the Large Magelanic Cloud. Here we briefly describe the main drivers of the survey and the observational material derived.

  14. Seven Survey Sins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    As pressure builds to assess students, teachers, and schools, educational practitioners and policy makers are increasingly looking toward student perception surveys as a promising means to collect high-quality, useful data. For instance, the widely cited Measures of Effective Teaching study lists student perception surveys as one of the three key…

  15. Detail and survey radioautographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Wm.W.

    1949-04-19

    The much used survey or contact type of radioautograph is indispensible for a study of the gross distribution of radioactive materials. A detail radioautograph is equally indispensible. The radioautograph makes possible the determination of plutonium with respect to cells. Outlines of survey and detail techniques are given.

  16. Extragalactic HI Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  17. Physics Survey Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-30

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole.

  18. Public surveys at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa; Hilker, Michael; Hussain, Gaitee; Mascetti, Laura; Micol, Alberto; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rejkuba, Marina; Retzlaff, Jörg; Mieske, Steffen; Szeifert, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Leibundgut, Bruno; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a strong mandate to survey the Southern Sky. In this article, we describe the ESO telescopes and instruments that are currently used for ESO Public Surveys, and the future plans of the community with the new wide-field-spectroscopic instruments. We summarize the ESO policies governing the management of these projects on behalf of the community. The on-going ESO Public Surveys and their science goals, their status of completion, and the new projects selected during the second ESO VISTA call in 2015/2016 are discussed. We then present the impact of these projects in terms of current numbers of refereed publications and the scientific data products published through the ESO Science Archive Facility by the survey teams, including the independent access and scientific use of the published survey data products by the astronomical community.

  19. The Deep Lens Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wittman, D; Dell'Antonio, I P; Becker, A C; Margoniner, V E; Cohen, J; Norman, D; Loomba, D; Squires, G; Wilson, G; Stubbs, C; Hennawi, J F; Spergel, D N; Boeshaar, P C; Clocchiatti, A; Hamuy, M; Bernstein, G; González, A; Guhathakurta, R; Hu, W; Seljak, U; Zaritsky, D

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Lens Survey (DLS) is a deep BVRz' imaging survey of seven 2x2 degree fields, with all data to be made public. The primary scientific driver is weak gravitational lensing, but the survey is also designed to enable a wide array of other astrophysical investigations. A unique feature of this survey is the search for transient phenomena. We subtract multiple exposures of a field, detect differences, classify, and release transients on the Web within about an hour of observation. Here we summarize the scientific goals of the DLS, field and filter selection, observing techniques and current status, data reduction, data products and release, and transient detections. Finally, we discuss some lessons which might apply to future large surveys such as LSST.

  20. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  1. Telephony user survey

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Let us know your needs to better plan the transition to a new CERN telephony system.   CERN is planning to upgrade its telephony network and replace the system with a new and modern VoIP infrastructure. We strive to make this transition as beneficial and smooth as possible for you. Please let us know more about your current working environment, expectations and suggestions by responding to this survey: https://cern.ch/tel-survey. The more answers we get, the better the new system will serve everyone in the future. The survey will take you about five minutes to complete; we are counting on your feedback!

  2. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  3. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  4. FLEXI Project Management Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohunen, Anna; Krzanik, Lech; Kuvaja, Pasi; Similä, Jouni; Rodriguez, Pilar; Hyysalo, Jarkko; Linna, Tommi

    FLEXI Project Management Survey (FLEXI PMS) has been established to gain detailed knowledge on how the software industry - in particular successful companies - manages agile software development. FLEXI PMS investigates the actual agile values, principles, practices and contexts. The survey is supported by a careful literature review and analysis of existing studies. Special attention is attached to large, multi-site, multi-company and distributed projects - the target area of FLEXI project. The survey is intended to provide solid data for further knowledge acquisition and project/company positioning with regard to feasible agile management practices.

  5. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  6. Hake Survey ADCP (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  7. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  8. National Nursing Home Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  9. Eagle surveys near Valdez

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A shoreline survey of birds in Port Valdez, Sawmill Bay and Jack Bay was completed between September 14 and September 16, 1976, by Special Studies Team Mike Jacobson...

  10. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  11. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  12. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  13. Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Midwinter Bald Eagle survey is to monitor the status of Bald Eagle wintering populations in the contiguous United States by estimating national...

  14. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  15. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  16. Artesian Wetlands Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Artesian Wetlands Survey includes data on the wetlands in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. Data recorded includes location, area of influence, area inundated,...

  17. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  18. Wolf Population Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snow track surveys are a common method of estimating relative abundance, estimating density, and documenting range use of furbearers and large carnivores. The...

  19. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  20. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  1. Hake Survey ADCP (2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  2. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  3. NWRS Survey Prioritization Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A SMART Tool and User's Guide for aiding NWRS Station staff when prioritizing their surveys for an Inventory and Monitoring Plan. This guide describes a process and...

  4. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  5. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  6. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  7. Patient survey (ICH CAHPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In-Center Hemodialysis Facilites Patient evaluations from the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (ICH-CAHPS) Survey. The...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  10. Web surveys' hidden hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer

    2003-07-01

    The same question posed on the Web and in print can yield very different answers, dramatically distorting survey results and misleading management. But, as psychologist Palmer Morrel-Samuels demonstrates, the problems are readily fixed.

  11. Billfish Angler Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Billfish Angler Survey provides estimates of billfish angling activities in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This collection of recreational billfish catch and...

  12. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  13. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  14. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  15. Muskox survey, Nunivak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial survey completed July 1958 is presented with results. Muskox were located and plotted on a map. Animals were also classified by Adult bull, calve, cows and...

  16. Dulbi River goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) broods was conducted on 58 3/8 miles of the Dulbi River in Alaska. Four...

  17. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  18. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  19. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  20. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  1. Arctic survey, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income and...

  2. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  3. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  4. NMFS Reef Survey Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reef Environmental Survey Project (REEF) mission to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats is accomplished primarily through its Fish...

  5. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  6. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  7. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  8. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  9. Use of Public Opinion Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to design and administer public-opinion surveys. Includes types of surveys, preparing survey questions, drawing and validating a sample, and processing the data. (Contains 16 references.) (PKP)

  10. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  11. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  12. Hong Kong Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R J Sewell

    2007-01-01

    @@ History and objectives The Hong Kong Geological Survey(HKGS) was created on 5 May,1982,wimin the then Engineering Development Department of the Hong Kong Govemment.The initial objective was to carry out a new geological survey of the Territory at 1∶20,000 scale.This followed recognition of an urgent need to produce high quality geological maps at a large scale with sufficient detail to facilitate physical planning and land use management of Hong Kong.

  13. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  14. LIBRARY SURVEY 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The primary role of the library is to make sure that you can do YOUR work in the most efficient way possible. To ensure that we continue to match our services to your information needs, the library regularly gathers the views and opinions of its readers in a variety of ways, [link for e-version: http://library/library_general/statistics/library_statistics_ surveys.html], including user surveys. The last survey was carried out in 1996. One of the most visible results of that survey was the extension of the library desk service until seven o'clock in the evening, to meet the demand for greater access to library materials. Now the 'electronic library' is becoming more important than the physical one, we feel it is once again time to ensure that we are providing the services and information you need, in the most effective way possible. We also want to make sure you are aware of the full range of services that the library provides. Please spare just a few minutes to fill out our survey at http://library.cern.ch/su...

  15. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  16. PEP Laser Surveying System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands.

  17. The Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, T; Annis, J; Barlow, M; Bebek, C; Bigelow, B; Beldica, C; Bernstein, R; Bridle, S; Brunner, R; Carlstrom, J; Campbell, M; Castander, F; Cunha, C; Diehl, H T; Dodelson, S; Doel, P; Efstathiou, G P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A; Fernndez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J A; Gaztaaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M; Hu, W; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Lahav, O; Levi, M; Lima, M; Lin, H; Limon, P; Martínez, M; McKay, T; McMahon, R; Merritt, W K; Miller, C; Miralda-Escudé, J; Mohr, J; Nichol, R; Oyaizu, H; Peacock, J; Peoples, John; Perlmutter, S; Plante, R; Ricker, P; Roe, N; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Selen, M; Sheldon, E S; Smith, C; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Suntzeff, N; Sutherland, W; Takada, M; Tarle, G; Tecchio, M; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Viti, S; Walker, A; Wechsler, R; Weller, J; Wester, W

    2006-01-01

    We describe the Dark Energy Survey (DES), a proposed optical-near infrared survey of 5000 sq. deg of the South Galactic Cap to ~24th magnitude in SDSS griz, that would use a new 3 sq. deg CCD camera to be mounted on the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Telolo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The survey data will allow us to measure the dark energy and dark matter densities and the dark energy equation of state through four independent methods: galaxy clusters, weak gravitational lensing tomography, galaxy angular clustering, and supernova distances. These methods are doubly complementary: they constrain different combinations of cosmological model parameters and are subject to different systematic errors. By deriving the four sets of measurements from the same data set with a common analysis framework, we will obtain important cross checks of the systematic errors and thereby make a substantial and robust advance in the precision of dark energy measurements.

  18. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD.......Pathologic skin picking (skin picking disorder [SPD]) is a prevalent and disabling condition, which has received increasing study. It is timely to consider including SPD in DSM-5. The aim of this field survey was to investigate possible diagnostic criteria for SPD....

  19. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. There have been some extraordinary accomplishments in that time, which have led to enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source that surveys surgery theory and its applications. Indeed, no one person could write such a survey. The sixtieth birthday of C. T. C. Wall, one of the leaders of the founding generation of surgery theory, provided an opportunity to rectify the situation and produce a

  20. Surveys on surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery theory, the basis for the classification theory of manifolds, is now about forty years old. The sixtieth birthday (on December 14, 1996) of C.T.C. Wall, a leading member of the subject''s founding generation, led the editors of this volume to reflect on the extraordinary accomplishments of surgery theory as well as its current enormously varied interactions with algebra, analysis, and geometry. Workers in many of these areas have often lamented the lack of a single source surveying surgery theory and its applications. Because no one person could write such a survey, the editors ask

  1. SURVEY ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H Thomas R; Rakar, Fredrik

    This report is based on a survey sent to 150 representatives of social enterprises in Sweden, out of which 47 responded. Despite not being statistically representative due to the low response rate and the fact that Sweden lacks reliable data on the number of Swedish enterprises, according...... to the knowledge and experience resulting from a three-year study on social entrepreneurship, social enterprises and social innovation, we believe that the results presented in this report depict the diversity of the social entrepreneurship sector in Sweden. This report is based on a survey of 47 representatives...

  2. ExtraHF survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Binno, Simone; Corrà, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure (HF), exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a well-recognized intervention to improve symptoms, but are still poorly implemented. The Heart Failure Association promoted a survey to investigate whether and how cardiac centres in Europe are using ETPs in their HF patients...... of evidence on safety or benefit was cited. When implemented, an ETP was proposed to all HF patients in only 55% of the centres, with restriction according to severity or aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to previous surveys, there is evidence of increased availability of ETPs in HF in Europe, although too...

  3. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  4. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ). The consumer survey was conducted in four countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and United States) with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. The purpose of the survey was to explore consumption and psychological differences across markets and cultures. The collected data represents the empirical...... clothing consumption. One of the main results of the descriptive analyses was that the average consumer across all four countries purchased 5.74 clothing items worth €153.79 over a three-month period. Interestingly, country differences were observed in relation to consumption volume, spending, preferred...

  5. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  6. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  7. Refraction corrections for surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  8. The Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Bendo, G; Chanial, P; Buat, V; Davies, J; Auld, R; Rigby, E; Baes, M; Barlow, M; Bock, J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Charlot, S; Clements, D; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Zeilinger, W

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a guaranteed time Herschel key project and will be a benchmark study of dust in the nearby universe. The survey will complement a number of other Herschel key projects including large cosmological surveys that trace dust in the distant universe. We will use Herschel to produce images of a statistically-complete sample of 323 galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 micron. The sample is volume-limited, containing sources with distances between 15 and 25 Mpc and flux limits in the K-band to minimize the selection effects associated with dust and with young high-mass stars and to introduce a selection in stellar mass. The sample spans the whole range of morphological types (ellipticals to late-type spirals) and environments (from the field to the centre of the Virgo Cluster) and as such will be useful for other purposes than our own. We plan to use the survey to investigate (i) the dust content of galaxies as a function of Hubble type, stellar mass and environment, (ii) the connection betwe...

  9. The Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  10. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  11. Qatar Exoplanet Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsubai, Khalid; Mislis, Dimitris; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of Qatar-3b, Qatar-4b, and Qatar-5b, three new transiting planets identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey. The three planets belong to the hot Jupiter family, with orbital periods of PQ3b=2.50792 days, PQ4b=1.80539 days, and PQ5b=2.87923 days. Follow-up spectroscopic...

  12. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  13. Interval Scheduling: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, A.W.J.; Lenstra, J.K.; Papadimitriou, C.H.; Spieksma, F.C.R.

    2007-01-01

    In interval scheduling, not only the processing times of the jobs but also their starting times are given. This article surveys the area of interval scheduling and presents proofs of results that have been known within the community for some time. We first review the complexity and approximability o

  14. The GAMA Panchromatic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA) has now been operating for almost 5 years gathering spectroscopic redshifts for five regions of sky spanning 300 sq degrees in total to a depth of r<19.8 mag. The survey has amassed over 225,000 redshifts making it the third largest redshift campaign after the SDSS and BOSS surveys. The survey has two novel features that set it apart: (1) complete and uniform sampling to a fixed flux limit (r<19.8 mag) regardless of galaxy clustering due to multiple-visits to each sky region, enabling the construction of high-fidelity catalogues of groups and pairs, (2) co-ordination with diverse imaging campaigns which together sample an extremely broad range along the electro-magnetic spectrum from the UV (GALEX) through optical (VST KIDs), near-IR (VISTA VIKING), mid-IR (WISE), far-IR (Herschel-Atlas), 1m (GMRT), and eventually 20cm continuum and rest-frame 21cm line measurements (ASKAP DINGO). Apart from the ASKAP campaign all multi-wavelength programmes are either complete...

  15. Membership Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M Bowie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to gather feedback from Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS members, the Executive sent out a survey to the membership and received replies from approximately one-third of the membership. This was an attempt to look at the role of the CTS and what the members wanted from the CTS.

  16. IBM Small Business Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  17. And the Survey Says ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Two-Year Colleges, Physics Majors, and Diversity. As noted last month, we're taking a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). We expect to have the first reports from our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers in the spring of 2014. Last month we noted that the high school physics experience of undergraduate physics…

  18. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers...

  19. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  20. An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

  1. SURVEY ON SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Rakar, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on a survey sent to 150 representatives of social enterprises in Sweden, out of which 47 responded. Despite not being statistically representative due to the low response rate and the fact that Sweden lacks reliable data on the number of Swedish enterprises, according to the ...

  2. Surveys and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Surveys and benchmarks continue to grow in importance for community colleges in response to several factors. One is the press for accountability, that is, for colleges to report the outcomes of their programs and services to demonstrate their quality and prudent use of resources, primarily to external constituents and governing boards at the state…

  3. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  4. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Chen, Chao Ying

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated survey response factors (particularly initial nonresponse and survey mode) that may be associated with bias in survey research. We examined prevention-related beliefs and outcomes for initial mail survey responders (n=209), follow-up mail survey responders (n=78), and follow-up telephone survey responders (n=74). The Pearson chi-square test and analysis of variance identified beliefs and behavioral outcomes associated with survey response mode. Follow-up options to the initial mail survey improved response rates (22.0-38.0 percent). Initial mail survey responders more strongly believed topical fluoride protects teeth from cavities than others (P=0.04). A significantly larger proportion of parents completing a follow-up telephone survey (30.8 percent) refused topical fluoride for their child than those completing mail surveys (10.3-10.4 percent) (Psurveys with follow-up improve response rates. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode may be associated with biases in survey research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Trumpeter Swan - Winter Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey is to inform a regional effort to estimate the distribution and total number of wintering swans in Western North America. The survey...

  6. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  7. The Princeton Variability Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, C

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Variability Survey (PVS) is a robotic survey which makes use of readily available, ``off-the-shelf'' type hardware products, in conjunction with a powerful set of commercial software products, in order to monitor and discover variable objects in the night sky. The main goal of the PVS has been to devise an automated telescope and data reduction system, requiring only moderate technical and financial resources to assemble, which may be easily replicated by the dedicated amateur, a student group, or a professional and used to study and discover a variety of variable objects, such as stars. This paper describes the hardware and software components of the PVS device, as well as observational results from the initial season of the PVS, including the discovery of a new bright variable star.

  8. Business Confidence Survey 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In order to gain a better understanding about the depth and breadth of its effect on European companies'businesses,the new strategies they are adopting to cope with the crisis,and how their attitudes to towards China-including long-term plans-have changed in its aftermath,the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China today launches its sixth annual European Chamber Business Confidence Survey,which is published in partnership with Roland Berger Strategy Consultants in Beijing on June 30,2009.Drawing on the responses of more than 300 European companies active in China.the 2009 Survey highlights a European business community that remains bullish in China in most sectors and read to back up that confidence with continued investment in the local economy provided that Chinese government is committed to creating a more free,fair and competitive market.

  9. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhabrata Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high red-shifts. Self-calibration of cluster scaling relations, possible for such a huge sample, would be able to constrain systematic biases on mass estimators. Combining cluster red-shift abundance with limited mass follow-up and cluster mass power spectrum can then give constraints on , as well as on 8 and to a few per cents.

  10. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  11. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  12. The Void Galaxy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, R; Platen, E; Beygu, B; van Gorkom, J H; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, M A; Peebles, P J E; Jarrett, T; Rhee, G; Kovac, K; Yip, C -W

    2011-01-01

    The Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) is a multi-wavelength program to study $\\sim$60 void galaxies. Each has been selected from the deepest interior regions of identified voids in the SDSS redshift survey on the basis of a unique geometric technique, with no a prior selection of intrinsic properties of the void galaxies. The project intends to study in detail the gas content, star formation history and stellar content, as well as kinematics and dynamics of void galaxies and their companions in a broad sample of void environments. It involves the HI imaging of the gas distribution in each of the VGS galaxies. Amongst its most tantalizing findings is the possible evidence for cold gas accretion in some of the most interesting objects, amongst which are a polar ring galaxy and a filamentary configuration of void galaxies. Here we shortly describe the scope of the VGS and the results of the full analysis of the pilot sample of 15 void galaxies.

  13. Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

  14. 2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

  15. Survey report: Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M M

    1987-10-01

    With a population of 6.2 million, Haiti is one of the poorest, most densely populated countries in the Caribbean. According to a 1983 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, fertility averages 6.2 children/woman compared with 6 children/woman in 1977. Moreover, the proportion of women in union practicing family planning declined from 14% in 1977 to 7% in 1983. Female sterilization increased slightly between 1977 and 1983, from 0.2 to 0.7% of women in union, but at the same time there were declines in the percentage of women using traditional methods such as withdrawal and rhythm as well as supply methods such as oral contraceptives and condoms. Concerns about health problems associated with use of the pill and the IUD were cited by many respondents in the 1983 survey as reasons for nonuse of modern methods. The increase in fertility has been created in part by a growing percentage of women in Haiti married or cohabitating. Of the 4321 respondents in the 1983 survey, 23% were married, 31% were cohabitating, and another 9% were in less stable unions. 10% of the formally married women and 7% of the women in noncohabitating unions used family planning compared with only 4% of cohabitating women. Women who had some secondary education were 2-3 times more likely to use contraception, while urban women had use rates twice those of rural residents. Another concern is the high infant mortality rate--107 deaths/1000 births in 1977--caused by poor sanitation and limited access to health services. 77% of Haitian mothers surveyed had given birth at home. 63% had received some prenatal care, but only 22% sought postnatal care. On the other hand, over 90% of the mothers breastfed their infants and over 80% of children over 5 years of age had been vaccinated against the major childhood diseases.

  16. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  17. Mescaline: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H

    1988-04-01

    The hallucinogen mescaline is found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti, which are prevalent in Mexico and the southwestern United States. In a survey of middle-class, predominantly white adolescents in a drug treatment facility, 18 percent of the respondents indicated that they had taken mescaline. Much of the purported mescaline was probably another hallucinogen, usually LSD. The effects of equipotent doses of mescaline and LSD are almost indistinguishable.

  18. The WFCAM Transit Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to find low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.

  19. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  20. Onychomycosis. A Mexican survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Roberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Padilla, Ma Carmen; Arce, Martín; Atoche, Carlos; Barba, José; Campos, Pablo; Fernández, Ramón; Mayorga, Jorge; Nazar, Dulce; Ocampo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a nail infection caused by dermatophytes, Candida and molds. We aimed to obtain an estimated frequency of onychomycosis in out-patients in private practice through a survey in ten representative cities of Mexico. 12,637 ambulatory patients voluntarily agreed to participate in this National Survey, answering 17 questions on onychomycosis, regardless if they had or did not have any clinical suspicion of onychomycosis. 53% of them were seen for the first time and their main complaint was not onychomycosis. The study was performed in the private offices of 300 physicians in different cities. 48% were clinically diagnosed with onychomycosis. Toenails were affected in 88%, fingernails in 5% and both in 7%. Onychomycosis was diagnosed more frequently in the nails of the first toes and of the thumbs. The main complaint was nail thickening and aesthetic changes. Other associated diseases were diabetes (22%) and arterial hypertension (21%). This survey showed the high frequency of onychomycosis. An intentional search with mycological confirmation is needed in out-patients attending general practice with other complaints, to detect undiagnosed cases.

  1. The VMC survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L

    2015-01-01

    The VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) is a public survey project of the European Southern Observatory. It is collecting multi-band near-infrared data across large areas of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Magellanic Bridge and a few fields in the Magellanic Stream. The combination of great sensitivity to stars below the old main sequence turn off, and the multiplicity at Ks band (at least 12 epochs) make VMC highly suitable for the determination of the spatially resolved star formation history and three-dimensional geometry, using variable stars such as Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. The VMC observations are progressing well and will be completed in 2018. The VMC survey has a high legacy value and many science results have already been published, e.g. the most detailed star formation history map of the Small Magellanic Cloud, and others are in preparation, e.g. a comprehensive investigation of classical Cepheids and a study of the proper motion in the foreground 47 Tuc cluster.

  2. The Einstein Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  3. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  4. Alaska waterfowl production survey, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1968. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  5. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  6. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously (prior to 2013) reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  7. Alaska duck production surveys: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  8. Nowitna NWR swan surveys, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of aerial surveys and a ground species identification survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in 1988....

  9. SURVEY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, CALHOUN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, LIBERTY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, WASHINGTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. The WEAVE disk dynamics survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, B.; Antoja, T.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Siebert, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Di Matteo, P.; Figueras, F.; Fragkoudi, F.; Garzon-Lopez, F.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Monari, G.; Mor-Crespo, R.; Hill, V.

    2016-12-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope. It consists of a multi-object fibre spectrograph with a 2°-diameter field of view that can obtain ˜ 1000 spectra simultaneously. The "WEAVE Galactic Archaeology survey" is the survey focused on the Milky Way, as a complement to the Gaia space mission, and will start operating in early 2018. This survey is subdivided in four sub-surveys, among which the "WEAVE disk dynamics survey". This survey plans to measure the radial velocities (and abundances as far as possible) of ˜ 10^6 stars with magnitude 15speed? -, as well as (iii) about their influence on secular processes such as stellar radial migration are essential elements for a better understanding of the chemo-dynamical evolution of our Galaxy, and of galaxies in general. This survey is designed to answer these questions.

  14. SURVEY, CAMPBELL COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, KNOX COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, SAINT MARY'S COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  17. SURVEY, SILVER BOW COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, MASON COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, MAGOFFIN COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, KENTON COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. Nowitna NWR wolf survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of an aerial wolf survey that was conducted on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge in April of 1988. Survey flightlines followed...

  3. SURVEY, St Lucie County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, Charles COUNTY, MD, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. Geodetic Survey Water Level Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one million images of National Coast & Geodetic Survey (now NOAA's National Geodetic Survey/NGS) forms captured from microfiche. Tabular forms and charts...

  6. SURVEY, LA PAZ COUNTY, ARIZONA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, JEFFERSON DAVIS COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. SURVEY, NEW HAVEN COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. FIELD SURVEY, YAVAPAI COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. SURVEY, PIKE COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, Virginia Beach City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  13. SURVEY, SHELBY COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, GADSDEN COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, HAMILTON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, GREENUP COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, HANCOCK COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, FRANKLIN COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, LEWIS COUNTY, KY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, KNOX COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  2. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  3. SURVEY, TODD COUNTY, MN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, Newport News City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  5. SURVEY, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. FIELD SURVEY, Androscoggin, MAINE USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. FIELD SURVEY DUKES COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. FIELD SURVEY, SUSQUEHANNA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, MILLE LACS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. Mount Tom Survey Summary 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides recommendations regarding breeding landbirds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and rare plant surveys and which surveys should be conducted in 2005....

  11. FIELD SURVEY PROVIDENCE COUNTY, RI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  13. Preventing pitfalls in patient surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiber, S R

    1989-05-01

    Properly conceived, customer satisfaction surveys can yield the quantitative data needed to gauge patient satisfaction. But, as the author notes, these surveys can be "a veritable mine field of surprises for the uninitiated." This article, the last in a three-part series on measuring patient satisfaction, describes potential pitfalls and discusses the merits of in-person, mail and telephone surveys.

  14. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P.G.; Bassa, C. G.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Maccarone, T. J.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Britt, C. T.; Clem, J. L.; Gossen, L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Groot, P.J.; Kuiper, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Mendez, M.; Mikles, V. J.; Ratti, E. M.; Rea, N.; van Haaften, L.; Wijnands, R.; in't Zand, J. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CGBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to de

  15. The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Jonker, P. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Greiss, S.; Clem, J.; Dieball, A.; Mikles, V. J.; Britt, C. T.; Gossen, L.; Collazzi, A. C.; Wijnands, R.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Mendez, M.; Rea, N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ratti, E. M.; van Haaften, L. M.; Heinke, C.; Ozel, F.; Groot, P. J.; Verbunt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a shallow but wide survey of two approximately 6x1 degree strips of the Galactic Bulge about a degree above and below the plane. The survey by design targets regions where extinction and crowding are manageable and optical counterparts are accessible to det

  16. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...

  17. Dutch perfusion incident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenberg, Ingrid; Weerwind, Patrick W; Everts, Peter A M; Maessen, Jos G

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures remain complex, involving many potential risks. Therefore, a nationwide retrospective study was conducted to gain insight into the number of incidents and accidents in Dutch adult perfusion practice. An anonymous postal survey (85 questions about hardware, disposables, fluids and medication, air emboli, anticoagulation, practice, and safety measures) was sent to all Dutch perfusionists involved in adult cardiovascular perfusion during 2006 and 2007. To guarantee complete anonymity, respondents were asked to return the survey to a notary who discarded personal information. The net response rate was 72% and covered 23,500 perfusions. Individual respondents performed 240 ± 103 perfusions during the 2-year study period and had 13.8 ± 8.7 years of practical experience. The incident rate was 1 per 15.6 perfusions and the adverse event rate was 1 per 1,236 perfusions. The three most reported incidents were: (1) persistent inability to raise the activated coagulation time above 400s during perfusion (184 incidents); (2) an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to drugs, fluids, or blood products (114 incidents); and (3) clotting formation in the extracorporeal circuit (74 incidents). Furthermore, pre-bypass safety measures showed no statistically significant association with the reported incidents. In comparison with data from the recent literature, the reported number of incidents is high. Nevertheless, the adverse outcome rate is well matched to other published surveys. The relatively high response rate conveys the impression that the Dutch perfusionist is vigilant and willing to report incidents. Hence, a web-based Dutch perfusion incident registration system is recommended.

  18. Game engines: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andrade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to hardware limitations at the origin of the video game industry, each new game was generally coded from the ground up. Years later, from the evolution of hardware and the need for quick game development cycles, spawned the concept of game engine. A game engine is a reusable software layer allowing the separation of common game concepts from the game assets (levels, graphics, etc.. This paper surveys fourteen different game engines relevant today, ranging from the industry-level to the newcomer-friendlier ones.

  19. LAMOST Quasar Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xue-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Chinese LAMOST spectroscopic quasar survey is to discover 0.4 million new quasars from 1 million quasar candidates brighter than the magnitude limit i=20.5 in the next 5 years. This will hopefully provide the largest quasar sample for the further studies of AGN physics and cosmology. The improved quasar selection criteria based on the UKIDSS near-IR and SDSS optical colors are presented, and their advantages in uncovering the missing quasars in the quasar 'redshift desert' are demonstrated. In addition, some recent discoveries of new quasars during the LAMOST commissioning phase are presented.

  20. Survey of Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    STANDARDS-1963-A IMY Techical Report ND. 450-90G-1R-ODWa p. 00 SURVEY OF MOBLE ROBOTS ’ Anita N& Flym Research Scientist !; "IT Artificlal Intelligence...case of an attempt at system building before the technology for the components was available. 1.3 The Stanford Cart 1973-1981 From 1973 to 1981, work...autonomous and yet still exhibit a high level of sophistication. Rapidly changing technology , including both the advent of the home computer and

  1. Risk analysis methodology survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward full-scale development. Program risk analysis is discussed as a systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a guide for selection of the most appropriate technique.

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope advanced camera for surveys coma cluster survey. I. Survey objectives and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F.; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sharples, Ray M.; Smith, Russell J.; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    We describe the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma Cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 arcmin2 in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium w

  3. Biodigester User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2007-06-15

    In May 2005, SNV and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) agreed to a joint development of a National Biodigester Programme (NBP) in Cambodia as a way to create an indigenous, sustainable energy source in the country and to utilize the potential of biogas in the country. The overall objective of the first phase of the National Biodigester Programme is 'The dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented, biodigester sector in selected provinces of Cambodia'. The program aims to support the construction of 17,500 biodigesters in at least 6 provinces over the period of 2006 to 2009. To gain insights and feedbacks on the impacts of their activities to date, NBP commissioned the Cambodia Institute of Development Study (CIDS) to carry out a Biodigester User Survey in January 2007. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the effects of domestic biodigester installations, as supported by the program, on 100 households in 3 provinces in Cambodia- Kampong Cham, Kandal and Svay Rieng.

  4. BLAST: the Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D P; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ~=8.7 deg^2 centered on GOODS-South at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In Dye et al. (2009) we presented the catalogue of sources detected at $\\rm 5\\sigma$ in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 83 of these counterparts. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST band...

  5. EAST OJAI SURVEY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Field Survey for East Ojai FIS mostly consists of hydraulic structures survey as well as geological and geomorphologic surveys. No topographic surveys are rendered...

  6. Burrell-Optical-Kepler Survey (BOKS) I: Survey Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, John J.; Howell, S.; Harding, P.; Mihos, C.; Rudick, C.; Sherry, W.; Lee, T.; Knox, C.; Ciardi, D.; von Braun, K.; Everett, M.; Proctor, M.; van Belle, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Burrell Optical Kepler Survey (BOKS) is a ground-based, high cadence, stellar variability survey over a portion of the planned science field for the Kepler mission. The survey was carried out at the 0.6m Burrell Schmidt telescope, with an observed field size of 1.36 square degrees. Over 60,000 stars were observed within the BOKS field in the SDSS r-band spanning a time period of 39 days, with a 4.5 minute cadence. We give a basic description of the survey, and calculate the observability function for stellar variablity of different types.

  7. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, M.; Ojala, S.; Jarvinen, E.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of colloids and composition of the colloid phase on the basis of the water chemistry results of filtered and unfiltered water samples and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1 and ONK-PVA3 in October 2011. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters. The change in the water chemistry due to filtration was also analysed. The decrease of element concentrations due to filtration would possibly reflect the composition of the colloid phase. Because the concentration of the colloids is very low, two parallel water samples were analysed five times with an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyser so that the chemical differences between the filtered and unfiltered water could be evaluated. The colloid concentration in ONK-PVA1, determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs, was 6 {mu}g/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA3 was 7 {mu}g/l. The colloid phase composition could not be reliably determined due to the low colloid concentration. (orig.)

  8. Sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, Finland, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.; Takala, M.; Manninen, P. [Ramboll Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentration of groundwater colloids and to compare the results with the previous ones. The water samples were collected from groundwater stations ONK-PVA1, ONK-PVA5 and ONK-PVA10 in August 2013. The colloid concentrations were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs taken from the filters in which the groundwater was run through. The particle calculations were performed with computer software ImageJ 1.47. In addition, field flow fractionation (FFF) measurements were performed from the unfiltered water samples. The colloid concentration (diameter 0 - 1 μm) determined by the single particle analysis of SEM micrographs in ONK-PVA1 was 300 μg/l while the colloid concentration in ONK-PVA5 was 30 μg/l and ONK-PVA10 40 μg/l. FFF measurements supported the results of single particle analyses with a difference that an extra peak was found from ONK-PVA1 sample. The peak, which showed no evidence in single particle analyses, was suspected to contain humic substances. (orig.)

  9. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  10. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  11. National narcolepsy survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doherty, L.

    2010-04-01

    Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and has a prevalence of 25 per 100,000. We suspect this is higher than presently seen in the Republic of Ireland. We aimed to calculate the Irish prevalence of Narcolepsy and to examine current management practices. We conducted an online survey of respiratory physicians, neurologists, paediatric neurologists, and psychiatrists with an interest in sleep disorders (73% response rate). Of this group, a total of 16 physicians managed 180 patients prior to January 2009. A clinical diagnosis alone was reached in 67 (41%) patients, the remainder by polysomnography or multiple sleep latency testing. No patients were diagnosed by cerebro-spinal fluid analysis of hypocretin levels. While 70 (42%) patients received modafanil, only 7 (4%) were treated with sodium oxybate. Even allowing for missing data it is apparent that Narcolepsy is hugely under-diagnosed in Ireland, however, current practises adhere with new international guidelines.

  12. X-Ray Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M

    1998-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of X-ray surveys, especially in the hard (2-10 and 5-10 keV) bands, is given. A new detailed comparison between the measurements in the hard band and extrapolations from ROSAT counts, that takes into proper account the observed distribution of spectral slopes, is presented. Direct comparisons between deep ROSAT and BeppoSAX images show that most hard X-ray sources are also detected at soft X-ray energies. This may indicate that heavily cutoff sources, that should not be detectable in the ROSAT band but are expected in large numbers from unified AGN schemes, are in fact detected because of the emerging of either non-nuclear components, or of reflected, or partially transmitted nuclear X-rays. These soft components may complicate the estimation of the soft X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of AGN.

  13. The Cesarean Decision Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puia, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134

  14. Generic Airspace Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  15. PEP surveying procedures and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, F.

    1982-06-01

    The PEP Survey and Alignment System, which employs both laser-based and optical survey methods, is described. The laser is operated in conjunction with the Tektronix 4051 computer and surveying instruments such as ARM and SAM, system which is designed to automate data input, reduction, and production of alignment instructions. The laser system is used when surveying ring quadrupoles, main bend magnets, sextupoles, and is optional when surveying RF cavities and insertion quadrupoles. Optical methods usually require that data be manually entered into the computer for alignment, but in some cases, an element can be aligned using nominal values of fiducial locations without use of the computer. Optical surveying is used in the alignment of NIT and SIT, low field bend magnets, wigglers, RF cavities, and insertion quadrupoles.

  16. The GALAH Survey: Scientific Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, G. M.; Freeman, K. C.; J. Bland-Hawthorn; Martell, S.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Asplund, M.; Keller, S.; Sharma, S.; Zucker, D B; Zwitter, T.; Anguiano, B.; Bacigalupo, C.; Bayliss, D.; Beavis, M. A.; Bergemann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The GALAH survey is a large high-resolution spectroscopic survey using the newly commissioned HERMES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The HERMES spectrograph provides high-resolution (R ~28,000) spectra in four passbands for 392 stars simultaneously over a 2 degree field of view. The goal of the survey is to unravel the formation and evolutionary history of the Milky Way, using fossil remnants of ancient star formation events which have been disrupted and are now dispersed thro...

  17. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  18. A geological survey in transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterM.Allen; BernardELeake

    2004-01-01

    This is an account of the changes in funding, administration, and management of the British Geological Survey (BGS), the oldest government-funded geological survey in the world, from the early 1980s to 2000. It will interest students of public administration, historians of science and geological surveys, and those who have followed the convoluted recent history of BGS. Peter Allen has rendered a most valuable service in documenting and describing as an insider (he only recently retired from a position as Assistant Director) the struggles to maintain the Survey and its prime role of discovering,

  19. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  20. Surveying free and low-cost survey software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; McClellan, Leah; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2006-06-01

    Surveys are widely used to gather health information from a sample of individuals. This brief report reviews 14 free and low-cost software packages (free or low-cost software options appropriate for questionnaire development are readily available. Questionnaire mode and complexity, data management and analytical needs, and computing environment are all important considerations in selecting survey software.

  1. ASHA Survey of Health Curriculum Needs: Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Livingston S.; Thier, Herbert D.

    The results of a survey conducted by the Ad hoc Committee to Study the Needs and Problems of the Classroom Teacher in Curriculum Development are reported. Questionnaires were sent to members of the American School Health Association (ASHA). The survey was composed of four sections: (1) background information on demographic data, institutional…

  2. Bulletin Survey: Technical clarifications

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the latest of our articles on the results of the Bulletin survey, we respond to some of your technical comments on the Electronic Bulletin. Many thanks to the more than 500 of you who completed the questionnaire. The full statistics will be published next week. 'It takes too long to download the pages' Yes, it's true that the Electronic Bulletin's download time isn't perfect but it will improve when the Bulletin migrates to another, faster database. 'I find it very difficult to locate all the articles' Some people experience difficulty negotiating their way through the Bulletin once they have entered a specific section. The blue column on the left contains an 'In this issue' link taking you to the other sections. What's more, the whole of the paper Bulletin is available in the electronic version. As the latter is relatively new, however, it will take a bit of time to get used to browsing through it. Many of you say that it's still too early to form an opinion. 'Pull-down menus would be good, so that yo...

  3. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  4. Bulletin Survey - Early Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    There was a good response to our questionnaire on the Bulletin (around 450 so far). Many thanks to all of you - your views are invaluable to us. Pending publication of the full figures, which will give latecomers time to take part in the survey, here we give here answers some of your most frequent comments. Thank you for the many warm tributes and messages of encouragement we received. We also received criticisms about the way information is handled in the Bulletin and on its circulation. In today's issue we reply to these two points. Why is the Bulletin politically correct ? Many respondents reproach the Bulletin for a lack of objectivity and for being too politically correct to the point of being a propaganda organ. It is true that the Bulletin is not a newspaper, but rather a bulletin of communication (like SLAC's Beam Line). What is the difference ? A newspaper is objectively independent of the subjects it reports on, and when its reporters write stories they dig around for information from all parties...

  5. School nutrition survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1993-05-01

    Food we eat has an important influence on health and well-being. Many eating habits are established in childhood. 456 children aged eight to 12 years participated in this survey of food eaten at school. Of all the food items eaten as a snack, 48.6% were categorised as junk. 75.8% of the sandwiches brought to school for lunch were made with white bread. Of the remaining food items brought for lunch 63.5% were of the junk variety. Compared with those who brought a snack or lunch from home, those given money to buy their own were more likely to eat junk (p < 0.01). Food eaten at school reflects approximately one third of a child\\'s daily food intake but health food practises for even a third of food intake may be of a value for health and long term eating habits. Nutritional education with the reinforcement of high nutritional standards in schools could improve the situation.

  6. Survey of mammography practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, L.W.; Diamond, J.J.; Gold, R.H.; McLelland, R.

    1987-12-01

    Of the 319 radiologists who responded to a survey concerning mammography practices, 50% were employed in a private hospital and 26% in a private office. Film-screen mammography was used most often (54%) followed by xeromammography (30%) and a combination of film-screen and xeromammography (16%). Of the respondents, 62% had changed their method of performing mammography in the last 10 years. Of these, 50% had switched from xeromammography to film-screen, 23% from direct film to film-screen, 15% from direct film to xeromammography, and 6% from film-screen to xeromammography. Mammographic equipment had been purchased by 71% of respondents after 1983. Most respondents (71%) monitored mammography equipment doses, usually at 6- to 12-month intervals. Manual breast examinations were done at the time of mammography at 42% of the facilities, and breast self-examination was taught at 32%. For screening, 87.4% used a two-view examination, 92% required the name of a referring physician to whom the report could be sent, 28% accepted self-referred patients, and only 12% charged a reduced fee for screening. Breast sonography was performed by 53% (93% hand-held vs 7% automated), but none used sonography for screening. Only one respondent reported using thermography; three used light scanning. A need for postgraduate mammography courses for radiologists was indicated by 81%, while 69% recommended technologist courses and 64% recommended 1-week fellowships for radiologists.

  7. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  8. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John

    2013-01-01

    Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member...... countries in a contemporary 'real-world' setting, using a methodology designed to improve the representativeness of the survey....

  9. Market Survey for Business Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Mate

    2016-01-01

    In order to find new customers abroad the company should analyze the market situation precisely in the desired market. This is necessary with a well-made market research, based on several survey methods. The answers collected by the survey should be analyzed and taken into consideration about the product and about the way of entry.

  10. Treating Globalization in History Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    Globalization provides history teachers with an opportunity to link past to present in new ways and to test historical thinking. This is particularly true in world history surveys, but has relevance to Western civilization or United States history surveys as well. For globalization in turn, the historical perspective offers opportunities for more…

  11. Rate Gyroscopic Wellbore Survey System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Limin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The rate gyroscopic wellbore survey system as a new type of survey instruments adopts the inertial-grade rate gyro and quartz flexible accelerometers to compose a gyrocompassing system, transiting data to surface instrument by single core cable. The azimuth, inclination and tool-face angle can be computed from these data by surface computer.

  12. The Hubble Sphere Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, J B; Pen, U L; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Bandura, Kevin; Pen, Ue Li

    2006-01-01

    An all sky redshift survey, using hydrogen 21 cm emission to locate galaxies, can be used to track the wavelength of baryon acoustic oscillations imprints from z ~ 1.5 to z = 0. This will allow precise determination of the evolution of dark energy. A telescope made of fixed parabolic cylindrical reflectors offers substantial benefit for such a redshift survey. Fixed cylinders can be built for low cost, and long cylinders also allow low cost fast fourier transform techniques to be used to define thousands of simultaneous beams. A survey made with fixed reflectors naturally covers all of the sky available from it's site with good uniformity, minimizing sample variance in the measurement of the acoustic peak wavelength. Such a survey will produce about a billion redshifts, nearly a thousand times the number available today. The survey will provide a three dimensional mapping of a substantial fraction of the Hubble Sphere.

  13. Estimates from two survey designs: national hospital discharge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, B J; Kozak, L J

    1992-05-01

    The methodology for the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) has been revised in several ways. These revisions, which were implemented for the 1988 NHDS, included adoption of a different hospital sampling frame, changes in the sampling design (in particular the implementation of a three-stage design), increased use of data purchased from abstracting service organizations, and adjustments to the estimation procedures used to derive the national estimates. To investigate the effects of these revisions on the estimates of hospital use from the NHDS, data were collected from January through March of 1988 using both the old and the new survey methods. This study compared estimates based on the old and the new survey methods for a variety of hospital and patient characteristics. Although few estimates were identical across survey methodologies, most of the variations could be attributed to sampling error. Estimates from two different samples of the same population would be expected to vary by chance even if precisely the same methods were used to collect and process the data. Because probability samples were used for the old and new survey methodologies, sampling error could be measured. Approximate relative standard errors were calculated for the estimates using the old and new survey methods. Taking these errors into account, less than 10 percent of the estimates were found to differ across survey methodologies at the 0.05 level of significance. Because a large number of comparisons were made, 5 percent of the estimates could have been found to be significantly different by chance alone. When there were statistically significant differences in nonmedical data, the new methods appeared to produce more accurate estimates than the old methods did. Race was more likely to be reported using the new methods. "New" estimates for hospitals in the West Region and government-owned hospitals were more similar than the corresponding "old" estimates to data from the census of

  14. The Rocky Planet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra

    In direct support of the NASA Origins program, we propose the Rocky Planet Survey, a high cadence exoplanet search of sixty late G and K dwarf stars using the CHIRON spectrometer, which we built and commissioned at CTIO. CHIRON operates in two high- resolution modes (R=90,000 and R=120,000) and has a demonstrated precision of better than 1 m s-1. We are contributing 200 nights of telescope time for the next three years, for the excellent phase coverage needed to carry out this work. We have developed simulation software to optimize scheduling of observations to suppress aliases and quickly extract dynamical signals. Our science objectives are to (1) provide a statistical assessment of planet occurrence as a function of decreasing mass in the range of parameter space 3 objectives, we intend to push the frontiers of extreme precision Doppler measurements to keep the U.S. competitive with the next generation of European Doppler spectroscopy (ESPRESSO on the VLT). Our team has significant expertise in optical design, fiber coupling, raw extraction, barycentric velocity corrections, and Doppler analysis. The proposed work includes a new optimal extraction algorithm, with the optical designers and software engineers working together on the 2-D PSF description needed for a proper row-by-row extraction and calibration. We will also develop and test upgrades to the barycentric correction code and improvements in the Doppler code that take advantage of stability in the dispersion solution, afforded by a new vacuum-enclosed grating upgrade (scheduled for November 2011). We will test use of emission wavelength calibrations to extend the iodine (absorption) wavelength calibration that we currently use to prepare for eventual use of stabilized etalons or laser frequency combs. Radial velocity measurements play a fundamental role, both in the detection of exoplanets and in support of NASA missions. This program will train postdoctoral fellows, grad students and undergrads, while

  15. Innovations in national nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate.

  16. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an...

  17. 42 CFR 488.7 - Validation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Validation survey. 488.7 Section 488.7 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.7 Validation survey. (a) Basis for survey. CMS may require a survey of an accredited provider or supplier...

  18. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...

  19. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Jordan, C.; Dickey, John M.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  20. Survey report: moose surveys in lower Chignik Unit, May 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Subsistence Board requested that moose surveys be flown in the area of the lower Chignik Unit proposed for closure to non-qualified moose hunters by the...

  1. Initial Survey Instructions for mid-winter waterfowl survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (MWS) is conducted annually in early January as part of the nationwide wintering waterfowl monitoring effort led by U.S. Fish &...

  2. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Shorebird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the shorebird survey is to assess, to the extent possible within the period of time available ashore, the presence/absence, number, and distribution...

  3. VISION - Vienna survey in orion : I. VISTA orion A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meingast, S.; Alves,J.; Mardones, D.; Teixeira, P. S.; Lombardi, M.; Großschedl, J.; Ascenso, J.; Bouy, H.; Forbrich, J.; Goodman, A; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Kainulainen, J.; Kubiak, K.; Lada, C.

    2016-01-01

    Orion A hosts the nearest massive star factory, thus offering a unique opportunity to resolve the processes connected with the formation of both low- and high-mass stars. Here we present the most detailed and sensitive near-infrared (NIR) observations of the entire molecular cloud to date. With the unique combination of high image quality, survey coverage, and sensitivity, our NIR survey of Orion A aims at establishing a solid empirical foundation for further studies of this important cloud. ...

  4. Potential Theory Surveys and Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.

  5. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D. [Geophex, Ltd., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  6. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures, Hidden Markov Model (HMM, geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and processes are also discussed along with the solutions provided by different authors.

  7. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Nightjar Survey Network Survey Field Procedures and Completed Data Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data and survey instructions from the Nightjar Survey Network's nighjar survey on Okefenokee NWR. Nightjar Surveys are standardized population counts conducted...

  8. Pharmacy school survey standards revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mészáros, Károly; Barnett, Mitchell J; Lenth, Russell V; Knapp, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    ..., and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal's Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools...

  9. Nowitna NWR moose survey, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1988 Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge moose survey was conducted over a 147.8 square mile portion of the Lower Nowitna Trend Area. A total of 409 moose was...

  10. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  11. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  12. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  13. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  14. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  15. A Survey Course in Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaates, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a 10-week survey course in catalysis for chemical engineering and chemistry students designed to show how modern chemistry and chemical engineering interact in the ongoing development of industrial catalysts. Includes course outline and instructional strategies. (Author/JN)

  16. Nowitna NWR goose surveys, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Both aerial and river float goose surveys were conducted on the Nowitna NWR in 1988 to document migration chronology and peak numbers and to index production....

  17. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  18. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  19. Folsom Lake 2005 Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Folsom Lake in the fall of 2005 via an interagency agreement with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps of...

  20. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  1. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Dario; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Rowlinson, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte-Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  2. National Survey of Family Growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and...

  3. Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, became operational in 1955 in the Canadian prairies (strata 26-40). In...

  4. Merit Principles Survey 2016 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — MPS contains a combination of core items that MSPB tracks over time and special-purpose items developed to support a particular special study. This survey differs...

  5. Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey, conducted from 1991 to 2002 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was established to record sea duck numbers using near shore...

  6. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  7. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  8. U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Officials Congressional Budget Opportunities Doing Business Emergency Management U.S. Geological Survey Magnitude 7.8 Earthquake in New ... notifications, and learn about hazards and history of U.S. volcanoes. View Alerts Landslides Landslides Learn about landslides ...

  9. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  10. Calculating transient rates from surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a method to determine the transient surface density and transient rate for any given survey, using Monte Carlo simulations. This method allows us to determine the transient rate as a function of both the flux and the duration of the transients in the whole flux-duration plane rather than one or a few points as currently available methods do. It is applicable to every survey strategy that is monitoring the same part of the sky, regardless the instrument or wavelength of the survey, or the target sources. We have simulated both top-hat and Fast Rise Exponential Decay light curves, highlighting how the shape of the light curve might affect the detectability of transients. Another application for this method is to estimate the number of transients of a given kind that are expected to be detected by a survey, provided that their rate is known.

  11. ASHA Completes National Schools Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Johnson, Cassandra

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of speech-language pathologists working in school-based settings examined such topic areas as caseload characteristics, service delivery models, bilingual/bicultural services, support personnel, shortages of speech-language pathologists, and demographic information. (DB)

  12. 1986 Dulbi Slough goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) was conducted on 69.0 miles of Dulbi Slough in Alaska. Seven hundred and...

  13. Process for Reviewing Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the process for conducting two types of reviews of survey protocols. A quick assessment is used to acknowledge and describe to potential...

  14. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  15. Crestridge Plant Surveys [ds210

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sensitive plant surveys were conducted in 2000 for development of a Habitat Management and Monitoring Plan by Patricia Gordon-Reedy of the Conservation Biology...

  16. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  17. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Yellowtail

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Southern New England Yellowtail Flounder Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration between the Rhode Island Division of Fish and Wildlife and the fishing...

  18. FY 2009 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2009 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  19. FY 2011 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2011 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  20. FY 2010 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2010 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  1. FY 2008 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2008 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  2. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State averages for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their experiences with...

  3. National Geodetic Survey's Airport Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly part of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, has been performing Aeronautical surveys since the 1920's. NGS, in...

  4. Prairie chicken lek survey 2012 : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring prairie chicken lek surveys in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1963, and is preformed on established survey routes....

  5. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  6. Exit Creek Water Surface Survey, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data from a longitudinal profile of water surface surveyed June 23-24, 2013 at Exit Creek, a stream draining Exit Glacier in Kenai...

  7. Exit Creek Transect Survey, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data from transects surveyed June 10-12, 2013 along Exit Creek, a stream draining Exit Glacier in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska....

  8. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  9. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their...

  10. MedlinePlus Survey Results 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/survey/index.html MedlinePlus Survey Results 2015 To use the sharing features on ... government sites in the "Information/News" category. Other survey question responses: What best describes your role in ...

  11. The Pan-STARRS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2016-01-01

    The 4 year Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission has now completed and the final data processing and database ingest is underway. We expect to have the public release of the PS1 Survey data at approximately the time of the AAS Meeting. The full data set, including catalogs (150 Terabyte database), images (2 Petabytes), and metadata, will be available from the STScI MASTarchive. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) The 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) The Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints (7 sq deg each) spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of the ecliptic optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey in the galactic bulge; and (5) a time domain Survey of M31. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Science results span most fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology. The 2nd mission, the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey, is currently underway on PS1 and it will be supplemented by PS2 observations as PS2 becomes fully operational. We will also report on the status of PS2 and the prospects for future wide field surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the National

  12. Gravitational lens surveys with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, O

    2008-01-01

    Deep surveys planned as a Key Science Project of LOFAR provide completely new opportunities for gravitational lens searches. For the first time do large-scale surveys reach the resolution required for a direct selection of lens candidates using morphological criteria. We briefly describe the strategies that we will use to exploit this potential. The long baselines of an international E-LOFAR are essential for this project.

  13. English Organic Producer Survey 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine L. Gerrard; Padel, Susanne; Lampkin, Nic

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a survey carried out with English organic producers in November and December 2013 as part of the Organic Data Network Project. There are approximately 2724 English organic producers and 223 of these participated in the survey, a response rate of just over 8%. The sample is not representative of the total population of English organic producers, see the data collection and analysis section for more details, but gives a snapshot of the situation for...

  14. A Survey on Wallman Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto García-Máynez

    2007-01-01

    [EN] Wallman bases are frequently used in compactification processes of topological spaces. However, they are also related with quasi–uniform structures and they are useful to characterize some topological properties. We present a brief survey on the subject which supports these statements. García-Máynez, A. (2007). A Survey on Wallman Bases. Applied General Topology. 8(2):223-237. doi:10.4995/agt.2007.1886. 223 237 8 2

  15. Customer Satisfaction Survey for Raumacell

    OpenAIRE

    Haapala, Henri

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was conducted as a customer satisfaction survey for UPM RaumaCell. The aim and purpose of the project was to find the current customer satisfaction level of UPM RaumaCell. Theoretical part of the thesis was gathered from different types of business literature and some statistical literature was also used. Customer satisfaction was defined as a term and its importance was researched as was how to measure it. Customer satisfaction surveys were thoroughly explained and...

  16. Near Earth Object Survey Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Near Earth Object Survey Telescope (NEOST), located at the Xuyi station of the Purple Mountain Observatory, is a telescope with the most powerful detection capacity, the highest efficiency and the best performance in the fields of near Earth object survey and optical imaging in China. NEOST is an 171.8 Schmidt type telescope with a 1.20 meter primary mirror and a 1.04 meter corrector,

  17. A Tale of Two Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, T. D.; Sion, E.

    2017-03-01

    We compare two white dwarf survey populations. A recent all-sky, distance-limited population of nearby white dwarfs extending to 25 pc that contains 232 members, and a large magnitude-limited spectroscopic population, the SDSS DR7 survey, which contains over 20 000 DA stars. We derive distances and interstellar reddening estimates for the DR7 DA stars and compute luminosities and ages. Various aspects of the two samples are compared, including mass distributions, luminosity distributions, and cooling age distributions.

  18. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Introduction to the Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Jordan, A; Mei, S; Merritt, D; Milosavljevic, M; Peng, E W; Tonry, J L; West, M J; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mei, Simona; Merritt, David; Milosavljevic, Milos; Peng, Eric W.; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Virgo Cluster is the dominant mass concentration in the Local Supercluster and the largest collection of elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the nearby universe. In this paper, we present an introduction to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey: a program to image, in the F475W and F850LP bandpasses (Sloan g and z), 100 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the selection of the program galaxies and their ensemble properties, the choice of filters, the field placement and orientation, the limiting magnitudes of the survey, coordinated parallel observations of 100 "intergalactic" fields with WFPC2, and supporting ground-based spectroscopic observations of the program galaxies. In terms of depth, spatial resolution, sample size and homogeneity, this represents the most comprehensive imaging survey to date of early-type galaxies in a cluster environment. We briefly describe the main scientific goals of the survey which include the me...

  19. Environmental applications of gravity surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, L.J. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)); Nesbit, L.C. (KEMRON Environmental Services, Novi, MI (United States)); Khan, W.A. (Environmental Science Engineering, Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The Allis Park Sanitary Landfill Company developed a new landfill near Onway, Michigan in an area which has glacial alluvium and glacial till overlying limestone. There are several solution karst features in the region and some critics had maintained that a new karst collapse could rupture the liner system and allow escape of leachate into the groundwater. The gravity survey was conducted to determine the extent of any karst development at the site. The first portion of the survey was two profiles over some karst features located about five miles southeast of the proposed landfill. These showed negative gravity anomalies. The survey of the proposed landfill site resulted in a 50 microGal contour map of the area and also showed a negative anomaly. This could be due to either elevation variations on the till to limestone bedrock surface or to karst development within the limestone. Because there was no evidence of historic development of new karst features in the region, the gravity anomaly was not further investigated. In another gravity survey, a large retail department store had been remodeled and extended over an area previously occupied by an auto service center. The removal of a waste oil storage tank (UST) had not been documented and the environmental consultant (KEMRON, Inc.) proposed that a gravity survey be used to find the tank location. This proposal was based on calculations of the gravity effects of a UST. The survey resulted in a four-microGal contour map which showed a couple of anomalies which could be due to a tank or a backfilled tank excavation. During the survey, a store employee identified the previous location of the tank and explained that she had personally witnessed its removal. Based on the employee's eye-witness account of the tank removal and the coincidence of her indicated tank location with one of the gravity anomalies the authors recommended the site be granted clean closure.

  20. Pitfalls of Quantitative Surveys Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Pecáková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet in the last two decades, its use in all phases of field survey is growing very quickly. Indeed, it reduces costs while allowing exploration of relatively large files and enables effective use of a variety of research tools. The academic research is more reserved towards developing online surveys. Demands on the quality of data are the main cause; Internet surveys do not meet them and thus do not allow drawing objective conclusion about the populations surveyed. Unqualified use of the Internet may significantly influence data and information obtained from their analysis. The problematic definition of the population that is under investigation may result in a fault of its coverage. Its existence can be shown, for example, on a confrontation of the total and Internet population of the Czech Republic, the total and Internet population of the Czech households, etc. Representation of the population through an online panel may cause bias, depending on how the panel is created. A relatively new source of error in an online survey is the existence of “professional” respondents. The sampling method from a population or an online panel can lead to the emergence of such a sample that is not representative and does not allow inference to the population at all, or only in a very limited way. Even probability sampling, however, can be problematic if it is affected by a higher rate of non-responses. The aim of this paper is to summarise the possible sources of bias associated with any sample survey, but also to draw attention to those that are relatively new and are associated with the implementation of just quantitative surveys online.