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Sample records for olivine

  1. Mineral magnetism of dusty olivine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappe, Sophie-Charlotte L. L.; Church, Nathan S.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of olivine-hosted Fe-Ni particles have been studied to assess the potential of "dusty olivine" to retain a pre-accretionary remanence in chondritic meteorites. Both body-centered (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe-Ni phases were formed by reduction of a terrestrial...... olivine precursor. The presence of Ni complicates the magnetic properties during heating and cooling due to the fcc-bcc martensitic transition. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams contain a central ridge with a broad coercivity distribution extending to 600 mT, attributed to non-interacting single......-domain (SD) particles, and a "butterfly" structure extending to 250 mT, attributed to single-vortex (SV) states. SD and SV states were imaged directly using electron holography. The location of the SD/SV boundary is broadly consistent with theoretical predictions. A method to measure the volume of individual...

  2. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of methane in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Oze, C.; Rossman, G. R.; Celestian, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Olivine has been proposed to be a direct source of methane (CH4) in serpentinization systems and experiments. Here, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to verify the presence and abundance of CH4 in olivine samples from nine localities, including the San Carlos olivine. Raman analyses did not identify any methane in the olivine samples. As olivine is orthorhombic, three polarized FTIR spectra were obtained for the olivine samples. No methane was detected in any of the olivine samples using FTIR. Overall, olivine investigated in this study does not appear to be a primary source of methane.

  3. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  4. Change in Frictional Behavior during Olivine Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T.; Zhu, W.; French, M. E.; Belzer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydration of mantle peridotites (serpentinization) is pervasive at plate boundaries. It is widely accepted that serpentinization is intrinsically linked to hydromechanical processes within the sub-seafloor, where the interplay between cracking, fluid supply and chemical reactions is responsible for a spectrum of fault slip, from earthquake swarms at the transform faults, to slow slip events at the subduction zone. Previous studies demonstrate that serpentine minerals can either promote slip or creep depend on many factors that include sliding velocity, temperature, pressure, interstitial fluids, etc. One missing link from the experimental investigation of serpentine to observations of tectonic faults is the extent of alteration necessary for changing the frictional behaviors. We quantify changes in frictional behavior due to serpentinization by conducting experiments after in-situ serpentinization of olivine gouge. In the sample configuration a layer of powder is sandwiched between porous sandstone blocks with 35° saw-cut surface. The starting material of fine-grained (63 120 µm) olivine powder is reacted with deionized water for 72 hours at 150°C before loading starts. Under the conventional triaxial configuration, the sample is stressed until sliding occurs within the gouge. A series of velocity-steps is then performed to measure the response of friction coefficient to variations of sliding velocity from which the rate-and-state parameters are deduced. For comparison, we measured the frictional behavior of unaltered olivine and pure serpentine gouges.Our results confirm that serpentinization causes reduced frictional strength and velocity weakening. In unaltered olivine gouge, an increase in frictional resistance with increasing sliding velocity is observed, whereas the serpentinized olivine and serpentine gouges favor velocity weakening behaviors at the same conditions. Furthermore, we observed that high pore pressures cause velocity weakening in olivine but

  5. Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references

  6. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  7. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.

    1982-02-01

    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  8. Cotectic proportions of olivine and spinel in olivine-tholeiitic basalt and evaluation of pre-eruptive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter; Gofton, Emma; Thornber, Carl

    2006-01-01

    The volume %, distribution, texture and composition of coexisting olivine, Cr-spinel and glass has been determined in quenched lava samples from Hawaii, Iceland and mid-oceanic ridges. The volume ratio of olivine to spinel varies from 60 to 2800 and samples with >0·02% spinel have a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of approximately 100. A plot of wt % MgO vs ppm Cr for natural and experimental basaltic glasses suggests that the general trend of the glasses can be explained by the crystallization of a cotectic ratio of olivine to spinel of about 100. One group of samples has an olivine to spinel ratio of approximately 100, with skeletal olivine phenocrysts and small (within olivine phenocrysts is thought to be due to skeletal olivine phenocrysts coming into physical contact with spinel by synneusis during the chaotic conditions of ascent and extrusion. A second group of samples tend to have large olivine phenocrysts relatively free of included spinel, a few large (>100 μm) spinel crystals that show evidence of two stages of growth, and a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of 100 to well over 1000. The olivine and spinel in this group have crystallized more slowly with little physical interaction, and show evidence that they have accumulated in a magma chamber.

  9. Vaporization Studies of Olivine via Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.

  10. Dynamic recrystallization and grain growth in olivine rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann Slotemaker, A.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanism based description of the rheology of olivine is essential for modeling of upper mantle geodynamics. Previously, mantle flow has been investigated using flow laws for grain size insensitive (GSI) dislocation creep and/or grain size sensitive (GSS) diffusion creep of olivine. Generally,

  11. Olivine-type cathodes. Achievements and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Hosoya, Mamoru; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hinokuma, Koichiro; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Nishi, Yoshio

    The recent progress at Sony in the design of practical olivine-type cathodes is reviewed briefly. First principle calculations revealed LiFePO 4 is a semiconductor with ca. 0.3 eV band gap and LiMnPO 4 is an insulator with ca. 2 eV band gap, which seems the major intrinsic obstacle to a smooth redox reaction at 4 V in the Mn-rich phase. Attention is also focused on the lattice frustration induced by the strong electron (Mn 3+: 3d 4-e gσ ∗)-lattice interaction (Jahn-Teller effect) in the charged state of Li(Mn yFe 1- y)PO 4 (0≤ y≤1). Dense nanocomposite formation with disordered conductive carbon as well as the choice of the appropriate synthetic precursors is highlighted as important engineering aspects, followed by some specific issues concerning tolerance to unusual conditions.

  12. Carbon determination in natural crystals of olivines of deeporigin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilobreeva, S.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Minaev, V.M.; Kazakov, S.S.; Kuz'min, L.E.; Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1987-01-01

    Activation analysis and nuclear reaction analysis with registration of energy spectrum of forming prompt particles are used to determine carbon concentration and distribution in monocrystals of olivines. Carbon determination in olivine volume was carried out by activation analysis by 12 C(d, n) 13 N reaction and surface content - by registration of protons resulting from 12 C(d, p) 13 C reaction. The deuteron energy being 1.8-2.7 MeV, carbon determination limit and the analysis error were 10 -3 and 20 relat.%, respectively. By means of IR spectroscopy it is shown that carbon constitutes part of crystal lattice of olivines in monatomic form

  13. Characterization and luminescent properties of thermally annealed olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin-Garcia, Maria; Correcher, Virgilio; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Heredia-Barbero, Alejandro; Roman-Lopez, Jesus; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Olivine is an iron-magnesium solid solution silicate (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 and it is probably one of the most abundant mineral phase in the Solar System, it is present in the primitive carbonaceous meteorites (i.e Allende), and in ordinary chondritic meteorite, comets or terrestrial planets. The olivine grains in those bodies have been exposed to different radiation sources like UV, electrons, cosmic radiation, etc. Here, we explore the effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on the luminescence emission of the two well-characterised olivine samples from Mexico and Spain by means of cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The analyses by X-ray dispersive energies in the scanning electron microscopy show differences between the samples in the amount of iron and magnesium and also show traces of rare elements. Olivine exhibits spectral cathodoluminescence emissions of low intensity, explained for the quenching of the luminescence of the iron, and sharp signals assigned as impurities. Cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence glow curves of the natural, and UV induced olivine samples were obtained. Our results show that thermal treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral molecular structure and the luminescence properties of this mineral phase. These results confirm an active participation of physical factors influencing the luminescent properties of olivine. -- Highlights: ► Luminescent properties of two olivines samples (Mexican and Spanish) were explored. ► EDS show different iron and magnesium content and traces of rare elements on both. ► Olivine exhibits spectral CL emissions of low intensity due to the quenching of iron. ► Treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral structure and its response to UV radiation

  14. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona

  15. Arsenic Sorption on Mechanically Activated Magnetite and Olivine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bujňáková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic sorption on mechanically activated minerals such as magnetite Fe3O4 (Kiruna, Sweden and olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 (Ǻheim,Norway has been studied and compared in this work. Experiments were carried out with non-activated and mechanically activatedsamples. The activation of both minerals was performed in a planetary mill at different milling conditions. The specific surface areaand consequent sorption activity were enhanced by mechanical activation. The using of olivine seems to be better than magnetite fromthe point of view of milling time, which is necessary for achievement of the same sorption effect.

  16. The Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Olivine Nano-Silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griend, van de M.C; Lazaro, A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the effects of ripening the olivine nano-silica to form particles with a lower specific surface area for optimal use in high performance concrete. The nano-silica was ripened using a hydrothermal treatment in a mixed batch reactor at 90 C, pH ranging from 8 to 10

  17. Space Weathering Evolution on Airless Bodies - Laboratory Simulations with Olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Čuda, J.; Bradley, T.; Britt, D.; Filip, J.; Tuček, J.; Malina, O.; Kašlík, J.; Šišková, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2013), s. 25-26 ISSN 0002-7537. [Annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society /45./. 06.10.2013-11.10.2013, Denver] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : space weathering * asteroid * Moon * olivine Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://aas.org/files/resources/dps_abstract_book.pdf

  18. Dielectric and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Pala, Zdeněk; Kotlan, Jiří; Soumar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 600-616 ISSN 1221-1451. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications/16./. Magurele, Bucharest, 20.06.2013-25.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : olivine * plasma spraying * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2015 www.infim.ro/rrp

  19. Investigating dissolution of mechanically activated olivine for carbonation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Tove Anette; Kleiv, Rolf Arne; Munz, Ingrid Anne

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Dissolution of mechanically activated olivine increased with 3 orders of magnitude. → Crystallinity changes of olivine is important for the observed dissolution rates. → Activation probably decreases with the degree of dissolution of each particle. - Abstract: Mineral carbonation is one of several alternatives for CO 2 sequestration and storage. The reaction rates of appropriate minerals with CO 2 , for instance olivine and serpentine with vast resources, are relatively slow in a CO 2 sequestration context and the rates have to be increased to make mineral carbonation a good storage alternative. Increasing the dissolution rate of olivine has been the focus of this paper. Olivine was milled with very high energy intensity using a laboratory planetary mill to investigate the effect of mechanical activation on the Mg extraction potential of olivine in 0.01 M HCl solution at room temperature and pressure. Approximately 30-40% of each sample was dissolved and water samples were taken at the end of each experiment. The pH change was used to calculate time series of the Mg concentrations, which also were compared to the final Mg concentrations in the water samples. Percentage dissolved and the specific reaction rates were estimated from the Mg concentration time series. The measured particle size distributions could not explain the rate constants found, but the specific surface area gave a good trend versus dissolution for samples milled wet and the samples milled with a small addition of water. The samples milled dry had the lowest measured specific surface areas ( 2 /g), but had the highest rate constants. The crystallinity calculated from X-ray diffractograms, was the material parameter with the best fit for the observed differences in the rate constants. Geochemical modelling of mechanically activated materials indicated that factors describing the changes in the material properties related to the activation must be included. The

  20. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M; Rimstidt, J Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J

    2017-07-14

    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H 2 O activity decreases.

  1. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H2O activity decreases.

  2. Production and Application of Olivine Nano-Silica in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, Oesman; Haryadi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to produce nano silica by synthesis of nano silica through extraction and dissolution of ground olivine rock, and applied the nano silica in the design concrete mix. The producing process of amorphous silica used sulfuric acid as the dissolution reagent. The separation of ground olivine rock occurred when the rock was heated in a batch reactor containing sulfuric acid. The results showed that the optimum mole ratio of olivine- acid was 1: 8 wherein the weight ratio of the highest nano silica generated. The heating temperature and acid concentration influenced the mass of silica produced, that was at temperature of 90 °C and 3 M acid giving the highest yield of 44.90%. Characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR ) concluded that amorphous silica at a wavenumber of 1089 cm-1 indicated the presence of siloxane, Si-O-Si, stretching bond. Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed the surface and the size of the silica particles. The average size of silica particles was between 1-10 μm due to the rapid aggregation of the growing particles of nano silica into microparticles, caused of the pH control was not fully achieved.

  3. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6 m NTT telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4% (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at hundred meter size range of NEAs population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜1% of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges bellow 300m. Our findings are compared with the "battered-to-bits" scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  4. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6-m New Technology Telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4 per cent (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at a 100-m size range of NEA population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜ 1 per cent of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges below 300 m. Our findings are compared with the `battered-to-bits' scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  5. Ringwoodite growth rates from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O: Metastable olivine must be nearly anhydrous to exist in the mantle transition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division; Sharp, Thomas G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Mosenfelder, Jed L. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Leinenweber, Kurt [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-04-15

    It has been previously demonstrated that as little as 300 ppmw H2O increases wadsleyite and ringwoodite growth rates to magnitudes that are inconsistent with the metastable olivine hypothesis. To further test this hypothesis, we present new ringwoodite growth rate measurements from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O at 18 GPa and 700, 900, and 1100 °C. These growth rates are nearly identical to those from olivine with ~300 ppmw H2O, and significantly higher than those from nominally anhydrous olivine. We infer that transformation of olivine with 75-300 ppmw H2O is primarily enhanced by hydrolytic weakening of reaction rims, which reduces the elastic strain-energy barrier to growth. We present a new method for fitting nonlinear nominally anhydrous data, to demonstrate that reduction of growth rates by elastic strain energy is an additional requirement for metastable olivine. In conclusion, based on previous thermokinetic modeling, these enhanced growth rates are inconsistent with the persistence of metastable olivine wedges into the mantle transition zone. Metastable persistence of olivine into the mantle transition-zone would therefore require < 75 ppmw H2O.

  6. Fe2+-Mg2+ order in an olivine from the lunar anorthosite 67075 and the significance of cation order in lunar and terrestrial olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata; Wan, Che'ng; McCallum, I.

    1976-01-01

    In an olivine, (Fesub(1.010)Mgsub(1.015)Casub(0.002)Mnsub(0.014)SiO 4 , from the lunar anorthosite 67075, Fe 2+ indicates a slight preference for the M1 site, the KD value being 1.197. Available data in synthetic, lunar and terrestrial olivines indicate that for iron-rich olivines (>20 mol percent Fayalite), Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site, the site preference decreasing with decreasing temperature. In magnesium-rich olivines, Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site at high temperature, but may prefer the M2 site at low temperature. The olivine from sample 67075 most likely was cooled from the crystallization temperature to 800 0 C or less in 10 days. (author)

  7. Transport properties of olivine grain boundaries from electrical conductivity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Kohlstedt, David L.; Hansen, Lars N.; Mackwell, Stephen; Tasaka, Miki; Heidelbach, Florian; Leinenweber, Kurt

    2018-05-01

    Grain boundary processes contribute significantly to electronic and ionic transports in materials within Earth's interior. We report a novel experimental study of grain boundary conductivity in highly strained olivine aggregates that demonstrates the importance of misorientation angle between adjacent grains on aggregate transport properties. We performed electrical conductivity measurements of melt-free polycrystalline olivine (Fo90) samples that had been previously deformed at 1200 °C and 0.3 GPa to shear strains up to γ = 7.3. The electrical conductivity and anisotropy were measured at 2.8 GPa over the temperature range 700-1400 °C. We observed that (1) the electrical conductivity of samples with a small grain size (3-6 µm) and strong crystallographic preferred orientation produced by dynamic recrystallization during large-strain shear deformation is a factor of 10 or more larger than that measured on coarse-grained samples, (2) the sample deformed to the highest strain is the most conductive even though it does not have the smallest grain size, and (3) conductivity is up to a factor of 4 larger in the direction of shear than normal to the shear plane. Based on these results combined with electrical conductivity data for coarse-grained, polycrystalline olivine and for single crystals, we propose that the electrical conductivity of our fine-grained samples is dominated by grain boundary paths. In addition, the electrical anisotropy results from preferential alignment of higher-conductivity grain boundaries associated with the development of a strong crystallographic preferred orientation of the grains.

  8. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  10. Network topology of olivine-basalt partial melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Philip; Chaney, Molly M.; Emmerich, Adrienne L.; Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu

    2017-07-01

    The microstructural relationship between melt and solid grains in partially molten rocks influences many physical properties, including permeability, rheology, electrical conductivity and seismic wave speeds. In this study, the connectivity of melt networks in the olivine-basalt system is explored using a systematic survey of 3-D X-ray microtomographic data. Experimentally synthesized samples with 2 and 5 vol.% melt are analysed as a series of melt tubules intersecting at nodes. Each node is characterized by a coordination number (CN), which is the number of melt tubules that intersect at that location. Statistically representative volumes are described by coordination number distributions (CND). Polyhedral grains can be packed in many configurations yielding different CNDs, however widely accepted theory predicts that systems with small dihedral angles, such as olivine-basalt, should exhibit a predominant CN of four. In this study, melt objects are identified with CN = 2-8, however more than 50 per cent are CN = 4, providing experimental verification of this theoretical prediction. A conceptual model that considers the role of heterogeneity in local grain size and melt fraction is proposed to explain the formation of nodes with CN ≠ 4. Correctly identifying the melt network topology is essential to understanding the relationship between permeability and porosity, and hence the transport properties of partial molten mantle rocks.

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  12. Diffusion Modeling of Cooling Rates of Relict Olivine in Semarkona Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewins, R. H.; Ganguly, J.; Mariani, E.

    2009-03-01

    Diffusive exchange profiles between relict olivine and melt-grown olivine in Semarkona Type IIA chondrules were oriented by EBSD to correct D. Results for Fe-Mg (D from Dohmen) and Cr (Ito and Ganguly) are concordant at 300°-400°C/hr.

  13. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end of t...

  14. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.

    2018-04-01

    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  15. Preliminary quantification of a shape model for etch-pits formed during natural weathering of olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, M. Anna; Velbel, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Many etch-pits on olivine grains occur as a pair of cone-shaped pits sharing a base, which consequently appear as diamond-shaped etch-pits in cross-section. Quantitative image analysis of back-scattered electron images establishes empirical dimensions of olivine etch-pits in naturally weathered samples from Hawaii and North Carolina. Images of naturally etched olivine were acquired from polished thin-sections by scanning electron microscopy. An average cone-radius-to-height ratio (r:h) of 1.78 was determined for diamond-shaped cross-sections of etch-pits occurring in naturally weathered olivine grains, largely consistent with previous qualitative results. Olivine etch-pit shape as represented by r:h varies from slightly more than half the average value to slightly more than twice the average. Etch-pit shape does not appear to vary systematically with etch-pit size.

  16. Environmental monitoring at the Seqi olivine mine 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert

    monitoring studies conducted in 2010. Results from previous years have shown that operation of the mine caused levels of some elements, particularly chromium and nickel, to increase in lichens, blue mussels and seaweed within the surrounding area compared to pre-mining conditions. The main source......The olivine mine at Seqi in West Greenland operated between 2005 and 2010. Since 2004, environmental monitoring studies have been conducted at Seqi every year in order to assess premining conditions and subsequently the impact from mining during operation. This report contains the results from...... of contamination is considered the generation and spreading of metal-contaminated dust from the roads and the ore-crushing facility. Results from 2010 show that levels of chromium and nickel in lichens are still elevated but that dust deposition rates have decreased from 2008 to 2010. Similarly, levels of chromium...

  17. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Abiotic methane formation during experimental serpentinization of olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M

    2016-12-06

    Fluids circulating through actively serpentinizing systems are often highly enriched in methane (CH 4 ). In many cases, the CH 4 in these fluids is thought to derive from abiotic reduction of inorganic carbon, but the conditions under which this process can occur in natural systems remain unclear. In recent years, several studies have reported abiotic formation of CH 4 during experimental serpentinization of olivine at temperatures at or below 200 °C. However, these results seem to contradict studies conducted at higher temperatures (300 °C to 400 °C), where substantial kinetic barriers to CH 4 synthesis have been observed. Here, the potential for abiotic formation of CH 4 from dissolved inorganic carbon during olivine serpentinization is reevaluated in a series of laboratory experiments conducted at 200 °C to 320 °C. A 13 C-labeled inorganic carbon source was used to unambiguously determine the origin of CH 4 generated in the experiments. Consistent with previous high-temperature studies, the results indicate that abiotic formation of CH 4 from reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon during the experiments is extremely limited, with nearly all of the observed CH 4 derived from background sources. The results indicate that the potential for abiotic synthesis of CH 4 in low-temperature serpentinizing environments may be much more limited than some recent studies have suggested. However, more extensive production of CH 4 was observed in one experiment performed under conditions that allowed an H 2 -rich vapor phase to form, suggesting that shallow serpentinization environments where a separate gas phase is present may be more favorable for abiotic synthesis of CH 4 .

  19. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced by dislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establish the dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks due to a lack of suitable observational techniques. We apply high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction to map geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density, elastic strain, and residual stress in experimentally deformed single crystals of olivine. Short-range interactions are revealed by cross correlation of GND density maps. Spatial correlations between dislocation types indicate that noncollinear interactions may impede motion of proximal dislocations at temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C. Long-range interactions are revealed by autocorrelation of GND density maps. These analyses reveal periodic variations in GND density and sign, with characteristic length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. These structures are spatially associated with variations in elastic strain and residual stress on the order of 10-3 and 100 MPa, respectively. Therefore, short-range interactions generate local accumulations of dislocations, leading to heterogeneous internal stress fields that influence dislocation motion over longer length scales. The impacts of these short- and/or long-range interactions on dislocation velocities may therefore influence the strain rate of the bulk material and are an important consideration for future models of dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms in olivine. Establishing the types and impacts of dislocation interactions that occur across a range of laboratory and natural deformation conditions will help to establish the reliability of extrapolating laboratory-derived flow laws to real Earth conditions.

  20. Correlations Between Olivine Abundance and Thermal Inertia: Implications for Global Weathering and/or Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, V. E.; McDowell, M. L.; Koeppen, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    TES data show no global trend between thermal inertia and olivine abundance. But it is premature to conclude that all dark surfaces were once more mafic OR that olivine is not preferentially removed from olivine-enriched outcrops as they erode.

  1. Transfer of olivine crystallographic orientation through a cycle of serpentinisation and dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-08-01

    Our ability to decipher the mechanisms behind metamorphic transformation processes depends in a major way on the extent to which crystallographic and microstructural information is transferred from one stage to another. Within the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde olivine veins that formed by dehydration of serpentinite veins in dunites exhibit a characteristic distribution of microstructures: The outer part of the veins comprises coarse-grained olivine that forms an unusual, brick-like microstructure. The inner part of the veins, surrounding a central fault, is composed of fine-grained olivine. Where the fault movement included a dilational component, optically clear, equant olivine occurs in the centre. Electron backscatter diffraction mapping reveals that the vein olivine has inherited its crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) from the olivine in the porphyroclastic host rock; however, misorientation is weaker and associated to different rotation axes. We propose that prograde olivine grew epitaxially on relics of mantle olivine and thereby acquired its CPO. Growth towards pre-existing microfractures along which serpentinisation had occurred led to straight grain boundaries and a brick-like microstructure in the veins. When dehydration embrittlement induced slip, a strong strain localisation on discrete fault planes prevented distortion of the CPO due to cataclastic deformation; grain size reduction did not significantly modify the olivine CPO. This illustrates how a CPO can be preserved though an entire metamorphic cycle, including hydration, dehydration, and deformation processes, and that the CPO and the microstructures (e.g. grain shape) of one phase do not necessarily record the same event.

  2. H Diffusion in Olivine and Pyroxene from Peridotite Xenoliths and a Hawaiian Magma Speedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is present as a trace element in olivine and pyroxene and its content distribution in the mantle results from melting and metasomatic processes. Here we examine how these H contents can be disturbed during decompression. Hydrogen was analyzed by FTIR in olivine and pyroxene of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) nephelinites which are part of the rejuvenated volcanism at Oahu (Hawaii) [1,2]. H mobility in pyroxene resulting from spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling Most pyroxenes in SLC peridotites exhibit exsolutions, characterized by spinel inclusions. Pyroxene edges where no exsolution are present have less H then their core near the spinel. Given that H does not enter spinel [3], subsolidus requilibration may have concentrated H in the pyroxene adjacent to the spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling. H diffusion in olivine during xenolith transport by its host magma and host magma ascent rates Olivines have lower water contents at the edge and near fractures compared to at their core, while the concentrations of all other chemical elements appear homogeneous. This suggests that some of the initial water has diffused out of the olivine. Water loss from the olivine is thought to occur during host-magma ascent and xenolith transport to the surface [4-6]. Diffusion modeling matches best the data when the initial water content used is that measured at the core of the olivines, implying that mantle water contents are preserved at the core of the olivines. The 3225 cm(sup -1) OH band at times varies independantly of other OH bands, suggesting uneven H distribution in olivine defects likely acquired during mantle metasomatism just prior to eruption and unequilibrated. Diffusion times (1-48 hrs) combined with depths of peridotite equilibration or of magma start of degassing allow to calculate ascent rates for the host nephelinite of 0.1 to 27 m/s.

  3. Olivine CPO in non-deformed peridotite due to topotactic replacement of antigorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi

    2014-05-01

    Olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is thought to be the main cause of seismic anisotropy in the mantle, and its formation is generally considered to be the result of plastic deformation of mantle by dislocation creep. Olivine CPO has been reproduced in laboratory deformation experiments and considerable success has been achieved in understanding the deformation conditions (e.g. stress, temperature and water content) under which different olivine CPO patterns develop. This opens the possibility of mapping conditions in the mantle using seismic anisotropy and has been the subject of considerable study. Here we report an alternative mechanism for olivine CPO without the need for deformation. This process may be important in understanding the seismic properties of mantle in convergent margins. Metamorphic studies show peridotite in the Happo area, central Japan, formed by the dehydration of antigorite-schist related to contact metamorphism around a granite intrusion. Both field and microstructural observations suggest the olivine has not undergone strong plastic deformation. This was confirmed by TEM work that shows the olivine has very low dislocation densities and lacks low angle tilt boundaries. Such tilt boundaries are general stable even after annealing. These features show that peridotite in the Happo area formed in the absence of solid-state deformation. The olivine of the Happo peridotite formed dominantly by the dehydration breakdown of antigorite schist. We propose that the olivine CPO formed as a result of topotactic replacement of antigorite by the newly formed olivine. EBSD measurements in samples where both antigorite and new olivine are present and in contact show a very close crystallographic relationship between the two minerals: the a-axes are parallel, and the b- and c-axes are perpendicular. We conclude the strong olivine CPO in the Happo area was inherited from the original CPO of the antigorite. Such a process is likely to also

  4. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  5. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-. Cretaceous are ... produce a new scene that has the best of orig- ... developed from an olivine basalt parent magma, ..... Marcelino E, Formaggio A and Maeda E 2009 Landslide.

  6. Prevalence of the Ancient Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway in a Subseafloor Olivine Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. R.; Mueller, R.; Fisk, M. R.; Mason, O. U.; Popa, R.; Kieft, B.; Colwell, F. S.

    2018-05-01

    The ancient Wood-Ljungdahl pathway used for biosynthesis and energy generation was found to be the predominant metabolic pathway in a microbial community from olivine grains incubated in the Juan de Fuca subseafloor aquifer.

  7. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2018-02-01

    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  8. Relict olivines in micrometeorites: Precursors and interactions in the earth`s atmosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J.M.C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J.D.

    is therefore useful for identifying the range of chondrites that contributes to the flux of micrometeorites (Steele, 1985a,b; Steele, 1992). The survival of the relict grains also 3    constrains the temperature the particle may have experienced during... elements present in the relict mineral helps narrow down the precursor with greater precision than the bulk chemical composition (Steele, 1985a, b; 1992), particularly because Mg-rich olivine can be compared with Mg-rich olivine in chondritic components...

  9. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  10. A Tale of Two Olivines: Magma Ascent in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, E. R.; McGee, L. E.; Smith, I. E.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a nephelinitic to subalkali basaltic monogenetic field centered on the city of Auckland, New Zealand. Lavas are olivine-phyric, and the deposits of several volcanoes in the field contain olivine crystals with chrome spinel (Cr-spinel) inclusions. Microprobe analyses show at least two populations of olivine, categorised by their Mg# and their spinel inclusion compositions: the first has olivines that are euhedral, have compositions slightly less forsteritic than expected for whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusions with relatively low Cr2O3 contents of ~20%. These are interpreted as antecrysts inherited from the mantle source that yielded their host magma. The second population is characterised by olivines that are sub- to euhedral, are significantly more forsteritic than expected from their host whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusons with relatively high Cr2O3 contents of ~50%. These are interpreted as xenocrysts. The composition of these high Cr2O3 spinels very closely resembles the composition of spinels within olivines in dunite sampled from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite on the South Island of New Zealand. The northward extension of the Dun Mountain complex beneath the North Island is defined by the Junction Magnetic Anomaly, marking a crustal terrane boundary that underlies the Auckland Volcanic Field. These data indicate that the magmas that have risen to produce the volcanoes of the Auckland Volcanic Field have carried crystals from an underlying ultramafic crust as well as from their asthenospheric source. Euhedral olivine crystals which do not contain Cr-spinel are also present in AVF lavas and these are interpreted as true phenocrysts that crystallised directly from their host magmas. The lack of reaction textures at crystal margins suggests rapid ascent rates. A crustal origin for the xenocrysts not only has large implications for ascent rate modelling of olivines, but also for the crustal structure of the

  11. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  12. Characterization and petrologic interpretation of olivine-rich basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Wyatt, M.B.; Gellert, Ralf; Bell, J.F.; Morris, R.V.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Crumpler, L.S.; Milam, K.A.; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bartlett, P.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Des Marais, D.J.; Economou, T.; Farmer, J.D.; Farrand, W.; Ghosh, A.; Golombek, M.; Gorevan, S.; Greeley, R.; Hamilton, V.E.; Johnson, J. R.; Joliff, B.L.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D.; Moersch, J.E.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; Schrorder, C.; de Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are basalts of uniform composition and mineralogy. Olivine, the only mineral to have been identified or inferred from data by all instruments on the Spirit rover, is especially abundant in these rocks. These picritic basalts are similar in many respects to certain Martian meteorites (olivine-phyric shergottites). The olivine megacrysts in both have intermediate compositions, with modal abundances ranging up to 20-30%. Associated minerals in both include low-calcium and high-calcium pyroxenes, plagioclase of intermediate composition, iron-titanium-chromium oxides, and phosphate. These rocks also share minor element trends, reflected in their nickel-magnesium and chromium-magnesium ratios. Gusev basalts and shergottites appear to have formed from primitive magmas produced by melting an undepleted mantle at depth and erupted without significant fractionation. However, apparent differences between Gusev rocks and shergottites in their ages, plagioclase abundances, and volatile contents preclude direct correlation. Orbital determinations of global olivine distribution and compositions by thermal emission spectroscopy suggest that olivine-rich rocks may be widespread. Because weathering under acidic conditions preferentially attacks olivine and disguises such rocks beneath alteration rinds, picritic basalts formed from primitive magmas may even be a common component of the Martian crust formed during ancient and recent times. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  14. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine Grain Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Watson, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Diffusive fractionation of isotopes has been documented in silicate melts, aqueous fluids, and single crystals. In polycrystalline rocks, the meeting place of two grains, or grain boundaries, may also be a site of diffusive fractionation of isotopes. We have undertaken an experimental and modeling approach to investigate diffusive fractionation of lithium (Li) isotopes by grain boundary diffusion. The experimental procedure consists of packing a Ni metal capsule with predominantly ground San Carlos olivine and subjecting the capsule to 1100C and 1GPa for two days in a piston cylinder apparatus to create a nominally dry, 'dunite rock'. After this synthesis step, the capsule is sectioned and polished. One of the polished faces of the 'dunite rock' is then juxtaposed to a source material of spodumene and this diffusion couple is subject to the same experimental conditions as the synthesis step. Li abundances and isotopic profiles (ratios of count rates) were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Li concentrations linearly decrease away from the source from 550ppm to the average concentration of the starting olivine (2.5ppm). As a function of distance from the source, the 7Li/6Li ratio decreases to a minimum before increasing to the background ratio of the 'dunite rock'. The 7Li/6Li ratio minimum coincides with the lowest Li concentrations above average 'dunite rock' abundances. The initial decrease in the 7Li/6Li ratio is similar to that seen in other studies of diffusive fractionation of isotopes and is thought to be caused by the higher diffusivity (D) of the lighter isotope relative to the heavier isotope. The relationship between D and mass (m) is given by (D1/D2) =(m2/m1)^β, where β is an empirical fractionation factor; 1 and 2 denote the lighter and heavier isotope, respectively. A fit to the Li isotopic data reveals an effective DLi of ~1.2x10^-12 m/s^2 and a β of 0.1. Numerical modelling was utilized to elucidate the relationship between diffusive fractionation

  15. Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienti, P.; Tarquini, S.

    2002-12-01

    Olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs) have been measured in three suites of spinel- and garnet-bearing harzburgites and lherzolites found as xenoliths in alkaline basalts from Canary Islands, Africa; Victoria Land, Antarctica; and Pali Aike, South America. The xenoliths derive from lithospheric mantle, from depths ranging from 80 to 20 km. Their textures vary from coarse to porphyroclastic and mosaic-porphyroclastic up to cataclastic. Data have been collected by processing digital images acquired optically from standard petrographic thin sections. The acquisition method is based on a high-resolution colour scanner that allows image capturing of a whole thin section. Image processing was performed using the VISILOG 5.2 package, resolving crystals larger than about 150 μm and applying stereological corrections based on the Schwartz-Saltykov algorithm. Taking account of truncation effects due to resolution limits and thin section size, all samples show scale invariance of crystal size distributions over almost three orders of magnitude (0.2-25 mm). Power law relations show fractal dimensions varying between 2.4 and 3.8, a range of values observed for distributions of fragment sizes in a variety of other geological contexts. A fragmentation model can reproduce the fractal dimensions around 2.6, which correspond to well-equilibrated granoblastic textures. Fractal dimensions >3 are typical of porphyroclastic and cataclastic samples. Slight bends in some linear arrays suggest selective tectonic crushing of crystals with size larger than 1 mm. The scale invariance shown by lithospheric mantle xenoliths in a variety of tectonic settings forms distant geographic regions, which indicate that this is a common characteristic of the upper mantle and should be taken into account in rheological models and evaluation of metasomatic models.

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of manganese olivine lithium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Robles, Joel O. [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Fuentes Cobas, Luis E. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, Complejo Industrial, M. Cervantes 120, Chihuahua C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Díaz de la Torre, Sebastián [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica CIITEC, Azcapotzalco, México, D.F. C.P. 02250 (Mexico); Camacho Montes, Héctor, E-mail: hcamacho@uacj.mx [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Elizalde Galindo, José T.; García Casillas, Perla E.; Rodríguez González, Claudia A. [Basic Science Department, IIT, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 460 norte Cd. Juárez, Chih. C.P. 32310 (Mexico); Álvarez Contreras, Lorena [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, Complejo Industrial, M. Cervantes 120, Chihuahua C.P. 31109 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • LiMnPO{sub 4} was obtained by sol gel method and crystallization in reducing atmosphere. • Magnetic and electric properties are reported for LiMnPO{sub 4}. • Electrochemical properties are also found and enhanced by adding carbon. • SEM and HRTEM show the submicron powder nature. • The multifunctional behavior of LiMnPO{sub 4} is experimentally demonstrated. - Abstract: The manganese olivine lithium phosphate is a multifunctional material. If carbon is added to form a composite LiMnPO{sub 4}–C, electrochemical properties can be enhanced, making this material a good candidate for battery cathode. High magnetic susceptibility is reported for this compound at room temperature. In this work, the magnetic response was measured through a Field Cooling/Zero Field Cooling technique at temperature below 100 K. Weak ferroelectric properties at room temperature were measured. Even though, the promising applications and the interesting properties of this system, the attention received in the literature is relatively low. The synthesis of this material is difficult because of the rapid manganese oxidation and the need of a reducing atmosphere. In fact, only few authors report the synthesis of the pure phase. In the present work, nanostructured LiMnPO{sub 4} is obtained by sol gel chemical method and according to X-ray diffraction patterns, pure LiMnPO{sub 4} is obtained after calcination in a reducing atmosphere (10% H{sub 2} – 90% Ar). Nanostructured LiMnPO{sub 4} is a material with very interesting properties that deserves attentions.

  17. Experimental constraints on partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; Van Westrenen, W.; van Bergen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fast diffusion and homogenization of divalent cations hamper the preservation of original chemical compositions and zoning patterns of igneous olivine phenocrysts. Sluggish intracrystalline diffusion of phosphorus in igneous olivine on the other hand allows the complex zoning patterns to be retained, making it a crucial element for reconstruction of cooling histories and evolution of the host magma. Crystallization rate variations, diffusion controlled growth or compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning have been put forward as mechanisms controlling zoning of igneous olivine in phosphorus. Here, we investigate partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivines by a comparison of natural and experimentally grown olivines. We explore the importance of variable degrees of undercooling and cooling rates in crystallizing melt (M1) with a starting composition equivalent to that of an Italian high-potassium basalt (Tliq=1274 °C). We examine the extent of compositional control on partitioning by varying the amount of alkali enrichment in starting compositions that are otherwise equivalent to melt M1. Olivine crystallization experiments were conducted in rhenium capsules suspended in a vertical 1-atm gas-mixing furnace at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) with fO2 buffered at 1.4 to 1.7 log units below the Ni-NiO buffer. Sets of dynamic crystallization experiments with various degrees of undercooling and controlled cooling rate experiments with varying cooling rates were performed. We compare the results with our extensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian K-rich mafic lavas and olivine hosted primitive melt inclusions (MIs). Phosphorus concentrations in the natural olivines reach 435 ppm P and MIs contain up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-4 µm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory, patchy and large scale sector zoning in P, uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are almost always found in P-poor zones

  18. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2018-01-01

    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm 3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm 3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deriving global Olivine distribution on Hayabusa's target (25143) Itokawa using Near-Infrared Spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, L.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Galiano, A.; Dirri, F.

    2017-09-01

    In 2005 Hayabusa spacecraft visited asteroid Itokawa, bringing back surface samples to Earth in 2010. Near-Infrared data taken by NIRS and samples analysis confirmed hypothesis made through ground-based observations, in particular the one that sees Itokawa as an LL-chondrite like asteroid processed by space weathering. In this work, we apply spectral indices for olivine detection. In particular, we define the BAR* and relate it to the olivine abundance, by means of calibration on laboratory data. We present the distribution of BAR* calculated for nearly 38.000 spectra taken from an altitude of 3.5-7 km, defined as Home Position, which was the longest mission observation phase. In addition, a plot of olivine normalized content versus BAR* for RELAB compounds is given.

  20. Low-temperature plasticity of olivine revisited with in situ TEM nanomechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Bollinger, Caroline; Boioli, Francesca; Schryvers, Dominique; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The rheology of the lithospheric mantle is fundamental to understanding how mantle convection couples with plate tectonics. However, olivine rheology at lithospheric conditions is still poorly understood because experiments are difficult in this temperature range where rocks and mineral become very brittle. We combine techniques of quantitative in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope and numerical modeling of dislocation dynamics to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine. We find that the intrinsic ductility of olivine at low temperature is significantly lower than previously reported values, which were obtained under strain-hardened conditions. Using this method, we can anchor rheological laws determined at higher temperature and can provide a better constraint on intermediate temperatures relevant for the lithosphere. More generally, we demonstrate the possibility of characterizing the mechanical properties of specimens, which can be available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles only.

  1. RELICT OLIVINES IN MICROMETEORITES: PRECURSORS AND INTERACTIONS IN THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Taylor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica micrometeorites (∼1200) and cosmic spherules (∼5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1–0.3wt%), Al 2 O 3 (0.0–0.3wt%), MnO (0.0–0.3wt%), and Cr 2 O 3 (0.1–0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.

  2. RELICT OLIVINES IN MICROMETEORITES: PRECURSORS AND INTERACTIONS IN THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D. [National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D. [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Taylor, S., E-mail: rudra@nio.org [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-1290 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Antarctica micrometeorites (∼1200) and cosmic spherules (∼5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1–0.3wt%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.0–0.3wt%), MnO (0.0–0.3wt%), and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.1–0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.

  3. Olivine-type cathode for rechargeable batteries: Role of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhasamy, Sathiyaraj; Singh, Pritam; Thurgate, Stephen; Ionescu, Mihail; Appadoo, Dominique; Minakshi, Manickam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Olivine powder was synthesized by sol–gel method using a range of chelating agents. ► Role of chelating agents in olivine cathode was investigated for battery application. ► Battery was fabricated with olivine cathode, Zn anode and aqueous electrolyte. ► Synergetic effect of additives (CA + TEA + PVP) led to improved storage capacity. - Abstract: Olivine (LiCo 1/3 Mn 1/3 Ni 1/3 PO 4 ) powders were synthesized at 550–600 °C for 6 h in air by a sol–gel method using multiple chelating agents and used as a cathode material for rechargeable batteries. Range of chelating agents like a weak organic acid (citric acid – CA), emulsifier (triethanolamine – TEA) and non-ionic surfactant (polyvinylpyrrolidone – PVP) in sol–gel wet chemical synthesis were used. The dependence of the physicochemical properties of the olivine powders such as particle size, morphology, structural bonding and crystallinity on the chelating agent was extensively investigated. Among the chelating agents used, unique cycling behavior (75 mAh/g after 25 cycles) is observed for the PVP assisted olivine. This is due to volumetric change in trapped organic layer for first few cycles. The trapped organic species in the electrode–electrolyte interface enhances the rate of lithium ion diffusion with better capacity retention. In contrast, CA and TEA showed a gradual capacity fade of 30 and 38 mAh/g respectively after multiple cycles. The combination of all the three mixed chelating agents showed an excellent electrochemical behavior of 100 mAh/g after multiple cycles and the synergistic effect of these agents are discussed.

  4. Rocks Whose Compositions are Determined by Flow Differentiation of Olivine- and Sulfide Droplet-Laden Magma: the Jinchuan Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Ripley, E. M.; de Waal, S. A.; Xu, Z.

    2002-12-01

    The Jinchuan intrusion in western China is an elongated, deeply-dipping dyke-like body of dominantly olivine-rich ultramafic rocks of high magnesium basaltic magma. It hosts the second largest Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in the world. More than 500 million tones of sulfide ore grading 1.2 percent Ni and 0.7 percent Cu occur mostly as next-textured and disseminated sulfide (pyrrhotite, pentlendite and chalcopyrite) with cumulus olivine in about half of the rocks of the intrusion. Based on different petrological zonations, the Jinchuan intrusion is further divided into three segments: eastern, central and western segments. The central segment is characterized by concentric enrichments of cumulus olivine and sulfide, whereas the eastern and western segments are characterized by the increase of both cumulus olivine and sulfide toward the footwall. The forsterite contents of fresh olivine from different segments are similar and vary between 82 and 86 mole percent. The small range of olivine compositional variation corresponds to less than 6 percent of fractional crystallization. Mass balance calculations based on sulfide solubility in basaltic magma indicate that the volume of the parental magma of the sulfide is many times larger than that which is currently represented in the intrusion. Large amounts of cumulus olivine (more than 40 weight percent) in the marginal samples and high concentrations of sulfide in the intrusion are consistent with an interpretation that the Jinchuan intrusion was formed by olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma ascending through a subvertical conduit to a higher level. Differentiation processes of the olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma varied in different parts of the conduit. Sub-vertical flow differentiation controlled the central segment of the conduit, resulting in further enrichment of olivine crystals and sulfide droplets in the conduit center. In contrast, sub-lateral flow and gravitational differentiation dominated in the eastern

  5. Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi

    2014-02-01

    Peridotite formed by contact metamorphism and dehydration breakdown of an antigorite schist from the Happo area, central Japan shows a strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (Ol CPO). The lack of mesoscale deformation structures associated with the intrusion and the lack of microstructural evidence for plastic deformation of neoblastic grains suggest that olivine CPO in this area did not form as a result of solid-state deformation. Instead, the good correspondence between the original antigorite orientation and the orientation of the newly formed olivine implies the CPO formed by topotactic growth of the olivine after antigorite. Ol CPO is likely to develop by a similar process in subduction zone environments where foliated serpentinite is dragged down to depths where antigorite is no longer stable. The Happo Ol CPO has a strong a-axis concentration perpendicular to the lineation and within the foliation-commonly referred to as B-type Ol CPO. Seismic fast directions parallel to the ocean trench are observed in many convergent margins and are consistent with the presence of B-type Ol CPO in the mantle wedge of these regions. Experimental work has shown that B-type CPO can form by dislocation creep under hydrous conditions at relatively high stresses. There are, however, several discrepancies between the characteristics of natural and laboratory samples with B-type Ol CPO. (1) The formation conditions (stress and temperature) of some natural examples with B-type CPO fall outside those predicted by experiments. (2) In deformation experiments, slip in the crystallographic c-axis direction is important but has not been observed in natural examples of B-type CPO. (3) Experimental work suggests the presence of H2O and either high shear stress or relatively low temperatures are essential for the formation of B-type CPO. These conditions are most likely to be achieved close to subduction boundaries, but these regions are also associated with serpentinization

  6. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  7. Chemical differences between small subsamples of Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Vetter, S. K.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the chemical and petrological characterization of nine samples of an Apollo 15 mare basalt suite. The results show that all nine samples are low-silica olivine normative basalts (ONBs) similar to those described earlier for low-silica ONBs from Apollo 15 site. The samples were found to vary in texture and grain size, from fine-grained intergranular or subophitic basalts to coarse-grained granular 'microgabbros'. Several displayed macroscopic heterogeneity. Variation diagrams show that the overall trend of the data is consistent with the fractionation of olivine (plus minor Cr-spinel) from a high-MgO parent magma.

  8. Limitations on the Estimation of Parental Magma Temperature Using Olivine-melt Equilibria: Hotspots Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Estimates of temperatures of magmas parental to picritic tholeiites using olivine-melt equilibria and FeO-MgO relationships depend strongly on the assumption that a liquid composition, usually a glass, is related to the most magnesian olivine in the rock, or to an olivine composition in equilibrium with mantle peridotite, along an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. The liquid Fe2+/Fe3+ also has to be known; where data exist, average values from wet chemical determinations are used. Crystallization histories of tholeiitic picrites from islands, spreading ridges, and large igneous provinces, however, usually reveal them to be hybrid rocks that are assembled by two types of magma mixing: 1) between a) differentiated magmas that are on olivine-plagioclase or olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene cotectics and b) crystal sludges with abundant olivine that may have accumulated from liquids crystallizing olivine alone; and 2) between primitive magma strains in which olivine crystallized either alone or with other silicate minerals at elevated pressure on separate liquid lines of descent. Many picrites give evidence that both types of mixing have occurred. If either type has occurred, the assumption of olivine-control linking a glass and an olivine composition can only circumstantially be correct. Oxidation state can also be underestimated and therefore FeO contents overestimated if basalts have degassed S, as at Hawaii. In Case 1, hybrid host glass compositions often have higher FeO at given MgO content than liquids which produced many olivine crystals in the rock. In Case 2, the separate parental melt strains are revealed by diversity of compositions of both melt inclusions and Cr-spinel and are most often interpreted to mean local heterogeneity of the mantle source. The inclusions do not always affirm an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. Instead, inclusions with Gorgona, but not in MORB. Where fresh glass is lacking (e.g., Gorgona), bulk-rock compositions

  9. B-type olivine fabric induced by low temperature dissolution creep during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Junfeng; Barou, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010] axes subnormal to foliation and the [001] axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 °C) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) with the (001) planes and the [010] axes subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric results from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundary sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine may not be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  10. Low temperature dissolution creep induced B-type olivine fabric during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010]ol axes subnormal to foliation and the [001]ol axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 oC) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic orientation (CPO) with the (001) and the [010] subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric is resulted from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundaries sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine can't be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  11. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available took place during a prolonged history of cooling and partial hydration of the magmatic olivine melanorites from over 1000-degrees-C down to approximately 600-degrees-C. The P-T conditions indicated by the reactions suggest this cooling process...

  12. Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: Use of dolomite and untreated olivine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devi, L.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Paasen, van S.V.B.; Bergman, P.C.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Although biomass is getting increased attention as a renewable energy source, one of the remaining problems still to be solved is the reduction of the high level of tar present in the product gas from gasification of biomass. The purpose of the present work is to study the activity of olivine and

  13. Moessbauer spectra of olivine-rich achondrites - Evidence for preterrestrial redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Martinez, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    Moessbauer spectral measurements at 4.2 K were made on several ureilites and the two shergottites found in Antarctica, as well as two ureilite falls, three SNC meteorite falls, and two finds in order to distinguish products of preterrestrial redox reactions from phases formed during oxidative weathering on the earth. The spectra indicated that several ureilites contain major proportions of metallic iron, much of which resulted from preterrestrial carbon-induced reduction of ferrous iron in the outermost 10-100 microns of olivine grains in contact with carbonaceous material in the ureilites. The cryptocrystalline nature of these Fe inclusions in olivine renders the metal extremely vulnerable to aerial oxidation, even in ureilites collected as falls. It is inferred that the nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides identified in Brachina and Lafayette were produced by terrestrial weather of olivines before the meteorites were found. The absence of goethite in two olivine-bearing Antarctic shergottites suggests that the 2 percent ferric iron determined in their Moessbauer spectra also originated from oxidation on Mars.

  14. Dynamic Solubility Limits in Nanosized Olivine LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Singh, Deepak P.; Borghols, Wouter J.H.; Lafont, Ugo; Haverkate, Lucas; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its stability, nanosized olivine LiFePO4 opens the door toward high-power Li-ion battery technology for large-scale applications as required for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Here, we reveal that the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions in nanoinsertion materials is distinctly

  15. Diffusion of Water through Olivine and Clinopyroxene: Implications for Melt Inclusion Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, T. A.; Lloyd, A. S.; Ferriss, E.

    2016-12-01

    The maximum H2O concentrations measured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from arc tephra fall within a narrow range of 3-5 wt%. A major question is whether this reflects parental water concentrations or diffusive exchange through the host crystal during storage and ascent. Laboratory experiments have shown that water can diffuse through 500 micron olivine in minutes to days at 1100°C. We have tested these predictions with a natural experiment using volatile (H2O, CO2, S) diffusion along melt embayments to constrain ascent rates during the 1974 eruption of Volcan Fuego to 5-8 minutes from 7 km depth [1]. Thus, olivine-hosted MIs may move from their storage region to the surface during some eruptions rapidly enough to retain almost all of their original water. Only the smallest MIs (500 microns) and large melt inclusions (>50 microns), and 4) rapid post-eruptive cooling (< 1min, clast sizes < 1 cm). The rapid diffusion of H through olivine and cpx presents a challenge to MI fidelity, but not necessarily if the above conditions are met. [1] Lloyd et al., 2014, JVGR. [2] Ferriss et al., 2016, AmMin.

  16. Meeting the Continental Crust: the Hidden Olivine Trauma in Subduction Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Reyes, P.; Ruprecht, P.; Rabbia, O. M.; Hernandez, L.

    2017-12-01

    In a conventional framework, olivine zonation represents concentric growth from an evolving liquid. Alternatively, it has been suggested (e.g. Welsch et al. 2014) that olivine develop dendritic textures and compositional discontinuities due to rapid growth and boundary layer effects, respectively, where any complex zoning is quickly erased through diffusive re-equilibration in the high temperature magmatic environment. In particular, olivine crystals from large volcanic centers in convergent margins rarely preserve such dendritic textures and complex zoning due prolonged magma residence. Small volume, mafic monogenetic vents may bypass such crustal re-equilibration and potentially record the otherwise elusive early olivine growth history. We selected tephra deposits from Los Hornitos, in the Andean arc of Central Chile (35.5˚S), that represents primitive magmas ( 15 wt.% MgO) and contain magnesian olivines (Fo>88) hosting quenched melt inclusions. We obtained detailed quantitative EPMA zoning profiles and measured volatile contents (H, C, S, Cl) in the co-existing melt inclusions. Furthermore, we analyzed mineral morphologies connecting compositional zoning with growth textures. We find that 40% of the olivine crystals retain dendritic shapes while the others are polyhedral with trapped melt inclusions and cavities. The polyhedral crystals are normally zoned (Fo92 to Fo88; Ni 4000 ppm to 1000 ppm), however an oscillatory zonation depicted by concentric -coupled Fo and Ni- enriched layers exist and therefore even those crystals still preserve also a more complete growth history. The related melt inclusions yield values of up to 6000 ppm of S. Such zonation may imply sudden growth during elevated degrees of undercooling (-ΔT > 60°C) as the magmas transit from the hot mantle to the cooler conditions in the crust. Moreover, the preservation of such Fo and Ni zonation requires limited time between crystal growth and eruption. The elevated S content in melt inclusions

  17. Electrical Investigation of Metal-Olivine Systems and Application to the Deep Interior of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Pommier, Anne

    2017-12-01

    We report electrical conductivity measurements on metal-olivine systems at about 5 and 6 GPa and up to 1,675°C in order to investigate the electrical properties of core-mantle boundary (CMB) systems. Electrical experiments were conducted in the multianvil apparatus using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The samples are composed of one metal layer (Fe, FeS, FeSi2, or Fe-Ni-S-Si) and one polycrystalline olivine layer, with the metal:olivine ratio ranging from 1:0.7 to 1:9.2. For all samples, we observe that the bulk electrical conductivity increases with temperature from 10-2.5 to 101.8 S/m, which is higher than the conductivity of polycrystalline olivine but lower than the conductivity of the pure metal phase at similar conditions. In some experiments, a conductivity jump is observed at the temperature corresponding to the melting temperature of the metallic phase. Both the metal:olivine ratio and the metal phase geometry control the electrical conductivity of the two-layer samples. By combining electrical results, textural analyses of the samples, and previous studies of the structure and composition of Mercury's interior, we propose an electrical profile of the deep interior of the planet that accounts for a layered CMB-outer core structure. The electrical model agrees with existing conductivity estimates of Mercury's lower mantle and CMB using magnetic observations and thermodynamic calculations, and thus, supports the hypothesis of a layered CMB-outermost core structure in the present-day interior of Mercury. We propose that the layered CMB-outer core structure is possibly electrically insulating, which may influence the planet's structure and cooling history.

  18. Experiments and geochemical modelling of CO{sub 2} sequestration by olivine: Potential, quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B., E-mail: Bruno.Garcia@ifp.fr [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Beaumont, V.; Perfetti, E.; Rouchon, V.; Blanchet, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Oger, P.; Dromart, G. [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5570, ENS de Lyon, Site Monod, 15 Parvis Rene Descartes BP 7000, Lyon F-69342 (France); Huc, A.-Y.; Haeseler, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2010-09-15

    Aqueous solutions equilibrated with supercritical CO{sub 2} (150 deg. C and total pressure of 150 bar) were investigated in order to characterize their respective conditions of carbonation. Dissolution of olivine and subsequent precipitation of magnesite with a net consumption of CO{sub 2} were expected. A quantified pure mineral phase (powders with different olivine grain diameter [20-80 {mu}m], [80-125 {mu}m], [125-200 {mu}m] and [>200 {mu}m]), and CO{sub 2} (as dried ice) were placed in closed-batch reactors (soft Au tubes) in the presence of solutions. Different salinities (from 0 to 3400 mM) and different ratios of solution/solid (mineral phase) (from 0.1 to 10) were investigated. Experiments were performed over periods from 2 to 8 weeks. Final solid products were quantified by the Rock-Eval 6 technique, and identified using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Gaseous compounds were quantified by a vacuum line equipped with a Toepler pump and identified and measured by gas chromatography (GC). Carbon mass balances were calculated. Olivine reacted completely with CO{sub 2}, trapping up to 57 {+-} 2% (eqC of initial CO{sub 2}) as magnesite; some amorphous silica also formed. Olivine grain diameter and solution/mineral ratios appeared to be the primary controls on the reaction, salinity acting as a second order parameter. During the experiments, fluid analyses may not be performed with approach adopted but, geochemical modelling was attempted to give information about the solution composition. This showed an interesting mineral matrix evolution. Under the experimental conditions, olivine appeared to be a good candidate for CO{sub 2} trapping into a geologically stable carbonate, magnesite. The possible use of mafic and ultramafic rocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration is discussed.

  19. Olivine on Vesta as exogenous contaminants brought by impacts: Constraints from modeling Vesta's collisional history and from impact simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, D.; Svetsov, V.; Consolmagno, G.; Sirono, S.; Pirani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The survival of asteroid Vesta during the violent early history of the Solar System is a pivotal constraint on theories of planetary formation. Particularly important from this perspective is the amount of olivine excavated from the vestan mantle by impacts, as this constrains both the interior structure of Vesta and the number of major impacts the asteroid suffered during its life. The NASA Dawn mission revealed that olivine is present on Vesta's surface in limited quantities, concentrated in small patches at a handful of sites not associated with the two large impact basins Rheasilvia and Veneneia. The first detections were interpreted as the result of the excavation of endogenous olivine, even if the depth at which the detected olivine originated was a matter of debate. Later works raised instead the possibility that the olivine had an exogenous origin, based on the geologic and spectral features of the deposits. In this work, we quantitatively explore the proposed scenario of a exogenous origin for the detected vestan olivine to investigate whether its presence on Vesta can be explained as a natural outcome of the collisional history of the asteroid over the last one or more billion years. To perform this study we took advantage of the impact contamination model previously developed to study the origin and amount of dark and hydrated materials observed by Dawn on Vesta, a model we updated by performing dedicated hydrocode impact simulations. We show that the exogenous delivery of olivine by the same impacts that shaped the vestan surface can offer a viable explanation for the currently identified olivine-rich sites without violating the constraint posed by the lack of global olivine signatures on Vesta. Our results indicate that no mantle excavation is in principle required to explain the observations of the Dawn mission and support the idea that the vestan crust could be thicker than indicated by simple geochemical models based on the Howardite

  20. Olivine in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: Evidence for a High-Temperature Origin and Implications for Signs of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Leshin, L. A.; Adcock, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    Olivine from Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 occurs as clusters within orthopyroxene adjacent to fractures containing disrupted carbonate globules and feldspathic shock glass. The inclusions are irregular in shape and range in size from approx. 40 microns to submicrometer. Some of the inclusions are elongate and boudinage-like. The olivine grains are in sharp contact with the enclosing orthopyroxene and often contain small inclusions of chromite The olivine exhibits a very limited range of composition from Fo(sub 65) to Fo(sub 66) (n = 25). The delta(sup 18)O values of the olivine and orthopyroxene analyzed by ion microprobe range from +4.3 to +5.3% and are indistinguishable from each other within analytical uncertainty. The mineral chemistries, O-isotopic data, and textural relationships indicate that the olivine inclusions were produced at a temperature greater than 800 C. It is unlikely that the olivines formed during the same event that gave rise to the carbonates in ALH 84001, which have more elevated and variable delta(sup 18)O values, and were probably formed from fluids that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the orthopyroxene or olivine The reactions most likely instrumental in the formation of olivine could be either the dehydration of hydrous silicates that formed during carbonate precipitation or the reduction of orthopyroxene and spinel If the olivine was formed by either reaction during a postcarbonate beating event, the implications are profound with regards to the interpretations of McKay et al. Due to the low diffusion rates in carbonates, this rapid, high-temperature event would have resulted in the preservation of the fine-scale carbonate zoning' while partially devolatilizing select carbonate compositions on a submicrometer scale. This may have resulted in the formation of the minute magnetite grains that McKay et al attributed to biogenic activity.

  1. Olivine weathering in soil, and its effects on growth and nutrient uptake in Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.: a pot experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein F M ten Berge

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation of basic silicate minerals regulates atmospheric CO(2 on geological time scales by locking up carbon. Mining and spreading onto the earth's surface of fast-weathering silicates, such as olivine, has been proposed to speed up this natural CO(2 sequestration ('enhanced weathering'. While agriculture may offer an existing infrastructure, weathering rate and impacts on soil and plant are largely unknown. Our objectives were to assess weathering of olivine in soil, and its effects on plant growth and nutrient uptake. In a pot experiment with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., weathering during 32 weeks was inferred from bioavailability of magnesium (Mg in soil and plant. Olivine doses were equivalent to 1630 (OLIV1, 8150, 40700 and 204000 (OLIV4 kg ha(-1. Alternatively, the soluble Mg salt kieserite was applied for reference. Olivine increased plant growth (+15.6% and plant K concentration (+16.5% in OLIV4. At all doses, olivine increased bioavailability of Mg and Ni in soil, as well as uptake of Mg, Si and Ni in plants. Olivine suppressed Ca uptake. Weathering estimated from a Mg balance was equivalent to 240 kg ha(-1 (14.8% of dose, OLIV1 to 2240 kg ha(-1 (1.1%, OLIV4. This corresponds to gross CO(2 sequestration of 290 to 2690 kg ha(-1 (29 10(3 to 269 10(3 kg km(-2. Alternatively, weathering estimated from similarity with kieserite treatments ranged from 13% to 58% for OLIV1. The Olsen model for olivine carbonation predicted 4.0% to 9.0% weathering for our case, independent of olivine dose. Our % values observed at high doses were smaller than this, suggesting negative feedbacks in soil. Yet, weathering appears fast enough to support the 'enhanced weathering' concept. In agriculture, olivine doses must remain within limits to avoid imbalances in plant nutrition, notably at low Ca availability; and to avoid Ni accumulation in soil and crop.

  2. Geometrically necessary dislocation densities in olivine obtained using high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, David, E-mail: davidwa@earth.ox.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Hansen, Lars N. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Ben Britton, T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Angus J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Dislocations in geological minerals are fundamental to the creep processes that control large-scale geodynamic phenomena. However, techniques to quantify their densities, distributions, and types over critical subgrain to polycrystal length scales are limited. The recent advent of high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on diffraction pattern cross-correlation, offers a powerful new approach that has been utilised to analyse dislocation densities in the materials sciences. In particular, HR-EBSD yields significantly better angular resolution (<0.01°) than conventional EBSD (~0.5°), allowing very low dislocation densities to be analysed. We develop the application of HR-EBSD to olivine, the dominant mineral in Earth's upper mantle by testing (1) different inversion methods for estimating geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities, (2) the sensitivity of the method under a range of data acquisition settings, and (3) the ability of the technique to resolve a variety of olivine dislocation structures. The relatively low crystal symmetry (orthorhombic) and few slip systems in olivine result in well constrained GND density estimates. The GND density noise floor is inversely proportional to map step size, such that datasets can be optimised for analysing either short wavelength, high density structures (e.g. subgrain boundaries) or long wavelength, low amplitude orientation gradients. Comparison to conventional images of decorated dislocations demonstrates that HR-EBSD can characterise the dislocation distribution and reveal additional structure not captured by the decoration technique. HR-EBSD therefore provides a highly effective method for analysing dislocations in olivine and determining their role in accommodating macroscopic deformation. - Highlights: • Lattice orientation gradients in olivine were measured using HR-EBSD. • The limited number of olivine slip systems enable simple least squares inversion for GND

  3. Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane C Courson, L Udron, C Petit and A Kiennemann Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 3 No 3 (June 2002 271-282 Abstract | References Full text: Acrobat PDF (1.10 MB

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural olivine is used for gasification of biomass in a fluidised bed. Characterisations by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopies (SEM and TEM have proved the presence of a (Mg,Fe2SiO4 structure (Mg/Fe ratio: 9/1 with a rather broad distribution in elemental composition. Temperature programmed reduction has revealed equally the presence of iron oxides outside of this structure. The nature of free iron oxides can be both modified by increasing the temperature of calcination and confirmed by measurements of magnetism.The introduction of nickel oxide upon natural olivine is obtained by impregnation with a nitrate salt. The type of interaction of nickel oxide with olivine is different depending upon the preparation method and the calcination temperature. For calcination at 1100 °C, the effects of the amount of NiO and the number of impregnation have been studied. At a high temperature of calcination (1400 °C, NiO is integrated into the olivine structure and the amount of free iron increases. Integrated NiO on olivine is non-reducible, resulting in an inactive catalyst. At lower calcination temperatures grafted NiO is formed, a species which is reduced under catalytic test conditions without aggregation of particles. A single impregnation of nickel (5.5 wt% of NiO gives a stable catalyst activated directly under reaction conditions (CH4+CO2 yielding 96% CO and 76% H2. Catalysts with lower amounts of NiO or a double impregnation of nickel salt lead to a less stable system.Analysis reveals that no change in olivine structure nor size of nickel deposit occurs under test conditions. Equally there are no carbon deposits formed on these catalysts. A model of the evolution of each catalytic system arising from the different preparation methods is proposed. The observed deactivation of such catalysts is attributed to the increase in the amount of free iron, which favours the oxidative properties of the catalytic system.

  4. Potential Temperatures of Sources of MORB, OIB and LIPs Based on AL Partitioning Between Olivine and Spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, A. V.; Batanova, V. G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Borisov, A.; Arndt, N.; Kuzmin, D.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Sushevskaya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of potential temperatures of convecting mantle is required for the understanding the global processes on the Earth [1]. The common way to estimate these is the reconstruction of primary melt compositions and liquidus temperatures based on the Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and melt. This approach requires knowledge of the compositions of primitive melts in equilibrium with olivine alone as well as composition of olivine equilibrium with primary melts. This information is in most cases unavailable or of questionable quality. Here we report a new approach to obtain crystallization temperatures of primary melts based on the olivine-spinel Al-Cr geothermometer [2]. The advantages of this approach are: (1) low rate of diffusion of Al in the olivine, which promises to preserve high magmatic temperatures and (2) common presence of spinel in assemblage with high-Mg olivine. In order to decipher influence of elevated Ti concentrations in spinel we have run several experiments at high temperatures (1400-1200 degree C), atmospheric pressure and controled oxygen fugacity. We also analysed over two thousand spinel inclusions and high-Mg host olivines from different MORB, OIB, LIP and Archean komatiites on the JXA-8230 EPMA at ISTerre, Grenoble, France. Concentrations of Al, Ti, Na, P, Zn, Cr, Mn, Ca, Co, Ni were determined with a precision of 10 ppm (2 standard errors) using a newly developed protocol [3]. When available, we also analysed matrix glass and glass inclusions in olivine and found that temperature estimations from olivine-spinel (Al-Cr) and olivine-melt (Fe-Mg) [4] equilibrium match within (+/-30 degree C). The results show contrasting crystallization temperatures of Mg-rich olivine of the same Fo content from different types of mantle-derived magmas, from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to 1550 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and

  5. Sintering mantle mineral aggregates with submicron grains: examples of olivine and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Y.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Physical property of the major mantle minerals play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. Recently, it has been found that nano- to sub-micron scale frictional processes might control faulting processes and earthquake instability, and ultrafine-grained mineral aggregates thus have attracted the growing interest. Here we investigated a method for preparing polycrystalline clinoyproxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of sub-micron scale from natural crystals, two main constituents of the upper mantle. Nano-sized powders of both minerals are sintered under argon flow at temperatures ranging from 1130-1350 °C for 0.5-20 h. After sintering at 1180 °C and 1300 °C, we successfully fabricated polycrystalline clinopyroxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of physical properties of Earth's mantle.

  6. Traces of heavy and superheavy cosmic nuclei in olivins of extraterrestial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatova, R.; Taneva, T.

    1982-01-01

    The paths of traces of WH nuclei from cosmic rays have been measured in olivines from the meteorites Maryalakhti, Eagle Stein, Liposki khutor with radiation ages 175, 45 and 220 million years respectively. 3 cm 3 olivines of these meteorites have been examined and more than 500 traces of nuclei with Z(>=)90 have been found measured including 3 traces 1.5-1.8 times longer than the traces created by the uranium and thorium nuclei. These traces may be left by nuclei with Z(>=)110. The crystals were chosen from localizations situated at 2-7 cm, 8-9 cm and 10-12 cm from the outside atmospheric surface of the meteorite. The abundancy of the Z(>=)50 nuclei in gigantic cosmic rays, averaged for a period of ( =)110 in galactic cosmic rays. It is 1.4 x 10 -9 from that of the iron group nuclei. (authors)

  7. Diffusion-driven magnesium and iron isotope fractionation in Hawaiian olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, F.-Z.; Dauphas, N.; Helz, R.T.; Gao, S.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion plays an important role in Earth sciences to estimate the timescales of geological processes such as erosion, sediment burial, and magma cooling. In igneous systems, these diffusive processes are recorded in the form of crystal zoning. However, meaningful interpretation of these signatures is often hampered by the fact that they cannot be unambiguously ascribed to a single process (e.g., magmatic fractionation, diffusion limited transport in the crystal or in the liquid). Here we show that Mg and Fe isotope fractionations in olivine crystals can be used to trace diffusive processes in magmatic systems. Over sixty olivine fragments from Hawaiian basalts show isotopically fractionated Mg and Fe relative to basalts worldwide, with up to 0.4??? variation in 26Mg/24Mg ratios and 1.6??? variation in 56Fe/54Fe ratios. The linearly and negatively correlated Mg and Fe isotopic compositions [i.e., ??56Fe=(??3.3??0.3)????26Mg], co-variations of Mg and Fe isotopic compositions with Fe/Mg ratios of olivine fragments, and modeling results based on Mg and Fe elemental profiles demonstrate the coupled Mg and Fe isotope fractionation to be a manifestation of Mg-Fe inter-diffusion in zoned olivines during magmatic differentiation. This characteristic can be used to constrain the nature of mineral zoning in igneous and metamorphic rocks, and hence determine the residence times of crystals in magmas, the composition of primary melts, and the duration of metamorphic events. With improvements in methodology, in situ isotope mapping will become an essential tool of petrology to identify diffusion in crystals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Densification and Grain Growth in Polycrystalline Olivine Rocks Synthesized By Evacuated Hot-Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, C. D.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Zimmerman, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Experiments on laboratory-synthesized olivine-rich rocks form the starting material for many investigations of physical processes in the Earth's upper mantle (e.g., creep behavior, ionic diffusion, and grain growth). Typically, a fit of a constitutive law to experimental data provides a description of the kinetics of a process needed to extrapolate across several orders of magnitude from laboratory to geological timescales. Although grain-size is a critical parameter in determining physical properties such as viscosity, broad disagreement persists amongst the results of various studies of grain growth kinetics in olivine-rich rocks. Small amounts of impurities or porosity dramatically affect the kinetics of grain growth. In this study, we developed an improved method for densifying olivine-rich rocks fabricated from powdered, gem-quality single crystals that involves evacuating the pore space, with the aim of refining measurements of the kinetics of mantle materials. In previous studies, olivine powders were sealed in a metal can and hydrostatically annealed at roughly 300 MPa and 1250 °C. These samples, which appear opaque and milky-green, typically retain a small amount of porosity. Consequently, when annealed at 1 atm, extensive pore growth occurs, inhibiting grain growth. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared and confocal Raman spectroscopy reveal absorption peaks characteristic of CO2 in the pores of conventionally hot-pressed material. To avoid trapping of adsorbed contaminants, we developed an evacuated hot-pressing method, wherein the pore space of powder compacts is vented to vacuum during heating and pressurization. This method produces a highly dense, green-tinted, transparent material. No CO2 absorptions peaks exist in evacuated hot-pressed material. When reheated to annealing temperatures at 1 atm, the evacuated hot-pressed material undergoes limited pore growth and dramatically enhanced grain-growth rates. High-strain deformation experiments on

  9. Steam reforming of bio-oil from coconut shell pyrolysis over Fe/olivine catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Cui; Xu, Shaoping; Zhou, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam reforming of the actual bio-oil was investigated with Fe/olivine catalyst. • Most of phenols in bio-oil were converted into gas products. • A carbon conversion of 97.2% was obtained under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Catalytic steam reforming of coconut shell pyrolysis bio-oil over Fe/olivine catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The effects of calcination temperature, iron loading, reaction temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), bio-oil weight hourly space velocity (W b HSV) on gas composition and carbon conversion were investigated. The results indicate that Fe/olivine has good activity for steam reforming of bio-oil, the couple Fe 2+/3+ /Fe 2+ may be sufficiently efficient for C–C, C–O and C–H breaking. After steam reforming, most of the phenolics in pyrolysis oil are converted into light molecular compounds such as H 2 , CO, CO 2 , and CH 4 . The H 2 concentration and carbon conversion were enhanced by increasing reaction temperature from 750 to 800 °C and the S/C from 1.5 to 2, but decreased with increasing calcination temperature. In the W b HSV range of 0.5–0.6, the hydrogen concentration decreased obviously, whereas it decreased slightly by further increasing W b HSV. The highest hydrogen concentration of 47.6 vol% was obtained among the catalysts tested, and the best carbon conversion was 97.2% over 10% Fe/olivine catalyst under the reforming conditions of temperature = 800 °C, W b HSV = 0.5, S/C = 2.

  10. Hydration-reduced lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in Earth's upper mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yun-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Tan, Eh; Chen, Jiuhua

    2017-04-18

    Earth's water cycle enables the incorporation of water (hydration) in mantle minerals that can influence the physical properties of the mantle. Lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is critical for controlling the temperature profile and dynamics of the mantle and subducting slabs. However, the effect of hydration on lattice thermal conductivity remains poorly understood and has often been assumed to be negligible. Here we have precisely measured the lattice thermal conductivity of hydrous San Carlos olivine (Mg 0.9 Fe 0.1 ) 2 SiO 4 (Fo90) up to 15 gigapascals using an ultrafast optical pump-probe technique. The thermal conductivity of hydrous Fo90 with ∼7,000 wt ppm water is significantly suppressed at pressures above ∼5 gigapascals, and is approximately 2 times smaller than the nominally anhydrous Fo90 at mantle transition zone pressures, demonstrating the critical influence of hydration on the lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in this region. Modeling the thermal structure of a subducting slab with our results shows that the hydration-reduced thermal conductivity in hydrated oceanic crust further decreases the temperature at the cold, dry center of the subducting slab. Therefore, the olivine-wadsleyite transformation rate in the slab with hydrated oceanic crust is much slower than that with dry oceanic crust after the slab sinks into the transition zone, extending the metastable olivine to a greater depth. The hydration-reduced thermal conductivity could enable hydrous minerals to survive in deeper mantle and enhance water transportation to the transition zone.

  11. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.

  12. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  13. Temperature dependence of sulfide and sulfate solubility in olivine-saturated basaltic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, O.; Botcharnikov, R. E.; Holtz, F.; Diedrich, O.; Nowak, M.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfur concentration at pyrrhotite- and anhydrite-saturation in primitive hydrous basaltic melt of the 2001-2002 eruption of Mt. Etna was determined at 200 MPa, T = 1050-1250 °C and at log fO 2 from FMQ to FMQ+2.2 (FMQ is Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz oxygen buffer). At 1050 °C Au sample containers were used. A double-capsule technique, using a single crystal olivine sample container closed with an olivine piston, embedded in a sealed Au 80Pd 20 capsule, was developed to perform experiments in S-bearing hydrous basaltic systems at T > 1050 °C. Pyrrhotite is found to be a stable phase coexisting with melt at FMQ-FMQ+0.3, whereas anhydrite is stable at FMQ+1.4-FMQ+2.2. The S concentration in the melt increases almost linearly from 0.12 ± 0.01 to 0.39 ± 0.02 wt.% S at FeS-saturation and from 0.74 ± 0.01 to 1.08 ± 0.04 wt.% S at anhydrite-saturation with T ranging from 1050-1250 °C. The relationships between S concentration at pyrrhotite and/or anhydrite saturation, MgO content of the olivine-saturated melt, T, and log fO 2 observed in this study and from previous data are used to develop an empirical model for estimating the magmatic T and fO 2 from the S and MgO concentrations of H 2O-bearing olivine-saturated basaltic melts. The model can also be used to determine maximum S concentrations, if fO 2 and MgO content of the melt are known. The application of the model to compositions of melt inclusions in olivines from Mt. Etna indicates that the most primitive magmas trapped in inclusions might have been stored at log fO 2 slightly higher than FMQ+1 and at T = 1100-1150 °C, whereas more evolved melts could have been trapped at T ⩽ 1100 °C. These values are in a good agreement with the estimates obtained by other independent methods reported in the literature.

  14. Crystallization history of enriched shergottites from Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine megacrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Oeser, Martin; Médard, Etienne; Weyer, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Martian meteorites are the only samples available from the surface of Mars. Among them, olivine-phyric shergottites are basalts containing large zoned olivine crystals with highly magnesian cores (Fo 70-85) and rims richer in Fe (Fo 45-60). The Northwest Africa 1068 meteorite is one of the most primitive "enriched" shergottites (high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial ε143Nd). It contains olivine crystals as magnesian as Fo 77 and is a major source of information to constrain the composition of the parental melt, the composition and depth of the mantle source, and the cooling and crystallization history of one of the younger magmatic events on Mars (∼180 Ma). In this study, Fe-Mg isotope profiles analyzed in situ by femtosecond-laser ablation MC-ICP-MS are combined with compositional profiles of major and trace elements in olivine megacrysts. The cores of olivine megacrysts are enriched in light Fe isotopes (δ56FeIRMM-14 = -0.6 to -0.9‰) and heavy Mg isotopes (δ26MgDSM-3 = 0-0.2‰) relative to megacryst rims and to the bulk martian isotopic composition (δ56Fe = 0 ± 0.05‰, δ26Mg = -0.27 ± 0.04‰). The flat forsterite profiles of megacryst cores associated with anti-correlated fractionation of Fe-Mg isotopes indicate that these elements have been rehomogenized by diffusion at high temperature. We present a 1-D model of simultaneous diffusion and crystal growth that reproduces the observed element and isotope profiles. The simulation results suggest that the cooling rate during megacryst core crystallization was slow (43 ± 21 °C/year), and consistent with pooling in a deep crustal magma chamber. The megacryst rims then crystallized 1-2 orders of magnitude faster during magma transport toward the shallower site of final emplacement. Megacryst cores had a forsterite content 3.2 ± 1.5 mol% higher than their current composition and some were in equilibrium with the whole-rock composition of NWA 1068 (Fo 80 ± 1.5). NWA 1068 composition is thus close to a

  15. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  16. Vaporization and thermodynamics of forsterite-rich olivine and some implications for silicate atmospheres of hot rocky exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    2017-06-01

    We describe an experimental and theoretical study of olivine [Mg2SiO4 (Fo)-Fe2SiO4 (Fa)] vaporization. The vaporization behavior and thermodynamic properties of a fosterite-rich olivine (Fo95Fa5) have been explored by high-temperature Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) from 1750 to 2250 K. The gases observed (in order of decreasing partial pressure) are Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O. We measured the solidus temperature (∼2050 K), partial pressures of individual gases, the total vapor pressure, and thermodynamic activities and partial molar enthalpies of MgO, 'FeO', and SiO2 for the Fo95Fa5 olivine. The results are compared to other measurements and models of the olivine system. Our experimental data show olivine vaporizes incongruently. We discuss this system both as a psuedo-binary of Fo-Fa and a psuedo-ternary of MgO-'FeO'-SiO2. Iron/magnesium molar ratios in the sample before (∼0.05) and after (∼0.04) vaporization are consistent with the small positive deviations from ideality of fayalite (γ ∼ 1.17) in olivine of the composition studied (e.g., Nafziger and Muan, 1967). Our data for olivine + melt confirm prior theoretical models predicting fractional vaporization of Fe relative to Mg from molten silicates (Fegley and Cameron, 1987; Schaefer and Fegley, 2009; Ito et al., 2015). If loss of silicate atmospheres occurs from hot rocky exoplanets with magma oceans the residual planet may be enriched in magnesium relative to iron.

  17. Chemical 3D-imaging of glass inclusions from allende (CV3) olivine via SIMS: A new insight on chondrule formation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, L.; Deloule, E.; Faure, F.; Mangin, D.

    2018-06-01

    Natural glass inclusions - hosted in Mg-rich olivines from Allende (CV3) type I chondrules - and synthetic melt inclusions - trapped in forsterite crystallized from CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) melts - were mapped by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for CMAS major oxides. The first ever 3D chemical images of extra-terrestrial glass inclusions were obtained, along with chemical depth profiles for each oxide. Results show similar patterns for both synthetic glass inclusions (trapped in olivine formed by slow crystallization in a magmatic liquid) and natural inclusions from Allende's olivines. No incompatible-rich boundary layer or diffusion pattern was observed in either case. The absence of an incompatible-rich boundary layer suggests that the olivine overgrowth surrounding glass inclusions in Allende's olivines was formed during slow cooling of the host olivine and likely the surrounding chondrule. This provides new constraints on the cooling rates of type I chondrules.

  18. Experimental measurements of 3He and 4He mobility in olivine and clinopyroxene at magmatic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T. W.; Kurz, M. D.

    1993-03-01

    In-vacuo heating of 0.5 -0.7 mm olivine and clinopyroxene grains separated from Hawaiian ultramafic xenoliths leads to complete He loss within hours to days for temperatures of 700-1400°C. Diffusivities calculated from the observed release rates assuming spherical grains and initially homogeneous He distributions define Arrhenius relations with activation energies of 420 ± 20 and 290 ± 40 Kj/mol and log 10D0 of +5.1 ± .7 and +2.1 ± 1.2 cm 2/s in olivine and pyroxene, respectively. Values at 1350°C are 5.3 × 10 -9 cm 2/s in olivine and 10 times faster in pyroxene (4.7 × 10 -8 cm 2/s). These values include small corrections for grain size variations and, in the case of olivine, about 15% prior diffusive He loss. However, an important factor that has not been considered in previous studies of this type, is that the xenolith He resides predominantly within CO 2 rich fluid inclusions. Theoretical description of He loss in such a case demonstrates that the diffusivities calculated using the standard approach actually represent the product of the true volume diffusivity ( D) and the helium solubility, as represented by the distribution coefficient KDv (defined by C crystal/C fluid). Although He solubility in crystals is not well determined, estimates based on the CO 2 concentrations in these samples suggest that it is very low ( KDv of 3 × 10 -4 for pyroxene and 6 × 10 -6 for olivine; which also implies low crystal-melt distribution coefficients of .05 and .001). The resultant corrected diffusion rates are significantly faster than those obtained by the standard approach (~ 10 -4 cm 2/s at 1350°C and are thus higher than basaltic melt values). The most reasonable interpretation of this result is that He release is enhanced by internal grain fractures, including the planar healed cracks along which most fluid inclusions are arrayed. This treatment illustrates the difficulties involved in extrapolating laboratory He release measurements to nature, in particular

  19. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  20. Size effects in olivine control strength in low-temperature plasticity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, K. M.; Thom, C.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Goldsby, D. L.; Warren, J. M.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the lithospheric mantle during deformation by low-temperature plasticity controls a range of geological phenomena, including lithospheric-scale strain localization, the evolution of friction on deep seismogenic faults, and the flexure of tectonic plates. However, constraints on the strength of olivine in this deformation regime are difficult to obtain from conventional rock-deformation experiments, and previous results vary considerably. We demonstrate via nanoindentation that the strength of olivine in the low-temperature plasticity regime is dependent on the length-scale of the test, with experiments on smaller volumes of material exhibiting larger yield stresses. This "size effect" has previously been explained in engineering materials as a result of the role of strain gradients and associated geometrically necessary dislocations in modifying plastic behavior. The Hall-Petch effect, in which a material with a small grain size exhibits a higher strength than one with a large grain size, is thought to arise from the same mechanism. The presence of a size effect resolves discrepancies among previous experimental measurements of olivine, which were either conducted using indentation methods or were conducted on polycrystalline samples with small grain sizes. An analysis of different low-temperature plasticity flow laws extrapolated to room temperature reveals a power-law relationship between length-scale (grain size for polycrystalline deformation and contact radius for indentation tests) and yield strength. This suggests that data from samples with large inherent length scales best represent the plastic strength of the coarse-grained lithospheric mantle. Additionally, the plastic deformation of nanometer- to micrometer-sized asperities on fault surfaces may control the evolution of fault roughness due to their size-dependent strength.

  1. An Analytical Finite-Strain Parameterization for Texture Evolution in Deformed Olivine Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, N. M.; Castelnau, O.

    2017-12-01

    Current methods for calculating the evolution of flow-induced seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle describe crystal preferred orientation (CPO) using ensembles of 103-104 individual grains, and are too computationally expensive to be used in three-dimensional time-dependent convection models. We propose a much faster method based on the hypothesis that CPO of olivine polycrystals is a unique function of the finite strain. Our goal is then to determine how the CPO depends on the ratios r12 and r23 of the axes of the finite strain ellipsoid and on the two independent ratios p12 and p23 of the strengths (critical resolved shear stresses) of the three independent slip systems of olivine. To do this, we introduce a new analytical representation of olivine CPO in terms of three `structured basis functions' (SBFs) Fs(g, r12, r23) (s = 1, 2, 3), where g is the set of three Eulerian angles that describe the orientation of a crystal lattice relative to an external reference frame. Each SBF represents the virtual CPO that would be produced by the action of only one of the slip systems of olivine, and can be determined analytically to within an unknown time-dependent amplitude. The amplitudes are then determined by fitting the SBFs to the predictions of the second-order self-consistent (SOSC) model of Ponte-Castaneda (2002). To implement the SBF representation, we express the orientation distribution function (ODF) f(g) of the polycrystal approximately as a linear superposition of SBFs with weighting coefficients Cs. Substituting the superposition into the general evolution equation for the ODF and minimizing the residual error, we find that the weighting coefficients Cs(t) satisfy coupled evolution equations of the form αisCs + βisCs + γs = 0 where the coefficients αis, βis and γs can be calculated in advance from the expressions for the SBFs. These equations are solved numerically for different values of p12 and p23, yielding numerical values of Cs(r12, r23, p12, p23

  2. Anion and cation partitioning between olivine, plagioclase phenocrysts and the host magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho

    1984-01-01

    Partition coefficients for -1, -2, -3, +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 valent ions between the groundmass of tholeiite basalt and coexisting olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have been determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The present cation partitioning strongly supports the 'crystal structure control' mechanism. The partition coefficient for an anion is also under control of the crystal structure, so that each of the cation and anion positions in the crystal structure gives rise to a parabola-shaped peak on the partition coefficient vs. ionic radius diagram. (author)

  3. Formation of Diastereoisomeric Piperazine-2,5-dione from dl-Alanine in the Presence of Olivine and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Masuda, Harue

    2017-03-01

    dl-Alanine (Ala) was heated with/without powdered olivine and water at 120 °C for 8 days to investigate the formation of the diastereoisomers of piperazine-2,5-dione (diketopiperazine, DKP). When only dl-Ala was heated with a small amount of water, 3.0 % of dl-Ala changed to cis- and trans-DKP after 8 days. DKPs were not detected after heating when no water was added. The presence of a small amount of water is important factor controlling peptide production rates under thermal conditions. When DL-Ala was heated with olivine powder for 8 days, the yields of cis- and trans-DKP were 6.8 and 4.9 %, respectively. The high yield of cis-DKP compared with trans-DKP was attributed to greater thermal stability of cis-DKP. After heating for 8 days, the diastereoisomeric excess of cis-DKP without olivine was 7.3 %, whereas a much higher value of 16.3 % was obtained in the presence of olivine. Taken together, these results show that olivine is not only an efficient catalyst for the formation of DKPs but that it also play a significant role in determining the diastereoisomer selectivity of these cyclic dipeptides.

  4. Vanadium K XANES of synthetic olivine: Valence determinations and crystal orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium can exist in a large number of valence states in nature (2+?, 3+, 4+ and 5+) and determinations of V valence is therefore valuable in defining the oxidation states of earth and planetary materials over a large redox range. Synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well-suited for measurements of V valence with ∼micrometer spatial resolution and ∼ppm elemental sensitivity. Applications of microXANES have been demonstrated for basaltic glasses. Applications to minerals are feasible but complicated by orientation effects (e.g. due to polarization of the synchrotron x-ray beam) and some results for spinel have been reported. Here we report initial results for olivine from laboratory crystallization ex-periments. The goal is to define the valence partition-ing between olivine and melt and quantify the magnitude of orientation effects, the latter tested by measuring grains at a variety of orientations in the same charge.

  5. Water-rock interaction in a high-FeO olivine rock in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Lindberg, A.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1992-12-01

    The long-term behaviour in nature of high-FeO olivine rock in contact with surface water has been studied at the Lovasjaervi instrusion, SE-Finland. The rock has been proposed as a high-capasity, higly reactive redox-buffer backfill in a repository for spent fuel. Favourable groundwater chemistry is a major parameter relevant to safety of such a repository. Reducing conditions favour the retardation of long-lived, redox-sensitive radionuclides. Weathering influences have been studied at the natural outcrop of the rock mass. The interaction of oxidizing surface waters with rock at greater depths has been studied by using fissure filling minerals. Investigation of weathered rock from the outcrop indicates that the olivine rock is highly reactive on a geological time scale and its redox capasity is available although the instrusion as a whole is surprisingly well preserved. The fissure fillings studied allow the conclusion that oxygen seems to be efficiently removed from intruding surface water. Oxidation seem to have caused visible effects only along very conducting fractures and near the contact zones of the surrounding granitic rock. Stable isotope data of fissure filling calcites indicate that the influence of surface waters can be traced clearly down to a depth of about 50 m, but also at greater depths re-equilibration has occurred. Groundwater data from the site were not available. (orig.)

  6. Transient shallow reservoirs beneath small eruptive centres: Constraints from Mg-Fe interdiffusion in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, E.; Parada, M. A.; Morgan, D. J.; Gutiérrez, F.; Castruccio, A.; Contreras, C.

    2017-11-01

    Small eruptive centres commonly have more primitive lavas than those associated with stratovolcanoes, an observation that has been taken to indicate a short magma residence in the crust relative to those reservoirs below stratovolcanoes. The Caburgua cones of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone from a basaltic small eruptive centre where this can be tested. Here, we use MELTS simulations, and the available thermobarometry data to determine the conditions of olivine crystal rim formation and the Mg-Fe diffusion modelling to determine the magma residence times of those rims in the crust. Results yield timescales varying from a few days to dozens of days, and if freezing is to be avoided, can only be explained by some form of storage or slow transport through at least one shallow magma body. The longest durations of magma residence seen in the olivine rim zones are up to 471 days. These timescales are shorter than those estimated (decadal) from the nearby, more-differentiated, and well-established stratovolcano, Villarrica, which has a dominantly basaltic andesite composition. For Caburgua cones, we propose the existence of a transient reservoir, in contrast to a long-lived reservoir such as that inferred beneath the adjacent Villarrica stratovolcano.

  7. Partitioning of water between point defects, dislocations, and grain boundaries in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielke, J. A.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Mariani, E.; Wheeler, J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the storage capacity of water in the interior of the Earth and other terrestrial planets vary significantly. One interpretation is that water in planetary interiors exists primarily as hydrogen ions, dissociated from liquid water, that are associated with point defects in the crystal structure of nominally anhydrous minerals. However, dislocations and grain boundaries may contribute significantly to the storage capacity of water in planetary interiors, but hydrogen concentrations in dislocations and grain boundaries are difficult to quantify. To measure the water storage capacity of dislocations and grain boundaries, we are analyzing results from high-temperature and high-pressure experiments where deuterium, a stable isotope of hydrogen, was incorporated into olivine, the dominate phase in the upper mantle. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium concentrations can be determined at much higher spatial resolution using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The concentration of deuterium in the samples will also be quantified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for comparison to results for hydrogen-bearing olivine. The spatial distribution of regions with different densities of geometrically-necessary dislocations and the locations of grain boundaries will be determined using electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses. Correlation of the concentration of deuterium with dislocation densities and grain boundaries will be used to examine the partitioning of water-derived species between the different types of defects. Ultimately, these data will be used to place more realistic bounds on the storage capacity of water in the interior of Earth and of other terrestrial planets.

  8. Comment on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO; by Nagaya et al. (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaka, Toshio

    2014-12-01

    Recently, Nagaya et al. (2014) have reported the B-type crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine in thermally metamorphosed serpentinites from the Happo ultramafic complex, central Japan, and interpreted the CPO as a result of topotactic growth of olivine after antigorite. Their conclusions require the reconsideration of the genesis of B-type olivine CPO, which is generally believed to be formed by plastic deformation of hydrous peridotites, and could have an impact on structural models of supra-subduction zones. I appreciate the detailed observations by Nagaya et al. (2014) but have to point out that they committed significant misinterpretation of facts and failed to show robust evidence and rationale for their argument.

  9. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how......-dimensional (3D) volume reconstruction of a dusty olivine grain, obtained by selective milling through a region of interest in a series of sequential 20 nm slices, which are then imaged using scanning electron microscopy. The data provide a quantitative description of the iron particle ensemble, including...... axes of the particles and the remanence vector imparted in different fields. Although the orientation of the vortex core is determined largely by the ellipsoidal geometry (i.e., parallel to the major axis for prolate ellipsoids and parallel to the minor axis for oblate ellipsoids), the core...

  10. Origin of spinel lamella and/or inclusions in olivine of harzburgite form the Pauza ultramafic rocks from the Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Karim, K.

    2009-04-01

    Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks, Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamella is up to 80μm long and up to 50 μm wide. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal. They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene. Olivine (Fo92 - 93) with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine (Fo90-91) free from spinel is found in matrix. Based on back-scattered images analyses, enrichments of both Cr # and Fe+3 in the chromian spinel lamella in olivine (replacive olivine) relative to that in adjacent orthopyroxene. As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine. Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene. This study concludes that the spinel inclusions in olivine are remnant (inherited from former orthopyroxene) spinel exsolution lamella in orthopyroxene, that has been formed in upper mantle conditions ( T = 1200 °C, P = 2.5 GPa ). Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase (orthopyroxene) in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions. We can conclude that the olivines with spinel lamella are not necessary to be original and presenting ultrahigh-pressure and/or ultra deep-mantle conditions as previously concluded. It has been formed by melting of orthopyroxene (orthopyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella = olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral

  11. Spinels of Variscan olivine hornblendites related to the Montnegre granitoids revisited (NE Spain): petrogenetic evidence of mafic magma mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán, G.; Enrique, P.; Butjosa, L.; Fernández-Roig, L.

    2017-07-01

    Olivine hornblendites (cortlandtites) form part of the Montnegre mafic complex related to late-Variscan I-type granitoids in the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Two generations of spinel are present in these hornblendites: Spl1 forms euhedral crystals included in both olivine and Spl2. Spl2 forms euhedral to anhedral crystals associated with phlogopite and fibrous colourless amphibole forming pseudomorphs after olivine. Compositions of Spl1 are picotite-Al chromite (Fe#: 77.78-66.60; Cr#: 30.12-52.22; Fe3+/R3+: 6.99-21.89; 0.10< TiO2%< 0.62). Compositions of Spl2 are pleonaste (Fe#: 37.86-52.12; Cr#: 1.00-15.45; Fe3+/R3+: 0.31-5.21; TiO2% <0.10%). The two types of spinel follow a CrAl trend, mainly due to the substitution (Fe2+)-1Cr-1= MgAl, which is interpreted as the result of mixing between two different mantle-derived melts. The compositions of early Spl1 crystals included in olivine are characteristic of Al-rich basalts. More aluminous Spl2 would result from reaction of olivine with a less evolved, Al and K-rich mantle-derived melt after new refilling of the magma chamber or channel. As a whole, spinels from similar examples of Variscan olivine hronblendites also follow a CrAl trend with high Fe# and starting at higher Cr# than other trends of this type. Cr# heterogeneity in the early spinels from these Variscan hornblendites would be inherited from the variable Al content of the mafic melts involved in their genesis.

  12. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Huajian; Hou, Xiaoxue

    2014-02-01

    Tar produced by biomass gasification as a route of renewable energy must be removed before the gas can be used. This study was undertaken using toluene as a model tar compound for evaluating its steam reforming conversion with three Ni-based catalysts, Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. Effects of Ce and Mg promoters on the reaction activity and coke deposition were studied. Overall the performance of Ce and Mg promoted Ni/olivine catalysts is better than that of only Ce promoter and Ni/olivine alone. The experimental results indicate that Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine catalysts could improve the resistance to carbon deposition, enhance energy gases yield and resist 10ppm H2S poison at 100mLmin(-1) for up to 400min. Furthermore, the activity of catalysts was related to the steam/carbon (S/C) ratios; at S/C ratio=5, T=790°C, space velocity=782h(-1) and t=2h, the Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine system yielded 89% toluene conversion, 5.6Lh(-1) product gas rate, 62.6mol% H2 content and 10% (mol useful gas mol(-1) toluene) energy yield. Moreover, at low S/C ratio, it had higher reaction activity and better ability to prevent coking. There is a small amount of carbon deposition in the form of amorphous carbon after 7h. Various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and thermogravimetric were performed to investigate the coke deposition of Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. It is suggested that 3% Ni-1% Ce-1% Mg/olivine was the most promising catalyst due to its minimum coke amount and the lower activation energy of coke burning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. NiO and Fe/Mn in Fo-rich olivines from OIB, MORB, and mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Baker, M.; Hofmann, A. E.; Clague, D.; Stolper, E.

    2006-12-01

    Olivines from mantle peridotites have a narrow range of NiO (0.36±0.03 [1σ] wt%), but NiO of olivines in basalts suggest NiO in mantle olivines is actually more variable: e.g., Hawaiian phenocrysts (Fo>90) have NiO >0.55%, and olivines from continental flood basalts can have >0.5% NiO. At the other end of the spectrum, some basaltic suites (e.g., Iceland, MORBs) have Fo>90 olivines with NiO >0.2%. Partial melting calculations on peridotites show it is difficult to generate liquids that crystallize Fo>90 olivines with >0.4% NiO without resorting to complex processes. Hypotheses to explain the variability of NiO in mantle-derived olivines include (1) reaction of peridotite with silica-rich melts of eclogite results in decreasing modal abundance of olivine and increasing NiO in olivine [1,2]; (2) magmas with NiO-rich olivines come from sources enriched in NiO due to a core-derived component [3]. [4] proposed that high Fe/Mn of Hawaiian vs. Icelandic and MORB lavas reflect a core-derived component in their sources. Possible core incorporation is poorly constrained but FeO and NiO are expected to increase by such processes, leading to correlations between NiO and Fe/Mn in mantle rocks with significant core-derived components. We present high-precision analyses of Fo-rich olivines from OIBs, MORBs, komatiites, and mantle peridotites, focusing on NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios. Our goal is to test hypotheses to explain elevated NiO of Fo-rich olivines in basalts. Olivines are Fo85.1-93.4; more were analyzed, but we focused on this range to avoid complications due to decreasing NiO in olivine with crystallization. Errors (1σ) are 0.01 wt% in NiO and 1.5 in Fe/Mn (wt). Our data show several features: (1) NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios of Fo>88 olivines are positively correlated, with the low end of the trend (NiO ~0.23%, Fe/Mn ~61) defined by MORB and Iceland and the high end of the trend (NiO ~0.55%, Fe/Mn ~80) by Reunion and Hawaii. Between these end points, there is a

  14. In situ oxygen isotope compositions in olivines of different types of cosmic spherules: An assessment of relationships to chondritic particles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Jones, R.H.; Nagashima, K.

    bearing cosmic spherules (Rudraswami et al., 2015b). In addition, some Mg-rich relict olivine grains are very 16O-rich, with 17O ranging from −21.9 to -18.7‰, similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs... isotope analyses of the olivine grains are provided in Appendix B and Table 1, respectively. 5    Four scoriaceous spherules namely, AAS62-61-P64, AAS62-9-P43, AAS62-9-P51 and AAS62-9- P54 were identified for oxygen isotope studies (Fig. 1a...

  15. Melting mode and source lithology inferred from trace element systematic in historical olivine from Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.

    2017-04-01

    Trace element concentrations and ratios in olivine phenocrysts, such as fractionation-corrected Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, have been shown useful as probes of pyroxenite derived component in mixtures of primary mantle melts (e.g. Sobolev et al., 2007). For instance, higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca contents are expected in partial melts of pyroxenite compared to those of lherzolite. We have measured trace element concentrations in olivine from 1730-1736 AD (Timanfaya) and 1824 AD eruptions in Lanzarote (Canary Islands), which erupted mafic and mantle nodule bearing magmas, ranging in composition from highly silica-undersaturated basanite through alkali basalt to tholeiite. The early basanite exhibit the largest olivine trace element variation covering the range of those from MORB and OIB worldwide, whereas later erupted tholeiite have values typical from pyroxenite derived melts. The Fo value decreased systematically with time during the 1730-36 eruption and the proportion of silica-saturated primary melt increased in the parental magma mixture with time. At the end of the eruption, tholeiite magmas crystallized olivine with, increasing concentrations of Mn and Ca and higher Ca/Al at relatively uniform Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, all of which is readily explained by increased decompression melting at lower temperature. The basanite from the eruption that took place in 1824 AD has olivine with even higher Fo value and trace element variability similar those of the Timanfaya basanite. The fact that the Lanzarote basanite contain olivine with trace element systematic spanning that of MORB and pyroxenite melt can be explained by CO2-flux melting of a lithologically heterogeneous source, generating the diverse compositions. Initial reactive porous flow through depleted oceanic lithosphere and equilibration with dunitic restite of percolating pyroxenite melt may have amplified the observed Ni depletion in olivine of the earliest basanite. The fact that olivine compositions and

  16. Genetic relationship between deformation and low-Ca content in olivine from magmatic systems: evidence from the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhuo-sen; Qin, Ke-zhang; Xue, Sheng-chao

    2017-12-01

    The deformation features (e.g., undulose extinction and subgrain boundaries) and low Ca content (causing the widespread deformation observed in Ca-depleted olivine from Poyi and other intrusions. What is more important, this work fills the gaps in the interpretation of this type of olivine in volcanic rocks.

  17. Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang

    2011-12-31

    We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

  18. Experimental investigation of As, Sb and Cs behavior during olivine serpentinization in hydrothermal alkaline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Romain; Montes-Hernandez, German; Janots, Emilie; Munoz, Manuel; Auzende, Anne Line; Gehin, Antoine; Chiriac, Rodica; Proux, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    While Fluid-Mobile Elements (FMEs) such as B, Sb, Li, As or Cs are particularly concentrated in serpentinites, data on FME fluid-serpentine partitioning, distribution, and sequestration mechanisms are missing. In the present experimental study, the behavior of Sb, As and Cs during San Carlos olivine serpentinization was investigated using accurate mineralogical, geochemical, and spectroscopic characterization. Static-batch experiments were conducted at 200 °C, under saturated vapor pressure (≈1.6 MPa), for initial olivine grain sizes of coefficient increasing such as CsDp/fl = 1.5-1.6 elements are however substantially different. While the As partition coefficient remains constant throughout the serpentinization reaction, the Cs partition coefficient decreases abruptly in the first stages of the reaction to reach a constant value after the reaction is 40-60% complete. Both As and Cs partitioning appear to decrease with increasing initial olivine grain size, but there is no significant difference in the partitioning coefficient between the 30-56 and 56-150 μm grain size after complete serpentinization. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements combined with X-ray chemical measurements reveal that the As(V) is mainly adsorbed onto the serpentinization products, especially brucite. In contrast, mineralogical characterization combined with XAS spectroscopy reveal redox sensitivity for Sb sequestration within serpentine products, depending on the progress of the reaction. When serpentinization is coefficient compared to that of the serpentine and brucite assemblage. Antimony reduction appears linked to water reduction accompanying the bulk iron oxidation, as half the initial Fe(II) is oxidized into Fe(III) and incorporated into the serpentine products once the reaction is over. The reduction of Sb implies a decrease of its solubility, but the type of secondary Sb-rich phases identified here might not be representative of natural systems where Sb

  19. Influence of Fe content on the creep properties of olivine under anhydrous and hydrous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, M. B.; Zhao, Y.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    High-temperature, high-pressure compressive creep experiments were performed on both wet and dry aggregates of Fa75 in a gas-medium deformation apparatus. The results from these experiments are compared with those for San Carlos olivine, Fa10, and our previous results on Fa30 and Fa50 in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Samples were fabricated from powders of Fa75 that were synthesized from mixtures of Fe2O3 and SiO2 combined with San Carlos olivine. The Fa75 powders were cold-pressed into Fe capsules and then hot-pressed at 300 MPa, 1473 K for 3 h. The average grain size of the resultant hot-pressed samples was ~40 μm. For experiments under hydrous conditions, three drops of deionized water were added before sealing the sample within telescoping Fe cans for deformation. Water bubbles were present both within olivine grains and along grain boundaries, demonstrating that the samples were water-saturated. Triaxial compressive creep experiments were carried out in a servo-controlled, internally heated gas-medium apparatus at 50 K intervals between 1273 and 1423 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa with differential stress of 10 to 300 MPa. For each sample, creep tests were performed at several differential stresses at a constant temperature to determine the stress exponent or at several temperatures to determine the activation energy for creep. Under anhydrous conditions the viscosity of samples of Fa75 is more than a factor of 10 lower than the viscosity of Fa50. Previous experiments showed a similar relationship between Fa50 and Fa30 and Fa30 and Fa10. Under hydrous conditions the viscosity of samples of Fa75 are about a factor of 5 lower than the viscosity of Fa50, which is less than that observed between Fa50 and Fa30 or Fa30 and Fa10. The viscosity of a sample of a specific Fe:Mg ratio deformed under hydrous conditions is a factor of 10 lower than its counterpart

  20. Effect of iron content on the creep behavior of Olivine: 2. Hydrous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2018-05-01

    We have undertaken an experimental investigation of the effect of iron content on the viscosity of Fe-Mg olivine aggregates deformed under hydrous conditions in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Fine-grained samples of Fe-bearing olivine with fayalite contents, Fax, of x = 100, 75, 50, 30 and 10 were deformed in triaxial compressive creep primarily in the dislocation creep regime under water-saturated conditions at temperatures of 1273 to 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Nickel sleeves around the samples of Fa10, Fa30 and Fa50 set the oxygen fugacity at the Ni:NiO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲300 MPa, while Fe sleeves around samples of Fa75 and Fa100 set the oxygen fugacity at the Fe:FeO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲200 MPa. Samples were deformed in triaxial compression to a maximum strain of 0.2 at differential stresses from 10 to 300 MPa and strain rates from 10-7 to 10-3 s-1. In the dislocation creep field at a given temperature, the viscosity of samples of Fa50 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than the viscosity of samples of Fa30, while the viscosity of samples of Fa30 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than that of samples of Fa10. Our experimental results can be described by the flow law ε˙disl =Cdisl(σ/μ) ndisl XFa pdisl exp(-(Qdisl0 +αdislXFa)/RT) fH2Omdisl with Cdisl = 99.7 MPa-5/4 s-1, ndisl = 3.7, pdisl = 0.5, Qdisl0 = 510 kJ/mol, αdisl = -120 kJ/mol, and mdisl = 5/4. This flow law indicates that the viscosity of olivine of a specific Fe:Mg ratio is a factor of ∼10 smaller than its counterpart deformed under anhydrous conditions. In a hydrous environment at the same thermodynamic conditions, the viscosity of the more Fe-rich mantle (∼Fa19) of Mars is a factor of ∼5 lower than that of the mantle (∼Fa8) of Earth.

  1. Oriented growth due to topotactic replacement of antigorite by olivine as a mechanism for the formation of B-type olivine CPO in convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, T.; Wallis, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Michibayashi, K.; Mizukami, T.

    2012-12-01

    B-type olivine (Ol) CPO patterns are characterized by an a-axis concentration parallel to the intermediate principle axis of strain and have been proposed by many workers as the cause of seismic anisotropy in the mantle wedge of subduction zones that shows the fast direction perpendicular to the plate movement direction. Experimental work has shown that B-type Ol CPO can form by dislocation creep at relatively high stresses and in the presence of water. Natural examples of B-type Ol CPO have also been reported, but there are several discrepancies with the experimental results. 1) Some natural B-type CPO formed at relatively high temperatures and low stress outside the ranges predicted by experiments. 2) Natural examples lack evidence for the c-slip expected for the formation of B-type Ol CPO by dislocation creep. 3) The high shear stresses expected along subduction boundaries promote the formation of B-type Ol CPO, but these regions are also expected to be associated with the formation of serpentine minerals and even relatively small amounts prevent strong CPO patterns from forming because of grain-boundary sliding occurring between Ol and serpentine. We show B-type Ol CPO can form as a result of static topotactic growth of olivine after high-temperature breakdown of antigorite (Atg) schist. In the Happo-One region of the Hida Marginal belt, Japan, dehydration of foliated Atg produces non-deformed secondary Ol formed in veins or patches and peridotite-hornfels where the conversion is complete.The CPO of non-deformed Ol in veins and in the hornfels shows a strong B-type fabric. The veins show consistent Ol CPO irrespective of the vein orientation, implying the CPO is not related to the vein opening direction. The CPO of Atg bordering the vein Ol shows a strong concentration of c-axes at a high angle to the foliation and a strong alignment of b-axes parallel to the lineation. Numerous recent studies have shown this type of Atg CPO is the most widespread in the

  2. Reply to comment by Nozaka (2014) on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi

    2014-12-01

    We would like to thank Dr. Nozaka for his interest in our work and also for supplying some of the crystal orientation data that we used in our study. He presents a detailed discussion of differences in interpretation between our two studies. The main difference is whether the strong B-type olivine CPO developed as a result of topotactic static growth after breakdown of antigorite (Nagaya et al., 2014) or if it developed due to homoepitaxial growth on a limited number of olivine grains that already showed a general B-type CPO (Nozaka, 2014). In both of our studies static growth of olivine due to the breakdown of antigorite is key in the strengthening or formation of B-type olivine CPO. This conclusion has potentially far reaching implications for the interpretation of mantle seismic anisotropy in subduction zones and is the most important take home message. However, the details of interpretation are also important. In our reply, we focus on what we consider to be the 5 main points of disagreement. We refer to Fig. 1 to explain different microstructural domains.

  3. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2015-01-01

    origin. Although the Dawn mission did not detect mesosiderite-like material on Vesta, evidence linking the mesosiderites and HEDs includes: (i) theirnearly identical oxygen isotope compositions; (ii) the presence in both of coarse-grained Mg-rich olivines; (iii) both have synchronous Lu-Hf and Mn-Cr ages...

  4. Constraining Thermal Histories by Monte Carlo Simulation of Mg-Fe Isotopic Profiles in Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, C. K. I.; Dauphas, N.

    2016-12-01

    In thermochronology, random time-temperature (t-T) paths are generated and used as inputs to model fission track data. This random search method is used to identify a range of acceptable thermal histories that can describe the data. We have extended this modeling approach to magmatic systems. This approach utilizes both the chemical and stable isotope profiles measured in crystals as model constraints. Specifically, the isotopic profiles are used to determine the relative contribution of crystal growth vs. diffusion in generating chemical profiles, and to detect changes in melt composition. With this information, tighter constraints can be placed on the thermal evolution of magmatic bodies. We use an olivine phenocryst from the Kilauea Iki lava lake, HI, to demonstrate proof of concept. We treat this sample as one with little geologic context, then compare our modeling results to the known thermal history experienced by that sample. To complete forward modeling, we use MELTS to estimate the boundary condition, initial and quench temperatures. We also assume a simple relationship between crystal growth and cooling rate. Another important parameter is the isotopic effect for diffusion (i.e., the relative diffusivity of the light vs. heavy isotope of an element). The isotopic effects for Mg and Fe diffusion in olivine have been estimated based on natural samples; experiments to better constrain these parameters are underway. We find that 40% of the random t-T paths can be used to fit the Mg-Fe chemical profiles. However, only a few can be used to simultaneously fit the Mg-Fe isotopic profiles. These few t-T paths are close to the independently determined t-T history of the sample. This modeling approach can be further extended other igneous and metamorphic systems where data exist for diffusion rates, crystal growth rates, and isotopic effects for diffusion.

  5. Microseismic Monitoring of the Olivine → Spinel Transition in Fayalite Under Non-Hydrostatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, T.; Secco, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    In subduction zones, deep earthquakes are thought to be associated with faulting that arises from phase transformations. In order to test the viability of this mechanism experimentally, it is necessary to make microseismic measurements while the mineral under investigation is subjected to the pressure and temperature (P,T) environment at depth. A system has been developed capable of making in situ acoustic emission (AE) measurements on samples under P,T conditions representative of the upper mantle and transition zone. Experiments are performed in a 3000-ton multi-anvil press using an 18/11 octahedral cell with 6 piezoelectric transducers mounted on the rear side of the anvils. AE signals are collected at a sampling rate of 40 MHz using a triggered system and a data buffer for continuous recording so full waveforms of AE events are captured. The use of multiple transducers distributed in a microseismic array allows for events to be located within the sample through automatic arrival time picking and least squares inversion techniques. The multi-anvil apparatus constitutes an inherently noisy environment both acoustically and electrically, therefore methods of noise reduction were developed and will be discussed. This technique has been used to measure acoustic signals generated from the fracturing of quartz beads during high pressure deformation and to investigate the possibility that the phase transformation from olivine to spinel, known to occur in subduction zones, is associated with deep-focus earthquakes (300 - 690 km depth). The analog material fayalite (Fe2SiO4), the iron end member of olivine, has been examined. Information about its synthesis and sintering will be discussed as well as results of AE experiments on samples experiencing deviatoric stress under high pressure (P = 4-9 GPa) and high temperature (T = 773-1273 K) conditions in the spinel stability field.

  6. Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Yaakov; Class, Cornelia; Goldstein, Steven L; Hanyu, Takeshi

    2016-09-29

    Mantle melting, which leads to the formation of oceanic and continental crust, together with crust recycling through plate tectonics, are the primary processes that drive the chemical differentiation of the silicate Earth. The present-day mantle, as sampled by oceanic basalts, shows large chemical and isotopic variability bounded by a few end-member compositions. Among these, the HIMU end-member (having a high U/Pb ratio, μ) has been generally considered to represent subducted/recycled basaltic oceanic crust. However, this concept has been challenged by recent studies of the mantle source of HIMU magmas. For example, analyses of olivine phenocrysts in HIMU lavas indicate derivation from the partial melting of peridotite, rather than from the pyroxenitic remnants of recycled oceanic basalt. Here we report data that elucidate the source of these lavas: high-precision trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts point to peridotite that has been metasomatized by carbonatite fluids. Moreover, similarities in the trace-element patterns of carbonatitic melt inclusions in diamonds and HIMU lavas indicate that the metasomatism occurred in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, fused to the base of the continental crust and isolated from mantle convection. Taking into account evidence from sulfur isotope data for Archean to early Proterozoic surface material in the deep HIMU mantle source, a multi-stage evolution is revealed for the HIMU end-member, spanning more than half of Earth's history. Before entrainment in the convecting mantle, storage in a boundary layer, upwelling as a mantle plume and partial melting to become ocean island basalt, the HIMU source formed as Archean-early Proterozoic subduction-related carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  7. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea’s summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the

  8. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea's east rift zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Swanson, Donald A.; Kent, Adam J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2 concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai'i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n = 10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n = 38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea's summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit

  9. Formation of H2 and CH4 by weathering of olivine at temperatures between 30 and 70°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crill Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbons such as CH4 are known to be formed through the Fischer-Tropsch or Sabatier type reactions in hydrothermal systems usually at temperatures above 100°C. Weathering of olivine is sometimes suggested to account for abiotic formation of CH4 through its redox lowering and water splitting properties. Knowledge about the CH4 and H2 formation processes at low temperatures is important for the research about the origin and cause of early Earth and Martian CH4 and for CO2 sequestration. We have conducted a series of low temperature, long-term weathering experiments in which we have tested the CH4 and H2 formation potential of forsteritic olivine. The results show low temperature CH4 production that is probably influenced by chromite and magnetite as catalysts. Extensive analyses of a potential CH4 source trapped in the crystal structure of the olivine showed no signs of incorporated CH4. Also, the available sources of organic carbon were not enough to support the total amount of CH4 detected in our experiments. There was also a linear relationship between silica release into solution and the net CH4 accumulation into the incubation bottle headspaces suggesting that CH4 formation under these conditions could be a qualitative indicator of olivine dissolution. It is likely that minerals such as magnetite, chromite and other metal-rich minerals found on the olivine surface catalyze the formation of CH4, because of the low temperature of the system. This may expand the range of environments plausible for abiotic CH4 formation both on Earth and on other terrestrial bodies.

  10. Olivine-bearing lithologies on the Moon: Constraints on origins and transport mechanisms from M3 spectroscopy, radiative transfer modeling, and GRAIL crustal thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Laura M.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Lemelin, Myriam; Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Powell, Kathryn E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Wieczorek, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution hyperspectral data from Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) allow detection of olivine on the lunar surface. Olivine exposed at the surface may originate as mantle material or igneous products (intrusive or extrusive). Potential transport mechanisms include excavation of the mantle or lower crustal material by impacts that form basins and complex craters, differentiation of impact melt sheets, or magmatic emplacement of lavas, cumulates, or xenoliths. A sample of the lunar mantle, which has not been conclusively identified in the lunar sample collection, would yield fundamental new insights into the composition, structure, and evolution of the lunar interior. Olivine identified in remote spectral data is generally accepted to originate from the primary mantle, because abundant olivine is expected to exist in the mantle and lower crust, yet have sparse occurrences in the upper crust. In this study, we identified 111 M3 single-pixel spectra with characteristic absorption features consistent with olivine at Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum basins and near the craters Roche and Tsiolkovsky. In an effort to determine the origins and transport mechanisms that led to these individual exposures, we estimated mineral abundances using radiative transfer modeling and examined crustal thickness estimates, topography and slope maps, and images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). At Crisium basin, where crustal thickness is near 0 km (Wieczorek et al., 2013), mantle olivine may have been exposed by basin-forming impact and deposited on the rim. Picard crater, which is superposed on the floor of Crisium, also exhibits potential mantle olivine in its ejecta. Within Nectaris basin, olivine exposures are confined to the rims of small craters on the mare, which are inferred to excavate a layer of olivine-rich mare basalt. Olivine occurrences on the rim of Humorum basin, including those located on a graben, are likely to be cumulates of shallow

  11. Water sensitivity of the seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher; David, Emmanuel; Faul, Ulrich; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The wave speeds and attenuation of seismic waves in the upper mantle are expected to be strongly influenced by the defect chemistry of olivine grain interiors and the associated chemical complexity of grain-boundary regions. Changes in chemical environment (oxygen fugacity and/or water fugacity) can impose different defect chemistries, including the creation and retention of hydrous defects, and therefore can directly influence anelastic relaxation involving stress-induced migration of lattice defects and/or grain-boundary sliding. Here we report the first low-frequency experimental study of the seismic properties of olivine under water-undersaturated conditions. Three synthetic sol-gel derived olivine (Fo90) specimens were fabricated by hot-pressing in welded Pt capsules with various concentrations of hydroxyl, chemically bound as doubly protonated Si vacancies, charge balanced by substitution of Ti on a neighboring M-site (i.e., the Ti-clinohumite-like defect). Hydroxyl contents, determined following the subsequent mechanical testing within Pt sleeves, increased systematically with the amount of added Ti-dopant. Added Ti concentrations ranged between 176 and 802 atom ppm Ti/Si, resulting in concentrations of bound hydrogen in the three samples ranging between 330 and 1150 atom ppm H/Si. Each hot-pressed specimen was precision ground and then sleeved in Pt for mechanical testing in forced torsional oscillation under water-undersaturated conditions. Forced-oscillation tests were conducted at seismic periods of 1 - 1000 s and 200 MPa confining pressure during slow staged cooling from 1200 to 25°C. Each Ti-doped specimen showed mechanical behavior of the high-temperature background type involving monotonically increasing dissipation and decreasing shear modulus with increasing oscillation period and increasing temperature. Comparison of the mechanical data acquired in these water-undersaturated conditions with a similarly tested, but dry, Ti-bearing specimen

  12. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.

    2018-01-01

    Space weathering is one of the most common surface process occurring on atmosphere-free bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. It is caused mainly by solar wind irradiation and the impact of micrometeoroids. In order to simulate space weathering effects, in particular those produced by hypervelocity impacts, we produced microcraters via ultra-short (∼100 fs) laser irradiation of crystallographically oriented slices of forsterite-rich (Fo94.7) olivine. The main advantages of the application of a femtosecond laser radiation to reproduce the space weathering effects are (1) the high peak irradiance (1015 W cm-2), which generates the propagation of the shock wave at the nanosecond timescale (i.e., timescale of the micrometeoroid impacts); (2) the rapid transfer of energy to the target material, which avoids the interaction of laser light with the developing vapor plume; (3) a small laser beam, which allows the effects of a single impact to be simulated. The results of our spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation validate this approach: the samples show strong darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra and structural damages similar to the natural microcraters found on regolith grains of the Moon and asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Detailed investigations of several microcrater cross-sections by transmission electron microscopy allowed the detection of shock-induced defect microstructures. From the top to the bottom of the grain, the shock wave causes evaporation, melting, solid-state recrystallization, misorientation, fracturing, and the propagation of dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to [001]. The formation of a short-lived vapor plume causes the kinetic fractionation of the gas and the preferential loss of lighter elements, mostly magnesium and oxygen. The high temperatures within the melt layer and the kinetic loss of oxygen promote the thermal reduction of iron and nickel, which leads to the formation of metallic nanoparticles (npFe0). The

  13. Irreversible adsorption of atmospheric helium on olivine: A lobster pot analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protin, Marie; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Marrocchi, Yves; Mathon, François

    2016-04-01

    This study reports new experimental results that demonstrate that large amounts of atmospheric helium may be adsorbed onto the surfaces of olivine grains. This behavior is surface-area-related in that this contamination preferentially affects grains that are smaller than 125 μm in size. One of the most striking results of our study is that in vacuo heating at 900 °C for 15 min is not sufficient to completely remove the atmospheric contamination. This suggests that the adsorption of helium may involve high-energy trapping of helium through irreversible anomalous adsorption. This trapping process of helium can thus be compared to a ;lobster pot; adsorption: atmospheric helium easily gets in, but hardly gets out. While this type of behavior has previously been reported for heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe), this is the first time that it has been observed for helium. Adsorption of helium has, until now, generally been considered to be negligible on silicate surfaces. Our findings have significant implications for helium and noble gas analysis of natural silicate samples, such as for cosmic-ray exposure dating or noble gas characterization of extraterrestrial material. Analytical procedures in future studies should be adapted in order to avoid this contamination. The results of this study also allow us to propose an alternative explanation for previously described matrix loss of cosmogenic 3He.

  14. Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

  15. Water in Earth's mantle: Hydrogen analysis of mantle olivine, pyroxenes and garnet using the SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen (or water) in the Earth's interior plays a key role in the evolution and dynamics of the planet. However, the abundance and the existence form of the hydrogen have scarcely been clear in practice. Hydrogen in the mantle was incorporated in the interior during the formation of the Earth. The incorporated hydrogen was hardly possible to concentrate locally inside the Earth considering its high mobility and high reactivity. The hydrogen, preferably, could be distributed homogeneously over the mantle and the core by the subsequent physical and chemical processes. Therefore, hydrogen in the mantle could be present in the form of trace hydrogen in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals. The hydrogen and the other trace elements in mantle olivines, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, and garnets were determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for elucidating (1) the exact hydrogen contents, (2) the correlation between the hydrogen and the other trace elements, (3) the dependence of the hydrogen contents on the depth, and (4) the dependence of the whole rock water contents on the depth.

  16. Elevated olivine weathering rates and sulfate formation at cryogenic temperatures on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Paul B; Michalski, Joseph; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, D C

    2017-10-17

    Large Hesperian-aged (~3.7 Ga) layered deposits of sulfate-rich sediments in the equatorial regions of Mars have been suggested to be evidence for ephemeral playa environments. But early Mars may not have been warm enough to support conditions similar to what occurs in arid environments on Earth. Instead cold, icy environments may have been widespread. Under cryogenic conditions sulfate formation might be blocked, since kinetics of silicate weathering are typically strongly retarded at temperatures well below 0 °C. But cryo-concentration of acidic solutions may counteract the slow kinetics. Here we show that cryo-concentrated acidic brines rapidly chemically weather olivine minerals and form sulfate minerals at temperatures as low as -60 °C. These experimental results demonstrate the viability of sulfate formation under current Martian conditions, even in the polar regions. An ice-hosted sedimentation and weathering model may provide a compelling description of the origin of large Hesperian-aged layered sulfate deposits on Mars.

  17. Structure and transport at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine: An atomic-scale perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantisi, Boris; Sator, Nicolas; Guillot, Bertrand

    2017-12-01

    Structure and transport properties at grain boundaries in polycrystalline olivine have been investigated at the atomic scale by molecular dynamics simulation (MD) using an empirical ionocovalent interaction potential. On the time scale of the simulation (a few tens of nanoseconds for a system size of ∼650,000 atoms) grain boundaries and grain interior were identified by mapping the atomic displacements along the simulation run. In the investigated temperature range (1300-1700 K) the mean thickness of the grain boundary phase is evaluated between 0.5 and 2 nm, a value which depends on temperature and grain size. The structure of the grain boundary phase is found to be disordered (amorphous-like) and is different from the one exhibited by the supercooled liquid. The self-diffusion coefficients of major elements in the intergranular region range from ∼10-13 to 10-10 m2/s between 1300 and 1700 K (with DSigb Kubo relation expressing the viscosity as function of the stress tensor time correlation function. In spite of a slow convergence of the calculation by MD, the grain boundary viscosity was estimated about ∼105 Pa s at 1500 K, a value in agreement with high-temperature viscoelastic relaxation data. An interesting information gained from MD is that sliding at grain boundaries is essentially controlled by the internal friction between the intergranular phase and the grain edges.

  18. Unexpected formation by pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured Fe/olivine thin films on MgO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, C.; Dupont, L.; Davoisne, C.; Le Marrec, F.; Perriere, J.; Baudrin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Olivine-type LiFePO 4 thin films were grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The formation of an original nanostructure is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy measurements. Indeed, on focused ion beam prepared cross sections of the thin film, we observe, the amazing formation of metallic iron/olivine nanostructures. The appearance of such a structure is explained owing to a topotactic relation between the two phases as well as a strong Mg diffusion from the substrate to the film surface. Magnesium migration is thus concomitant with the creation of metallic iron domains that grow from the core of the film to the surface leading to large protuberances. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iron extrusion from the olivine-type LiFePO 4 . -- Graphical Abstract: HRTEM image of olivine/Fe nanostructure obtained by PLD. Display Omitted Research highlights: → This manuscript describes the attempt to prepare textured LiFePO 4 by PLD. This is presently a challenge to better understand the physical properties of the material, used as cathode in lithium ion batteries. → We describe for the first time the iron extrusion from this material. Indeed, there were recent reports on the possible non-stoichiometry, i.e. lithium or oxygen. However, on the iron side, only some defect were observed for hydrothermally prepared material but the extrusion is new in this paper. → We prepared interesting nanostructures which could be used for different fundamental studies: electric and magnetic measurements.

  19. Partition of Ni between olivine and sulfide: the effect of temperature, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, M. E.; Macrae, N. D.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental distribution coefficient for Ni/ Fe exchange between olivine and monosulfide (KD3) is 35.6±1.1 at 1385° C, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 8.87} ,f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 1.02} , and olivine of composition Fo96 to Fo92. These are the physicochemical conditions appropriate to hypothesized sulfur-saturated komatiite magma. The present experiments equilibrated natural olivine grains with sulfide-oxide liquid in the presence of a (Mg, Fe)-alumino-silicate melt. By a variety of different experimental procedures, K D3 is shown to be essentially constant at about 30 to 35 in the temperature range 900 to 1400° C, for olivine of composition Fo97 to FoO, monosulfide composition with up to 70 mol. % NiS, and a wide range of f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }.

  20. The dissolution of high-FeO olivine rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (SE-Finland) at 25 deg. C as a function of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Lara; El Aamrani, Fatima; Rovira, Miquel; Gimenez, Javier; Casas, Ignasi; Pablo, Joan de; Bruno, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    The high-FeO olivine-rich rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (65% olivine, 20% plagioclase, 8% magnetite, 4% pyroxene and 3% serpentine) has been proposed as a potential redox-active backfill-additive in deep high level nuclear waste repositories. In this work, the authors report on kinetic dissolution studies of this solid under different pH and redox conditions performed by using a flow-through methodology. Assuming that silicon is mainly released to solution from the olivine contained in the solid, the experimental results have been adjusted to an empirical rate law as a function of proton concentration. The proton concentration reaction orders agree with results found in the literature for both acidic and alkaline pH ranges. The calculations conducted with the reactive transport code RETRASO show that at alkaline pH, the olivine rock might have a lower redox buffer capacity than expected

  1. A model of chemical etching of olivine in the vicinity of the trajectory of a swift heavy ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, S.A., E-mail: s.a.gorbunov@mail.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rymzhanov, R.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Starkov, N.I. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.E. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malakhov, A.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Searching of superheavy elements, the charge spectra of heavy nuclei in Galactic Cosmic Rays was investigated within the OLYMPIA experiment using the database of etched ion tracks in meteorite olivine. Etching results in the formation of hollow syringe-like channels with diameters of 1–10 μm along the trajectories of these swift heavy ions (SHI). According to the activated complex theory, the local chemical activity is determined by an increase of the specific Gibbs energy of the lattice stimulated by structure transformations, long-range elastic fields, and interatomic bonds breaking generated in the vicinity of the ion trajectory. To determine the dependencies of the Gibbs free energy increase in SHI tracks in olivine on the mass, energy and charge of a projectile, we apply a multiscale model of excitation and relaxation of materials in the vicinity of the SHI trajectory (SHI tracks). Effect of spreading of fast electrons from the ion trajectory causing neutralization of metallic atoms resulting in an increase of the chemical activity of olivine at long distances from the ion trajectory (up to 5 μm) is estimated and discussed.

  2. Rolling stones. Fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D.; De Boer, P.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 {mu}m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

  3. Trace elements in olivine of ultramafic lamprophyres controlled by phlogopite-rich mineral assemblages in the mantle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veter, Marina; Foley, Stephen F.; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Groschopf, Nora

    2017-11-01

    Carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites) and associated rocks characteristically occur during the early stages of thinning and rifting of cratonic mantle lithosphere, prior to the eruption of melilitites, nephelinites and alkali basalts. It is accepted that they require volatile-rich melting conditions, and the presence of phlogopite and carbonate in the source, but the exact source rock assemblages are debated. Melts similar to carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites) have been produced by melting of peridotites in the presence of CO2 and H2O, whereas isotopes and trace elements appear to favor distinct phlogopite-bearing rocks. Olivine macrocrysts in aillikites are usually rounded and abraded, so that it is debated whether they are phenocrysts or mantle xenocrysts. We have analyzed minor and trace element composition in olivines from the type aillikites from Aillik Bay in Labrador, Canada. We characterize five groups of olivines: [1] mantle xenocrysts, [2] the main phenocryst population, and [3] reversely zoned crystals interpreted as phenocrysts from earlier, more fractionated, magma batches, [4] rims on the phenocrysts, which delineate aillikite melt fractionation trends, and [5] rims around the reversely zoned olivines. The main phenocryst population is characterized by mantle-like Ni (averaging 3400 μg g- 1) and Ni/Mg at Mg# of 88-90, overlapping with phenocrysts in ocean island basalts and Mediterranean lamproites. However, they also have low 100 Mn/Fe of 0.9-1.3 and no correlation between Ni and other trace elements (Sc, Co, Li) that would indicate recycled oceanic or continental crust in their sources. The low Mn/Fe without high Ni/Mg, and the high V/Sc (2-5) are inherited from phlogopite in the source that originated by solidification of lamproitic melts at the base of the cratonic lithosphere in a previous stage of igneous activity. The olivine phenocryst compositions are interpreted to result from phlogopite and not high modal

  4. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  5. Comparative in situ X-ray Diffraction Study of San Carlos Olivine: Influence of Water on the 410 km Seismic Velocity Jump in Earth’s Mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Chen; H Liu; J Girard

    2011-12-31

    A comparative study of the equation of states of hydrous (0.4 wt% H{sub 2}O) and anhydrous San Carlos olivine (<30 ppm H2O) was conducted using synchrotron X-rays up to 11 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at ambient temperature. Both samples were loaded in the same high-pressure chamber of the DAC to eliminate the possible pressure difference in different experiments. The obtained compression data were fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 123(3) GPa for hydrous olivine and K{sub 0} = 130(4) GPa for anhydrous olivine as K{sub 0}' is fixed at 4.6. Therefore, 0.4 wt% H{sub 2}2O in olivine results in a 5% reduction in bulk modulus. Previous studies reported bulk modulus reduction by water in olivine's high-pressure polymorph (wadsleyite), to which the transformation from olivine gives rise to the seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth. The new data results in a reduction in the magnitude of the discontinuity by 50% in v{sub P} and 30% in v{sub S} (for 1:5 water partitioning between olivine and wadsleyite) with respect to anhydrous mantle. Previous knowledge of the influence of water on this phase transition has been in opposition to a large amount of water [e.g., 200 ppm by Wood (1995)] existing at 410 km depth. Calculation of the seismic velocities based on newly available elasticity data of the hydrous phases indicates that the presence of water is favorable for the mineral composition model (pyrolite) and seismic observations in terms of the magnitude of the 410 km discontinuity.

  6. Water, lithium and trace element compositions of olivine from Lanzo South replacive mantle dunites (Western Alps): New constraints into melt migration processes at cold thermal regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Ottolini, Luisa; Hamada, Morihisa

    2017-10-01

    Replacive mantle dunites are considered to be shallow pathways for extraction of mantle melts from their source region. Dunites offer a unique possibility to unravel the compositional variability of the melts produced in the upper mantle, before mixing and crystal fractionation modify their original signature. This study includes a quantification of H2O, Li and trace elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Sc, V, Ti, Zr, Y and HREE) in olivine from large replacive dunite bodies (>20 m) within a mantle section exposed in the Western Italian Alps (Lanzo South ophiolite). On the basis of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel compositions, these dunites were previously interpreted to be formed by melts with a MORB signature. Variations in Ni, Mn, Co and Ca contents in olivine from different dunite bodies suggested formation by different melt batches. The variable H2O and Li contents of these olivines agree with this idea. Compared to olivine from residual peridotites and olivine phenocrysts in MORB (both having H2O 1 ppm), the Lanzo South dunite olivine has high H2O (18-40 ppm) and low Li (0.35-0.83 ppm) contents. Geochemical modelling suggests that the dunite-forming melts were produced by low melting degrees of a mixed garnet-pyroxenite-peridotite mantle source, with a contribution of a garnet pyroxenite component variable from 20 to 80%. The Lanzo dunites experienced migration of melts geochemically enriched and mainly produced in the lowermost part of the melting region. Extraction of enriched melts through dunite channels are probably characteristic of cold thermal regimes, where low temperatures and a thick mantle lithosphere inhibit mixing with melts produced at shallower depths.

  7. Tracking the Martian Mantle Signature in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions of Basaltic Shergottites Yamato 980459 and Tissint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, T. J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.; Usui, T.; Moriwaki, R.; Economos, R.; Schmitt, A.; McKeegan, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Martian shergottite meteorites are basaltic to lherzolitic igneous rocks that represent a period of relatively young mantle melting and volcanism, approximately 600-150 Ma (e.g. [1,2]). Their isotopic and elemental composition has provided important constraints on the accretion, evolution, structure and bulk composition of Mars. Measurements of the radiogenic isotope and trace element concentrations of the shergottite meteorite suite have identified two end-members; (1) incompatible trace element enriched, with radiogenic Sr and negative epsilon Nd-143, and (2) incompatible traceelement depleted, with non-radiogenic Sr and positive epsilon 143-Nd(e.g. [3-5]). The depleted component represents the shergottite martian mantle. The identity of the enriched component is subject to debate, and has been proposed to be either assimilated ancient martian crust [3] or from enriched domains in the martian mantle that may represent a late-stage magma ocean crystallization residue [4,5]. Olivine-phyric shergottites typically have the highest Mg# of the shergottite group and represent near-primitive melts having experienced minimal fractional crystallization or crystal accumulation [6]. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) in these shergottites represent the most chemically primitive components available to understand the nature of their source(s), melting processes in the martian mantle, and origin of enriched components. We present trace element compositions of olivine hosted melt inclusions in two depleted olivinephyric shergottites, Yamato 980459 (Y98) and Tissint (Fig. 1), and the mesostasis glass of Y98, using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss our data in the context of understanding the nature and origin of the depleted martian mantle and the emergence of the enriched component.

  8. Petrochemistry of a xenolith-bearing Neogene alkali olivine basalt from northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeed; Stern, Charles R.

    2012-05-01

    A small isolated Neogene, possibly Quaternary, monogenetic alkali olivine basalt cone in northeastern Iran contains both mantle peridotite and crustal gabbroic xenoliths, as well as plagioclase megacrysts. The basaltic magma rose to the surface along pathways associated with local extension at the junction between the N-S right-lateral and E-W left-lateral strike slip faults that form the northeastern boundary of the Lut microcontinental block. This basalt is enriched in LREE relative to HREE, and has trace-element ratios similar to that of oceanic island basalts (OIB). Its 87Sr/86Sr (0.705013 to 0.705252), 143Nd/144Nd (0.512735 to 0.512738), and Pb isotopic compositions all fall in the field of OIB derived from enriched (EM-2) mantle. It formed by mixing of small melt fractions from both garnet-bearing asthenospheric and spinel-facies lithospheric mantle. Plagioclase (An26-32) megacrysts, up to 4 cm in length, have euhedral crystal faces and show no evidence of reaction with the host basalt. Their trace-element concentrations suggest that these megacrysts are co-genetic with the basalt host, although their 87Sr/86Sr (0.704796) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512687) ratios are different than this basalt. Round to angular, medium-grained granoblastic meta-igneous gabbroic xenoliths, ranging from ~ 1 to 6 cm in dimension, are derived from the lower continental crust. Spinel-peridotite xenoliths equilibrated in the subcontinental lithosphere at depths of 30 to 60 km and temperatures of 965 °C to 1065 °C. These xenoliths do not preserve evidence of extensive metasomatic enrichment as has been inferred for the mantle below the Damavand volcano further to the west in north-central Iran, and clinopyroxenes separated from two different mantle xenoliths have 87Sr/86Sr (0.704309 and 0.704593) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512798) ratios which are less radiogenic than either their host alkali basalt or Damavand basalts, implying significant regional variations in the composition and extent of

  9. Adsorption of methane and CO2 onto olivine surfaces in Martian dust conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth; Martin-Torres, Javier; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio

    2018-04-01

    Methane has been detected on all planets of our Solar System, and most of the larger moons, as well as in dwarf-planets like Pluto and Eric. The presence of this molecule in rocky planets is very interesting because its presence in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly related to biotic processes. Space instrumentation in orbiters around Mars has detected olivine on the Martian soil and dust. On the other hand the measurements of methane from the Curiosity rover report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane with abundance that is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, elevated levels of methane about this background have been observed implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source, making the reasons of these temporal fluctuations of methane a hot topic in planetary research. The goal of this study is to investigate at atomic level the interactions during the adsorption processes of methane and other Mars atmospheric species (CO2, H2O) on forsterite surfaces, through electronic structure calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). We propose two models to simulate the interaction of adsorbates with the surface of dust mineral, such as binary mixtures (5CH4+5H2O/5CH4+5CO2) and as a semi-clathrate adsorption. We have obtained interesting results of the adsorption process in the mixture 5CH4+5CO2. Associative and dissociative adsorptions were observed for water and CO2 molecules. The methane molecules were only trapped and held by water or CO2 molecules. In the dipolar surface, the adsorption of CO2 molecules produced new species: one CO from a CO2 dissociation, and, two CO2 molecules chemisorbed to mineral surface forming in one case a carbonate group. Our results suggest that CO2 has a strong interaction with the mineral surface when methane is present. These results could be confirmed after the

  10. Geo-engineering with olivine, remedy against the greenhouse effect?; Geo-engineering met olivijn, remedie tegen broeikaseffect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliggers, J. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Olivine is sometimes mentioned as a possible solution to the climate problem. The rock is abundantly available, low-cost and binds CO2. This article investigated whether this really is the simple, low-cost and environment-friendly solution to the climate problem. [Dutch] Olivijn wordt soms genoemd als een mogelijke oplossing voor het klimaatprobleem. Het gesteente is overvloedig aanwezig, goedkoop en bindt CO2. In dit artikel wordt echter de vraag gesteld of dit werkelijk de simpele, goedkope en milieuvriendelijke oplossing is voor het klimaatprobleem.

  11. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  12. Constraining the timescale of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii,using diffusion profiles in olivine phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ganguly, J.

    2009-12-01

    Fe-Mg diffusion profiles have been measured in olivine xenocrysts within alkalic basalts in order to constrain the timescales of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. It has been suggested that during the main tholeiitic shield-building stage, and postshield eruptive stages of Mauna Kea, magmas were stalled and stagnated near the Moho, at a depth of ~15 km. Evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from cumulates formed by gravity-settling and in situ crystallization within magma chambers (Fodor and Galar, 1997), and from clinopyroxene-wholerock thermobarometry on Hamakua basalts (Putirka, in press). The cumulates represent a ‘fossil’ magma chamber which formed primarily from tholeiitic basalts; during the later capping-lava stage of Mauna Kea, alkalic basalts tore off chunks of these cumulates during ascent to the surface. We have measured several diffusion profiles in olivine xenocrysts from a single basalt sample. Because these xenocrysts have homogenous core compositions identical to a neighboring dunite cumulate, and because they are much larger and texturally distinct from compositionally dissimilar olivine phenocrysts, they are interpreted to be cumulate olivines which were dislodged during magma recharge/mixing in the stagnation zone. Although the orientations of the phenocrysts are not yet known, the diffusion profiles have been fit using diffusion coefficients parallel to the c and a crystallographic axes (i.e. minimum and maximum values). Modeling diffusion profiles yields ∫Ddt ≤4.5 x 10-5 cm2. Assuming that the xenocrysts were broken off from the cumulate immediately when the magma chamber was recharged, it is possible to calculate the maximum stagnation time of the basalts. Thus, the retrieved ∫Ddt value yields a maximum stagnation time of ~0.7 years. References: Fodor RV, Galar, PA (1997). A View into the Subsurface of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Crystallization Processes Interpreted through the Petrology and Petrography of

  13. The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Tropper, Peter; Kaindl, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report P-rich olivine and the tric-calcium phosphate (TCP) stanfieldite in partially molten quartzphyllites from the ritual immolation site at the Goldbichl, near Innsbruck in the Tyrol, Austria. During partial melting, foamy patches of dark glassy material formed at the surface of the rocks and also as layers within the rocks. The pyrometamorphic rocks contain mostly the mineral assemblage olivine + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + spinel + glass. During the investigation of slag samples from this prehistoric ritual immolation site, extremely P-rich, apatite-bearing micro-domains were found. In these domains phosphoran olivine was found whose P contents are approaching the maximum P contents in olivine according to the experimental investigations of Boesenberg and Hewins (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:1923-1941, 2010). The textures within these domains indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. The phosphoran olivines formed due to reactions involving apatite and the mineral assemblage of the quartzphyllites, and coexist with plagioclase and a tri-calcium phosphate phase (TCP) showing stanfieldite Ca4(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+)5(PO4)6 composition. In terms of its chemical composition, olivine shows a wide range in composition with P ranging from 0.3 to 0.54 a.p.f.u, which corresponds to maximal 23 wt.% P2O5. These are the highest P-contents in olivine reported from rocks so far. The incorporation of P correlates with decreasing Si contents according to the charge balancing scheme 2{{P}^{5+ }}+□{{M}_{1,2 }}=2S{{i}^{4+ }}+{{( {Mg,Fe} )}^{2+ }}{{M}_{1,2 }} . Therefore P can only be incorporated in combination with a vacancy on the M1,2 position. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of phosphoran olivines indicates that these olivines can easily be identified with this method due to the strong signals of the SiO4 and PO4 vibrations. The external vibrations of the M1,2 sites at low wave-numbers are more complex than for P-free olivine. This might be due to the effect of P5+ on

  14. Chemical Analysis of Reaction Rims on Olivine Crystals in Natural Samples of Black Dacite Using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Lassen Peak, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lassen Volcanic Center is the southernmost volcanic region in the Cascade volcanic arc formed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Lassen Peak last erupted in 1915 in an arc related event producing a black dacite material containing xenocrystic olivine grains with apparent orthopyroxene reaction rims. The reaction rims on these olivine grains are believed to have formed by reactions that ensued from a mixing/mingling event that occurred prior to eruption between the admixed mafic andesitic magma and a silicic dacite host material. Natural samples of the 1915 black dacite from Lassen Peak, CA were prepared into 15 polished thin sections and carbon coated for analysis using a FEI Quanta 250 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to identify and measure mineral textures and disequilibrium reaction rims. Observed mineralogical textures related to magma mixing include biotite and amphibole grains with apparent dehydration/breakdown rims, pyroxene-rimmed quartz grains, high concentration of microlites in glass matrix, and pyroxene/amphibole reaction rims on olivine grains. Olivine dissolution is evidenced as increased iron concentration toward convolute edges of olivine grains as observed by Backscatter Electron (BSE) imagery and elemental mapping using NSS spectral imaging software. In an attempt to quantify the area of reaction rim growth on olivine grains within these samples, high-resolution BSE images of 30 different olivine grains were collected along with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of different phases. Olivine cores and rims were extracted from BSE images using Photoshop and saved as separate image files. ImageJ software was used to calculate the area (μm2) of the core and rim of these grains. Average pyroxene reaction rim width for 30 grains was determined to be 11.68+/-1.65 μm. Rim widths of all 30 grains were averaged together to produce an overall average rim width for the Lassen Peak black dacite. By quantifying the reaction rims on olivine grains

  15. Temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting of olivine and pyroxene from the Plains of Gusev Crater on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agresti, David G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, we report application of simultaneous fitting procedures to Mössbauer data acquired on the Plains of Gusev Crater by the MIMOS II spectrometer on board the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. Based on a quantitative measure of spectrum quality, the 34 best of the ∼126 spectra acquired on the Plains are grouped together for a single simultaneous fit with a common least-squares criterion. Fitted values for the quadrupole splitting (QS) of olivine (Ol) from 200 K to 260 K are shown to lie between reported trend lines for Fo50 and Fo30 olivine, with a temperature gradient of (−11.2 ± 1.2) × 10  − 4 mm/s/K, a nearly five-fold improvement in precision over the previously reported value, enabling extrapolation to QS(Ol) = (2.93 ± 0.01) mm/s at 295 K. QS of pyroxene fit as a single doublet exhibits a temperature gradient of (−7.3 ± 2.3) × 10  − 4 mm/s/K.

  16. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  17. The deformation record of olivine in mylonitic peridotites from the Finero Complex, Ivrea Zone: Separate deformation cycles during exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Agnes K.; Trepmann, Claudia A.

    2015-12-01

    Mylonitic peridotites from the Finero complex are investigated to detect characteristic olivine microfabrics that can resolve separate deformation cycles at different metamorphic conditions. The heterogeneous olivine microstructures are characterized by deformed porphyroclasts surrounded by varying amounts of recrystallized grains. A well-developed but only locally preserved foam structure is present in recrystallized grain aggregates. This indicates an early stage of dynamic recrystallization and subsequent recovery and recrystallization at quasi-static stress conditions, where the strain energy was reduced such that a reduction in surface energy controlled grain boundary migration. Ultramylonites record a renewed stage of localized deformation and recrystallization by a second generation of recrystallized grains that do not show a foam structure. This second generation of recrystallized grains as well as sutured grain and kink band boundaries of porphyroclasts indicate that these microstructures developed during a stage of localized deformation after development of the foam structure. The heterogeneity of the microfabrics is interpreted to represent several (at least two) cycles of localized deformation separated by a marked hiatus with quasi-static recrystallization and recovery and eventually grain growth. The second deformation cycle did not only result in reactivation of preexisting shear zones but instead also locally affected the host rock that was not deformed in the first stage. Such stress cycles can result from sudden increases in differential stress imposed by seismic events, i.e., high stress-loading rates, during exhumation of the Finero complex.

  18. Thermal equation of state of (Mg 0.9Fe 0.1) 2SiO 4 olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Baosheng

    2006-08-01

    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out on San Carlos olivine (Mg 0.9Fe 0.1) 2SiO 4 up to 8 GPa and 1073 K. Data analysis using the high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan (HTBM) equation of state (EoS) yields the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus (∂ KT/∂ T) P = -0.019 ± 0.002 GPa K -1. The thermal pressure (TH) approach gives αKT = 4.08 ± 0.10 × 10 -3 GPa K -1, from which (∂ KT/∂ T) P = -0.019 ± 0.001 GPa K -1 is derived. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye (MGD) formalism, the Grüneisen parameter at ambient conditions γ0 is constrained to be 1.14 ± 0.02 with fixed volume dependence q = 1. Combining the present data with previous results on iron-bearing olivine and fitting to MGD EoS, we obtain γ0 = 1.11 ± 0.01 and q = 0.54 ± 0.36. In this study the thermoelastic parameters obtained from various approaches are in good agreement with one another and previous results.

  19. Order-disorder in olivine minerals by synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Xane) spectroscopy at the Mg, Fe and Ca K edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Mottana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche; Paris, E.; Giuli, G [INFM, Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, are presented new, high-resolution experimental spectra at the Mg and Fe K edges for the two Fe-Mg end members F o and F a, and for three other olivines. Two are the Ca end members of the family, namely monticellite (Mtc: CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (Krs: CaFeSiO4). The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of Mg, Fe, and Ca partition in the Pbnm (or {alpha}) olivine structure on the electronic properties, as well as the relationships that exist between chemical substitutions and features occurring in Xanes spectra. One wants to explore the relationships that intervene between LRO, as determined by XRD, and SRO, as determined by Xanes, on the endmembers and on a well-known intermediate member as well, and deduce from it a model for the behavior of the entire olivine solid-solution system.

  20. Order-disorder in olivine minerals by synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Xane) spectroscopy at the Mg, Fe and Ca K edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G.; Mottana, A.; Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome; Paris, E.; Giuli, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, are presented new, high-resolution experimental spectra at the Mg and Fe K edges for the two Fe-Mg endmembers F o and F a, and for three other olivines. Two are the Ca endmembers of the family, namely monticellite (Mtc: CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (Krs: CaFeSiO4). The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of Mg, Fe, and Ca partition in the Pbnm (or α) olivine structure on the electronic properties, as well as the relationships that exist between chemical substitutions and features occurring in Xanes spectra. One wants to explore the relationships that intervene between LRO, as determined by XRD, and SRO, as determined by Xanes, on the endmembers and on a well-known intermediate member as well, and deduce from it a model for the behavior of the entire olivine solid-solution system

  1. Diversity of minor elements in olivines from mantle xenoliths (Wołek Hill, SW Poland) - PIXE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Monika; Munnik, Frans; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Renno, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Wołek Hill is one of the best examined exposures of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Poland (Nowak, 2012). This is related with two facts: a great amount of mantle xenoliths were collected from that outcrop and this is one of two occurrences in Poland were modal metasomatism (related with amphibole crystals presence) was recognized. Wołek Hill is a relatively small exposure and belongs to the Złotoryja Volcanic Field, which is one of the volcanic concentrations in the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province (Ladenberger et al. 2006). Based on previous observations olivine crystals from the inside part of xenoliths occasionally display internal inhomogeneity visible on a BSE image. Such inhomogeneity has been related to olivine "sub-grains" with slightly shifted crystal axis. Those "sub-grains" are visible in optical microscope as transitional lamellae (Nowak, Stawikowski 2009). Besides the mentioned visible inhomogeneity olivine crystals also show diversity in Ca content inside single crystals (sometimes even more than 200 ppm). EPMA standard measurements (15 kV, 20 nA, time: 40 seconds) were limited to beam size and detection limits of the microprobe (most of the obtained results oscillate close to the detection limits - or even below it). Special conditions EPMA analyses (15 kV, 100nA, time: 100s) confirmed the differences in Ca content in the studied olivines, but did not provide any idea on how to interpret the results (Nowak, 2012). In this short summary we present preliminary data of olivine minor element composition (Ca, Zn, Cr, Ti, Co, K and also Mn, Ni, Fe) obtained with Particle Induced X-ray Emission(PIXE) measurements performed at the HZDR in Dresden using a 3 MeV proton beam, 1-1.5 nA current and an acquisition time of 3 hrs for each scan. The size of individual scans varied from ca. 30 μm up to 60-65 μm, with 8 x 8 measurement points - min. 4 μm in diameter. The measurements have been analysed with the GeoPIXE software (Ryan, 2001

  2. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions as an archive of redox heterogeneity in magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Shorttle, Oliver; Maclennan, John; Moussallam, Yves; Edmonds, Marie

    2017-12-01

    The redox state of volcanic products determines their leverage on the oxidation of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, providing a long-term feedback on oxygen accumulation at the planet's surface. An archive of redox conditions in volcanic plumbing systems from a magma's mantle source, through crustal storage, to eruption, is carried in pockets of melt trapped within crystals. While melt inclusions have long been exploited for their capacity to retain information on a magma's history, their permeability to fast-diffusing elements such as hydrogen is now well documented and their retention of initial oxygen fugacities (fO2) could be similarly diffusion-limited. To test this, we have measured Fe3+/ΣFe by micro-XANES spectroscopy in a suite of 65 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and 9 matrix glasses from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Iceland. This eruption experienced pre-eruptive mixing of chemically diverse magmas, syn-eruptive degassing at the vent, and post-eruptive degassing during lava flow up to 60 km over land, providing an ideal test of whether changes in the fO2 of a magma may be communicated through to its cargo of crystal-hosted melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from rapidly quenched tephra samples have Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.206 ± 0.008 (ΔQFM of +0.7 ± 0.1), with no correlation between their fO2 and degree of trace element enrichment or differentiation. These inclusions preserve the redox conditions of the mixed pre-eruptive Laki magma. When corrected for fractional crystallisation to 10 wt.% MgO, these inclusions record a parental magma [Fe3+/ΣFe](10) of 0.18 (ΔQFM of +0.4), significantly more oxidised than the Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.10 that is often assumed for Icelandic basalt magmas. Melt inclusions from quenched lava selvages are more reduced than those from the tephra, having Fe3+/ΣFe between 0.133 and 0.177 (ΔQFM from -0.4 to +0.4). These inclusions have approached equilibrium with their carrier lava, which has been reduced by sulfur degassing. The progressive re

  3. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano as revealed by XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helz, R. T.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Kelley, K. A.

    2017-03-01

    The 1959 summit eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most K$\\bar{i}$lauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.

  4. Stress evolution and associated microstructure during transient creep of olivine at 1000-1200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, M.; Demouchy, S.; Mainprice, D.; Barou, F.; Cordier, P.

    2018-05-01

    We study the mechanical response and correlated microstructure of axial deformed fine-grained olivine aggregates as a function of incremental finite strains. Deformation experiments were conducted in uniaxial compression in an internally heated gas-medium deformation apparatus at temperatures of 1000 and 1200 °C, at strain rates of 10-6 s-1 to 10-5 s-1 and at confining pressure of 300 MPa. Sample volumes are around 1.2 cm3. Finite strains range from 0.1 to 8.6% and corresponding maximal (final) differential stresses range from 80 to 1073 MPa for deformation at 1000 °C and from 71 to 322 MPa for deformation at 1200 °C. At 1200 °C, samples approach steady state deformation after about 8% of strain. At 1000 °C, significant strain hardening leads to stresses exceeding the confining pressure by a factor of 3.5 with brittle deformation after 3% of strain. Deformed samples were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EBSD maps with step sizes as low as 50 nm were acquired without introducing analytical artifacts for the first time. The grain size of deformed samples ranges from 2.1 to 2.6 μm. Despite clear strain hardening, texture or microstructure do not change as a function of stress or finite strain. This observation is supported by a constant texture strength (J-index) and symmetry (BA-index), constant grain shape and aspect ratio, constant density of geometrically necessary dislocations, grain orientation spread, and constant subgrain boundary spacing and misorientation in between samples. TEM shows that all samples exhibit unambiguous dislocation activity but with a highly heterogeneous dislocation distribution. Olivine grains display evidence of [1 0 0] and [0 0 1] slip activity, but there is no evidence of interaction between the dislocations from the different slip systems. Several observations of grain boundaries acting as dislocation sources have been found. We find no confirmation of

  5. Discerning crystal growth from diffusion profiles in zoned olivine by in situ Mg–Fe isotopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, Corliss Kin I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Chaussidon, Marc; Helz, Rosalind T.; Roskosz, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Mineral zoning is used in diffusion-based geospeedometry to determine magmatic timescales. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge to discern mineral zoning produced by diffusion from concentration gradients inherited from crystal growth. A zoned olivine phenocryst from Kilauea Iki lava lake (Hawaii) was selected for this study to evaluate the potential of Mg and Fe isotopes for distinguishing these two processes. Microdrilling of the phenocryst (∼300 μm drill holes) followed by MC-ICPMS analysis of the powders revealed negatively coupled Mg and Fe isotopic fractionations (δ26Mg from +0.1‰ to −0.2‰ and δ56Fe from −1.2‰ to −0.2‰ from core to rim), which can only be explained by Mg–Fe exchange between melt and olivine. The data can be explained with ratios of diffusivities of Mg and Fe isotopes in olivine scaling as D2/D1 = (m1/m2)β with βMg ∼0.16 and βFe ∼0.27. LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS Fe isotopic measurements are developed and are demonstrated to yield accurate δ56Fe measurements within precisions of ∼0.2‰ (1 SD) at spatial resolutions of ∼50 μm. δ56Fe and δ26Mg stay constant with Fo# in the rim (late-stage overgrowth), whereas in the core (original phenocryst) δ56Fe steeply trends toward lighter compositions and δ26Mg trends toward heavier compositions with higher Fo#. A plot of δ56Fe vs. Fo# immediately distinguishes growth-controlled from diffusion-controlled zoning in these two regions. The results are consistent with the idea that large isotopic fractionation accompanies chemical diffusion in crystals, whereas fractional crystallization induces little or no isotopic fractionation. The cooling timescale inferred from the chemical-isotope zoning profiles is consistent with the documented cooling history of the lava lake. In the absence of geologic context, in situ stable isotopic measurements may now be used to interpret the nature of mineral zoning. Stable isotope measurements by LA-MC-ICPMS and MC

  6. Geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas

  7. Evidence for a pressure-induced spin transition in olivine-type LiFePO4 triphylite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Valdez, Maribel; Efthimiopoulos, Ilias; Taran, Michail; Müller, Jan; Bykova, Elena; McCammon, Catherine; Koch-Müller, Monika; Wilke, Max

    2018-05-01

    We present a combination of first-principles and experimental results regarding the structural and magnetic properties of olivine-type LiFePO4 under pressure. Our investigations indicate that the starting P b n m phase of LiFePO4 persists up to 70 GPa. Further compression leads to an isostructural transition in the pressure range of 70-75 GPa, inconsistent with a former theoretical study. Considering our first-principles prediction for a high-spin to low-spin transition of Fe2 + close to 72 GPa, we attribute the experimentally observed isostructural transition to a change in the spin state of Fe2 + in LiFePO4. Compared to relevant Fe-bearing minerals, LiFePO4 exhibits the largest onset pressure for a pressure-induced spin state transition.

  8. The P3 kimberlite and P4 lamproite, Wajrakarur kimberlite field, India: mineralogy, and major and minor element compositions of olivines as records of their phenocrystic vs xenocrystic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Azhar M.; Kumar, Satya P.; Patel, Suresh C.; Thakur, Satyajeet S.; Ravi, Subramanian; Behera, Duryadhan

    2018-03-01

    Distinctly different groundmass mineralogy characterise the hypabyssal facies, Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous P3 and P4 intrusions from the Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field, southern India. P3 is an archetypal kimberlite with macrocrysts of olivine and phlogopite set in a groundmass dominated by phlogopite and monticellite with subordinate amounts of serpentine, spinel, perovskite, apatite, calcite and rare baddeleyite. P4 contains mega- and macrocrysts of olivine set in a groundmass dominated by clinopyroxene and phlogopite with subordinate amounts of serpentine, spinel, perovskite, apatite, and occasional gittinsite, and is mineralogically interpreted as an olivine lamproite. Three distinct populations of olivine, phlogopite and clinopyroxene are recognized based on their microtextural and compositional characteristics. The first population includes glimmerite and phlogopite-clinopyroxene nodules, and Mg-rich olivine macrocrysts (Fo 90-93) which are interpreted to be derived from disaggregated mantle xenoliths. The second population comprises macrocrysts of phlogopite and Fe-rich olivine (Fo 81-89) from P3, megacrysts and macrocrysts of Fe-rich olivine (Fo 85-87) from P4 and a rare olivine-clinopyroxene nodule from P4 which are suggested to have a genetic link with the precursor melt of the respective intrusions. The third population represents clearly magmatic minerals such as euhedral phenocrysts of Fe-rich olivine (Fo 85-90) crystallised at mantle depths, and olivine overgrowth rims formed contemporaneously with groundmass minerals at crustal levels. Close spatial association and contemporaneous emplacement of P3 kimberlite and P4 lamproite is explained by a unifying petrogenetic model which involves the interaction of a silica-poor carbonatite melt with differently metasomatised wall rocks in the lithospheric mantle. It is proposed that the metasomatised wall rock for lamproite contained abundant MARID-type and phlogopite-rich metasomatic veins, while that for

  9. A Parent Magma for the Nakhla Martian Meteorite: Reconciliation of Estimates from 1-Bar Experiments, Magmatic Inclusions in Olivine, and Magmatic Inclusions in Augite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Goodrich, Cyrena Anne

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma for the Nakhla (martian) meteorite has been estimated from mineral-melt partitioning and from magmatic inclusions in olivine and in augite. These independent lines of evidence have converged on small range of likely compositions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Kerguelen plume-derived picritic basalts: evidence for interaction with the Kerguelen Plateau lithosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisova, A.U.; Nikogosian, I.; Shimizu, N.; Weis, D.; Scoates, J.S.; Touret, J.L.R.; Damasceno, D.

    2002-01-01

    Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions have been studied in olivine phenocrysts from a suite of picritic basalts dredged during the "Marion Dufresne" MD 109 cruise (Dredge 6) from a seamount located between the Kerguelen Archipelago and Heard Island (Southern Indian Ocean). A two-stage polybaric

  11. Hydration kinetics study of class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica mixtures at 20–60 °C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Sobolev, K.; Shah, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the heat evolution of standard density slurries (1.89 g/cm3) of Class G oil-well cement and olivine nano-silica additions (0.5–2.0 % bwoc), cured under different temperatures (20–60 °C) and atmospheric pressure, were examined by isothermal calorimetry. Under isothermal and isobaric

  12. Two Contrasting Fabric Patterns of Olivine Observed in Garnet and Spinel Peridotite from a Mantle-derived Ultramafic Mass Enclosed in Felsic Granulite, the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamei, A.; Obata, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, 1/2 (2010), s. 101-123 ISSN 0022-3530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : garnet peridotite * spinel peridotite * olivine fabrics * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2010

  13. Scrap tire pyrolysis using a new type two-stage pyrolyzer: Effects of dolomite and olivine on producing a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Scrap tire pyrolysis was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor to produce a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the effect of the residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor was investigated at ∼300 (auger reactor) and 500 °C (fluidized bed reactor). In addition, natural dolomite and olivine and calcined dolomite and olivine were used as the fluidized bed materials to examine their effects on reducing the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the yields of the oil from the auger reactor were 1.4–3.7 wt%, and it was enriched with DL-limonene whose content in the oil was 40–50 wt%. The yields of the oil from the fluidized bed reactor were 42–46 wt%. The optimum residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor turned out to be 3.5 min. Calcined dolomite and olivine significantly decreased the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. Metal oxides of the additives appeared to react with H_2S to form metal sulfides. The sulfur content of pyrolysis oil obtained with calcined olivine was 0.45 wt%. - Highlights: • Scrap tires were successfully pyrolyzed in a new type two-stage pyrolyzer. • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and fluidized bed reactors. • Calcination of olivine and dolomite led to a strong decrease in sulfur. • The lowest sulfur content of pyrolysis oil was 0.45 wt%. • Pyrolysis oil yields from the fluidized bed reactor were 43–46 wt%.

  14. Boron isotopic composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: New evidence supporting wet komatiite origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2011-12-01

    A fundamental question in the genesis of komatiites is whether these rocks originate from partial melting of dry and hot mantle, 400-500 °C hotter than typical sources of MORB and OIB magmas, or if they were produced by hydrous melting of the source at much lower temperatures, similar or only moderately higher than those known today. Gorgona Island, Colombia, is a unique place where Phanerozoic komatiites occur and whose origin is directly connected to the formation of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province. The genesis of Gorgona komatiites remains controversial, mostly because of the uncertain origin of volatile components which they appear to contain. These volatiles could equally result from shallow level magma contamination, melting of a "damp" mantle or fluid-induced partial melting of the source due to devolatilization of the ancient subducting plate. We have analyzed boron isotopes of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Gorgona komatiites. These inclusions are characterized by relatively high contents of volatile components and boron (0.2-1.0 wt.% H 2O, 0.05-0.08 wt.% S, 0.02-0.03 wt.% Cl, 0.6-2.0 μg/g B), displaying positive anomalies in the overall depleted, primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element and REE spectra ([La/Sm] n = 0.16-0.35; [H 2O/Nb] n = 8-44; [Cl/Nb] n = 27-68; [B/Nb] n = 9-30, assuming 300 μg/g H 2O, 8 μg/g Cl and 0.1 μg/g B in PM; Kamenetsky et al., 2010. Composition and temperature of komatiite melts from Gorgona Island constrained from olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Geology 38, 1003-1006). The inclusions range in δ11B values from - 11.5 to + 15.6 ± 2.2‰ (1 SE), forming two distinct trends in a δ11B vs. B-concentration diagram. Direct assimilation of seawater, seawater-derived components, altered oceanic crust or marine sediments by ascending komatiite magma cannot readily account for the volatile contents and B isotope variations. Alternatively, injection of < 3wt.% of a 11B enriched fluid to the mantle source could

  15. NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alexander S.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Hauri, Erik H.; Rose, William; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Plank, Terry

    2014-08-01

    The explosivity of volcanic eruptions is governed in part by the rate at which magma ascends and degasses. Because the time scales of eruptive processes can be exceptionally fast relative to standard geochronometers, magma ascent rate remains difficult to quantify. Here we use as a chronometer concentration gradients of volatile species along open melt embayments within olivine crystals. Continuous degassing of the external melt during magma ascent results in diffusion of volatile species from embayment interiors to the bubble located at their outlets. The novel aspect of this study is the measurement of concentration gradients in five volatile elements (CO2, H2O, S, Cl, F) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. We focus on four 100-200 μm, olivine-hosted embayments erupted on October 17, 1974 during the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble, while F and Cl increase or remain roughly constant. Compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption, the embayments have lost both H2O and CO2 throughout the entire length of the embayment. We fit the profiles with a 1-D numerical diffusion model that allows varying diffusivities and external melt concentrations as a function of pressure. Assuming a constant decompression rate from the magma storage region at approximately 220 MPa to the surface, H2O, CO2 and S profiles for all embayments can be fit with a relatively narrow range in decompression rates of 0.3-0.5 MPa/s, equivalent to 11-17 m/s ascent velocity and an 8 to 12 minute duration of magma ascent from ~ 10 km depth. A two stage decompression model takes advantage of the different depth ranges over which CO2 and H2O degas, and produces good fits given an initial stage of slow decompression (0.05-0.3 MPa/s) at high

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of olivine LiFePO{sub 4} prepared by a carbothermal reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-ping; Wang, Zhi-xing; Li, Xin-hai; Guo, Hua-jun; Peng, Wen-jie; Zhang, Yun-he; Hu, Qi-yang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2008-10-01

    LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode material was prepared by carbothermal reduction method, which uses NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and cheap Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting materials, acetylene black and glucose as carbon sources. The precursor of LiFePO{sub 4}/C was characterized by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the LiFePO{sub 4}/C is olivine-type phase, and the addition of the carbon reduced the LiFePO{sub 4} grain size. The carbon is dispersed between the grains, ensuring a good electronic contact. The products sintered at 700 C for 8 h with glucose as carbon source possessed excellent electrochemical performance. The synthesized LiFePO{sub 4} composites showed a high electrochemical capacity of 159.3 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.1C rate, and the capacity fading is only 2.2% after 30 cycles. (author)

  17. Two Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (2D-XRD) studies on Olivine of U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Raza, S.M.; Ahmed, M.A.; Zai, M.Y.; Elacher, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2SiO/sub 4/ of USA has been studied with two dimensional X-ray diffractometer (D8 discover with GADDS). The two distinct phases of orthorhombic structure, one with Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] and the other with Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/ is observed. We also observed phase transitions due to presence of iron and Silicon preferably the structural change of Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] from orthorhombic to spinel like (spinel chord) structure. Magnesium ions in Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] shuffle, arrange at the five vertices of a pentagon and the remaining three at the central but with displaced position from the plane of the pentagon, Thus resulting into a three dimensional spinel chord like structure. We evidenced the same from diverse orientations of phase peaks and indeed from Kossel lines. (author)

  18. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  19. Deducing Water Concentrations in the Parent Magma of Cumulate Clinopyroxene and Olivine: Implications for a Hydrous Parent Melt of a Primitive Deccan Lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water concentrations of clinopyroxene megacrysts in the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, Deccan province, India, indicate that the parent magma of the flow hosted at least 4.3 wt.% water, an unusually high water concentration for a continental flood basalt magma. The Powai flow hosts clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by basaltic melt at 6 kb and 1230oC, so the phenocrysts record characteristics of the cumulate parent melt. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts are oscillatorily zoned in water, Mg, Fe, and Ca concentrations, and have concentric bands 100-200 microns thick of 10-20 micron diameter melt inclusions. Olivine phenocrysts host only larger isolated melt inclusions. Zones in the cpx phenocrysts where melt inclusion-rich concentric bands occur have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free zones. Water concentrations of cpx were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed using partition coefficients of Hauri et al. (2004). Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.3 and 8.2 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. Oscillatory zoning in cpx may be a result of repeated growth of cpx in water- richer and water-poorer boundary layers where water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts preserve lower water concentrations ( 1.2 wt. %) than those indicated by water concentration in cpx phenocrysts. This disparity may be evidence of water loss from melt inclusions in olivine (Gaetani et al., 2009) or may indicate that cpx and ol crystals did not crystallize from the same parent at the same time.

  20. Magnetism in olivine-type LiCo(1-x)Fe(x)PO4 cathode materials: bridging theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Gershinsky, Yelena; Kosa, Monica; Dixit, Mudit; Zitoun, David; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-12-14

    In the current paper, we present a non-aqueous sol-gel synthesis of olivine type LiCo1-xFexPO4 compounds (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The magnetic properties of the olivines are measured experimentally and calculated using first-principles theory. Specifically, the electronic and magnetic properties are studied in detail with standard density functional theory (DFT), as well as by including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which couples the spin to the crystal structure. We find that the Co(2+) ions exhibit strong orbital moment in the pure LiCoPO4 system, which is partially quenched upon substitution of Co(2+) by Fe(2+). Interestingly, we also observe a non-negligible orbital moment on the Fe(2+) ion. We underscore that the inclusion of SOC in the calculations is essential to obtain qualitative agreement with the observed effective magnetic moments. Additionally, Wannier functions were used to understand the experimentally observed rising trend in the Néel temperature, which is directly related to the magnetic exchange interaction paths in the materials. We suggest that out of layer M-O-P-O-M magnetic interactions (J⊥) are present in the studied materials. The current findings shed light on important differences observed in the electrochemistry of the cathode material LiCoPO4 compared to the already mature olivine material LiFePO4.

  1. Storage of CO2 by mineral carbonation of olivine: Study of the global process for the recovery of the reaction products and the separation of chromite particles by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the study of direct carbonation of olivine in solution, for the chemical transformation of CO 2 emitted by the industries. The influence of operating conditions is evaluated in order to optimize the yield of the reaction. However, for environmental acceptability and economic viability of the project, the beneficiation of recoverable metals and products is considered. Chromite particles contained in olivine are unreactive during the carbonation reaction: the separation is developed by flotation upstream of the reaction. According to the results, the extraction of chromite by magnetic separation is also conceivable. Gravimetric separation by sedimentation is considered to recover residual olivine in the reaction products, in order to recycle them in the carbonation process. Products sieving allowed to concentrate carbonates (less than 40 μm) and silica (between 40 and 106 μm). However, the co-precipitation of mixed carbonates due to the presence of iron and nickel included in the magnesium matrix, compromises the purification and the optimal valorization of the solids. Moreover, the formation of a passivation layer on the particles surface limits the conversion of olivine. Pretreatment of olivine is envisaged for the leaching of nickel in ammoniac solution. Besides, preliminary dissolution of olivine and selective precipitation of species with pH control of the solution can be an interesting alternative for higher carbonation extent and more efficient purification of the products. (author)

  2. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano as revealed by XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Brounce, Maryjo N.; Kelley, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The 1959 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most Kīlauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.The observed variations of Fe+ 3/FeT ratios in the glasses reflect two distinct processes. The main process, sulfur degassing, produces steady decrease of the Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. Melt inclusions in olivine are high in sulfur (1060–1500 ppm S), with Fe+ 3/FeT = 0.160–0.175. Matrix glasses are degassed (mostly S eruption and (2) the melts originally had Fe+ 3/FeT ≥ 0.175, consistent with oxygen fugacity (fO2) at least 0.4 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer at 1 atm and magmatic temperature of 1200 °C.The second process is interaction between the

  3. Mn-Cr dating of Fe- and Ca-rich olivine from 'quenched' and 'plutonic' angrite meteorites using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Amelin, Yuri; Holden, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Angrite meteorites are suitable for Mn-Cr relative dating (53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half life of 3.7 Myr) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) because they contain olivine and kirschsteinite with very high 55Mn/52Cr ratios arising from very low Cr concentrations. Discrepant Mn-Cr and U-Pb time intervals between the extrusive or 'quenched' angrite D'Orbigny and some slowly cooled or 'plutonic' angrites suggests that some have been affected by secondary disturbances, but this seems to have occurred in quenched rather than in slow-cooled plutonic angrites, where such disturbance or delay of isotopic closure might be expected. Using SIMS, we investigate the Mn-Cr systematics of quenched angrites to higher precision than previously achieved by this method and extend our investigation to non-quenched (plutonic or sub-volcanic) angrites. High values of 3.54 (±0.18) × 10-6 and 3.40 (±0.19) × 10-6 (2-sigma) are found for the initial 53Mn/55Mn of the quenched angrites D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555, which are preserved by Cr-poor olivine and kirschsteinite. The previously reported initial 53Mn/55Mn value of D'Orbigny obtained from bulk-rock and mineral separates is slightly lower and was probably controlled by Cr-rich olivine. Results can be interpreted in terms of the diffusivity of Cr in this mineral. Very low Cr concentrations in Ca-rich olivine and kirschsteinite are probably charge balanced by Al; this substitutes for Si and likely diffuses at a very slow rate because Si is the slowest-diffusing cation in olivine. Diffusion in Cr-rich Mg-Fe olivine is probably controlled by cation vacancies because of deficiency in charge-balancing Al and is therefore more prone to disturbance. The higher initial 53Mn/55Mn found by SIMS for extrusive angrites is more likely to reflect closure of Cr in kirschsteinite at the time of crystallisation, simultaneous with closure of U-Pb and Hf-W isotope systematics for these meteorites obtained from pyroxenes. For the younger

  4. The responses of the four main substitution mechanisms of H in olivine to H2O activity at 1050 °C and 3 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, Peter M. E.; Smith, Rachel; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Hermann, Jörg

    2017-12-01

    The water solubility in olivine ({C}_{{H}_2O}) has been investigated at 1050 °C and 3 GPa as a function of water activity ({a}_{{H}_2O}) at subsolidus conditions in the piston-cylinder apparatus, with {a}_{{H}_2O} varied using H2O-NaCl fluids. Four sets of experiments were conducted to constrain the effect of {a}_{{H}_2O} on the four main substitution mechanisms. The experiments were designed to grow olivine in situ and thus achieve global equilibrium (G-type), as opposed to hydroxylating olivine with a pre-existing point-defect structure and impurity content (M-type). Olivine grains from the experiments were analysed with polarised and unpolarised FTIR spectroscopy, and where necessary, the spectra have been deconvoluted to quantify the contribution of each substitution mechanism. Olivine buffered with magnesiowüstite produced absorbance bands at high wavenumbers ranging from 3566 to 3612 cm-1. About 50% of the total absorbance was found parallel to the a-axis, 30% parallel to the b-axis and 20% parallel to the c-axis. The total absorbance and hence water concentration in olivine follows the relationship of {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a_{{H}_2O}}^2 , indicating that the investigated defect must involve four H atoms substituting for one Si atom (labelled as [Si]). Forsterite buffered with enstatite produced an absorbance band exclusively aligned parallel the c-axis at 3160 cm-1. The band position, polarisation and observed {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a}_{{H}_2O} are consistent with two H substituting for one Mg (labelled as [Mg]). Ti-doped, enstatite-buffered olivine displays absorption bands, and polarisation typical of Ti-clinohumite point defects where two H on the Si-site are charge-balanced by one Ti on a Mg-site (labelled as [Ti]). This is further supported by {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a}_{{H}_2O} and a 1:1 relationship of molar H2O and TiO2 in these experiments. Sc-doped, enstatite-buffered experiments display a main absorption band at 3355 cm-1 with {C}_{{H}_2O}∝ {a_{{H}_2O}}^{0

  5. Band structure analysis on olivine LiMPO4 and delithiated MPO4 (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Fang, Zi-Kui; Xie, Ying; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Dai, Changsong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The conductivity of Li x MPO 4 were discussed relying on first principles technique. • Relationship between structure properties and microscopic bonding was addressed. • A mechanism responsible for the structural instability of MnPO 4 was proposed. - Abstract: Olivine compounds, i.e. Li x MPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn), are now regarded as the most competitive positive-electrode materials for future applications of large-scale rechargeable lithium batteries. There are significant interests in their electronic structures, because the microscopic information is very important for elucidating the structural stability, electrochemical performance, and electronic conductivity issues of batteries for high-rate applications. The structure stabilities of LiMPO 4 and MPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials are analyzed according to first principles calculations. The result shows that LiMPO 4 (M = Fe, Mn) materials exhibit good structure stability, which is mainly contributed to the extremely strong P-O covalent bonds. Furthermore, the introduction of P ions is also helpful for the chemical potential decrease of the materials. The band structure analysis reveals that the electronic conductance of LiFePO 4 , LiMnPO 4 , and FePO 4 is poor, while MnPO 4 possesses half metallic property. According to the electron distribution, it can be confirmed that Mn-O(II) bonds are weakened after Li + extractions, which is different from the variation trend of Fe-O(II) bonds. The decrease of Mn-O(II) bond strength is thus favorable for the phase transformation observed in experiments

  6. Emulsion drying synthesis of olivine LiFePO4/C composite and its electrochemical properties as lithium intercalation material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Komaba, Shinichi; Hirosaki, Norimitsu; Yashiro, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Naoaki

    2004-01-01

    The electroactive LiFePO 4 /C nano-composite has been synthesized by an emulsion drying method. During burning-out the oily emulsion precipitates in an air-limited atmosphere at 300 deg. C, amorphous or low crystalline carbon was generated along with releasing carbon oxide gases, and trivalent iron as a cheap starting material was immediately reduced to the divalent one at this stage as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, leading to a low crystalline LiFePO 4 /C composite. Heat-treatment of the low crystalline LiFePO 4 /C in an Ar atmosphere resulted in a well-ordered olivine structure, as refined by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern. From secondary electron microscopic and scanning transmission electron microscopic observations with the corresponding elemental mapping images of iron and phosphorous, it was found that the LiFePO 4 powders are modified by fine carbon. The in situ formation of the nano-sized carbon during crystallization of LiFePO 4 brought about two advantages: (i) an optimized particle size of LiFePO 4 , and (ii) a uniform distribution of fine carbon in the product. These effects of the fine carbon on LiFePO 4 /C composite led to high capacity retention upon cycling at 25 and 50 deg. C and high rate capability, resulting from a great enhancement of electric conductivity as high as 10 -4 S cm -1 . That is, the obtained capacity was higher than 90 mAh (g-phosphate) -1 by applying a higher current density of about 1000 mA g -1 (11 C) at 50 deg. C

  7. Anelasticity of olivine single crystals investigated by stress-reduction tests and high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Kempton, I.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamic phenomena, including glacial isostatic adjustment and postseismic deformation, can involve transient deformation in response to changes in differential stress acting on mantle rocks. As such, rheological models of transient deformation are incorporated in predictions of associated processes, including sea-level rise and stress redistribution after earthquakes. However, experimental constraints on rheological models for transient deformation of mantle materials are sparse. In particular, experiments involving stress reductions have been lacking. Moreover, a material's response to a reduction in stress can provide clues to the microphysical processes controlling deformation. To constrain models of transient deformation of mantle rocks we performed stress-reduction tests on single crystals of olivine at 1250-1300°C. Mechanical and piezoelectric actuators controlled constant initial stress during creep. At various strain intervals stress was reduced near-instantaneously using the piezoelectric actuator, inducing both elastic and anelastic (time-dependent) lengthening of the samples. A range of magnitudes of stress reduction were applied, typically unloading 10-90% of the initial stress. High-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on cross-correlation of diffraction patterns, was used to map dislocation density and elastic strain distributions in the recovered samples. Magnitudes of anelastic back-strain increase with increasing magnitudes of stress reduction and show a marked increase when stress reductions exceed 50% of the initial stress, consistent with previous observations in metals and alloys. This observation is inconsistent with the Burgers rheological model commonly used to describe transient behaviour and suggests that the style of rheological behaviour depends on the magnitude of stress change. HR-EBSD maps reveal that the crystal lattices are smoothly curved and generally lack subgrain boundaries and elastic strain

  8. An experimental study of Fe-Ni exchange between sulfide melt and olivine at upper mantle conditions: implications for mantle sulfide compositions and phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; von der Handt, Anette; Hirschmann, Marc M.

    2018-03-01

    The behavior of nickel in the Earth's mantle is controlled by sulfide melt-olivine reaction. Prior to this study, experiments were carried out at low pressures with narrow range of Ni/Fe in sulfide melt. As the mantle becomes more reduced with depth, experiments at comparable conditions provide an assessment of the effect of pressure at low-oxygen fugacity conditions. In this study, we constrain the Fe-Ni composition of molten sulfide in the Earth's upper mantle via sulfide melt-olivine reaction experiments at 2 GPa, 1200 and 1400 °C, with sulfide melt X_{{{Ni}}}^{{{Sulfide}}}={{Ni}}/{{Ni+{Fe}}} (atomic ratio) ranging from 0 to 0.94. To verify the approach to equilibrium and to explore the effect of {f_{{{O}2}}} on Fe-Ni exchange between phases, four different suites of experiments were conducted, varying in their experimental geometry and initial composition. Effects of Ni secondary fluorescence on olivine analyses were corrected using the PENELOPE algorithm (Baró et al., Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 100:31-46, 1995), "zero time" experiments, and measurements before and after dissolution of surrounding sulfides. Oxygen fugacities in the experiments, estimated from the measured O contents of sulfide melts and from the compositions of coexisting olivines, were 3.0 ± 1.0 log units more reduced than the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer (suite 1, 2 and 3), and FMQ - 1 or more oxidized (suite 4). For the reduced (suites 1-3) experiments, Fe-Ni distribution coefficients K_{{D}}{}={(X_{{{Ni}}}^{{{sulfide}}}/X_{{{Fe}}}^{{{sulfide}}})}/{(X_{{{Ni}}^{{{olivine}}}/X_{{{Fe}}}^{{{olivine}}})}} are small, averaging 10.0 ± 5.7, with little variation as a function of total Ni content. More oxidized experiments (suite 4) give larger values of K D (21.1-25.2). Compared to previous determinations at 100 kPa, values of K D from this study are chiefly lower, in large part owing to the more reduced conditions of the experiments. The observed difference does not seem

  9. Olivine and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, thanks mainly to the water vapor in our atmosphere, has created a livable climate on Earth. Climate change, however, may potentially have dire consequences. It is generally assumed that the rise in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is the main culprit, although several other

  10. Heterogeneity of the Caribbean plateau mantle source: Sr, O and He isotopic compositions of olivine and clinopyroxene from Gorgona Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révillon, S.; Chauvel, C.; Arndt, N. T.; Pik, R.; Martineau, F.; Fourcade, S.; Marty, B.

    2002-12-01

    The composition of the mantle plumes that created large oceanic plateaus such as Ontong Java or the Caribbean is still poorly known. Geochemical and isotopic studies on accreted portions of the Caribbean plateau have shown that the plume source was heterogeneous and contained isotopically depleted and relatively enriched portions. A distinctive feature of samples from the Caribbean plateau is their unusual Sr isotopic compositions, which, at a given Nd isotopic ratio, are far higher than in samples from other oceanic plateaus. Sr, O and He isotopic compositions of whole rocks and magmatic minerals (clinopyroxene or olivine) separated from komatiites, gabbros and peridotites from Gorgona Island in Colombia were determined to investigate the origin of these anomalously radiogenic compositions. Sequentially leached clinopyroxenes have Sr isotopic compositions in the range 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70271-0.70352, systematically lower than those of leached and unleached whole rocks. Oxygen isotopic ratios of clinopyroxene vary within the range δ 18O=5.18-5.35‰, similar to that recorded in oceanic island basalts. He isotopic ratios are high ( R/ Ra=8-19). The lower 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of most of the clinopyroxenes shift the field of the Caribbean plateau in Nd-Sr isotope diagrams toward more 'normal' values, i.e. a position closer to the field defined by mid-ocean ridge basalts and oceanic-island basalts. Three clinopyroxenes have slightly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios that cannot be explained by an assimilation model. The high 87Sr/ 86Sr and variations of 143Nd/ 144Nd are interpreted as a source characteristic. Trace-element ratios, however, are controlled mainly by fractionation during partial melting. We combine these isotopic data in a heterogeneous plume source model that accounts for the diversity of isotopic signatures recorded on Gorgona Island and throughout the Caribbean plateau. The heterogeneities are related to old recycled oceanic lithosphere in the plume source; the high 3

  11. Adiabats of quartz, coesite, olivine, and magnesium oxide to 50 kbar and 1000 K, and the adiabatic gradient in the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, R.

    1982-07-01

    The adiabats of olivine, magnesium oxide, and quartz were measured up to 50kbar and 1000 K. An end-loaded piston-cylinder apparatus with an in situ pressure gauge and a very fine thermocouple was used to measure (∂T/∂P)s during adiabatic compression. A power law between (∂T/∂P)s and compression yields values of the power n = -∂ ln (∂T/∂P)s/∂ ln ρ that agree with previous results from salts, metals, and fluids. Assuming constant values for n, the adiabtic gradient for an olivine upper mantle and a magnesium oxide lower mantle was calculated. The results agree well with some previous theoretical estimates. The volume dependence of the Grüneisen parameter γ was calculated from the thermodynamic equation ∂ ln γ/∂ ln ρ = ∂B/∂P - n, where B is the isothermal bulk modulus. γ is found to a good approximation to be proportional to volume. Table 6 is available with entire article on microfiche. Order from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. Document J82-002; $1.00. Payment must accompany order.

  12. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  13. Adsorptive removal of arsenic by novel iron/olivine composite: Insights into preparation and adsorption process by response surface methodology and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Kattil, Krishna V; Yadav, Manoj K; Gupta, Ashok K

    2018-03-01

    Olivine, a low-cost natural material, impregnated with iron is introduced in the adsorptive removal of arsenic. A wet impregnation method and subsequent calcination were employed for the preparation of iron/olivine composite. The major preparation process parameter, viz., iron loading and calcination temperature were optimized through the response surface methodology coupled with a factorial design. A significant variation of adsorption capacity of arsenic (measured as total arsenic), i.e., 63.15 to 310.85 mg/kg for arsenite [As(III) T ] and 76.46 to 329.72 mg/kg for arsenate [As(V) T ] was observed, which exhibited the significant effect of the preparation process parameters on the adsorption potential. The iron loading delineated the optima at central points, whereas a monotonous decreasing trend of adsorption capacity for both the As(III) T and As(V) T was observed with the increasing calcination temperature. The variation of adsorption capacity with the increased iron loading is more at lower calcination temperature showing the interactive effect between the factors. The adsorbent prepared at the optimized condition of iron loading and calcination temperature, i.e., 10% and 200 °C, effectively removed the As(III) T and As(V) T by more than 96 and 99%, respectively. The material characterization of the adsorbent showed the formation of the iron compound in the olivine and increase in specific surface area to the tune of 10 multifold compared to the base material, which is conducive to the enhancement of the adsorption capacity. An artificial neural network was applied for the multivariate optimization of the adsorption process from the experimental data of the univariate optimization study and the optimized model showed low values of error functions and high R 2 values of more than 0.99 for As(III) T and As(V) T . The adsorption isotherm and kinetics followed Langmuir model and pseudo second order model, respectively demonstrating the chemisorption in this

  14. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  15. New lithium ion batteries exploiting conversion/alloying anode and LiFe0.25Mn0.5Co0.25PO4 olivine cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecce, Daniele Di; Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New Li-ion batteries are reported. • LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 olivine is used as the cathode. • Either Sn-C or Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C composites are used as anodes. • The electrode/electrolyte interfaces are monitored by EIS. • The systems are considered suitable for energy storage - Abstract: New Li-ion cells are formed by combining a LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 olivine cathode either with Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C or with Sn-C composite anodes. These active materials exhibit electrochemical properties very attractive in view of practical use, including the higher working voltage of the LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 cathode with respect to conventional LiFePO 4 , as well as the remarkable capacity and rate capability of Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C and Sn-C anodes. The stable electrode/electrolyte interfaces, demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, along with proper mass balancing and anode pre-lithiation, allow stable galvanostatic cycling of the full cells. The two batteries, namely Sn-Fe 2 O 3 -C/LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 and Sn-C/LiFe 0.25 Mn 0.5 Co 0.25 PO 4 , reversibly operate revealing promising electrochemical features in terms of delivered capacity, working voltage and stability, thus suggesting these electrodes combinations as suitable alternatives for an efficient energy storage.

  16. Effect of oxygen fugacity on OH dissolution in olivine under peridotite-saturated conditions: An experimental study at 1.5-7 GPa and 1100-1300 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi

    2016-01-01

    The dissolution of OH in olivine by experimental studies at simulated conditions has attracted increasing interest over the past three decades, and the influence of pressure, temperature and composition has been relatively well constrained. Oxygen fugacity is highly heterogeneous in the upper mantle, on both temporal and spatial scales, and is an important parameter in characterizing many chemical and physical processes in the mantle. However, less attention has been devoted to the effect of oxygen fugacity on OH dissolution in olivine, and the only few available reports on this topic have led to significant inconsistency and debate. In this study, the correlation between oxygen fugacity and OH solubility in Fe-bearing olivine has been systematically investigated by conducting experiments at 1.5-7 GPa and 1100-1300 °C and under peridotite- and fluid-saturated conditions, with natural gem-quality olivine single crystals and fresh peridotite xenoliths as starting materials and with oxygen fugacity controlled by the Fe-FeO, Ni-NiO and Fe2O3-Fe3O4 oxygen buffer pairs. The water concentrations were determined by polarized analyses using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that, at all the experimental conditions, the OH bands at both high frequency (∼3650-3450 cm-1) and low frequency (∼3450-3100 cm-1) are prominent. The intensity of OH bands at ∼3355 and 3325 cm-1 increases positively with oxygen fugacity, suggesting a dominant role of Fe3+ in their incorporation. Under otherwise identical conditions, the water content is gradually enhanced with increasing pressure, temperature or oxygen fugacity. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the enhancement of OH solubility appears not sensitive to temperature (1100-1300 °C) at a given pressure, but becomes progressively stronger with increasing pressure from 1.5 to 7 GPa given the temperature. Relative to oxygen fugacity buffers, the OH solubility is on average increased by ∼50% between Fe-FeO and

  17. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  18. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (<1 km) to the mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine.

  19. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by carboxylic groups: Activation of TiO{sub 2} (anatase) and phosphate olivines (LiMnPO{sub 4}; LiFePO{sub 4}) for electrochemical Li-storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalova, Marketa [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, CZ-18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Bacsa, Revathi; Tunckol, Meltem; Serp, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR CNRS 8241, composante ENSIACET, Universite de Toulouse UPS-INP-LCC 4, Allee Emile Monso, BP 74233, 31432, Toulouse (France); Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Le Formal, Florian; Graetzel, Michael [Laboratoire de Photonique et Interfaces, EPFL, Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized by carboxylic groups, exhibit better affinity towards TiO{sub 2} (P90, Degussa) as compared to that of pristine nanotubes. Also the electrochemical performance of TiO{sub 2} is improved by nanotube networking, but the Li-storage capacity of TiO{sub 2} is unchanged. Whereas the composite of TiO{sub 2} with non-functionalized nanotubes demonstrates simple superposition of the behavior of pure components, the composite with functionalized nanotubes shows unique faradaic pseudocapacitance which is specific for this composite only. The surface functionalization of nanotubes enhances charge storage capacity and reversibility of a composite with LiMnPO{sub 4} (olivine), but mediates also the electrolyte breakdown at potentials >4.2 V. Whereas the electrochemical activation of LiMnPO{sub 4} (olivine) by functionalized nanotubes is quite modest, excellent performance was found for LiFePO{sub 4} (olivine) in composite materials containing only 2 wt% of functionalized nanotubes. (author)

  20. Band structure analysis on olivine LiMPO{sub 4} and delithiated MPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ting-Feng, E-mail: tfyihit@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Fang, Zi-Kui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Xie, Ying, E-mail: xieying@hlju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhu, Yan-Rong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Dai, Changsong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • The conductivity of Li{sub x}MPO{sub 4} were discussed relying on first principles technique. • Relationship between structure properties and microscopic bonding was addressed. • A mechanism responsible for the structural instability of MnPO{sub 4} was proposed. - Abstract: Olivine compounds, i.e. Li{sub x}MPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn), are now regarded as the most competitive positive-electrode materials for future applications of large-scale rechargeable lithium batteries. There are significant interests in their electronic structures, because the microscopic information is very important for elucidating the structural stability, electrochemical performance, and electronic conductivity issues of batteries for high-rate applications. The structure stabilities of LiMPO{sub 4} and MPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn) cathode materials are analyzed according to first principles calculations. The result shows that LiMPO{sub 4} (M = Fe, Mn) materials exhibit good structure stability, which is mainly contributed to the extremely strong P-O covalent bonds. Furthermore, the introduction of P ions is also helpful for the chemical potential decrease of the materials. The band structure analysis reveals that the electronic conductance of LiFePO{sub 4}, LiMnPO{sub 4}, and FePO{sub 4} is poor, while MnPO{sub 4} possesses half metallic property. According to the electron distribution, it can be confirmed that Mn-O(II) bonds are weakened after Li{sup +} extractions, which is different from the variation trend of Fe-O(II) bonds. The decrease of Mn-O(II) bond strength is thus favorable for the phase transformation observed in experiments.

  1. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2015-12-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  2. Crustal accretion along the global mid-ocean ridge system based on basaltic glass and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, V. D.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The depth and distribution of crystallization at mid-ocean ridges controls the overall architecture of the oceanic crust, influences hydrothermal circulation, and determines geothermal gradients in the crust and uppermost mantle. Despite this, there is no overall consensus on how crystallization is distributed within the crust/upper mantle or how this varies with spreading rate. Here, we examine crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges by combining crystallization pressures calculated from major element barometers on mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses with vapor-saturation pressures from melt inclusions to produce a detailed map of crystallization depths and distributions along the global ridge system. We calculate pressures of crystallization from >11,500 MORB glasses from the global ridge system using two established major element barometers (1,2). Additionally, we use vapor-saturation pressures from >400 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five ridges with variable spreading rates to constrain pressures and distributions of crystallization along the global ridge system. We show that (i) crystallization depths from MORB glasses increase and become less focused with decreasing spreading rate, (ii) maximum glass pressures are greater than the maximum melt inclusion pressure, which indicates that the melt inclusions do not record the deepest crystallization at mid-ocean ridges, and (iii) crystallization occurs in the lower crust/upper mantle at all ridges, indicating accretion is distributed throughout the crust at all spreading rates, including those with a steady-state magma lens. Finally, we suggest that the remarkably similar maximum vapor-saturation pressures (~ 3000 bars) in melt inclusion from all spreading rates reflects the CO2 content of the depleted upper mantle feeding the global mid-ocean ridge system. (1) Michael, P. & W. Cornell (1998), Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B8), 18325-18356; (2) Herzberg, C. (2004), Journal of Petrology, 45(12), 2389.

  3. Electrical conductivity and reaction with lithium of LiFe{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}PO{sub 4} olivine-type cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenda, J.; Ojczyk, W.; Marzec, J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2007-12-06

    Structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of Mn-substituted phospho-olivines LiFe{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}PO{sub 4} were investigated and compared to those of LiFePO{sub 4}. Rietvield refined XRD patterns taken in the course of delithiation process showed apparent difference between phase compositions of these cathode materials upon lithium extraction. Contrary to the LiFePO{sub 4} and LiMnPO{sub 4} compositions for which a two-phase mechanism of electrochemical lithium extraction/insertion is observed, in case of Mn-substituted LiFe{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}PO{sub 4} samples a single-phase mechanism of deintercalation was observed in the studied range of lithium concentration. Electrochemical characterization of the cathode materials were performed in Li/Li{sup +}/Li{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}PO{sub 4}-type cells for y = 0.0, 0.25, 0.55, 0.75 and 1.0 compositions. Voltammery studies showed low reversibility of the lithium extraction process in the high-voltage ''manganese'' range, while in the ''iron'' range the reversibility of lithium extraction is high. Impedance measurements of the LiFe{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}PO{sub 4} cathode materials, which enabled separation of the ionic and electronic components of their entire electrical conductivity, showed distinct influence of Mn content on the electronic part of conductivity. EIS measurements performed at different states of cell charge revealed that the charge-transfer impedance in Li{sub x}Fe{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}PO{sub 4} is much lower than that of Li{sub x}FePO{sub 4}. (author)

  4. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  5. Reactions between olivine and CO2-rich seawater at 300 °C: Implications for H2 generation and CO2 sequestration on the early Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisahiro Ueda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the influence of fluid CO2 on ultramafic rock-hosted seafloor hydrothermal systems on the early Earth, we monitored the reaction between San Carlos olivine and a CO2-rich NaCl fluid at 300 °C and 500 bars. During the experiments, the total carbonic acid concentration (ΣCO2 in the fluid decreased from approximately 65 to 9 mmol/kg. Carbonate minerals, magnesite, and subordinate amount of dolomite were formed via the water-rock interaction. The H2 concentration in the fluid reached approximately 39 mmol/kg within 2736 h, which is relatively lower than the concentration generated by the reaction between olivine and a CO2-free NaCl solution at the same temperature. As seen in previous hydrothermal experiments using komatiite, ferrous iron incorporation into Mg-bearing carbonate minerals likely limited iron oxidation in the fluids and the resulting H2 generation during the olivine alteration. Considering carbonate mineralogy over the temperature range of natural hydrothermal fields, H2 generation is likely suppressed at temperatures below approximately 300 °C due to the formation of the Mg-bearing carbonates. Nevertheless, H2 concentration in fluid at 300 °C could be still high due to the temperature dependency of magnetite stability in ultramafic systems. Moreover, the Mg-bearing carbonates may play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere system on the early Earth. Recent studies suggest that the subduction of carbonated ultramafic rocks may transport surface CO2 species into the deep mantle. This process may have reduced the huge initial amount of CO2 on the surface of the early Earth. Our approximate calculations demonstrate that the subduction of the Mg-bearing carbonates formed in komatiite likely played a crucial role as one of the CO2 carriers from the surface to the deep mantle, even in hot subduction zones.

  6. Olivine/melt transition metal partitioning, melt composition, and melt structure—Melt polymerization and Qn-speciation in alkaline earth silicate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2008-10-01

    The two most abundant network-modifying cations in magmatic liquids are Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. To evaluate the influence of melt structure on exchange of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ with other geochemically important divalent cations ( m-cations) between coexisting minerals and melts, high-temperature (1470-1650 °C), ambient-pressure (0.1 MPa) forsterite/melt partitioning experiments were carried out in the system Mg 2SiO 4-CaMgSi 2O 6-SiO 2 with ⩽1 wt% m-cations (Mn 2+, Co 2+, and Ni 2+) substituting for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. The bulk melt NBO/Si-range ( NBO/Si: nonbridging oxygen per silicon) of melt in equilibrium with forsterite was between 1.89 and 2.74. In this NBO/Si-range, the NBO/Si(Ca) (fraction of nonbridging oxygens, NBO, that form bonds with Ca 2+, Ca 2+- NBO) is linearly related to NBO/Si, whereas fraction of Mg 2+- NBO bonds is essentially independent of NBO/Si. For individual m-cations, rate of change of KD( m-Mg) with NBO/Si(Ca) for the exchange equilibrium, mmelt + Mg olivine ⇌ molivine + Mg melt, is linear. KD( m-Mg) decreases as an exponential function of increasing ionic potential, Z/ r2 ( Z: formal electrical charge, r: ionic radius—here calculated with oxygen in sixfold coordination around the divalent cations) of the m-cation. The enthalpy change of the exchange equilibrium, Δ H, decreases linearly with increasing Z/ r2 [Δ H = 261(9)-81(3)· Z/ r2 (Å -2)]. From existing information on (Ca,Mg)O-SiO 2 melt structure at ambient pressure, these relationships are understood by considering the exchange of divalent cations that form bonds with nonbridging oxygen in individual Qn-species in the melts. The negative ∂ KD( m-Mg) /∂( Z/ r2) and ∂(Δ H)/∂( Z/ r2) is because increasing Z/ r2 is because the cations forming bonds with nonbridging oxygen in increasingly depolymerized Qn-species where steric hindrance is decreasingly important. In other words, principles of ionic size/site mismatch commonly observed for trace and minor elements in crystals, also

  7. What olivine and clinopyroxene mineral chemistry and melt inclusion study can tell us about magmatic processes in a post-collisional setting. Examples from the Miocene-Quaternary East Carpathian volcanic chain, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Mason, Paul R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Calc-alkaline magmatism occurred along the easternmost margin of Tisia-Dacia at the contact with East European Platform forming the Călimani-Gurghiu- Harghita volcanic chain. Its northern part represented by Călimani-Gurghiu-North Harghita (CGNH hereafter) is showing a diminishing age and volume southwards at 10-3.9 Ma. This marks the end of subduction-related magmatism along the post-collision front of the European convergent plate margin. Magma generation was associated with progressive break-off of a subducted slab and asthenosphere uprise. Fractionation and crustal assimilation were typical CGNH volcanic chain. The rocks show homogeneous 87Sr/86Sr, but a linear trend of Th/Y vs Nb/Y that reflects a common mantle source considered to be the metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge. Fractionation and/or assimilation-fractional crystallization are characteristic for each main volcanic area, suggestive of lower to middle crust magma chamber processes. The South Harghita (SH) volcanic area represents direct continuation of the CGNH volcanic chain. Here at ca. 3 Ma following a time-gap, magma compositions changed to adakite-like calc-alkaline and continued until recent times (< 0.03 Ma). This volcanism was interrupted at ~1.6-1.8 Ma by simultaneous generation of Na- and K-alkalic varieties in nearby areas, suggestive of various sources and melting mechanisms, closely related to the hanging block beneath Vrancea seismic zone. The specific geochemistry is revealed by higher Nb/Y and Th/Y ratios and lower 87Sr/86Sr as compared to the CGNH chain. Identification of primitive magmas has been difficult despite the fact that this volcanic area contains more basalts than any other in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. Since the most primitive rocks represent the best opportunity to identify the trace element composition of the mantle source beneath the East Carpathian volcanic chain we use mineral and melt inclusions in olivine and composition of the most primitive

  8. The spectral effects of subsolidus reduction of olivine and pyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The surfaces of atmosphereless bodies are subjected to a variety of chemical, thermal, accretionary, and shock processes related to their regolith environment. These processes are responsible for a number of alterations that occur in regoliths. Alterations include particle size commutation, implantation of solar wind gases, formation of agglutinates, spectral darkening, and, in the lunar case, the development of the very strong red continuum slope in the visible and near infrared spectra. A great deal of work has pointed to the role of agglutinates as the principal agent for darkening and reddening the lunar soil. The measures of regolith maturity are strongly linked to the accumulation of agglutinates. Recent work has suggested that the finest fractions of agglutinitic glass are major source of the spectral red slope. In particular, the red slope is most strongly associated with the agglutinitic glasses that are rich in blebs of sub-micron sized metal particles. It is thought that these metal particles, because of their size and scattering efficiently relative to the wavelength of light, are responsible for the red continuum slope. This fine fraction of metal particles is produced primarily by reduction of Fe(+2) from silicates. One mechanism for the reduction process is the reaction of solar implanted wind protons with the regolith soil during impact events. In this case the presence of hydrogen creates a reducing environment and the thermal pulse from the impact greatly speeds the reaction kinetics. To explore other reducing and thermal environments a series of experiments were done using samples in evacuated capsules buffered by Tantalum and heated to subsolidus temperatures.

  9. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis, D.; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced bydislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establishthe dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks

  10. Molecular wiring of LiFePO4 (Olivine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Exnar, I.; Graetzel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2008), s. 3163-3168 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk 1P05OC069; GA AV ČR IAA400400804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Li- ion cells * overcharge protection * enhancement * batteries Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.046, year: 2008

  11. Li Isotope Studies of Olivine in Mantle Xenoliths by SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of the stable isotopes of Li are a potentially powerful tracer of processes in planetary and nebular environments [1]. Large differences in the 7Li/6Li ratio between the terrestrial upper mantle and various crustal materials make Li isotope composition a potentially powerful tracer of crustal recycling processes on Earth [2]. Recent SIMS studies of terrestrial mantle and Martian meteorite samples report intra-mineral Li isotope zoning [3-5]. Substantial Li isotope heterogeneity also exists within and between the components of chondritic meteorites [6,7]. Experimental studies of Li diffusion suggest the potential for rapid isotope exchange at elevated temperatures [8]. Large variations in 7Li, exceeding the range of unaltered basalts, occur in terrestrial mantle-derived xenoliths from individual localities [9]. The origins of these variations are not fully understood.

  12. Porous olivine composites synthesized by sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominko, R.; Bele, M.; Gaberscek, M.; Jamnik, J. [National Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 660, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remskar, M.; Hanzel, D. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Goupil, J.M. [ENSICAEN, UMR CNRS 6506, Catalyse and Spectrochimie Lab, F-14050 Caen (France); Pejovnik, S. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-02-28

    Porous LiMPO{sub 4}/C composites (where M stands for Fe and/or Mn) with micro-sized particles were synthesised by sol-gel technique. Particles porosity is discussed in terms of qualitative results obtained from SEM micrographs and in terms of quantitative results obtained from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Porous particles could be described as an inverse picture of nanoparticulate arrangement, where the pores serve as channels for lithium supply and the distance between the pores determines the materials kinetics. Tests show that the electrochemical behaviour of porous LiMPO{sub 4}/C composite is comparable with the results from the literature. The best electrochemical results were obtained with a LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite (over 140mAhg{sup -1} at C/2 rate during continuous cycling). The capacity obtained with LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composite is much lower (40mAhg{sup -1} at C/20 rate), although the textural properties are similar to those observed in the LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite. (author)

  13. Electrochemical potentials of layered oxide and olivine phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium ion battery; cathodes; density functional theory; density of states; Bader charge analysis; electrochemical ... voltage, ionic diffusion coefficient, phase stability and charge ... routes to synthesis and fabrication techniques. .... from the lithiated one. ..... Ebner W, Fouchard D and Xie L 1994 Solid State Ionics 69 238.

  14. Olivine-hornblende-lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Central Chile (34°S: implications for the temporal geochemical evolution of the Andean subarc mantle Diques lamprofídicos de olivino-hornblenda de la quebrada los Sapos, El Teniente, Chile central (34°S: implicancias para la evolución temporal de la geoquímica del manto subarco Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Stern

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mafic Mg-olivine (Fo884-hornblende lamprophyre dikes, with Ni -190 ppm and Cr -390 ppm, cut late Miocene lavas in the Quebrada los Sapos a few kilometers west of the El Teniente Cu-Mo mine. These dikes have petro-chemical affinities with other less primitive, Pliocene (2.9-3.9 Ma, olivine-free lamprophyres previously described from both within and in the vicinity of El Teniente. The mafic mantle-derived lamprophyre dikes from Quebrada los Sapos have La/Yb ratios of 10-13, higher than the ratios of 4-9 for older Late Miocene El Teniente Mafic Complex olivine basalts, suggesting a temporal decrease in the percent of partial mantle melting, consistent with the observed decrease in the volume of igneous rocks through time at this latitude, as well as the ultímate cessation of magmatism and >40 km eastward are migration by the Late Pliocene. Less primitive olivine-free lamprophyres have higher La and lower Yb, resulting in higher La/Yb ratios of 15-44, due to crystal-liquid fractionation involving hornblende, but not plagioclase, the crystallization of which is suppressed by the high H2O contents of the lamprophyres. The lamprophyre dikes, as well as younger (1.8-2.3 Ma olivine-bearing basaltic-andesite lava flows in the valley of the Cachapoal river, have 87Sr/86Sr=0.7041 to 0.7049, or = +1.2 to -1.1 and 206Pb/204Pb=18.60 to 18.68, while Middle to Late Miocene (6.5-13.9 Ma El Teniente Volcanic and Plutonic Complex igneous rocks have lower 87Sr/86Sr=0.7039 to 0.7041 and 206Pb/204Pb=18.56 to 18.59, and higher G =+1.9 to +3.8, and older Oligocene to Early Miocene (>15 Ma Abanico or Coya-Machalí Formation volcanic and plutonic rocks in the region have even lower 87Sr/86Sr=0.7033 to 0.7039 and 206Pb/204Pb=18.45 to 18.57, and higher G Nd=+3.8 to +6.2. The data indicate a significant progressive temporal evolution, between the Oligocene and the Pliocene, to higher 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb, and lower for mantle-derived mafic magmas, and by implication

  15. Reaction-induced fracturing during olivine serpentinization: A mechanistic investigation at the interface scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; Røyne, A.; Malthe-Sørenssen, A.; King, H. E.; Jamtveit, B.

    Serpentinization of the Earth's impermeable upper mantle is one of the most fundamental metamorphic hydration reactions. It governs lithospheric weakening, geochemical subduction zone input and possibly even the formation of life-essential building blocks. Serpentinization relies on fluid pathway

  16. Hybrid aluminium matrix composite AWJ turning using olivine and Barton garnet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nag, A.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hlaváček, Petr; Klichová, Dagmar; Srivastava, A. K.; Hloch, Sergej; Dixit, A. R.; Foldyna, Josef; Zeleňák, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 92, September 2017 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet turning * abrasive mass flow rate * abrasivegrain * hybrid metalmatrixcomposite * surface topography Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00170-017-1036-0.pdf

  17. Hybrid aluminium matrix composite AWJ turning using olivine and Barton garnet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nag, A.; Ščučka, Jiří; Hlaváček, Petr; Klichová, Dagmar; Srivastava, A. K.; Hloch, Sergej; Dixit, A. R.; Foldyna, Josef; Zeleňák, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 92, September 2017 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0268-3768 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet turning * abrasive mass flow rate * abrasivegrain * hybridmetalmatrixcomposite * surface topography Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 2.209, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00170-017-1036-0.pdf

  18. Olivine-Based Blended Compounds as Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Blended cathode materials made by mixing LiFePO4 (LFP with LiMnPO4 (LMP or LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC that exhibit either high specific energy and high rate capability were investigated. The layered blend LMP–LFP and the physically mixed blend NMC–LFP are evaluated in terms of particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Results indicate that the LMP–LFP (66:33 blend has a better discharge rate than the LiMn1−yFeyPO4 with the same composition (y = 0.33, and NMC–LFP (70:30 delivers a remarkable stable capacity over 125 cycles. Finally, in situ voltage measurement methods were applied for the evaluation of the phase evolution of blended cathodes and gradual changes in cell behavior upon cycling. We also discuss through these examples the promising development of blends as future electrodes for new generations of Li-ion batteries.

  19. Use of olivine and plagioclase saturation surfaces for the petrogenetic modeling of recrystallized basic plutonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, G. N.

    1983-01-01

    During petrogenetic studies of basic plutonic rocks, there are at least three major questions to be considered: (1) what were the relative proportions of cumulate crystals and intercumulus melt in a given sample? (2) what is the composition and variation in composition of the melts within the pluton? and (3) what is the original composition of the liquids, their source and evolution prior to the time of emplacement? Use of both saturation surfaces can place strong limits on the compositions of potential cumulate phases and intercumulus melts. Consideration of appropriate trace elements can indicate whether a sample is an orthocumulate, adcumulate or mesocumulate. Thus, when trace element and petrographic data are considered together with the saturation surfaces, it should be possible to begin to answer the three major questions given above, even for strongly recrystallized basic plutons.

  20. Oxygen diffusion and reactivity at low temperature on bare amorphous olivine-type silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M., E-mail: marco.minissale@obspm.fr; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F. [LERMA-LAMAp, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2014-02-21

    The mobility of O atoms at very low temperatures is not generally taken into account, despite O diffusion would add to a series of processes leading to the observed rich molecular diversity in space. We present a study of the mobility and reactivity of O atoms on an amorphous silicate surface. Our results are in the form of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption spectra of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} produced via two pathways: O + O and O{sub 2} + O, investigated in a submonolayer regime and in the range of temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. All the experiments show that ozone is formed efficiently on silicate at any surface temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. The derived upper limit for the activation barriers of O + O and O{sub 2} + O reactions is ∼150 K/k{sub b}. Ozone formation at low temperatures indicates that fast diffusion of O atoms is at play even at 6.5 K. Through a series of rate equations included in our model, we also address the reaction mechanisms and show that neither the Eley–Rideal nor the hot atom mechanisms alone can explain the experimental values. The rate of diffusion of O atoms, based on modeling results, is much higher than the one generally expected, and the diffusive process proceeds via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism enhanced by tunnelling. In fact, quantum effects turn out to be a key factor that cannot be neglected in our simulations. Astrophysically, efficient O{sub 3} formation on interstellar dust grains would imply the presence of huge reservoirs of oxygen atoms. Since O{sub 3} is a reservoir of elementary oxygen, and also of OH via its hydrogenation, it could explain the observed concomitance of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ices.

  1. Axial‐type olivine crystallographic preferred orientations: the effect of strain geometry on mantle texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzaras, V.; Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Cohen, Shaina M.; Medaris Jr., L. Gordon; Withers, Anthony C.; Bagley, Brian

    The effect of finite strain geometry on crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is poorly constrained in the upper mantle. Specifically, the relationship between shape preferred orientation (SPO) and CPO in the mantle rocks remains unclear. We analyzed a suite of 40 spinel peridotite xenoliths

  2. Space weathering simulations through controlled growth of iron nanoparticles on olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Čuda, J.; Filip, J.; Britt, D.; Bradley, T.; Tuček, J.; Skála, Roman; Kletetschka, Günther; Kašlík, J.; Malina, O.; Šišková, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 237, 15 July (2014), s. 75-83 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12079 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : asteroids, surface * Moon, surface * regoliths * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.038, year: 2014

  3. Shear flow beneath oceanic plates: Local nonsimilarity boundary layers for olivine rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, D.A.; Tovish, A.; Schubert, G.

    1978-01-01

    The principle of local similarity, which has been used to model the two-dimensional boundary layers in the oceanic upper mantle, permits calculation of the temperature, velocity, and stress fields with essentially analytic techniques. Finite difference numerical methods are hard pressed to resolve the detail required by the large variation of viscosity between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. In this paper the local similarity approximation has been justified by quantitatively evaluating the effect of nonsimilarity due to viscous heating, nonlinear temperature- and pressure-dependent rheology, buoyancy, adiabatic cooling, etc. Nonsimilar effects produce only small modifications of the locally similar boundary layers; important geophysical observables such as surface heat flux and ocean floor topography are given to better than 10% by the locally similar solution. A posteriori evaluations of the term neglected in the boundary layer simplification of the complete equations have been conducted on the locally similar temperature and velocity profiles close to the spreading ridge. The boundary layer models are valid to depths of 100 km at 3 m.y. and 10 km at 0.3 m.y

  4. Combined measurement of surface, grain boundary and lattice diffusion coefficients on olivine bi-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA measurements. To evaluate the obtained diffusion profiles we adapted the isolated grain boundary model, first proposed by Fisher (1951) to match several observations: (i) Anisotropic diffusion in forsterite, (ii) fast diffusion along the grain boundary, (iii) fast diffusion on the surface of the sample. The latter process is needed to explain an additional flux of material from the surface into the grain boundary. Surface and grain boundary diffusion coefficients are on the order of 10000 times faster than diffusion in the lattice. Another observation was that in some regions the diffusion profiles in the lattice were greatly extended. TEM observations suggest here that surface defects (nano-cracks, ect.) have been present, which apparently enhanced the diffusion through the bulk lattice. Dohmen, R., & Milke, R. (2010). Diffusion in Polycrystalline Materials: Grain Boundaries, Mathematical Models, and Experimental Data. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 72(1), 921-970. Fisher, J. C. (1951). Calculations of Diffusion Penetration Curves for Surface and Grain Boundary Diffusion. Journal of Applied Physics, 22(1), 74-77. Le Claire, A. D. (1951). Grain boundary diffusion in metals. Philosophical Magazine A, 42(328), 468-474.

  5. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  6. Analisis Struktur Kristal Lifepo4 Olivine Sebagai Bahan Katoda Batere Li-Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Gunawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sintesis LiFePO4 dilakukan dengan pencampuran LiCl, FeCl2.4H2O dan H3PO4 ekuimolar ke dalam air. Homogenasi larutan dilakukan dengan pengaduk magnetic pada suhu 60o C. Prekursor LiFePO4 diperoleh setelah pemanasan 200o C dengan furnace selama 2 jam. Sintering prekursor LiFePO4 dilakukan pada suhu 700o C dengan furnace selama 4 jam dengan aliran N2 untuk membentuk fasa kristalit LiFePO4. Kemurnian fasa dan struktur kristal dianalisis dengan menggunakan XRD. Analisis struktur kristal dari pola difraksi sinar-X dilakukan dengan perangkat lunak FULLPROF. Pengamatan morfologinya dilakukan dengan menggunakan SEM dengan kombinasi energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS dan pengukuran gugus fungsional dengan FT-IR. Hasil analisis struktur kristal menunjukkan bahwa senyawa LiFePO4 memiliki struktur Kristal orthorhombic, space group 62, simbol Pnma (Hermann-Mauguin dengan parameter kisi a= 6.0019999, b= 10.330000, c= 4.6999998. 

  7. Electrical conductivity of partially-molten olivine aggregate and melt interconnectivity in the oceanic upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Frost, Dan; Farla, Robert; Katsura, Tomoo; Marquardt, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    A consistent explanation for mantle geophysical anomalies such as the Lithosphere-Astenosphere Boundary (LAB) relies on the existence of little amount of melt trapped in the solid peridotite. Mathematical models have been used to assess the melt fraction possibly lying at mantle depths, but they have not been experimentally checked at low melt fraction (Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain) containing various amount of basaltic (MORB-like composition) melt (0 to 100%) at upper mantle conditions. We used the MAVO 6-ram press (BGI) combined with a Solartron gain phase analyser to acquire the electrical resistance of the sample at pressure of 1.5 GPa and temperature up to 1400°C. The results show the increase of the electrical conductivity with the temperature following an Arrhenius law, and with the melt fraction, but the effect of pressure between 1.5 and 3.0 GPa was found negligible at a melt fraction of 0.5 vol.%. The conductivity of a partially molten aggregate fits the modified Archie's law from 0.5 to 100 vol.%. At melt fractions of 0.25, 0.15 and 0.0 vol.%, the EC value deviates from the trend previously defined, suggesting that the melt is no longer fully interconnected through the sample, also supported by chemical mapping. Our results extend the previous results obtained on mixed system between 1 and 10% of melt. Since the melt appears fully interconnected down to very low melt fraction (0.5 vol.%), we conclude that (i) only 0.5 to 1 vol.% of melt is enough to explain the LAB EC anomaly, lower than previously determined; and (ii) deformation is not mandatory to enhance electrical conductivity of melt-bearing mantle rocks.

  8. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  9. Lead Isotopes in Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for the Geochemical Evolution of the Shergottite Source Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.; Yokoyama, T.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemically-depleted shergottites are basaltic rocks derived from a martian mantle source reservoir. Geochemical evolution of the martian mantle has been investigated mainly based on the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of the shergottites [1]. Although potentially informative, U-Th- Pb isotope systematics have been limited because of difficulties in interpreting the analyses of depleted meteorite samples that are more susceptible to the effects of near-surface processes and terrestrial contamination. This study conducts a 5-step sequential acid leaching experiment of the first witnessed fall of the geochemically-depleted olivinephyric shergottite Tissint to minimize the effect of low temperature distrubence. Trace element analyses of the Tissint acid residue (mostly pyroxene) indicate that Pb isotope compositions of the residue do not contain either a martian surface or terrestrial component, but represent the Tissint magma source [2]. The residue has relatively unradiogenic initial Pb isotopic compositions (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 10.8136) that fall within the Pb isotope space of other geochemically-depleted shergottites. An initial µ-value (238U/204Pb = 1.5) of Tissint at the time of crystallization (472 Ma [3]) is similar to a time-integrated mu- value (1.72 at 472 Ma) of the Tissint source mantle calculated based on the two-stage mantle evolution model [1]. On the other hand, the other geochemically-depleted shergottites (e.g., QUE 94201 [4]) have initial µ-values of their parental magmas distinctly lower than those of their modeled source mantle. These results suggest that only Tissint potentially reflects the geochemical signature of the shergottite mantle source that originated from cumulates of the martian magma ocean

  10. Deformation mechanisms and melt nano-structures in experimentally deformed olivine-orthopyroxene rocks with low melt fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloe, P.A. de

    2001-01-01

    The major part of the Earth’s upper mantle is thought to be solid, with some regions in the mantle where the rocks contain a small melt fraction These partially molten rocks are associated with important geological processes such as magma production beneath mid-oceanic ridges and may also play an

  11. Rate-induced solubility and suppression of the first-order phase transition in olivine LiFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; van Hulzen, Martijn; Singh, Deepak P; Brownrigg, Alex; Wright, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Niels H; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2014-05-14

    The impact of ultrahigh (dis)charge rates on the phase transition mechanism in LiFePO4 Li-ion electrodes is revealed by in situ synchrotron diffraction. At high rates the solubility limits in both phases increase dramatically, causing a fraction of the electrode to bypass the first-order phase transition. The small transforming fraction demonstrates that nucleation rates are consequently not limiting the transformation rate. In combination with the small fraction of the electrode that transforms at high rates, this indicates that higher performances may be achieved by further optimizing the ionic/electronic transport in LiFePO4 electrodes.

  12. Enhanced thermal safety and high power performance of carbon-coated LiFePO4 olivine cathode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Dubé, J.; Dallaire, A.; Galoustov, K.; Guerfi, A.; Ramanathan, M.; Benmayza, A.; Prakash, J.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The carbon-coated LiFePO4 Li-ion oxide cathode was studied for its electrochemical, thermal, and safety performance. This electrode exhibited a reversible capacity corresponding to more than 89% of the theoretical capacity when cycled between 2.5 and 4.0 V. Cylindrical 18,650 cells with carbon-coated LiFePO4 also showed good capacity retention at higher discharge rates up to 5C rate with 99.3% coulombic efficiency, implying that the carbon coating improves the electronic conductivity. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test performed on LiFePO4 18,650 cell indicated the suitability of this carbon-coated LiFePO4 for high power HEV applications. The heat generation during charge and discharge at 0.5C rate, studied using an Isothermal Microcalorimeter (IMC), indicated cell temperature is maintained in near ambient conditions in the absence of external cooling. Thermal studies were also investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC), which showed that LiFePO4 is safer, upon thermal and electrochemical abuse, than the commonly used lithium metal oxide cathodes with layered and spinel structures. Safety tests, such as nail penetration and crush test, were performed on LiFePO4 and LiCoO2 cathode based cells, to investigate on the safety hazards of the cells upon severe physical abuse and damage.

  13. Accommodating High Transformation Strains in Battery Electrodes via the Formation of Nanoscale Intermediate Phases: Operando Investigation of Olivine NaFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kai; Xing, Wenting; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Hong, Liang; Tang, Ming; Li, Zheng; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2017-03-08

    Virtually all intercalation compounds exhibit significant changes in unit cell volume as the working ion concentration varies. Na x FePO 4 (0 topotactic, high-strain systems as it exhibits one of the largest discontinuous volume changes (∼17% by volume) during its first-order transition between two otherwise isostructural phases. Using synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, we discover a new strain-accommodation mechanism wherein a third, amorphous phase forms to buffer the large lattice mismatch between primary phases. The amorphous phase has short-range order over ∼1nm domains that is characterized by a and b parameters matching one crystalline end-member phase and a c parameter matching the other, but is not detectable by powder diffraction alone. We suggest that this strain-accommodation mechanism may generally apply to systems with large transformation strains.

  14. Experimental Determination of Spinel/Melt, Olivine/Melt, and Pyroxene/Melt Partition Coefficients for Re, Ru, Pd, Au, and Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified spinels as important hosts phases for many of the highly siderophile elements (HSE). Yet experimental studies involving chromite or Cr-rich spinel have been lacking. Experimental studies of partitioning of HSEs between silicate, oxides and silicate melt are plagued by low solubilities and the presence of small metallic nuggets at oxygen fugacities relevant to magmas, which interfere with analysis of the phases of interest. We have circumvented these problems in two ways: 1) performing experiments at oxidized conditions, which are still relevant to natural systems but in which nuggets are not observed, and 2) analysis of run products with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), allowing a combination of high sensitivity and good spatial resolution.

  15. Progressive In Situ Reduction of Graphene Oxide Studied by Raman Spectroelectrochemistry: Implications for a Spontaneous Activation of LiFePO4 (Olivine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouša, Milan; Frank, Otakar; Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-61 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene oxide * electrochemical reduction * lithium -ion battery Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2014

  16. Molecular wiring of olivine LiFePO4 by ruthenium(II)-bipyridine complexes and by their assemblies with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Exnar, I.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Graetzel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 23 (2008), s. 8708-8714 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk 1P05OC069; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : molecular wiring * LiFePO4 * carbon nanotube Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.396, year: 2008

  17. Thin film rechargeable electrodes based on conductive blends of nanostructured olivine LiFePO4 and sucrose derived nanocarbons for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P; Jyothsna, U; Nair, Priya; Ravi, Soumya; Balakrishnan, A; Subramanian, K R V; Nair, A Sreekumaran; Nair, V Shantikumar; Sivakumar, N

    2013-08-01

    The present study provides the first reports of a novel approach of electrophoretic co-deposition technique by which titanium foils are coated with LiFePO4-carbon nanocomposites synthesized by sol gel route and processed into high-surface area cathodes for lithium ion batteries. The study elucidates how sucrose additions as carbon source can affect the surface morphology and the redox reaction behaviors underlying these cathodes and thereby enhance the battery performance. The phase and morphological analysis were done using XRD and XPS where the LiFePO4 formed was confirmed to be a high purity orthorhombic system. From the analysis of the relevant electrochemical parameters using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, a 20% increment and 90% decrement in capacity and impedance values were observed respectively. The composite electrodes also exhibited a specific capacity of 130 mA h/g. It has been shown that cathodes based on such composite systems can allow significant room for improvement in the cycling performance at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  18. Density functional theory study of lithium diffusion at the interface between olivine-type LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Zhiguo; Qing Fu, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Coating LiMnPO4 with a thin layer of LiFePO4 shows a better electrochemical performance than the pure LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4, thus it is critical to understand Li diffusion at their interfaces to improve the performance of electrode materials. Li diffusion at the (1 0 0)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(1 0 0)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} , (0 1 0)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(0 1 0)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} , and (0 0 1)\\text{LiFeP{{\\text{O}}4}} //(0 0 1)\\text{LiMnP{{\\text{O}}4}} interfaces between LiFePO4 and LiMnPO4 was investigated using density functional theory. The calculated diffusion energy barriers are 0.55 eV for Li to diffuse along the (0 0 1) interface, 0.44 and 0.49 eV for the Li diffusion inside the LiMnPO4 and along the (1 0 0) interface, respectively. When Li diffuses from the LiFePO4 to LiMnPO4 by passing through the (0 1 0) interfaces, the diffusion barriers are 0.45 and 0.60 eV for the Li diffusions in both sides. The diffusion barriers for Li to diffuse in LiMnPO4 near the interfaces decrease compared with those in the pure LiMnPO4. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Li along the (1 0 0) interface is in the range of 3.65  ×  10-11-5.28  ×  10-12 cm2 s-1, which is larger than that in the pure LiMnPO4 with a value of 7.5  ×  10-14 cm2 s-1. Therefore, the charging/discharging rate performance of the LiMnPO4 can be improved by surface coating with the LiFePO4.

  19. Substitution and diffusion of Cr 2+ and Cr 3+ in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine at 1200–1500 °C and 1 bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, M. C.; O' Neill, H. St. C.; Van Orman, J.; Berry, A. J.; Hermann, J.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The diffusion and substitution mechanisms of Cr in forsterite were studied as a function of crystallographic orientation and the chemical potentials of all four components in the system MgO-SiO2-Cr-O. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) was varied over 15.4 log units at 1400 °C and was fixed at the iron-wüstite equilibrium for a temperature series (1200–1500 °C). The valence state changes of Cr along some diffusion profiles was also investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

  20. Deep pooling of low degree melts and volatile fluxes at the 85°E segment of the Gakkel Ridge: Evidence from olivine-hosted melt inclusions and glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison M.; Behn, Mark D.; Humphris, Susan E.; Sohn, Robert A.; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    We present new analyses of volatile, major, and trace elements for a suite of glasses and melt inclusions from the 85°E segment of the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge. Samples from this segment include limu o pele and glass shards, proposed to result from CO 2-driven explosive activity. The major element and volatile compositions of the melt inclusions are more variable and consistently more primitive than the glass data. CO 2 contents in the melt inclusions extend to higher values (167-1596 ppm) than in the co-existing glasses (187-227 ppm), indicating that the melt inclusions were trapped at greater depths. These melt inclusions record the highest CO 2 melt concentrations observed for a ridge environment. Based on a vapor saturation model, we estimate that the melt inclusions were trapped between seafloor depths (˜ 4 km) and ˜ 9 km below the seafloor. However, the glasses are all in equilibrium with their eruption depths, which is inconsistent with the rapid magma ascent rates expected for explosive activity. Melting conditions inferred from thermobarometry suggest relatively deep (25-40 km) and cold (1240°-1325 °C) melting conditions, consistent with a thermal structure calculated for the Gakkel Ridge. The water contents and trace element compositions of the melt inclusions and glasses are remarkably homogeneous; this is an unexpected result for ultra-slow spreading ridges, where magma mixing is generally thought to be less efficient based on the assumption that steady-state crustal magma chambers are absent in these environments. All melts can be described by a single liquid line of descent originating from a pooled melt composition that is consistent with the aggregate melt calculated from a geodynamic model for the Gakkel Ridge. These data suggest a model in which deep, low degree melts are efficiently pooled in the upper mantle (9-20 km depth), after which crystallization commences and continues during ascent and eruption. Based on our melting model and the assumption that CO 2 is perfectly incompatible, we show that the highest CO 2 concentrations of the melt inclusions (˜ 1600 ppm) are consistent with the calculated CO 2 concentrations of primary undegassed melts. The highest measured CO 2/Nb ratio (443) of Gakkel Ridge melt inclusions predicts a mantle CO 2 content of 134 ppm and would result in a global ridge flux of 2.0 × 10 12 mol CO 2/yr.

  1. Electrochemical performances of LiNi1−xMnxPO4 (x = 0.05–0.2) olivine cathode materials for high voltage rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikprabhu, S.; Karuppasamy, K.; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrated to synthesis of carbon-free lithium nickel phosphate (LiNiPO4) and its analogue of manganese doped LiNi1−xMnxPO4 (x = 0.05–0.2) cathode materials by a facile polyol method and their suitability for use in high voltage lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The physicochemical...

  2. Ordinary chondritic micrometeorites from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Rudraswami, N.G.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.

    spherule has half of the olivines reversely zoned and contain small blebs of almost pure Fe (Fig. 3E, F,G) and the other half of the olivines are normally zoned (i.e., with a Mg-rich core and a Fe-rich rim). This is reverse of the zoned olivines commonly... half of the olivines which are dusty in appearance and the rest of the olivines show normal zoning (Fig .3 F, G). The dusty olivines in this porphyritic spherule contain several large blebs of almost pure Fe (Fig. 3G). Another relict grain...

  3. The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornacki, A.S.; Wood, J.A.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1984-01-01

    The two textural varieties of olivine-rich Allende inclusions consist primarily of a porous, fine-grained mafic constituent that differs from the opaque meteorite matrix of CV3 chondrites by being relatively depleted in sulfides, metal grains, and carbonaceous material. Olivine is the most abundant mineral in Allende inclusion matrix; clinopyroxene, nepheline, sodalite, and Ti-Al-pyroxene occur in lesser amounts. Olivine in unrimmed olivine aggregates is ferrous and has a narrow compositional range. Olivine in rimmed olivine aggregates is, on average, more magnesian, with a wider compositional range. Olivine grains in the granular rims of Type 1B inclusions are zoned, with magnesian cores and ferrous rinds. Ferrous olivines in both varieties of inclusions commonly contain significant amounts of Al 2 O 3 , CaO and TiO 2 , refractory elements that probably occur in submicroscopic inclusions of Ca, Al, Ti-rich glass. Defocussed beam analyses of Allende matrix materials are discussed. (author)

  4. Macro-scale complexity of nano- to micro-scale architecture of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mobile, due to the lack of correlation between the silicon oxide layer and the final olivine particles, leading ... (olivine) systems. .... A branched forsterite crystal system (scale bar = .... therefore, that no template mechanism is operating between.

  5. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ODP Leg 179) of the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge have revealed magnetic properties of the gabbros, olivine gabbros, oxide gabbros and olivine oxide gabbros down the core. Comparison of modal proportions of the oxides, grain sizes ...

  6. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Allende CV3 chondrite: High precision ion microprobe studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; Ushikubo, T.; Nakashima, D.; Kita, N.T.

    grains and some of them were derived from precursors related to refractory inclusions. However, most relict olivine grains show oxygen isotope ratios that overlap with those in homogeneous chondrules. The delta sup(17)O values of four barred olivine...

  7. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Serpentinites exhibit talc veins and major serpentine derived from serpentinization with relict olivine granuloblasts. Olivine grains in serpentinites display exsolution lamellae, indicating the occurrence of talc reduction or decompression during seawater–rock interaction. Pyroxene shows clear cleavage in two directions, with ...

  8. Complete preservation of ophiolite suite from south Andaman, India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ately high specific gravity; serpentinization within this ultramafic cumulate occurs along number of fracture planes. This type of multi-directional fractures form mesh-like structures. Petrographi- cally the ultramafic cumulates are represented by olivine clinopyroxenites and these are composed of clinopyroxene, olivine and ...

  9. Digestion Fractional Crystallisation (DFC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn Howard; Nielsen, T.F.D.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2013-01-01

    High-precision electron microprobe data for major and trace elements (nickel, calcium and manganese) in the margins and rims of groundmass olivine grains from the Majuagaa kimberlite (sensu stricto) in southern West Greenland are presented. Despite a range of olivine core compositions defining...

  10. Silica-poor, mafic alkaline lavas from ocean islands and continents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strongly silica-poor (ne-normative), mafic alkaline lavas generally represented by olivine nephelinites, nephelinites, melilitites, and olivine melilitites have erupted at various locations during Earth's history. On the basis of bulk-rock Mg#, high concentrations of Na2O, TiO2, and K2O, and trace element geochemistry, it has ...

  11. Lower crustal section of the Oman Ophiolite drilled in Hole GT1A, ICDP Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, S.; Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. M.; Coggon, J. A.; Takazawa, E.; Michibayashi, K.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT1A (22° 53.535'N, 58° 30.904'E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into GT1A of the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT1A was diamond cored in 22 Jan to 08 Feb 2017 to a total depth of 403.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. Hole GT1A drilled the lower crustal section in the southern Oman Ophiolite and recovered 401.52 m of total cores (99.6% recovery). The main lithology is dominated by olivine gabbro (65.9%), followed in abundance by olivine-bearing gabbro (21.5%) and olivine melagabbro (3.9%). Minor rock types are orthopyroxene-bearing olivine gabbro (2.4%), oxide-bearing olivine gabbro (1.5%), gabbro (1.1%), anorthositic gabbro (1%), troctolitic gabbro (0.8%); orthopyroxene-bearing gabbro (0.5%), gabbronorite (0.3%); and dunite (0.3%). These rocks are divided into Lithologic Unit I to VII at 26.62 m, 88.16 m, 104.72 m, 154.04 m, 215.22 m, 306.94 m in Chikyu Curated Depth in descending order; Unit I and II consist of medium-grained olivine gabbro with lower olivine abundance in Unit II. Unit III is medium-grained olivine melagabbros, marked by an increase in olivine. Unit IV is relatively homogenous medium-grained olivine gabbros with granular textures. Unit V is identified by the appearance of fine-grained gabbros, but the major rocktypes are medium grained olivine gabbros. Unit VI is medium-grained olivine gabbro, marked by appearance of orthopyroxene. Unit VII

  12. Oxygen isotope and trace element compositions of platiniferous dunite pipes of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa - Signals from a recycled mantle component?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T.; Haase, K. M.; Junge, M.; Oberthür, T.; Woelki, D.; Krumm, S.

    2018-06-01

    Platiniferous dunite pipes occur in the lower mafic/ultramafic portion of the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld large igneous province (LIP). Olivine compositions in these pipes range from forsterite (Fo) 80 to 35 mol% and suggest crystallization from variably evolved magmas at high temperatures ( 1200 °C). The most primitive olivines are from a stock unit and have the highest contents of Ni (>0.15 wt%) and lowest contents of Mn (formation of the fayalitic olivines with its high Mn contents (>0.3 wt%). High δ18O values of olivine (5.7-7.0‰) and pyroxene (6.7-7.4‰) are akin to those of the Lower and Critical Zone of the Bushveld intrusion suggesting a common origin. The constant high O isotope ratios with variable Fo contents in the olivines are unlike trends observed in olivine phenocrysts in magmas forming by assimilation-fractional crystallization. We suggest that the high δ18O in the most primitive dunites reflect that of the primary melt of the Bushveld pipes, indicating either a bulk assimilation of crust prior to pipe formation or a contribution from recycled oceanic crust in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The latter scenario is supported by the high Ni/Mn ratios in primitive pipe olivine that might be inherited from melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle source.

  13. Impact of trace element additives on anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge with in-situ carbon dioxide sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, Jessica L.; Shen, Yanwen; Schoene, Robin P.; Nguyen, Maximilian; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem; Snyder, Seth W.

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of sludge at wastewater treatment plants can benefit from addition of essential trace metals such as iron, nickel and cobalt to increase biogas production for utilization in combined heat and power systems, fed into natural gas pipelines or as a vehicle fuel. This study evaluated the impact and benefits of Ni/Co and olivine addition to the digester at mesophilic temperatures. These additions supplement previously reported research in which iron-rich olivine (MgSiO4) was added to sequester CO2 in-situ during batch AD of sludge. Trace element addition has been shown to stimulate and stabilize biogas production and have a synergistic effect on the mineral carbonation process. AD with 5% w/v olivine and 1.5 mg/L Ni/Co addition had a 17.3% increase in methane volume, a 6% increase in initial exponential methane production rate and a 56% increase in methane yield (mL CH4/g CODdegraded) compared to the control due to synergistic trace element and olivine addition while maintaining 17.7% CO2 sequestration from olivine addition. Both first-order kinetic modeling and response surface methodology modeling confirmed the combined benefit of the trace elements and olivine addition. These results were significantly higher than previously reported results with olivine addition alone [1].

  14. Constraints on the Parental Melts of Enriched Shergottites from Image Analysis and High Pressure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Peslier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian basalts can be classified in at least two geochemically different families: enriched and depleted shergottites. Enriched shergottites are characterized by higher incompatible element concentrations and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and lower initial Nd-143/Nd-144 and Hf-176/Hf-177 than depleted shergottites [e.g. 1, 2]. It is now generally admitted that shergottites result from the melting of at least two distinct mantle reservoirs [e.g. 2, 3]. Some of the olivine-phyric shergottites (either depleted or enriched), the most magnesian Martian basalts, could represent primitive melts, which are of considerable interest to constrain mantle sources. Two depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, Yamato (Y) 980459 and Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789, are in equilibrium with their most magnesian olivine (Fig. 1) and their bulk rock compositions are inferred to represent primitive melts [4, 5]. Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 [3, 6, 7] and NWA 1068 [8], the most magnesian enriched basalts, have bulk Mg# that are too high to be in equilibrium with their olivine megacryst cores. Parental melt compositions have been estimated by subtracting the most magnesian olivine from the bulk rock composition, assuming that olivine megacrysts have partially accumulated [3, 9]. However, because this technique does not account for the actual petrography of these meteorites, we used image analysis to study these rocks history, reconstruct their parent magma and understand the nature of olivine megacrysts.

  15. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromian spinel; detrital sand; ophiolites; Andaman Island; India. J. Earth Syst. .... (olivine: ol) inclusion; (e) peridotitic spinel with extensive fracturing; and (f) heavily altered rim of a peridotitic spinel. ..... The authors acknowledge the financial.

  16. Significance of Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    1 School of Studies in Geology and Water Resource Management, .... In few cases, complete alteration of olivine grains either to ..... Hari KR, Nambiar CG, Furuyama K and Rai SK 2002 Some geochemical and petrogenetic relations between ...

  17. CSAMT investigations of the Caferbeyli (Manisa/Turkey) geothermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geothermal energy is the accumulation of heat energy as hot ... of this study was to delineate the fracture zones in ... southern margin of the basin has been raised along ... Quaternary continental sequence with alkali olivine ..... Turkish Petrol.

  18. Mineral chemistry of Carlsberg Ridge basalts at 3 degrees 35'- 3 degrees 41' N

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.

    (approximately 91 mole %) are few and rarely zoned. The composition of plagioclase and olivine indicate low pressure equilibrium crystallization. The basalts were probably derived through fractional crystallization at shallow depths under low partial melting...

  19. Silicate emission feature in the spectrum of comet Mueller 1993a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Martha S.; Hackwell, John A.; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.

    1994-01-01

    An 8- to 13-micron spectrum of comet Mueller 1993a, a dynamically new comet, was acquired when the comet was at R = 2 AU. Strong, structured silicate emission is present, closely resembling that seen in Comet P/Halley at smaller R. For the first time in a new comet, the 11.2-micron peak of crystalline olivine was detected, demonstrating that crystalline olivine particles were widespread in the solar nebula. Crystalline olivine particles could have formed in the inner protosolar nebula at temperatures greater than 1200 K; extensive radial mixing would have been required to transport these grains to the region of comet formation. Either there was more radial mixing in the solar nebula than some current theories predict or the olivine grains have a presolar origin.

  20. Laboratory duplication of comb layering in the Rhum pluton. [igneous rocks with comb layered texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is provided of the texture of harrisite comb layers, taking into account the results of crystallization experiments at controlled cooling rates, which have reproduced the textural change from 'cumulate' to comb-layered harrisite. Melted samples of harrisite were used in the dynamic crystallization experiments considered. The differentiation of a cooling rate run with respect to olivine grain size and shape is shown and three possible origins of hopper olivine in differentiated crystallization runs are considered. It is found that olivine nucleation occurred throughout cooling, except for the incubation period during early cooling. The elongate combed olivines in harrisite apparently grew as the magma locally supercooled to at least 30 C. It is suggested that the branching crystals in most comb layers, including comb-layered harrisite, probably grew along thermal gradients.

  1. The physical properties of coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FORMATION KIMBERLITE LAMPROPHYRE LAVA LIMESTONE LUTACEOUS ARENITE LUTITE MAGNETITE METAMORPHIC ROCKS MONZONITE NORITE OLIVINE GABBRO PLUTONIC ROCKS PYROCLASTIC BRECCIA PYROXENITE QUARTZ DIORITE RHYOLITE RUDITE SAND SEDIMENTARY SILCRETE SILICICLASTIC SEDIMENT...

  2. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on electron microprobe analyses of three CO chondrites, all of which are falls: Lance, Kainsaz, and Warrenton. The TEM mineralogy results of Lance chondrite show that Fe-rich matrix olivines have been altered to Fe-bearing serpentine and Fe(3+) oxide; matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe(3+) oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance's matrix contain channels along their 100-line and 001-line directions; the formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. A study of Kainsaz and Warrenton showed that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe(3+) oxide between olivine grains. It is suggested that, prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite.

  3. Silicate petrography and origin of the mesosiderites: a preliminary investigation of their relationships to the howardite-eurite-diogenite suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floran, R. J

    1978-04-01

    Results are reported from a petrographic study of 20 mesosiderites that reveals that most contain a complex assemblage of mineral, lithic, and metal clasts. Mineral fragments dominate the clast population and consist primarily of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine.

  4. The Nature, Origin, and Importance of Carbonate-Bearing Samples at the Final Three Candidate Mars 2020 Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, B.; Anderson, R. B.; Ruff, S. W.

    2018-04-01

    All three candidate Mars 2020 landing sites contain similar regional olivine/carbonate units, and a carbonate unit of possible lacustrine origin is also present at Jezero. Carbonates are critical for Mars Sample Return as records of climate and biosignatures.

  5. A note on incipient spilitisation of central Indian basin basalts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Iyer, S.D.

    Rocks dredged in the vicinity of the 79 degrees E fracture zone, in the Central Indian Basin, are sub-alkaline basalts, which are regarded as precursors to spilites. The minerals identified are mainly albitic plagioclase, augite, olivine, and less...

  6. Serpentinite with and without brucite: A reaction pathway analysis of a natural serpentinite in the Josephine ophiolite, California

    OpenAIRE

    Sonzogni, Yann; Treiman, Allan H.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.

    2017-01-01

    A partially serpentinized peridotite from the Josephine ophiolite has been studied in detail in order to characterize the chemical processes of its serpentinization. The original rock was harzburgite, and its olivine and orthopyroxene are partially replaced by veins and patches of lizardite serpentine and magnetite; brucite and talc are completely absent from the serpentinite, regardless of whether the precursor mineral was olivine or pyroxene. Petrographic and mineral-chemical data suggest a...

  7. Laboratory-scale model of carbon dioxide deposition for soil stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamed Fasihnikoutalab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olivine sand is a natural mineral, which, when added to soil, can improve the soil's mechanical properties while also sequester carbon dioxide (CO2 from the surrounding environment. The originality of this paper stems from the novel two-stage approach. In the first stage, natural carbonation of olivine and carbonation of olivine treated soil under different CO2 pressures and times were investigated. In this stage, the unconfined compression test was used as a tool to evaluate the strength performance. In the second stage, details of the installation and performance of carbonated olivine columns using a laboratory-scale model were investigated. In this respect, olivine was mixed with the natural soil using the auger and the columns were then carbonated with gaseous CO2. The unconfined compressive strengths of soil in the first stage increased by up to 120% compared to those of the natural untreated soil. The strength development was found to be proportional to the CO2 pressure and carbonation period. Microstructural analyses indicated the presence of magnesite on the surface of carbonated olivine-treated soil, demonstrating that modified physical properties provided a stronger and stiffer matrix. The performance of the carbonated olivine-soil columns, in terms of ultimate bearing capacity, showed that the carbonation procedure occurred rapidly and yielded a bearing capacity value of 120 kPa. Results of this study are of significance to the construction industry as the feasibility of carbonated olivine for strengthening and stabilizing soil is validated. Its applicability lies in a range of different geotechnical applications whilst also mitigates the global warming through the sequestration of CO2.

  8. Condiciones de cristalización y diferenciación de las lavas del volcán El Metate (Campo Volcánico de Michoacán-Guanajuato, México)

    OpenAIRE

    Losantos, Emma; Cebriá Gómez, J. M.; Morán-Zenteno, D. J.; Martiny, B. M.; López Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    El Metate is a shield volcano located in the southern sector of the Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, one of two largest monogenetic volcanic fields of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. It was active c. 4.700 ± 200 years B.P and emitted about fifteen calcalkaline lava flows showing variable differentiation degrees. Temperatures calculated from mineral-liquid geothermobarometers for olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene, suggest that olivine was the earliest fractionating phase (1232–1198 °C)...

  9. Yamato 980459: Crystallization of Martian Magnesian Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, E.; Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.; Monkawa, A.; Chokai, J.; Miyamoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several basaltic shergottites have been found that include magnesian olivines as a major minerals. These have been called olivinephyric shergottites. Yamato 980459, which is a new martian meteorite recovered from the Antarctica by the Japanese Antarctic expedition, is one of them. This meteorite is different from other olivine-phyric shergottites in several key features and will give us important clues to understand crystallization of martian meteorites and the evolution of Martian magma.

  10. Search for far transuranic elements in galactic comic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.; Lkhagvasuren, D.; Otgonsuren, O.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Yakupi, B.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results on the search for the tracks of far transuranic elements of the galactic origin in olivine crystals from Marjalahti meteorite are presented. A total af 174 mm 3 of olivines taken from the surface layers of the meteorite and 60 mm 3 taken from its inner parts have been examined. The upper limit of the abundance of the Z >= 110 nuclei has been established to be -9 of the abundance of the Fe group nuclei. (orig.) [de

  11. Melt Inclusion Analysis of RBT 04262 with Relationship to Shergottites and Mars Surface Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. A.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Martian meteorite RBT 04262 is in the shergottite class. It displays the two lithologies typically found in "lherzolitic shergottites": one with a poikilitic texture of large pyroxene enclosing olivine and another with non-poikilitic texture. In the case of RBT 04262, the latter strongly ressembles an olivine- phyric shergottite which led the initial classification of this meteorite in that class. RBT 04262 has been studied with regards to its petrology, geochemistry and cosmic ray exposure and belongs to the enriched oxidized end-member of the shergottites. Studies on RBT 04262 have primarily focused on the bulk rock composition or each of the lithologies independently. To further elucidate RBT 04262's petrology and use it to better understand Martian geologic history, an in-depth study of its melt inclusions (MI) is being conducted. The MI chosen for this study are found within olivine grains. MI are thought to be trapped melts of the crystallizing magma preserved by the encapsulating olivine and offer snapshots of the composition of the magma as it evolves. Some MI, in the most Mg-rich part of the olivine of olivine-pyric shergottites, may even be representative of the meteorite parent melt.

  12. Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite: A transmission electron microscope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.P.; Buseck, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite (CC) is less altered than the CI and CM chondrites and so provides a view of the mineralogy and textures resulting from the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of CCs. Matrix olivine in Lance has been partly altered to fine-grained, Fe-bearing serpentine and poorly crystalline Fe 3+ oxide, a process that required both hydration and oxidation. Serpentine occurs as discrete packets separated from the olivine surfaces by the Fe 3+ oxide. The Fe released during the dissolution of olivine was partly incorporated into the serpentine; the remainder was oxidized to form Fe 3+ oxide. Matrix metal was also altered to produce Fe oxides, leaving the residual metal enriched in Ni. Olivine grains in Lance matrix contain channels along their [100] and [001] directions. The formation and convergence of such channels resulted in a grain-size reduction of the olivine. The alteration was pervasive but incomplete, suggesting a limited availability of fluid. A brief study of two other CO chondrites, Kainsaz and Warrenton, shows that these meteorites do not contain phyllosilicates in their matrices, although both contain Fe 3+ oxide between olivine grains. Prior to its alteration, Lance probably resembled Kainsaz, an unaltered CO3 chondrite. The alteration assemblage in Lance is only slightly different from that in Mokoia and essentially the same as that in C3 xenoliths from Murchison. Alteration products in Lance show greater similarities to CI than to CM chondrites

  13. Deformation fabrics of the Cima di Gagnone peridotite massif, Central Alps, Switzerland: evidence of deformation at low temperatures in the presence of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Philip; Katayama, Ikuo; Karato, Shun-Ichiro

    2006-07-01

    We report a new observation of the olivine B-type lattice-preferred orientation (LPO), from the garnet peridotite at Cima di Gagnone, Switzerland. The olivine B-type fabric forms at low temperatures and/or high stress in the presence of water, and is of particular interest because it may be used to explain the trench-parallel shear-wave splitting that is often observed at subduction zones. In conjunction with the olivine B-type fabric, we have found strong orthopyroxene LPO that is identical to those formed under water-free conditions. This suggests that water may not have a significant effect on orthopyroxene fabric. From the olivine microstructure, we determine that a stress of 22 ± 8 MPa was applied during the deformation event that formed the olivine LPO. Using an olivine flow-law, and assuming geological strain-rates, we determine the temperature of deformation to be 800 ± 175°C. This does not preclude an ultra-deep origin for the ultramafic rocks at Cima di Gagnone, but indicates that much of the deformation recorded in the microstructure occurred at modest temperatures.

  14. Chromite symplectites in Mg-suite troctolite 76535 as evidence for infiltration metasomatism of a lunar layered intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2012-06-01

    Despite the very low chromium concentrations in its cumulus olivine (˜140 ppm), lunar troctolite 76535 contains large amounts of Cr sporadically, but highly concentrated, in symplectite assemblages consisting of Mg-Al-chromite and two pyroxenes. Previously proposed symplectite formation mechanisms include crystallization of trapped interstitial melt, diffusion of Cr from cumulus olivine, and/or remobilization of cumulus chromite grains. These mechanisms would imply that the highly Cr-depleted nature of Mg-suite parental magmas and their source materials inferred from cumulus olivine may be illusory. We have conducted a detailed petrologic and textural study of symplectites, as well as chromite veins, intercumulus assemblages, olivine-hosted melt inclusions and clinopyroxene-troilite veins in 76535 with the goals of constraining the origin of the symplectites, and the degree of Cr-depletion in Mg-suite magmas relative to other lunar basalts. Orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in melt inclusions are depleted in Cr relative to their symplectite counterparts, averaging 900 and 1200 ppm vs. 7400 and 8100 ppm Cr2O3, respectively. Olivine in contact with symplectite assemblages may exhibit a diffusion profile of Cr going into olivine, whereas olivine boundaries away from symplectites show no diffusion profile. There is also a distinct lack of primary chromite as inclusions in cumulus phases and melt inclusions. Multiple textural observations, melt inclusion chemistry, and modeling of chromite-olivine equilibrium rule out previously proposed symplectite formation mechanisms, and strongly suggest that chromite was not a primary crystallization product of the 76535 parental magma. Accordingly, the post-cumulus addition of Cr and Fe is required to produce the symplectites. After considering multiple models, the addition of Cr and Fe to 76535 via infiltration metasomatism by an exogenous chromite-saturated melt is the model most consistent with multiple textural and geochemical

  15. The Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites: A new grouplet with high. Delta. sup 17 O and evidence for nebular oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, M.K. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States) Brooklyn Coll., NY (United States)); Prinz, M. (American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)); Kojima, Hideyasu; Yanai, Keizo (National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan)); Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Carlisle Lakes, ALH85151, and Y75302 are similar ungrouped chondrites which have petrologic and bulk compositional similarities to the ordinary chondrites, but are more oxidized; and their oxygen isotopic compositions differ. They represent a new grouplet which the authors call the Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites. They have the highest {Delta}{sup 17}O values (up to 2.91) measured to date. The whole chondrites and most of their chondrules plot on the same mass fractionation line on an oxygen 3-isotope diagram. They are olivine rich (>70 vol%), essentially metal free, and most olivine is FeO rich, equilibrated at Fa{sub 38}. Rare olivine and pyroxene grains in chondrules and fragments are zoned, and these are important in discerning the history of these chondrites. The zoning does not appear to have formed during crystallization from a melt droplet chondrule, but post-dated chondrule formation. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain the zoning: (1) parent-body thermal metamorphism and (2) nebular gas-solid exchange reactions accompanied by condensation of new FeO-rich olivine, utilizing existing olivine surfaces as nucleation sites. The occurrence of steep Fe-Mg compositional gradients of core-to-rim profiles, oscillatory zoning in olivine, fayalitic rims of Fa{sub 45} that exceed instead of approach the equilibrium composition of the matrix (Fa{sub 38}), and olivine-filled veins in zoned pyroxenes are more compatible with the nebular hypothesis. The Carlisle Lakes-type chondrites may have originally been derived from an ordinary chondrite-like precursor which was later oxidized, prior to its final lithification. However, the oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole chondrites and most of their chondrules suggest that the precursor probably formed in an oxygen isotopically distinct environment.

  16. Seismic anisotropies of the Songshugou peridotites (Qinling orogen, central China) and their seismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Though extensively studied, the roles of olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPOs or fabrics) in affecting the seismic anisotropies in the Earth's upper mantle are rather complicated and still not fully known. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by analyzing the seismic anisotropies [e.g., P-wave anisotropy (AVp), S-wave polarization anisotropy (AVs), radial anisotropy (ξ), and Rayleigh wave anisotropy (G)] of the Songshugou peridotites (dunite dominated) in the Qinling orogen in central China, based on our previously reported olivine CPOs. The seismic anisotropy patterns of olivine aggregates in our studied samples are well consistent with the prediction for their olivine CPO types; and the magnitude of seismic anisotropies shows a striking positive correlation with equilibrium pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions. Significant reductions of seismic anisotropies (AVp, max. AVs, and G) are observed in porphyroclastic dunite compared to coarse- and fine-grained dunites, as the results of olivine CPO transition (from A-/D-type in coarse-grained dunite, through AG-type-like in porphyroclastic dunite, to B-type-like in fine-grained dunite) and strength variation (weakening: A-/D-type → AG-type-like; strengthening: AG-type-like → B-type-like) during dynamic recrystallization. The transition of olivine CPOs from A-/D-type to B-/AG-type-like in the forearc mantle may weaken the seismic anisotropies and deviate the fast velocity direction and the fast S-wave polarization direction from trench-perpendicular to trench-oblique direction with the cooling and aging of forearc mantle. Depending on the size and distribution of the peridotite body such as the Songshugou peridotites, B- and AG-type-like olivine CPOs can be an additional (despite minor) local contributor to the orogen-parallel fast velocity direction and fast shear-wave polarization direction in the orogenic crust such as in the Songshugou area in Qinling orogen.

  17. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Frediano; Gilio, Mattia; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2014-04-01

    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP is an orogenic peridotite containing a well developed penetrative compositional layering, defined by highly depleted dunite with olivine Mg# (100 × Mg/Mg + Fe) of 92.0-93.5 and harzburgite with lower Mg# (91.0-92.5). Dunite is characterized by three contrasting olivine microstructures formed in response to different tectonometamorphic events: Coarse-grained, highly strained olivine porphyroclasts (M1) up to 20 cm long are surrounded by dynamically recrystallized olivine grains (M2) defining a characteristic olivine "foam" microstructure (grain size: 200-2000 μm). An olivine "mortar" (M3) microstructure (10-50 μm) forms a penetrative fabric element only in strongly localized, cm-to-m sized shear zones that crosscut earlier structures/foliations. Olivine fabric analysis in synergy, with mineralogical and chemical analyses, reveals that the KSP body represents old, possibly Archean, sub-continental lithospheric mantle that was crustally emplaced into the Caledonian tectonic edifice from the hanging wall mantle during exhumation of the subducted Seve Nappe Complex (Jämtlandian orogeny ~ 454 Ma). Olivine porphyroclasts (M1) grew at high temperature during dominant isobaric cooling after extensive polybaric melt extraction (> 40%) and subsequent refertilization. The onset of the early Caledonian deformation is interpreted to be related to the crustal emplacement of the KSP during eduction of the SNC. This phase is characterized by the development of the olivine M2 foam microstructure, formed at 650-830 °C/1-2 GPa by dislocation creep processes producing an E-type CPO's by the operation of the [100](001) and subordinate [001](100) slip systems with operating flow stress

  18. The Miller Range 090340 and 090206 meteorites: Identification of new brachinite-like achondrites with implications for the diversity and petrogenesis of the brachinite clan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Kita, Noriko T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Wirick, Sue; Gross, Juliane

    2017-05-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 090340 and MIL 090206 are olivine-rich achondrites originally classified as ureilites. We investigate their petrography, mineral compositions, olivine Cr valences, equilibration temperatures, and (for MIL 090340) oxygen isotope compositions, and compare them with ureilites and other olivine-rich achondrites. We conclude that they are brachinite-like achondrites that provide new insights into the petrogenesis of brachinite clan meteorites. MIL 090340,6 has a granoblastic texture and consists of 97 modal % by area olivine (Fo = molar Mg/[Mg+Fe] = 71.3 ± 0.6). It also contains minor to trace augite, chromite, chlorapatite, orthopyroxene, metal, troilite, and terrestrial Fe-oxides. Approximately 80% by area of MIL 090206,5 has a granoblastic texture of olivine (Fo 72.3 ± 0.1) plus minor augite and chromite, similar to MIL 090340 but also containing minor plagioclase. The rest of the section consists of a single crystal of orthopyroxene ( 11 × 3 mm), poikilitically enclosing rounded grains of olivine (Fo = 76.1 ± 0.6), augite, chromite, metal, and sulfide. Equilibration temperatures for MIL 090340 and MIL 090206, calculated from olivine-spinel, olivine-augite, and two-pyroxene thermometry range from 800 to 930 °C. In both samples, symplectic intergrowths of Ca-poor orthopyroxene + opaque phases (Fe-oxides, sulfide, metal) occur as rims on and veins/patches within olivine. Before terrestrial weathering, the opaques were probably mostly sulfide, with minor metal. All petrologic properties of MIL 090340 and MIL 090206 are consistent with those of brachinite clan meteorites, and largely distinct from those of ureilites. Oxygen isotope compositions of olivine in MIL 090340 (δ18O = 5.08 ± 0.30‰, δ17O = 2.44 ± 0.21‰, and Δ17O = -0.20 ± 0.12‰) are also within the range of brachinite clan meteorites, and well distinguished from ureilites. Olivine Cr valences in MIL 090340 and the granoblastic area of MIL 090206 are 2.57 ± 0.06 and 2.59 ± 0

  19. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste-13100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  20. Degradation of Dome Cutting Minerals in Hanford Waste - 13100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Cooke, Gary A.; Huber, Heinz J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. Box 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg. C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high

  1. Two stage melt-rock interaction in the lower oceanic crust of the Parece Vela basin (Philippine sea), evidence from the primitive troctolites from the Godzilla Megamullion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Dick, H. J.; Ohara, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Godzilla Megamullion is a giant oceanic core complex exposed in an extinct slow- to intermediate-spreading segment of the Parece Vela Basin (Philippine sea) [1; 2]. It exposes lower crust and mantle rocks on the sea-floor, offering a unique opportunity to unravel the architecture and the composition of the lower oceanic lithosphere of an extinct back arc basin. Here we present data on primitive troctolites and associated olivine-gabbros from the breakaway area of the Godzilla Megamullion. On the basis of the olivine/plagioclase volume ratio, the troctolites are subdivided into Ol-troctolites (Ol/Pl >1) and Pl-troctolites (Ol/Plthe olivine and a melt crystallizing plagioclase and clinopyroxene. We interpret these rocks as reaction products of a dunite matrix with transient basaltic melts [e.g. 3; 4]. Pl-troctolites have euhedral plagioclase and poikilitic olivine and clinopyroxene. Irregular shapes and inverse zoning of the plagioclase chadacrysts within the olivine indicate disequilibrium between existing plagioclase and an olivine-clinopyroxene saturated melt. The occurrence of plagioclase chadacrysts within clinopyroxene ranging from irregular to euhedral in shape suggests crystallization of new lower-Na plagioclase with the clinopyroxene. Olivine oikocrysts in the Pl-troctolites have low-NiO olivine in equilibrium with a high-MgO melt. The Pl-troctolites, then, may be the product of reaction between a plagioclase cumulate and a basaltic melt produced by mixing the high-MgO melt residual to the formation of the Ol-troctolites with new magma. The effect of melt-rock reaction in the Pl- and Ol- troctolites explains the sharp decrease in plagioclase An with respect to Mg# in clinopyroxene and olivine. Furthermore, the melt is shifted towards lower Na, which is consistent with the low Na8 values of the associated MORB glasses (2.4-2.7 wt %). Our results, then, show that melt-rock interaction was a process active in the lower oceanic crust of the Parece Vela basin and

  2. Northwest Africa 5790: Revisiting nakhlite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Sautter, V.; Barrat, J.-A.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Boudouma, O.; Badia, D.; Devouard, B.

    2016-10-01

    Northwest Africa 5790, the latest nakhlite find, is composed of 58 vol.% augite, 6% olivine and 36% vitrophyric intercumulus material. Its petrology is comparable to previously discovered nakhlites but with key differences: (1) Augite cores display an unusual zoning between Mg# 54 and 60; (2) Olivine macrocrysts have a primary Fe-rich core composition (Mg# = 35); (3) The modal proportion of mesostasis is the highest ever described in a nakhlite; (4) It is the most magnetite-rich nakhlite, together with MIL 03346, and exhibits the least anisotropic fabric. Complex primary zoning in cumulus augite indicates resorption due to complex processes such as remobilization of former cumulates in a new magma batch. Textural relationships indicate unambiguously that olivine was growing around resorbed augite, and that olivine growth was continuous while pyroxene growth resumed at a final stage. Olivine core compositions (Mg# = 35) are out of equilibrium with the augite core compositions (Mg# 60-63) and with the previously inferred nakhlite parental magma (Mg# = 29). The presence of oscillatory zoning in olivine and augite precludes subsolidus diffusion that could have modified olivine compositions. NWA 5790 evidences at least two magma batches before eruption, with the implication that melt in equilibrium with augite cores was never in contact with olivine. Iddingsite is absent. Accordingly, the previous scenarios for nakhlite petrogenesis must be revised. The first primary parent magmas of nakhlites generated varied augite cumulates at depth (Mg# 66-60) as they differentiated to different extents. A subsequent more evolved magma batch entrained accumulated augite crystals to the surface where they were partly resorbed while olivine crystallized. Trace element variations indicate unambiguously that they represent consanguineous but different magma batches. The compositional differences among the various nakhlites suggest a number of successive lava flows. To account for all

  3. Studies on New Halfa Meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdu, Y.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Mossbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range (295 deg K - 4.2 deg K), electron microprobe, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have been carried out for the investigation of a Sudanese meteorite, named New Halfa, from a new fall. The specimen contains well defined chondrules which consist mainly of radiating orthopyroxene and olivine. The XRD and the microprobe analysis show the presence of the silicate phases (olivine and pyroxene), iron sulphide (troilite), and Fe-Ni alloys (kamacite and taenite). The olivine appears to have a constant composition throughout the specimen, whereas pyroxene have a varying composition and both orthopyroxene (which is the dominant pyroxene) and clinopyroxene were present. The microprobe trace of Ni concentration across a kamacite-taenite-kamacite area shows a high Ni concentration at the interface between kamacite and taenite phases. The room temperature Mossbauer spectrum is fitted with with three sextets and two doublets. The sextets were assigned Fe in troilite, kamacite and taenite, and the two doublets to Fe 2+ in olivine and pyroxene (no Fe 3+ was found). The Mossbauer spectrum at 4.2 K shows that olivine, which is paramagnetic at room temperature, is magnetic showing relaxation effects. The Mossbauer data of this meteorite confirm it as an ordinary L-chondrite. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs

  4. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  5. Model of wet chemical etching of swift heavy ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, S. A.; Malakhov, A. I.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A model of wet chemical etching of tracks of swift heavy ions (SHI) decelerated in solids in the electronic stopping regime is presented. This model takes into account both possible etching modes: etching controlled by diffusion of etchant molecules to the etching front, and etching controlled by the rate of a reaction of an etchant with a material. Olivine ((Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4) crystals were chosen as a system for modeling. Two mechanisms of chemical activation of olivine around the SHI trajectory are considered. The first mechanism is activation stimulated by structural transformations in a nanometric track core, while the second one results from neutralization of metallic atoms by generated electrons spreading over micrometric distances. Monte-Carlo simulations (TREKIS code) form the basis for the description of excitations of the electronic subsystem and the lattice of olivine in an SHI track at times up to 100 fs after the projectile passage. Molecular dynamics supplies the initial conditions for modeling of lattice relaxation for longer times. These simulations enable us to estimate the effects of the chemical activation of olivine governed by both mechanisms. The developed model was applied to describe chemical activation and the etching kinetics of tracks of Au 2.1 GeV ions in olivine. The estimated lengthwise etching rate (38 µm · h-1) is in reasonable agreement with that detected in the experiments (24 µm · h-1).

  6. Gabbroic lithologies of the dike-gabbro transition, Hole GT3A, Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, A. P. M.; Koepke, J.; Morishita, T.; Beinlich, A.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Greenberger, R. N.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT3A intersects 400 m of oceanic crust providing unique insight into the dike-gabbro transition and the variability of the high level gabbros in the Samail ophiolite. Olivine gabbro and olivine bearing gabbro occur exclusively within the Upper Gabbro Sequence (16 % thickness; 111.02 m - 127.89 m) whereas oxide gabbro and disseminated oxide gabbro represent ca 5 % of the Lower Gabbro Sequence (233.84 m - 398.21 m). Gabbro with less than 1 vol. % olivine and oxide is the most common lithology in both Gabbro Sequences (10-13 %). Most gabbroic rocks were classified as "varitextured" due to textural and grain size macroscopic variations forming irregular domains/patches. Varitextured gabbros are medium-grained (1-5 mm), with seriate grain size distribution and subophitic/poikilitic to granular textural domains. Poikilitic domains comprise clinopyroxene with plagioclase chadacrysts, whereas in granular domains plagioclase interstices are filled by green-brown magmatic hornblende; plagioclase is zoned in both domains. Olivine (bearing) gabbros have 4-8 mm skeletal olivine pseudomorphs with roundish inclusions of chromite and plagioclase. Oxide (disseminated) gabbros comprise variable amounts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, Oman paleo ridge.

  7. Visible and ultraviolet (800--130 nm) extinction of vapor-condensed silicate, carbon, and silicon carbide smokes and the interstellar extinction curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The extinction curves from 800 to 130 nm (1.25--7.7 μm -1 ) of amorphous silicate smokes nominally of olivine and pyroxene composition, carbon smokes, and crystalline SiC smokes are presented. The SiC smoke occurred in the low-temperature (β) cubic structural form. The mean grain radius ranged from 5 to 13 nm. The extinction profiles of the amorphous olivine smokes were similar in the ultraviolet to the measured extinction curves of crystalline olivine of nearly the same grain size. The SiC smoke showed an absorption edge which occurred at significantly longer wavelengths than the calculated extinction profile of the hexagonal SiC form previously used to calculate the interstellar extinction profile. Neither SiC nor amorphous silicates show an extinction band similar to the observed 6.6 μm -1 astronomical extinction band

  8. The parent magma of the nakhlite meteorites - Clues from melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Several forms of trapped liquid found within nakhlite meteorites have been examined, including interstitial melt and magmatic inclusions within the cores of large olivine grains. Differences in the mineralogy and texture between two types of trapped melt inclusions, and between these inclusions and the mesostasis, indicate that vitrophyric inclusions are most appropriate for estimating the composition of a nakhlite parental magma in equilibrium with early-forming olivine and augite. Parent liquids were calculated from the mineralogy of large inclusions in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, using a system of mass-balance equations solved by linear regression methods. The chosen parental liquids were cosaturated in olivine and augite and had Mg/Fe values consistent with measured augite/liquid Kds. These parental magma compositions are similar to other published compositions for Nakhla, Chassigny, and Shergotty parental melts, and may correspond to a significant magma type on Mars.

  9. Intracrystalline cation order in a lunar crustal troctolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar sample 76535 appears to be one of the most slowly cooled bits of silicate material yet studied. It provides, therefore, a unique opportunity for the study of ordering processes in the minerals present. A better understanding of these processes may permit better characterization of the thermal history of this and similar rocks. The cation ordering in the olivine is consistent with terrestrial olivines favoring the interpretation that ordering in olivines increases with increasing temperature. In low bronzite, the deviations from the common orthopyroxene space group appear to be caused by cation order on the basis of four M sites instead of two. The degree of cation order in each of these minerals is consistent with the rock having been excavated from its depth of formation by tectonic or impact processes without being reheated above 300 C.

  10. The production of iron oxide during peridotite serpentinization: Influence of pyroxene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serpentinization produces molecular hydrogen (H2 that can support communities of microorganisms in hydrothermal fields; H2 results from the oxidation of ferrous iron in olivine and pyroxene into ferric iron, and consequently iron oxide (magnetite or hematite forms. However, the mechanisms that control H2 and iron oxide formation are poorly constrained. In this study, we performed serpentinization experiments at 311 °C and 3.0 kbar on olivine (with <5% pyroxene, orthopyroxene, and peridotite. The results show that serpentine and iron oxide formed when olivine and orthopyroxene individually reacted with a saline starting solution. Olivine-derived serpentine had a significantly lower FeO content (6.57 ± 1.30 wt.% than primary olivine (9.86 wt.%, whereas orthopyroxene-derived serpentine had a comparable FeO content (6.26 ± 0.58 wt.% to that of primary orthopyroxene (6.24 wt.%. In experiments on peridotite, olivine was replaced by serpentine and iron oxide. However, pyroxene transformed solely to serpentine. After 20 days, olivine-derived serpentine had a FeO content of 8.18 ± 1.56 wt.%, which was significantly higher than that of serpentine produced in olivine-only experiments. By contrast, serpentine after orthopyroxene had a slightly higher FeO content (6.53 ± 1.01 wt.% than primary orthopyroxene. Clinopyroxene-derived serpentine contained a significantly higher FeO content than its parent mineral. After 120 days, the FeO content of olivine-derived serpentine decreased significantly (5.71 ± 0.35 wt.%, whereas the FeO content of orthopyroxene-derived serpentine increased (6.85 ± 0.63 wt.% over the same period. This suggests that iron oxide preferentially formed after olivine serpentinization. Pyroxene in peridotite gained some Fe from olivine during the serpentinization process, which may have led to a decrease in iron oxide production. The correlation between FeO content and SiO2 or Al2O3 content in olivine- and

  11. Crystal preferred orientations of minerals from mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks form the Catalan Volcanic Zone (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks from the Catalan Volcanic Zone, associated with the Neogene-Quaternary rift system in NE Spain, are formed of anhydrous spinel lherzolites and harzburgites with minor olivine websterites. Both peridotites are considered residues of variable degrees of partial melting, later affected by metasomatism, especially the harzburgites. These and the websterites display protogranular microstructures, whereas lherzolites show continuous variation between protogranular, porphyroclastic and equigranular forms. Thermometric data of new xenoliths indicate that protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and websterites were equilibrated at higher temperatures than porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Mineral chemistry also indicates lower equilibrium pressure for porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites than for the protogranular ones. Crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes from these new xenoliths were determined with the EBSD-SEM technique to identify the deformation stages affecting the lithospheric mantle in this zone and to assess the relationships between the deformation fabrics, processes and microstructures. Olivine CPOs in protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and a pyroxenite display [010]-fiber patterns characterized by a strong point concentration of the [010] axis normal to the foliation and girdle distribution of [100] and [001] axes within the foliation plane. Olivine CPO symmetry in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites varies continuously from [010]-fiber to orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types. The orthorhombic patterns are characterized by scattered maxima of the three axes, which are normal between them. The rare [100]-fiber patterns display strong point concentration of [100] axis, with normal girdle distribution of the other two axes, which are aligned with each other. The patterns of pyroxene CPOs are more dispersed than those of olivine, especially for clinopyroxene, but

  12. Seismic anisotropy and compositionally induced velocity anomalies in the lithosphere above mantle plumes: a petrological and microstructural study of mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Godard, Marguerite; Coromina, Guilhem; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Barsczus, Hans

    2004-11-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we investigated the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from different hotspots tracks in South Pacific Superswell region: the Austral-Cook, Society, and Marquesas islands in French Polynesia. Olivine forsterite contents in the studied spinel peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83. Dunites and wehrlites display the lowest forsterite contents. Their microstructure and high Ni contents preclude a cumulate origin, suggesting that these rocks result from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution. In addition, lherzolites and wehrlites display evidence of late crystallization of clinopyroxene, which may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. These compositional changes, particularly iron enrichment in olivine, result in lower P- and S-waves velocities. Relative to normal lithospheric mantle, compositionally induced seismic anomalies may attain -2.2% for S-waves and -1% for P-waves. Smaller negative anomalies for P-waves are due to a higher sensitivity to modal composition. Conversely, crystal-preferred orientations (CPO) and seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO. Very weak, almost random olivine CPO is nevertheless rare, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of

  13. Experimental Constraints on a Vesta Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, C.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.

    2014-01-01

    A magma ocean model was devised to relate eucrites (basalts) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites), which are found mixed together as clasts in a suite of polymict breccias known as howardites. The intimate association of eucritic and diogenitic clasts in howardites argues strongly that these three classes of achondritic meteorites all originated from the same planetoid. Reflectance spectral evidence (including that from the DAWN mission) has long suggested that Vesta is indeed the Eucrite Parent Body. Specifically, the magma ocean model was generated as follows: (i) the bulk Vesta composition was taken to be 0.3 CV chondrite + 0.7 L chondrite but using only 10% of the Na2O from this mixture; (ii) this composition is allowed to crystallize at 500 bar until approx. 80% of the system is solid olivine + low-Ca pyroxene; (iii) the remaining 20% liquid crystallizes at one bar from 1250C to 1110C, a temperature slightly above the eucrite solidus. All crystallization calculations were performed using MELTS. In this model, diogenites are produced by cocrystallization of olivine and pyroxene in the >1250C temperature regime, with Main Group eucrite liquids being generated in the 1300-1250C temperature interval. Low-Ca pyroxene reappears at 1210C in the one-bar calculations and fractionates the residual liquid to produce evolved eucrite compositions (Stannern Trend). We have attempted to experimentally reproduce the magma ocean. In the MELTS calculation, the change from 500 bar to one bar results in a shift of the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary so that the 1250C liquid is now in the olivine field and, consequently, olivine should be the first-crystallizing phase, followed by low-Ca pyroxene at 1210C, and plagioclase at 1170C. Because at one bar the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary is a peritectic, fractional crystallization of the 1210C liquid proceeds with only pyroxene crystallization until plagioclase appears. Thus, the predictions of the MELTS calculation are clear and

  14. A study of experimental simulation of mantle metasomatism by the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.; Sweeney, R.J.; Green, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The chemistry of melts and fluids in the Earth's mantle is essential to understand the processes that generate them and the source areas from which they derive. The characterisation of these phases is particularly relevant with regard to the geochemical changes which would occur in a mantle subjected to the percolation of fluids (for example fluids that derive from a hydrated subducting slab to influence basic geochemistry in subduction zones) and small degree melts which percolate into a relatively cool mantle beneath continents. The development of a technique in the Geology Department of University of Tasmania, of trapping and isolating these small degree melts and fluids in pre-stressed (fractured) olivine disks inserted into run capsules is described. Little success is reported with the analysis of subsurface inclusions in olivine containing trace amounts (e.g. up to 1000 ppm) of elements of interest. This is primarily due to the fact that olivine is a heavy absorber of secondary X-rays principally a function of its higher Fe content. However, some success was achieved in the analysis of small surface melt inclusions where corrections had to be made for the overlap of the beam on the encapsulating olivine. The results carry large uncertainties (20%), primarily due to the smallness of the sample hence the large contribution of underlying olivine, and also of surrounding olivine when the beam is larger than the sample or when the beam drifts off the sample. An example of such measurements is described. Garnets in the peridotite were also analysed and this enabled the calculation of melt-garnet partition coefficients. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Upper-mantle water stratification inferred from observations of the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuti, Sagar; Barbot, Sylvain D; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Feng, Lujia; Banerjee, Paramesh

    2016-10-20

    Water, the most abundant volatile in Earth's interior, preserves the young surface of our planet by catalysing mantle convection, lubricating plate tectonics and feeding arc volcanism. Since planetary accretion, water has been exchanged between the hydrosphere and the geosphere, but its depth distribution in the mantle remains elusive. Water drastically reduces the strength of olivine and this effect can be exploited to estimate the water content of olivine from the mechanical response of the asthenosphere to stress perturbations such as the ones following large earthquakes. Here, we exploit the sensitivity to water of the strength of olivine, the weakest and most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, and observations of the exceptionally large (moment magnitude 8.6) 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake to constrain the stratification of water content in the upper mantle. Taking into account a wide range of temperature conditions and the transient creep of olivine, we explain the transient deformation in the aftermath of the earthquake that was recorded by continuous geodetic stations along Sumatra as the result of water- and stress-activated creep of olivine. This implies a minimum water content of about 0.01 per cent by weight-or 1,600 H atoms per million Si atoms-in the asthenosphere (the part of the upper mantle below the lithosphere). The earthquake ruptured conjugate faults down to great depths, compatible with dry olivine in the oceanic lithosphere. We attribute the steep rheological contrast to dehydration across the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, presumably by buoyant melt migration to form the oceanic crust.

  16. Possible Bacteria in Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S., Jr.; Westall, F.; Wentworth, S. W.; Thomas-Keptra, K.

    1999-01-01

    Mars Agueous Alteration Nakhla contains alteration products in an extensive network of which fill cracks, veins, and void spaces, composed of smectite, although in some cases they are amorphous and gel-like. Strong evidence presented show that these alteration products developed on Mars: some veins are offset by impact faulting of olivine followed by annealing of the olivine, and veins near the fusion crust show partial vesicle development suggesting heating and volatile liberation. The smectite-containing cracks and veins are interpreted as low temperature aqueous alteration on Mars. We have been studying these veins with optical microscopy and high resolution SEM.

  17. The Dovyren Intrusive Complex (Southern Siberia, Russia): Insights into dynamics of an open magma chamber with implications for parental magma origin, composition, and Cu-Ni-PGE fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Nikolaev, Georgy; Kislov, Evgeny; Fiorentini, Marco; McNeill, Andrew; Kostitsyn, Yuri; Goemann, Karsten; Feig, Sandrin T.; Malyshev, Alexey

    2018-03-01

    The Dovyren Intrusive Complex (DIC, Northern Baikal region, 728 Ma) includes the layered dunite-troctolite-gabbronorite Yoko-Dovyren massif (YDM), associated mafic-ultramafic sills, and dykes of olivine-rich to olivine-free gabbronorite. Major rock types of the DIC are presented, including a diversity of olivine orthocumulates to olivine-plagioclase and gabbroic adcumulates, carbonate-contaminated ultramafics and Cu-Ni-PGE mineralisation. Detailed comparisons of complete cross-sections of the YDM in its centre and at the NE and SW margins demonstrate differences in the cumulate succession, mineral chemistry, and geochemical structure that likely reflect variations in parental magma compositions. Combining petrochemical reconstructions for most primitive rocks and calculations using the COMAGMAT-5 model, it is shown that the central and peripheral parts of the intrusion formed by olivine-laden parental magmas ranged in their temperatures by 100 °C, approximately from 1290 °C ( 11 wt% MgO, olivine Fo88) to 1190 °C ( 8 wt% MgO, olivine Fo86). Thermodynamic modelling suggests that the most primitive high-Mg magma was S-undersaturated, whereas its derivatives became S-saturated at T piles to generate poorly-mineralised plagiodunite. In the troctolite and gabbroic parts of the Dovyren chamber, sulphide immiscibility likely occurred at lower temperatures, producing Cu-rich sulphide precursors, which gave rise to the 'platinum group mineral' (PGM-containing) troctolite and low-mineralised PGE-rich anorthosite in the Main Reef. The geochemical structure of the YDM demonstrates C-shaped distributions of TiO2, K2O, P2O5, and incompatible trace elements, which are 3-5 fold depleted in the cumulate rocks from the inner horizons of the intrusion with respect to the relatively thin lower and upper contact zones. In addition, a marked misbalance between estimates of the average composition of the YDM and that of the proposed olivine-laden parental magmas is established. This

  18. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  19. The parent magma of the Nakhla (SNC) meteorite: Reconciliation of composition estimates from magmatic inclusions and element partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma of the Nakhla meteorite was difficult to determine, because it is accumulate rock, enriched in olivine and augite relative to a basalt magma. A parent magma composition is estimated from electron microprobe area analyses of magmatic inclusions in olivine. This composition is consistent with an independent estimate based on the same inclusions, and with chemical equilibria with the cores of Nakhla's augites. This composition reconciles most of the previous estimates of Nakhla's magma composition, and obviates the need for complex magmatic processes. Inconsistency between this composition and those calculated previously suggests that magma flowed through and crystallized into Nakhla as it cooled.

  20. The parent magma of xenoliths in shergottite EETA79001: Bulk and trace element composition inferred from magmatic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-01-01

    The SNC meteorites are samples of the Martian crust, so inferences about their origins and parent magmas are of wide planetologic significance. The EETA79001 shergottite, a basalt, contains xenoliths of pyroxene-olivine cumulate rocks which are possibly related to the ALHA77005 and LEW88516 SNC lherzolites. Olivines in the xenoliths contain magmatic inclusions, relics of magma trapped within the growing crystals. The magmatic inclusions allow a parent magma composition to be retrieved; it is similar to the composition reconstructed from xenolith pyroxenes by element distribution coefficients. The xenolith parent magma is similar but not identical to parent magmas for the shergottite lherzolites.

  1. Studies of selected synthesis procedures of the conducting LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, W.; Marzec, J.; Swierczek, K.; Zajac, W.; Molenda, J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Molenda, M.; Dziembaj, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, ul. R. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper technological aspects of a synthesis of phospho-olivine LiFePO{sub 4} based composite cathode materials for lithium batteries are presented. An effective synthesis route yielding a highly conductive composite cathode material was developed. The structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these materials were investigated. It was shown that the enhanced conductivity of the cathode material is due to the presence of a thin layer of the reduced material which has metallic properties, which is formed on the grain surfaces of the phospho-olivine. We propose a synthesis route yielding LiFePO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}P composite material. (author)

  2. Oxygen isotopes and volatile contents of the Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: A confirmation of the deep mantle origin of H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    We report O isotopes in olivine grains (Fo89-93) and volatile contents (CO2, H2O, F, S, Cl) in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from one Gorgona picrite and five komatiites with the aim of constraining the origin of H2O in these magmas. These samples have previously been analysed for major and trace elements and volatile concentrations (H2O, S, Cl) and B isotopes in melt inclusions. A distinctive feature of the included melts is relatively high contents of volatile components and boron, which show positive anomalies in, otherwise depleted, primitive mantle normalised trace and rare earth element patterns and range in δ11 B from -11.5 to 15.6‰. In this study, the olivines were systematically analysed for O isotopes (1) in the centre of grains, (2) near the grain boundaries and, (3) as close as possible to the studied melt inclusions. The majority of olivines (∼66%) are ;mantle;-like, 4.8 ‰ ≤δ18 O ≤ 5.5 ‰, with a subordinate but still significant number (∼33%) above, and only 2 grains below, this range. There is no systematic difference between the central and marginal parts of the grains. Higher than ;mantle; δ18OOl values are ascribed to low-T (Gorgona mafic and ultramafic magmas.

  3. Geochemical evidence of present-day serpentinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, I; Lamarche, V C; Himmelberg, G

    1967-05-12

    Ultrabasic (pH > 11) water issues from some fresh ultramafic bodies. The properties of the ultrabasic solutions are believed to be due to current reactions yielding serpentine from primary olivines and pyroxenes. The low concentrations of divalent airon. divalent magnesium, and dissolved silica from the serpentinization require an increase in rock volume.

  4. Present day serpentinization in New Caledonia, Oman and Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Trescases, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Geochemical evidence for modern low-temperature serpentinization has been found in three new localities. Apparently the low-temperature reactions are a common mode of formation of the lizardite-chrysotile and brucite assemblage. Possibly the 18O content of serpentine formed at low temperatures is in part inherited from the pyroxene and olivine. ?? 1978.

  5. In-situ high-P, T X-ray microtomographic imaging during large deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y; Lesher, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the microstructural evolution of a two-phase composite (olivine + Fe-Ni-S) during large shear deformation, using a newly developed high-pressure X-ray tomography microscope. Two samples were examined: a load-bearing framework–type texture, where the alloy phase (Fe-Ni-S) was pres...

  6. Mossbauer analysis of Luna 16 lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, D. L.; Cher, L.; Kulcsar, K.

    1974-01-01

    Samples of Apollo 11 lunar surface material were studied by the Mossbauer effect. Owing to the small number of other resonant isotopes, all measurements were made with Fe-57 nuclei. The principal constituents of the material were as follows: Iron containing silicates (olivine, pyroxene, and so on), ilmenite (FeTiO3), and metallic iron.

  7. The infrared spectrum of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of asteroid Eros has been determined from its infrared spectrum (0.9-2.7 micrometers; 28/cm resolution). Major minerals include metallic Ni-Fe and pyroxene; no spectroscopic evidence for olivine or plagioclase feldspar was found. The IR spectrum of Eros is most consistent with a stony-iron composition.

  8. Processes of Origin and Duration of Growth of Blueberries at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.

    2007-07-01

    The process behind blueberries needs to be understood. The questions why did they form, and why are they round, can be answered by: chemical energy and radial diffusion. Blueberry growth energy is olivine serpentinization for two possible precursors, FeS or FeO.OH with modeled 830 yrs to grow.

  9. Forging Asteroid-Meteorite Relationships Through Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Binzel, R. P.; Bus, S. J.; Buchanan, P. C.; Hinrichs, J. L.; Meibom, A.; Hiroi, T.; Sunshine, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra were obtained for 196 asteroids as part of SMASSIR. SMASSIR focused on observing asteroids assumed to be one of the following: (1) olivine-rich, (2) objects with "Vesta-like spectra" (the "Vestoids"), and (3) postulated meteorite parent bodies.

  10. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clos, F.; Gilio, M.; van Roermund, H.L.M.

    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP

  11. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  12. Effects of nano-silica (NS) additions on durability of SCC mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia Bianchi, G.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Andrade, C; Gulikers, JJW; Polder, R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different types of nano-silica were applied in self-compacting concrete (SCC), one produced by the controlled dissolution of the olivine mineral and two having similar particle size distributions (PSD), but produced through two different processes: fumed powder nano-silica and

  13. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes ...

  14. Effect of sol–gel method on colour properties of the classical cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    olivine (Co2SiO4) and spinel (CoAl2O4) are the two main cobalt-containing ... colour obtained by dispersing Co2SiO4 into ceramic glazes is mainly attributed to .... spectra of the four samples are very similar and exhibit multi- ple absorption ...

  15. New Individuals from the Almahata Sitta Strewn Field: Old Friends and Brand-New Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, A.; Ebert, S.; Patzek, M.; Horstmann, M.; Pack, A.; Barrat, J.-A.; Decker, S.

    2015-07-01

    Nine new samples (MS-MU-012-MS-MU-020) from the Almahata Sitta strewn field were studied including ureilitic samples, chondrites, and a unique sample (MS-MU-019). Among these MS-MU-012 is an unbrecciated, ureilitic feldspar-olivine-pyroxene rock.

  16. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, and platinum mineralisation potential, in the Longwood Range, Southland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, P.; Craw, D.; Mackenzie, D.; Rombouts, M.; Reay, A.

    2012-01-01

    Intrusive rocks in the Longwood Range represent a component of the Permian Brook Street Terrane. They include diffusely layered, cumulate-textured olivine gabbro, troctolite, and gabbro, and gradations into non-cumulate gabbro and gabbronorite. Volumetrically small ultramafic layers occur (plagioclase wehrlite), and thin veins of felsic rocks ranging from quartz diorite to trondhjemite. Primary olivine, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and subordinate orthopyroxene and hornblende are commonly altered or metamorphosed to amphiboles, minor spinel, magnetite, chlorite, biotite and clinozoisite, and serpentine in olivine-rich rocks. Accessory primary Ti-bearing magnetite and ilmenite occur, and trace Cr-magnetite is characteristic of olivine-rich rocks. Trace pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and pyrite could reflect equilibrated late magmatic, and alteration-derived phases. Key petrochemical characteristics of the rock suite are high Mg, Al, Ca, and Sr contents, and low alkali, LILE, and sulfur contents. Platinum and Pd are locally enriched in drill-hole intercepts, but zones appear unrelated to rock type, magnetic properties, or to S, Cu, Ni, Cr, or Au values. Local platinum group element (PGE) enrichment in altered rocks implies metamorphic and/or hydrothermal redistribution. Pervasive PGE enrichment in Longwood rocks is an indicator of potential 'fertility', but evidence is currently lacking for the precipitation of primary stratiform PGE accumulations from a sulfide liquid saturated magma. (author). 41 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscope Observations of Phyllosilicate Development During Experimental Aqueous Alteration of Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. L.; Brearley, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of Allende have been altered hydrothermally under oxidizing conditions at 200 C. TEM studies show that within 30 days evidence of replacement of matrix olivines by fine-grained serpentine is present and by 90 days complete alteration of many grains has occurred.

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 7. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ahmed Madani. Volume 124 Issue 7 October 2015 pp 1475-1486 ...

  19. Stratigraphy of the crater Copernicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, R.

    1984-01-01

    The stratigraphy of copernicus based on its olivine absorption bands is presented. Earth based spectral data are used to develop models that also employ cratering mechanics to devise theories for Copernican geomorphology. General geologic information, spectral information, upper and lower stratigraphic units and a chart for model comparison are included in the stratigraphic analysis.

  20. Apollo 12 feldspathic basalts 12031, 12038, and 12072; petrology, comparison and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, E.W.; Hill, S.M.R.; Albee, A.L.; Baldridge, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    Modal and chemical data indicate that 12072, 12038, and 12031, the Apollo 12 feldspathic basalts, form a well-defined group which cannot be related to the other Apollo 12 rock types. 12072 contains phenocrysts of olivine and pigeonite and microphenocrysts of Cr-spinel set in a fine-grained, variolitic groundmass. 12038 is a medium-grained, equigranular basalt with a texture indicating it was multiply saturated. 12031 is a coarse-grained rock with granular to graphic intergrowths of pyroxene and plagioclase; it was also multiply saturated. Petrologic observations, as well as the bulk chemistry, are consistent with the interpretation that 12031 could be derived from 12072 through fractionation of Cr-spinel, olivine, and pigeonite, the observed phenocryst assemblage. 12038, however, contains more pigeonite, less olivine, three times as much Ca-phosphate minerals, one-fifth as much troilite, and much more sodic plagioclase than 12072. These differences indicate that 12038 must have come from a separate igneous body. Consideration of the bulk compositions indicates that neither 12072 and 12031 nor 12038 could have been derived from the Apollo 12 olivine, pigeonite, or ilmenite basalts by crystal--liquid fractionation. The general petrologic similarities between 12072, 12031, and the other Apollo 12 basalts suggests that they were produced in either the same or similar source regions. 12038, however, is petrologically and chemically unique, and is probably exotic to the Apollo 12 landing site

  1. Are Majhgawan–Hinota pipe rocks truly group-I kimberlite?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Paul 1989; Halder and Ghosh 1978, 1981) to designate the rocks as micaceous kimberlite/basaltic kimberlite and kimberlite breccia. Kent et al (1998) preferred to call the ... from Damodar Valley, eastern India (Kent et al 1998). The majority of the ..... 27: Average (6 analyses) Leucite Hill madupitic lamproite. 28: Olivine ...

  2. TIMS analysis of Sr and Nd isotopes in melt inclusions from Italian potassium-rich lavas using prototype 1013Ω amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Janne M.; Nikogosian, Igor; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Smeets, Richard; Bouman, Claudia; Davies, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Sr and Nd isotopes were determined using new thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) techniques for a suite of 21 olivine-hosted (85-92mol% Fo) melt inclusions selected from potassic and ultra-potassic lavas from the Italian peninsula. Sr isotopes were measured using default 1011Ω resistors,

  3. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-01-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province (~34°S–38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions and h...

  4. Model-Based Assessment of the CO2 Sequestration Potential of Coastal Ocean Alkalinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, E. Y.; Koeve, W.; Keller, D. P.; Oschlies, A.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of coastal ocean alkalinization (COA), a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) climate engineering strategy that chemically increases ocean carbon uptake and storage, is investigated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. The CDR potential and possible environmental side effects are estimated for various COA deployment scenarios, assuming olivine as the alkalinity source in ice-free coastal waters (about 8.6% of the global ocean's surface area), with dissolution rates being a function of grain size, ambient seawater temperature, and pH. Our results indicate that for a large-enough olivine deployment of small-enough grain sizes (10 µm), atmospheric CO2 could be reduced by more than 800 GtC by the year 2100. However, COA with coarse olivine grains (1000 µm) has little CO2 sequestration potential on this time scale. Ambitious CDR with fine olivine grains would increase coastal aragonite saturation Ω to levels well beyond those that are currently observed. When imposing upper limits for aragonite saturation levels (Ωlim) in the grid boxes subject to COA (Ωlim = 3.4 and 9 chosen as examples), COA still has the potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 by 265 GtC (Ωlim = 3.4) to 790 GtC (Ωlim = 9) and increase ocean carbon storage by 290 Gt (Ωlim = 3.4) to 913 Gt (Ωlim = 9) by year 2100.

  5. Dipti Deodhare

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Dipti Deodhare. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 36 Issue 7 December 2013 pp 1331-1337. Electrochemical potentials of layered oxide and olivine phosphate with aluminum substitution: A first principles study · Arun Kumar Varanasi Phani Kanth ...

  6. Ductile deformation and rheology of sub-continental mantle in a hot collisional orogeny: Example from the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusbach, V.; Ulrich, Stanislav; Schulmann, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56-57, May (2012), s. 108-123 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : olivine lattice preferred orientation * peridotite mylonite * crust-mantle coupling * Variscan orogen * strain Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.967, year: 2012

  7. Ferrobasalts from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Popko, D.C.

    O sub(2) (2.27-2.76%), poor in olivine and MgO (3.44-6.20%), and associated with topographic highs and increased amplitude magnetic anomalies corresponding to chrons A25 and A24. It is suggested that the secondary eruptions from ancient N-MORB magma...

  8. SEM, optical, and Moessbauer studies of submicrometer chromite in Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    New scanning electron and optical microscope results are presented showing that sub-micrometer chromite is abundant along healed cracks and grain boundaries in Allende chondrule olivine. Some wider healed cracks also contain pentlandite and euhedral Ni3Fe grains. Also reported are Moessbauer measurements on Allende HF-HCl residues confirming a high Fe(+++)/Fe(++) ratio.

  9. Space Weathering of Silicates Simulated by Successive Laser Irradiation: In Situ Reflectance Measurements of Fo90, Fo99+, and Sio2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Christoffersen, R.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed-laser irradiation causes the visible-near-infrared spectral slope of olivine (Fo90 and Fo99+) and SiO2 to increase (redden), while the olivine samples darken and the SiO2 samples brighten slightly. XPS analysis shows that irradiation of Fo90 produces metallic Fe. Analytical SEM and TEM measurements confirm that reddening in the Fo90 olivine samples correlates with the production of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe0) grains, 2050 nm in size. The reddening observed in the SiO2 sample is consistent with the formation of SiO or other SiOx species that absorb in the visible. The weak spectral brightening induced by laser irradiation of SiO2 is consistent with a change in surface topography of the sample. The darkening observed in the olivine samples is likely caused by the formation of larger npFe0 particles, such as the 100400 nm diameter npFe0 identified during our TEM analysis of Fo90 samples. The Fo90 reflectance spectra are qualitatively similar to those in previous experiments suggesting that in all cases formation of npFe0 is causing the spectral alteration. Finally, we find that the accumulation of successive laserpulses cause continued sample darkening in the Vis-NIR, which suggests that repeated surface impacts are an efficient way to darken airless body surfaces.

  10. Phosphorus zoning as a recorder of crystal growth kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baziotis, I.; Asimow, P.D.; Ntaflos, T.

    2017-01-01

    spectrometry. The petrogenetic history of each vein involves melt intrusion, cooling accompanied by both wall-rock reaction and crystallization, quench of melt to a glass, and possibly later modifications. Exotic secondary olivine crystals in the veins display concentric phosphorus (P)-rich zoning, P...

  11. Can We Distinguish Between Shock-Darkened and Space-Weathered Asteroids?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Penttilä, A.; Gritsevich, M.; Britt, D.; Reddy, V.; Mann, P.; Haloda, J.; Halodová, P.; Grokhovsky, V.; Yakovlev, G.; Čuda, J.; Filip, J.; Muinonen, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2014), s. 225-226 ISSN 0002-7537. [Annual Meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences /46./. 09.11.2014-14.11.2014, Tuscon] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : space weathering * reflectance spectra * olivine * asteroid * Moon Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer study of the Chainpur meteorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elewa, Nancy N., E-mail: nancy.elewa@student.adfa.edu.au; Cobas, R.; Cadogan, J. M. [The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    The Chainpur meteorite is one of 23 ordinary chondrites classified as LL3-type (low-Fe & low-metal). It was observed as a shower of stones falling on May 9, 1907 in Uttar Pradesh, India. We report here the characterization of the Fe-bearing phases in this chondrite using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy carried out at 298 K, 120 K, 50 K and 13 K. The paramagnetic doublets of olivine and pyroxene dominate the room temperature spectrum, accounting for around 70 % of the spectral area. Moreover, a doublet present with a spectral area of 5 % and assigned to a superparamagnetic Fe {sup 3+} phase is a consequence of terrestrial weathering. On the basis of the measured {sup 57}Fe electric quadrupole splitting of the olivine component at room temperature we estimate the mean Fe:Mg ratio in this meteoritic olivine to be around 35:65 % although there is clearly a wide range of composition. The effects of magnetic ordering of the major components olivine and pyroxene are observed at 13 K.

  13. The petrology of the Saaiplaas kimberlite dyke swarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Saaiplaas 'kimberlite' dykes are part of an east-west trending, roughly vertically dipping dyke swarm that has been intersected at various depths throughout the Orange Free State goldfields. It is shown that the Saaiplaas dykes closely resemble kimberlites in terms of their petrography and geochemistry even though certain features are more characteristic of olivine melilitites or alnoites. 5 refs

  14. Petrology of the Sutherland commanage melilite intrusives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    The petrology of the Sutherland Commonage olivine melilitite intrusives have been investigated using petrographic and chemical methods. The results of the geochemical study suggest that the Commonage melilites were derived by the melting of a recently metasomatised region of the asthenosphere, probably under the influence of an ocean-island-type hotspot situated in the lower mantle

  15. Some antarctic soil cores from Wood Bay characterised by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelle, M.; Leotta, G.; Calogero, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Oddone, M.

    1999-01-01

    Marine, lacustrine and terrestrial soil cores, sampled in a restricted area of Wood Bay in Antarctica, were characterised by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results of X-ray diffraction and instrumental neutron activation analysis are shortly discussed too. The soils, formed by mechanical disaggregation and weathering of rocks of volcanic origin from Mt. Melbourne, consist of alkaline feldspars, olivines, augitic clinopyroxenes, and iron oxides such as haematite, goethite, and magnetite. Lacustrine and terrestrial soils are richer in clinopyroxenes whereas marine soils are richer in olivines. This finding shows that the soils retain a content in olivines and clinopyroxenes comparable to that found in the parent lava outcropped from Mt. Melbourne volcano. The soils appear at the initial stage of weathering. Two main weathering effects are observed: 1. atmospheric oxygen determines the oxidation of the iron(II) present in olivines and clinopyroxenes and the neo-formed iron(III) is mainly retained in silicate sites as structural iron(III); 2. a part of magnetite, present as a primary constituent of the volcanic rocks, is oxidised to bulk haematite and goethite. (authors)

  16. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  17. Solar flare irradiation records in Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of solar flare heavy nuclei tracks in eight Antartic meteorite samples are reported. Two of these were interior specimens from an L-3 chondrite which contained track-rich grains (olivine) indicating their exposure to solar flare irradiation before compaction of the meteorite. Preliminary noble gas data also indicate the presence of solar-type gases. (U.K.)

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of LiFePO4 nanorods composed of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    LiFePO4 nanorods composed of nanoparticles were synthesized from ... olivine structure; belongs to Pnma space group. ... LiFePO4 has one-dimensional (1D) channel along the ... phases of LiFePO4 ... Among the various synthesis techniques available, the .... Prosini P, Lisi M, Zane D and Pasquali M 2002 Solid State. Ion.

  19. Melt-peridotite reactions in upwelling EM1-type eclogite bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    or simple variations in degrees of mantle melting. The difference is also clear in major elements where the low Nb/U basalts have markedly higher alkali contents but lower FeO and Ni than the high Nb/U basalts. Four melt components have been identified based on olivine fractionation corrected compositions...

  20. Interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa: Implication for merwinite formation in upper mantle, and for the metasomatic origin of sublithospheric diamonds with Ca-rich suite of inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Igor S.; Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ohtani, Eiji; Pokhilenko, Nikolay P.

    2018-03-01

    We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In the first set of experiments, we studied the reaction between powdered Mg-silicates, olivine and orthopyroxene, and a model Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2), in a homogeneous mixture, at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. In these equilibration experiments, we observed the formation of a merwinite + olivine-bearing assemblage at 3.1 GPa and 1200 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1300-1400 °C. The melts coexisting with this assemblage have a low Si and high Ca content (Ca# = molar 100 × Ca/(Ca + Mg) > 0.57). In the second set of experiments, we investigated reaction rims produced by interaction of the same Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2) with Mg-silicate, olivine and orthopyroxene, single crystals at 3.1 GPa and 1300 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1400 °C. The interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with olivine leads to merwinite formation through the expected reaction: 2Mg2SiO4 (olivine) + 6CaCO3 (liquid) = Ca3MgSi2O8 (merwinite) + 3CaMg(CO3)2 (liquid). Thus, our experiments confirm the idea that merwinite in the upper mantle may originate via interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt, and that diamonds hosting merwinite may have a metasomatic origin. It is remarkable that the interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with orthopyroxene crystals does not produce merwinite both at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. This indicates that olivine grain boundaries are preferable for merwinite formation in the upper mantle.

  1. Somma-Vesuvius Plinian Eruptions fed by mafic magma: insights from bubbles in melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Redi, D.; Cannatelli, C.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Lima, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; De Vivo, B.

    2014-12-01

    Mt. Somma-Vesuvius Plinian eruptions were first described by Pliny the younger in 79 AD during the infamous eruption that destroyed Pompeii. Today, such eruptions are still a concern to the nearly 3 million people living in the Naples metropolitan area. Understanding the source for Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magma and the coexisting volatile phase is vital to better constrain the long-term eruptive behavior of this volcano. In the present study, ~ 50 olivine phenocrysts were selected from lavas and pumices produced during mild effusive events referred to as inter-Plinian eruptions, and from highly explosive Plinian eruptions that occurred at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius between 33000 ka and 1631 AD. Selected olivine phenocrysts containing MI were examined petrographically and analyzed for Fo content. Fo varies from 69 to 73 mole% for inter-Plinian olivine crystals and from 84 to 90 mole% with one zoned olivine containing 76-81 mole% Fo, for Plinian olivine crystals. Investigated MI vary from slightly crystallized to highly crystallized. Selected crystallized MI were reheated using the Vernadsky stage, and quenched to a homogeneous glass (Group 1) or glass plus a vapor bubble (Group 2). On one hand, MI of Group 1 are hosted in olivine ranging from Fo72 to Fo76 and were all erupted from the Pompeii eruption (white pumice deposit). On the other hand, MI of Group 2 are trapped in olivine ranging from Fo69 to Fo81 and from Fo84 to Fo90, and the hosts are representative of both Plinian and inter-Plinian events. The only eruption where Group-1 and Group-2 MI coexist is the Pompeii eruption. Group 2 MIs were further analyzed by Raman to test for the presence of volatiles (CO2 or H2O) in the vapor bubbles. CO2 was detected in all MI analyzed. CO2 density was determined using the distance between the two Fermi-diad peaks, and ranges between 0.14 and 0.55 g/cm3. Six MI also showed evidence for H2O in the vapor bubble. In addition, carbonates were detected at the glass-vapor interface of five

  2. Overview of Hole GT2A: Drilling middle gabbro in Wadi Tayin massif, Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hole GT2A (UTM: 40Q 655960.7E / 2529193.5N) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) into Wadi Gideah of Wadi Tayin massif in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole GT2A was diamond cored in 25 Dec 2016 to 18 Jan 2017 to a total depth of 406.77 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described on site before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu, where they underwent comprehensive visual and instrumental analysis. 33 shipboard scientists were divided into six teams (Igneous, Alteration, Structural, Geochem, Physical Properties, Paleomag) to describe and analyze the cores. Hole GT2A drilled through the transition between foliated and layered gabbro. The transition zone occurs between 50 and 150 m curation corrected depth (CCD). The top 50 m of Hole GT2A is foliated gabbro whereas the bottom 250 m consists of layered gabbro. Brittle fracture is observed throughout the core. Intensity of alteration vein decreases from the top to the bottom of the hole. On the basis of changes in grain size and/or modal abundance and/or appearance/disappearance of igneous primary mineral(s) five lithological units are defined in Hole GT2A (Unit I to V). The uppermost part of Hole GT2A (Unit I) is dominated by fine-grained granular olivine gabbro intercalated with less dominant medium-grained granular olivine gabbro and rare coarse-grained varitextured gabbro. The lower part of the Hole (Units II, III and V) is dominated by medium-grained olivine gabbro, olivine melagabbro and olivine-bearing gabbro. Modally-graded rhythmic layering with

  3. Temperatures and Melt Water Contents at the Onset of Phenocryst Growth in Quaternary Nepheline-Normative Basalts Erupted along the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift in Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, J.; Lange, R. A.; Pu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Nepheline-normative, high-Mg basalts erupted from the western Mexican arc, along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift (TZR), have a trace-element signature consistent with an asthenosphere source, whereas calc-alkaline basalts erupted from the central Mexican arc in the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) have a trace-element signature consistent with a mantle source strongly affected by subduction fluids. In this study, olivine-melt thermometry and plagioclase-liquid hygrometry are used to constrain the temperature and melt water content of the alkaline TZR basalts. The presence of diffusion-limited growth textures in olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts provide preliminary evidence of rapid growth during ascent. For each basalt sample, a histogram of all analyzed olivines in each sample allows the most Fo-rich composition to be identified, which matches the calculated composition at the liquidus via MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995; Asimow & Ghiorso, 1998) at fO2 values of QFM +2. Therefore a newly developed olivine-melt thermometer, based on DNiol/liq (Pu et al., 2017) was used to calculate temperature at the onset of olivine crystallization during ascent. Temperatures range from 1076-1247°C, whereas those calculated using an olivine-melt thermometer based on DMgol/liq range from 1141-1236 °C. Olivine-melt thermometers based on DMgol/liq are sensitive to melt H2O content, therefore ΔT = TMg - TNi (≤ 82 degrees) may be used as a qualitative indicator of melt H2O (≤ 2.6 wt% H2O; Pu et al., 2017). When temperatures from the Ni-thermometer are applied to the most calcic plagioclase in each sample (Waters & Lange, 2015), calculated melt H2O contents range from 1.3-1.9 (± 0.4) wt%. These values are significantly lower than those obtained from high-Mg calc-alkaline basalts from the MGVF using similar methods (1.9-5.0 wt%; Pu et al., 2017), consistent with a reduced involvement of slab-derived fluids in the origin of the alkaline TZR basalts from western Mexico.

  4. Serpentinization processes: Influence of silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Sun, W.; Ding, X.; Song, M.; Zhan, W.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization systems are highly enriched in molecular hydrogen (H2) and hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, ethane and propane). The production of hydrocarbons results from reactions between H2 and oxidized carbon (carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide), which possibly contribute to climate changes during early history of the Earth. However, the influence of silica on the production of H2 and hydrocarbons was poorly constrained. We performed experiments at 311-500 °C and 3.0 kbar using mechanical mixtures of silica and olivine in ratios ranging from 0 to 40%. Molecular hydrogen (H2), methane, ethane and propane were formed, which were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that silica largely decreased H2 production. Without any silica, olivine serpentinization produced 94.5 mmol/kg H2 after 20 days of reaction time. By contrast, with the presence of 20% silica, H2 concentrations decreased largely, 8.5 mmol/kg. However, the influence of silica on the production of hydrocarbons is negligible. Moreover, with the addition of 20%-40% silica, the major hydrous minerals are talc, which was quantified according to an established standard curve calibrated by infrared spectroscopy analyses. It shows that silica greatly enhances olivine hydration, especially at 500 °C. Without any addition of silica, reaction extents were serpentinization at 500 °C and 3.0 kbar. By contrast, with the presence of 50% silica, olivine was completely transformed to talc within 9 days. This study indicates that silica impedes the oxidation of ferrous iron into ferric iron, and that rates of olivine hydration in natural geological settings are much faster with silica supply.

  5. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite and implications for the CO-CM relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumard, Noël; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-05-01

    High-precision oxygen three-isotope measurements of olivine and pyroxene were performed on 29 chondrules in the Murchison CM2 chondrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen isotope ratios of analyzed chondrules all plot very close to the primitive chondrule minerals (PCM) line. In each of 24 chondrules, the olivine and/or pyroxene grains analyzed show indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios. Exceptions are minor occurrences of isotopically distinguished relict olivine grains, which were found in nine chondrules. The isotope homogeneity of these phenocrysts is consistent with a co-magmatic crystallization of olivine and pyroxene from the final chondrule melts and a significant oxygen isotope exchange between the ambient gas and the melts. Homogeneous type I chondrules with Mg#'s of 98.9-99.5 have host chondrule Δ17O values ranging from -6.0‰ to -4.1‰, with one exception (Δ17O: -1.2‰; Mg#: 99.6). Homogeneous chondrules with Mg#'s poor H2O ice (∼0.3-0.4× the CI dust; Δ17O > 0‰) and at dust enrichments of ∼300-2000×. Regarding the Mg# and oxygen isotope ratios, the chondrule populations sampled by CM and CO chondrites are similar and indistinguishable. The similarity of these 16O-rich components in CO and CM chondrites is also supported by the common Fe/Mn ratio of olivine in type II chondrules. Although they accreted similar high-temperature silicates, CO chondrites are anhydrous compared to CM chondrites, suggesting they derived from different parent bodies formed inside and outside the snow line, respectively. If chondrules in CO and CM chondrites formed at the same disk locations but the CM parent body accreted later than the CO parent body, the snow line might have crossed the common chondrule-forming region towards the Sun between the time of the CO and CM parent bodies accretion.

  6. Compositional Variation of Chrome Spinels in the Ore-bearing Zones of the Kraka Ophiolite and the Chromitite Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a chemical variation of accessory and ore-forming chrome spinels from the Kraka ultramafic massif at the different scales, from the deposit to the thin section. A correlation analysis of compositional and structural features of ultramafic rocks and ores was performed. The ultramafic rocks and chromitites in the studied massif show the distinct deformation structures and tectonite olivine fabric. A typical chemical gap (i.e. Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al was observed between peridotite, on the one hand, and dunite and chromitite, on the other hand, on the scale of deposits and ore-bearing zones. The location and size of this gap depend on the type of deposit. The gap becomes wider from the disseminated tabular bodies to the typical podiform ones. It has been found that in the thin initial dunite veinlets in peridotite the chrome spinels chemistry changes gradually and there is no Cr# gap between peridotite and dunite. The dunite venlets show a strong olivine fabric, which is an evidence of their high-temperature plastic flow origin. It has been revealed that new chrome spinel grains previously formed as rods or needles and then coarsened. We explained this observation as the result of impurity segregation, coalescence and spheroidization induced by the plastic deformation of olivine. It is inferred that a solid crystal flow is the main requirement for the dunite and chromitite body formation in the Kraka ophiolite massif. In the solid stream, the mineral phase separation takes place. For example, olivine and orthopyroxene grains of parental peridotite separate from one another, and weaker (more mobile olivine grains form dunite bodies in which chromitite appears as a result of impurity segregation.

  7. Widespread melt/rock interaction and seismic properties of the lithosphere above mantle plumes: Evidence from mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, A.; Godard, M.; Coromina, G.; Dautria, J. M.; Barczus, H.

    2003-04-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we studied the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from the Austral-Cook, Society and Marquesas islands. Olivine forsterite contents in our sp-peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83, the lowest Fo being observed in dunites and wehrlites. Yet, their high Ni content (up to 2500 ppm) precludes a cumulate origin. These rocks are rather interpreted as resulting from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution, the dunites indicating high melt-rock ratios. Moreover, wehrlites display poikiloblastic diopside enclosing corroded olivines. Late crystallization of clinopyroxene, also observed in lherzolites, may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction occurring at the boundary of a partial melting domain developed at the expenses of lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. Yet, crystal preferred orientations and thus seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Although dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO, very weak CPO are limited to a few dunites and wehrlites, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of intense magma-rock interaction due to localized flow or accumulation of magmas. Conversely, the compositional changes result in lower seismic velocities for P- and S-waves. Relative to normal mantle, seismic anomalies may attain -2.5 (2

  8. Widespread melt/rock interaction and seismic properties of the lithosphere above mantle plumes: A petrological and microstructural study of mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, A.; Godard, M.

    2002-12-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we studied the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from the Austral-Cook, Society and Marquesas islands. Olivine forsterite contents in our sp-peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83, the lowest Fo being observed in dunites and wehrlites. Yet, their high Ni content (up to 2500 ppm) precludes a cumulate origin. These rocks are rather interpreted as resulting from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution, the dunites indicating high melt-rock ratios. Moreover, wehrlites display poikiloblastic diopside enclosing corroded olivines. Late crystallization of clinopyroxene, also observed in lherzolites, may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction occurring at the boundary of a partial melting domain developed at the expenses of lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. Yet, crystal preferred orientations and thus seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Although dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO, very weak CPO are limited to a few dunites and wehrlites, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of intense magma-rock interaction due to localized flow or accumulation of magmas. Conversely, the compositional changes result in lower seismic velocities for P- and S-waves. Relative to normal mantle, seismic anomalies may attain -2

  9. Reconstructing the thermal evolution of the CK chondrite parent body using Northwest Africa 5343, the least metamorphosed CK chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, T. L.; Gross, J.; O'Hara, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) represent some of the most pristine solar system material, providing constraints on the early formation of planetesimals. The CK chondrites are the only group of CCs to exhibit the full range of thermal metamorphism (petrologic type 3 to 6). Most unequilibrated CK chondrites (CK3s) have been metamorphosed to petrologic subtype 3.8 or higher. However, homogeneity of olivine suggests that CK3 chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 5343 is less metamorphosed than the other CK3s. The presence of unrecrystallized matrix indicates that it is less than petrologic type 3.7. To better assess the lower limits of metamorphism on the CK chondrite parent body, we performed a detailed analysis of matrix material in NWA 5343. Ascertaining the lower limit of metamorphism in the CK chondrites is critical when addressing the CK-CV parent body debate (e.g., one vs. two parent bodies), and will shed light onto the evolution of metamorphosed CC parent bodies. We recognize two texturally distinct regions in the matrix of NWA 5343. Both have similar mineralogies (mostly olivine with lesser pyroxene and plagioclase), but differ in grain size, shape, and porosity. The porous region of the sample is characterized by subhedral-rounded olivine grains, typically Skeletal pyroxene is also common. Original pore space is filled with a Ca-rich glass that appears to originate from an unusual vein in this region. Most interestingly, the extent of metamorphism varies within NWA 5343. Larger, anhedral olivine in the glassy region suggest that this region is more metamorphosed than the porous region. Even within the porous region there is a range of metamorphism, with small patches of granoblastic olivine intermixed with the clastic matrix. This suggests that NWA 5343 may represent a metamorphic breccia, a common occurrence in OCs and CCs of lower petrologic types, and provides insight into the evolution of the only completely metamorphosed CC parent body.

  10. Direct evidence of hydration into mantle during shearing below a trasform fault: Prince Edward transform fault, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michibayashi, K.; Kakihata, Y.; Dick, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is located to the southwest of Rodriguez Triple Junction, where three Indian ocean ridges meet (Zhou & Dick, 2013, Nature). SWIR is one of the slowest spreading ocean ridges in the world. In this study, we studied microstructural development of 21 peridotite samples obtained from Prince Edward transform fault of SWIR by PROTEA5 cruise in 1983. The peridotites consist dominantly of olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with minor amounts of amphibole and plagioclase as well as secondary minerals such as serpentine and magnetite. The peridotites were classified into four groups based on their microstructures: 3 ultramylonites mostly consisting of extremely fine crystals (3-5µm), 13 heterogeneous tectonites consisting of coarse-grained crystals and fine-grained matrix, 1 cataclasite and 4 intensely serpentinized peridotites. Olivine Mg# is 0.90-0.91 and spinel Cr# is 0.1-0.35. Amphibole crystals have chemical compositions of tremolite and magnesio-hornblende and they were intensely deformed within the ultramylonites and the heterogeneous tectonites, indicating that they have occurred before or during intense shearing in mantle. Moreover, extremely fine grain sizes of olivine and microboudin textures in both pyroxene and spinel crystals suggest that these peridotites have been sheared under high stress conditions. Furthermore, olivine crystal-fabrics within the amphibole bearing peridotites have B and E types that could be developed under hydrous conditions, whereas olivine fabrics within the other peridotites have A and D types that could be developed under anhydrous conditions (Karato et al., 2008, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.). Consequently, the petrophysical characteristics of peridotites in this study indicate that the uppermost mantle below the Prince Edward transform fault has been locally but intensely hydrated during shearing due to transform movement.

  11. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  12. New insight on Li and B isotope fractionation during serpentinization derived from batch reaction investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christian T.; Meixner, Anette; Kasemann, Simone A.; Bach, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Multiple batch experiments (100 °C, 200 °C; 40 MPa) were conducted, using Dickson-type reactors, to investigate Li and B partitioning and isotope fractionation between rock and water during serpentinization. We reacted fresh olivine (5 g; Fo90; [B] = anti-correlated with temperature, we argue for an overall attenuation of the isotopic effect through changes in B speciation in saline solutions (NaB(OH)4(aq) and B(OH)3Cl-) as well as variable B fixation and fractionation for different serpentinization product minerals (brucite, chrysotile). Breakdown of the Li-rich olivine and limited Li incorporation into product mineral phases resulted in an overall lower Li content of the final solid phase assemblage at 200 °C ([Li]final_200 °C = 0.77 μg/g; DS/FLi200 °C = 1.58). First order changes in Li isotopic compositions were defined by mixing of two isotopically distinct sources i.e. the fresh olivine and the fluid rather than by equilibrium isotope fraction. At 200 °C primary olivine is dissolved, releasing its Li budget into the fluid which shifts towards a lower δ7LiF of +38.62‰. Newly formed serpentine minerals (δ7LiS = +30.58‰) incorporate fluid derived Li with a minor preference of the 6Li isotope. At 100 °C Li enrichment of secondary phases exceeded Li release by olivine breakdown ([Li]final_100 °C = 2.10 μg/g; DS/FLi100 °C = 11.3) and it was accompanied by preferential incorporation of heavier 7Li isotope that might be due to incorporation of a 7Li enriched fluid fraction into chrysotile nanotubes.

  13. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  14. Deformation, static recrystallization, and reactive melt transport in shallow subcontinental mantle xenoliths (Tok Cenozoic volcanic field, SE Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Ionov, Dmitri A.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting and reactive melt transport may change the composition, microstructures, and physical properties of mantle rocks. Here we explore the relations between deformation and reactive melt transport through detailed microstructural analysis and crystallographic orientation measurements in spinel peridotite xenoliths that sample the shallow lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern rim of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths have coarse-grained, annealed microstructures and show petrographic and chemical evidence for variable degrees of reaction with silicate melts and fluids, notably Fe-enrichment and crystallization of metasomatic clinopyroxene (cpx). Olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPO) range from strong to weak. [010]-fiber patterns, characterized by a point concentration of [010] normal to the foliation and by dispersion of [100] in the foliation plane with a weak maximum parallel to the lineation, predominate relative to the [100]-fiber patterns usually observed in lithospheric mantle xenoliths and peridotite massifs. Variations in olivine CPO patterns or intensity are not correlated with modal and chemical compositions. This, together with the analysis of microstructures, suggests that reactive melt percolation postdated both deformation and static recrystallization. Preferential crystallization of metasomatic cpx along (010) olivine grain boundaries points to an influence of the preexisting deformation fabrics on melt transport, with higher permeability along the foliation. Similarity between orthopyroxene (opx) and cpx CPO suggests that cpx orientations may be inherited from those of opx during melt-rock reaction. As observed in previous studies, reactive melt transport does not weaken olivine CPO and seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, except in melt accumulation domains. In contrast, recovery and selective grain growth during static recrystallization may lead to development of [010]-fiber olivine CPO and, if foliations are

  15. Trace element distribution in peridotite xenoliths from Tok, SE Siberian craton: A record of pervasive, multi-stage metasomatism in shallow refractory mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitri A.; Chazot, Gilles; Chauvel, Catherine; Merlet, Claude; Bodinier, Jean-Louis

    2006-03-01

    Spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts at Tok, SE Siberian craton range from fertile lherzolites to harzburgites and wehrlites; olivine-rich (70-84%) rocks are dominant. REE patterns in the lherzolites range from nearly flat for fertile rocks (14-17% cpx) to LREE-enriched; the enrichments are positively correlated with modal olivine, consistent with high-permeability of olivine-rich rocks during melt percolation. Clinopyroxene in olivine-rich Tok peridotites typically has convex-upward trace element patterns (La/Nd PM 1); the LREE-enrichments are positively correlated with phosphorus abundances and are mainly hosted by accessory phosphates and P-rich cryptocrystalline materials. In addition to apatite, some Tok xenoliths contain whitlockite (an anhydrous, halogen-poor and Na-Mg-rich phosphate), which is common in meteorites and lunar rocks, but has not been reported from any terrestrial mantle samples. Some olivine-rich peridotites have generations of clinopyroxene with distinct abundances of Na, LREE, Sr and Zr. The mineralogical and trace element data indicate that the lithospheric mantle section represented by the xenoliths experienced a large-scale metasomatic event produced by upward migration of mafic silicate melts followed by percolation of low- T, alkali-rich melts and fluids. Chromatographic fractionation and fractional crystallisation of the melts close to the percolation front produced strong LREE-enrichments, which are most common in the uppermost mantle and are related to carbonate- and P 2O 5-rich derivatives of the initial melt. Reversal and gradual retreat of the percolation front during thermal relaxation to ambient geotherm ("retrograde" metasomatism) caused local migration and entrapment of small-volume residual fluids and precipitation of volatile-rich accessory minerals. A distinct metasomatic episode, which mainly produced "anhydrous" late-stage interstitial materials was concomitant with the alkali basaltic magmatism, which brought

  16. Deformation and hydration state of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Styrian Basin (Pannonian Basin, Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, L. E.; Hidas, K.; Kovács, I. J.; Klébesz, R.; Szabo, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Neogene alkali basaltic volcanism occurred in six volcanic fields, from which the Styrian Basin Volcanic Field (SBVF) is the westernmost one. In this study, we present new petrographic and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) data, and structural hydroxyl ("water") contents of upper mantle xenoliths from 12 volcanic outcrops across the SBVF. The studied xenoliths are mostly coarse granular lherzolites, amphiboles are present in almost every sample and often replace pyroxenes and spinels. The peridotites are highly annealed, olivines and pyroxenes do not show significant amount of intragranular deformation. Despite the annealed texture of the peridotites, olivine CPO is unambiguous, and varies between [010]-fiber, orthogonal and [100]-fiber symmetry. The CPO of pyroxenes is coherent with coeval deformation with olivine, showing [100]OL distributed subparallel to [001]OPX. The CPO of amphiboles suggest postkinematic epitaxial overgrowth on the precursor pyroxenes. The "water" content of the studied xenoliths exhibit rather high values, up to 10, 290 and 675 ppm in olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, respectively. Ortho- and clinopyroxene pairs show equilibrium in all samples, however "water" loss in olivines is observed in several xenoliths. The xenoliths show equilibrium temperatures from 850 to 1100 °C, which corresponds to lithospheric mantle depths between 30 and 60 km. Equilibrium temperatures show correlation with the varying CPO symmetries and grain size: coarser grained xenoliths with [100]-fiber and orthorhombic symmetry appear in the high temperature (>1000 °C) xenoliths, which is characteristic for asthenospheric origin. Most of the samples display transitional CPO symmetry between [010]-fiber and orthogonal, which indicate extensive lithospheric deformation under varying stress field from transtensional to transpressional settings. Based on the estimated seismic properties of the studied samples, a significant part of

  17. Mineral CO2 sequestration in basalts and ultra-basic rocks: impact of secondary silicated phases on the carbonation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The formation of carbonates constitutes a stable option for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) geological sequestration, and is prone to play a significant role in reducing emissions of anthropic origin. However, our comprehension of the carbonation mechanism, as well as of the kinetics limitations encountered during this chemical reaction, remains poorly developed. Though there is a large number of studies focusing on the dissolution kinetics of basic silicates and on the precipitation of carbonates, few have inquired about the impact that the formation of non-carbonated secondary phases can have on these reaction's kinetics. It is the approach chosen here, as only solid knowledge of the global carbonation mechanism can make this process predictive and efficient. Experimental data on dissolution and carbonation have therefore been determined in batch reactors, on relevant minerals and rocks. Firstly, we studied the carbonation of olivine (a major phase within peridotites and minor within basalts) at 90 deg. C and under pCO 2 of 280 bars. The dissolution of San Carlos olivine (Mg 1.76 Fe 0.24 SiO 4 ) is slowed down by the formation of a surface silica gel, when the fluid reaches equilibrium with amorphous silica. The transport of species to the reactive medium becomes the limiting step of the process, slowing down the dissolution process of San Carlos olivine by 5 orders of magnitude. However, this passivation doesn't occur during the alteration of Ca-olivine (Ca 2 SiO 4 ), though a surface silica layer does form. This comparison suggests that it isn't the structure of the silicate but its chemical composition, which controls the transport properties through the interfacial layer. The second part explores the effects of organic ligands and of temperature variations on the formation of those phases. The addition of citrate at 90 deg. C increases the kinetics of San Carlos olivine by one order of magnitude, and allows the release of enough Mg in the aqueous medium to form

  18. Asteroids from a Martian Mega Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Like evidence left at a crime scene, the mineral olivine may be the clue that helps scientists piece together Marss possibly violent history. Could a long-ago giant impact have flung pieces of Mars throughout our inner solar system? Two researchers from the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan are on the case.A Telltale MineralOlivine, a mineral that is common in Earths subsurface but weathers quickly on the surface. Olivine is a major component of Marss upper mantle. [Wilson44691]Olivine is a major component of the Martian upper mantle, making up 60% of this region by weight. Intriguingly, olivine turns up in other places in our solar system too for instance, in seven out of the nine known Mars Trojans (a group of asteroids of unknown origin that share Marss orbit), and in the rare A-type asteroids orbiting in the main asteroid belt.How did these asteroids form, and why are they so olivine-rich? An interesting explanation has been postulated: perhaps this olivine all came from the same place Mars as the result of a mega impact billions of years ago.Evidence for ImpactMars bears plenty of signs pointing to a giant impact in its past. The northern and sourthern hemispheres of Mars look very different, a phenomenon referred to as the Mars hemisphere dichotomy. The impact of a Pluto-sized body could explain the smooth Borealis Basin that covers the northern 40% of Marss surface.This high-resolution topographic map of Mars reveals the dichotomy between its northern and sourthern hemispheres. The smooth region in the northern hemisphere, the Borealis basin, may have been formed when a giant object impacted Mars billions of years ago. [NASA/JPL/USGS]Other evidence piles up: Marss orbit location, its rotation speed, the presence of its two moons all could be neatly explained by a large impact around 4 billion years ago. Could such an impact have also strewn debris from Marss mantle across the solar system?To test this theory, we need to determine if a mega impact is

  19. Metamorphic reprocessing of a serpentinized carbonate-bearing peridotite after detachment from the mantle wedge: A P-T path constrained from textures and phase diagrams in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In the central Rhodope mountains of Greece a carbonate-bearing metaperidotite lens ˜ 200 × 500 m in size crops out as part of the high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Upper Sidironero Complex ˜ 500 m SE of the Gorgona Village, north of Xanthi town. It is composed primarily of coarse grained (3-20 mm in size) olivine and orthopyroxene, medium grained clinohumite and medium to fine grained tremolite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite, talc, antigorite and various spinel phases. Whole-rock chemistry, mineral textures and compositions, and phase diagram calculations show that the metaperidotite was subjected to a prograde HP metamorphism, isofacial with the surrounding migmatitic gneisses, metapelites and amphibolites. The prograde character of metamorphism is demonstrated by inclusions of talc, antigorite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite and Ti-clinohumite in ferrit-chromite, olivine, and orthopyroxene, as well as of olivine in orthopyroxene, and by the typical change in composition of zoned spinel minerals from ferrit-chromite in the core to chromian spinel at the rim. The prograde path is characterized by successive growth of amphibole, Ti-clinohumite, olivine and orthopyroxene, followed by the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite to olivine + Mg-ilmenite and of chlorite to olivine + spinel, probably during exhumation. The construction of a partial petrogenetic P- T grid in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (CMASCH) for Ca-poor ultramafic bulk compositions has proven highly useful for the reconstruction of the metamorphic evolution and a P- T path, indicating that the use of univariant reactions in mixed volatile systems is highly warranted. The P- T path is clearly constrained to pressures below 1.5-1.7 GPa by the absence of clinopyroxene. These pressures are slightly lower than those recorded in the closely associated Jurassic eclogites and much lower than those recorded in the diamond-bearing gneisses 5 km to the south in the same tectonic unit. The carbonate

  20. Oxygen Isotopes in Intra-Back Arc Basalts from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, B. H.; Wang, Z.; Saal, A. E.; Frey, F. A.; Blusztajn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical compositions of volcanic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) reflect complex and dynamic interactions among the subducting oceanic lithosphere, the mantle wedge, and the overlying continental crust. Oxygen isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts can be a useful means to identifying their relative contributions to the arc magmatism. In this study, we report high-precision oxygen-isotope ratios of olivine phenocrysts in a set of intra-back arc basalts from the SVZ. The samples were collected from monogenetic cinder cones east of the volcanic front (35-39 degrees S), and have been geochemically well-characterized with major and trace element contents, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Compared to lavas from the volcanic front, these intra-back arc lavas have similar radiogenic isotope, and a more alkalic and primitive (higher MgO content) chemical composition. We determined the oxygen-isotope ratios using the CO2-laser-fluorination method set up at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University following the techniques reported in Wang et al (2011). The samples were analyzed with standards of Gore Mountain Garnet (5.77×0.12‰ 1σ; Valley et al., 1995) and Kilbourne Hole Olivine (5.23×0.07‰ 1σ; Sharp, 1990) in order to account for minor changes in the vacuum line during analyses. The obtained δ18OSMOW values of olivine phenocrysts from the intra-back arc basalts vary from 4.98×0.01 to 5.34×0.01‰. This range, surprisingly, is similar to the δ18O values of olivines from mantle peridotites (5.2×0.2‰). Preliminary results indicate significant correlations of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd and trace element ratios of the basaltic matrix with the δ18O values of olivine phenocrysts, indicating at least three components involved in the formation of the arc volcanism. By comparing the δ18O with the variations of major and trace element contents (e.g., MgO, TiO2 and Ni), and trace element ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb), we evaluate the effects

  1. When does eruption run-up begin? Multidisciplinary insight from the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel J.; Plank, Terry A.; Roman, Diana C.; Power, John A.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Hauri, Erik H.

    2018-03-01

    During the run-up to eruption, volcanoes often show geophysically detectable signs of unrest. However, there are long-standing challenges in interpreting the signals and evaluating the likelihood of eruption, especially during the early stages of volcanic unrest. Considerable insight can be gained from combined geochemical and geophysical studies. Here we take such an approach to better understand the beginning of eruption run-up, viewed through the lens of the 1999 sub-Plinian basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska. The eruption is of interest due to its lack of observed deformation and its apparent long run-up time (9 months), following a deep long-period earthquake swarm. We evaluate the nature and timing of recharge by examining the composition of 138 olivine macrocrysts and 53 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and through shear-wave splitting analysis of regional earthquakes. Magma mixing is recorded in three crystal populations: a dominant population of evolved olivines (Fo60-69) that are mostly reversely zoned, an intermediate population (Fo69-76) with mixed zonation, and a small population of normally zoned more primitive olivines (Fo76-80). Mixing-to-eruption timescales are obtained through modeling of Fe-Mg interdiffusion in 78 olivines. The large number of resultant timescales provides a thorough record of mixing, demonstrating at least three mixing events: a minor event ∼11 months prior to eruption, overlapping within uncertainty with the onset of deep long-period seismicity; a major event ∼50 days before eruption, coincident with a large (M5.2) shallow earthquake; and a final event about a week prior to eruption. Shear-wave splitting analysis shows a change in the orientation of the local stress field about a month after the deep long-period swarm and around the time of the M5.2 event. Earthquake depths and vapor saturation pressures of Raman-reconstructed melt inclusions indicate that the recharge magma originated from depths of at least 20

  2. Constraining the volatile budget of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, N. J.; Bromiley, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of volatiles (F, Cl, S, H2O) in a range of lunar samples confirm the presence of volatile material in lunar magmas. It remains unknown, however, where this volatile material is stored and when it was delivered to the Moon. On Earth, point defects within mantle olivine, and its high-pressure polymorphs, are thought to be the largest reservoir of volatile material. However, as volatiles have been cycled into and out of the Earth's mantle throughout geological time, via subduction and volcanism, this masks any original volatile signatures. As the Moon has no plate tectonics, it is expected that any volatile material present in the deep lunar interior would have been inherited during accretion and differentiation, providing insight into the delivery of volatiles to the early Earth-Moon system. Our aim was, therefore, to test the volatile storage capacity of the deep lunar mantle and determine mineral/melt partitioning for key volatiles. Experiments were performed in a primitive lunar mantle composition and run at relevant T, P, and at fO2 below the IW buffer. Experiments replicated the initial stages of LMO solidification with either olivine + melt, olivine + pyroxene + melt, or pyroxene + melt as the only phases present. Mineral-melt partition coefficients (Dx) derived for volatile material (F, Cl, S, H2O) vary significantly compared to those derived for terrestrial conditions. An order of magnitude more H2O was found to partition into lunar olivine compared to the terrestrial upper mantle. DF derived for lunar olivine are comparable to the highest terrestrial derived values whilst no Cl was found to partition into lunar olivine under these conditions. Furthermore, an inverse trend between DF and DOH hints towards coupled-substitution mechanisms between H and F under low-fO2/lunar bulk composition. These results suggest that if volatile material was present in the LMO a significant proportion could be partitioned into the lower lunar mantle. The

  3. The origin of high-Mg magmas in Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, Cascade Arc (California): higher and lower than mantle oxygen isotope signatures attributed to current and past subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Bindeman, I.; Grove, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We report the oxygen isotope composition of olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts in lavas from the main magma types at Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake Volcanoes: primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT), basaltic andesites (BA), primitive magnesian andesites (PMA), and dacites. The most primitive HAOT (MgO > 9 wt%) from Mt. Shasta has olivine δ18O (δ18OOl) values of 5.9-6.1‰, which are about 1‰ higher than those observed in olivine from normal mantle-derived magmas. In contrast, HAOT lavas from Medicine Lake have δ18OOl values ranging from 4.7 to 5.5‰, which are similar to or lower than values for olivine in equilibrium with mantle-derived magmas. Other magma types from both volcanoes show intermediate δ18OOl values. The oxygen isotope composition of the most magnesian lavas cannot be explained by crustal contamination and the trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts precludes a pyroxenitic mantle source. Therefore, the high and variable δ18OOl signature of the most magnesian samples studied (HAOT and BA) comes from the peridotitic mantle wedge itself. As HAOT magma is generated by anhydrous adiabatic partial melting of the shallow mantle, its 1.4‰ range in δ18OOl reflects a heterogeneous composition of the shallow mantle source that has been influenced by subduction fluids and/or melts sometime in the past. Magmas generated in the mantle wedge by flux melting due to modern subduction fluids, as exemplified by BA and probably PMA, display more homogeneous composition with only 0.5‰ variation. The high-δ18O values observed in magnesian lavas, and principally in the HAOT, are difficult to explain by a single-stage flux-melting process in the mantle wedge above the modern subduction zone and require a mantle source enriched in 18O. It is here explained by flow of older, pre-enriched portions of the mantle through the slab window beneath the South Cascades.

  4. Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted basaltic lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg basalt in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived basaltic melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water saturated, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported basaltic and basaltic andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous basalts on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth

  5. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 3: Komatiite geochemistry, and implications for ore forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen J.; Hill, Robin E. T.; Evans, Noreen J.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan komatiite sequence is a package of dominantly olivine-rich cumulates with lesser volumes of spinifex textured rocks, interpreted as a section through an extensive komatiite lava flow field. The sequence hosts a number of nickel sulfide orebodies, including the Silver Swan massive shoot and the Cygnet and Black Swan disseminated orebodies. A large body of whole rock analyses on komatiitic rocks from the Black Swan area has been filtered for metasomatic effects. With the exception of mobile elements such as Ca and alkalis, most samples retain residual igneous geochemistry, and can be modelled predominantly by fractionation and accumulation of olivine. Whole rock MgO FeO relationships imply a relatively restricted range of olivine compositions, more primitive than the olivine which would have been in equilibrium with the transporting komatiite lavas, and together with textural data indicate that much of the cumulus olivine in the sequence was transported. Flow top compositions show evidence for chromite saturation, but the cumulates are deficient in accumulated chromite. Chromite compositions are typical of those found in compound flow-facies komatiites, and are distinct from those in komatiitic dunite bodies. Incompatible trace element abundances show three superimposed influences: control by the relative proportion of olivine to liquid; a signature of crustal contamination and an overprint of metasomatic introduction of LREE, Zr and Th. This overprint is most evident in cumulates, and relatively insignificant in the spinifex rocks. Platinum and palladium behaved as incompatible elements and are negatively correlated with MgO. They show no evidence for wholesale depletion due to sulfide extraction, which was evidently restricted to specific lava tubes or pathways. The lack of correspondence between PGE depletion and contamination by siliceous material implies that contamination alone is insufficient to generate S-saturation and ore formation in the

  6. Multicomponent Diffusion in Experimentally Cooled Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, L.; Stolper, E.

    2017-12-01

    Glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions are compositionally zoned, characterized by a boundary layer depleted in olivine-compatible components that extends into the melt inclusion from its wall. The boundary layer forms in response to crystallization of olivine and relaxes with time due to diffusive exchange with the interior of the inclusion. At magmatic temperatures, the time scale for homogenization of inclusions is minutes to hours. Preservation of compositional gradients in natural inclusions results from rapid cooling upon eruption. A model of MgO concentration profiles that couples crystal growth and diffusive relaxation of a boundary layer can be used to solve for eruptive cooling rates [1]. Controlled cooling-rate experiments were conducted to test the accuracy of the model. Mauna Loa olivine containing >80 µm melt inclusions were equilibrated at 1225°C in a 1-atm furnace for 24 hours, followed by linear cooling at rates of 102 - 105 °C/hr. High-resolution concentration profiles of 40 inclusions were obtained using an electron microprobe. The model of [1] fits the experimental data with low residuals and the best-fit cooling rates are within 30% of experimental values. The initial temperature of 1225 °C is underestimated by 65°C. The model was modified using (i) MELTS to calculate the interface melt composition as a function of temperature, and (ii) a concentration-dependent MgO diffusion coefficient using the functional form of [2]. With this calibration the best-fit starting temperatures are within 5°C of the experimental values and the best-fit cooling rates are within 20% of experimental rates. The evolution of the CaO profile during cooling is evidence for strong diffusive coupling between melt components. Because CaO is incompatible in olivine, CaO concentrations are expected to be elevated in the boundary layer adjacent to the growing olivine. Although this is observed at short time scales, as the profile evolves the CaO concentration near the

  7. The Role of Water in the Stability of Cratonic Keels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Cratons are typically underlain by large, deep, and old lithospheric keels (to greater than 200 km depth, greater than 2.5 Ga old) projecting into the asthenosphere (e.g., Jordan, 1978; Richardson et al., 1984). This has mystified Earth scientists as the dynamic and relatively hot asthenosphere should have eroded away these keels over time (e.g., Sleep, 2003; O'Neill et al., 2008; Karato, 2010). Three key factors have been invoked to explain cratonic root survival: 1) Low density makes the cratonic mantle buoyant (e.g., Poudjom Djomani et al., 2001). 2) Low temperatures (e.g., Pollack, 1986; Boyd, 1987), and 3) low water contents (e.g., Pollack, 1986), would make cratonic roots mechanically strong. Here we address the mechanism of the longevity of continental mantle lithosphere by focusing on the water parameter. Although nominally anhydrous , olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate trace amounts of water in the form of H bonded to structural O in mineral defects (e.g., Bell and Rossman, 1992). Olivine softens by orders of magnitude if water (1-1000 ppm H2O) is added to its structure (e.g., Mackwell et al., 1985). Our recent work has placed constraints on the distribution of water measured in peridotite minerals in the cratonic root beneath the Kaapvaal in southern Africa (Peslier et al., 2010). At P greater than 5 GPa, the water contents of pyroxene remain relatively constant while those of olivine systematically decrease from 50 to less than 10 ppm H2O at 6.4 GPa. We hypothesized that at P greater than 6.4 GPa, i.e. at the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere, olivines are essentially dry (greater than 10 ppm H2O). As olivine likely controls the rheology of the mantle, we calculated that the dry olivines could be responsible for a contrast in viscosity between cratonic lithosphere and surrounding asthenosphere large enough to explain the resistance of cratonic root to asthenospheric delamination.

  8. Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Des Marias, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Gorevan, S.; Graff, T.; Grant, J.; Haskin, L.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Milam, K.A.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; De Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain ???25% megacrysts. Chemical analyses of rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mo??ssbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.

  9. Orbital Evolution of Dust Particles in the Sublimation Zone near the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Demchenko, B. I.

    2018-03-01

    We have performed the calculations of the orbital evolution of dust particles from volcanic glass ( p-obsidian), basalt, astrosilicate, olivine, and pyroxene in the sublimation zone near the Sun. The sublimation (evaporation) rate is determined by the temperature of dust particles depending on their radius, material, and distance to the Sun. All practically important parameters that characterize the interaction of spherical dust particles with the radiation are calculated using the Mie theory. The influence of radiation and solar wind pressure, as well as the Poynting-Robertson drag force effects on the dust dynamics, are also taken into account. According to the observations (Shestakova and Demchenko, 2016), the boundary of the dust-free zone is 7.0-7.6 solar radii for standard particles of the zodiacal cloud and 9.1-9.2 solar radii for cometary particles. The closest agreement is obtained for basalt particles and certain kinds of olivine, pyroxene, and volcanic glass.

  10. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data

  11. Differentiating biotic from abiotic methane genesis in hydrothermally active planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, Christopher; Jones, L Camille; Goldsmith, Jonas I; Rosenbauer, Robert J

    2012-06-19

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) is derived from the hydrothermal alteration of olivine-rich planetary crust. Abiotic and biotic processes consume H(2) to produce methane (CH(4)); however, the extent of either process is unknown. Here, we assess the temporal dependence and limit of abiotic CH(4) related to the presence and formation of mineral catalysts during olivine hydrolysis (i.e., serpentinization) at 200 °C and 0.03 gigapascal. Results indicate that the rate of CH(4) production increases to a maximum value related to magnetite catalyzation. By identifying the dynamics of CH(4) production, we kinetically model how the H(2) to CH(4) ratio may be used to assess the origin of CH(4) in deep subsurface serpentinization systems on Earth and Mars. Based on our model and available field data, low H(2)/CH(4) ratios (less than approximately 40) indicate that life is likely present and active.

  12. The thermophysical properties of serpentinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hršak, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article serpentinite from Banovina, Croatia, was studied. The antigorite is main mineral constituent of that rock. The dilatation curve shows that the first contraction of sample is coursed by dehydratation of antigorite at nearly 660°C. In spite of this, the second contraction of sample, which begines at nearly 860°C, is incident with olivine phase formation. The morphology of the serpentinite before and after thermal treatment was observed with the optical microscope. Image of serpentinite before thermal treatment is characterized by inclusions of olivine as primary mineral left as residue in process of serpentinization. Image of serpentinite after thermal treatment was changed by water disappear. The first thermal treated and than milled serpentinite has better properties than the first milled and than thermally treated serpentinite.

  13. Investigation of post-svecofennian brittle structures in Satakunta. Field report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, M.; Wennerstroem, M.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the field work in the summer 2009. The task is a part of research entity in which the development of brittle structures in bedrock are acquired. In focus have been the post-Svecofennian rocks of the Satakunta area: rapakivi, sandstone and olivine diabase. We describe the observation methods and the research methods using three target examples: olivine diabase in Pori, Kallo, sandstone in Nakkila, Leistilaenjaervi and rapakivi in the centre of Lappi. We have concentrated on geometry and kinematics of joints in bedrock. Concerning every target we describe the joints and the faults, their orientations and properties, joint fabrics and jointing structures. Our aim is to define orientations of palaeostresses and evolution of brittle structures exploiting joint properties. The study will be continued in Satakunta based on the data collected in the summer 2009 and in a few earlier years. The results can be benefitted also in studies of the Svecofennian brittle structures. (orig.)

  14. Existence of an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N; McKeegan, Kevin D; Leshin, Laurie A; MacPherson, Glenn J; Scott, Edward R D

    2002-02-08

    Carbonaceous chondrite condensate olivine grains from two distinct petrographic settings, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) accretionary rims and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), are oxygen-16 (16O) enriched at the level previously observed inside CAIs. This requires that the gas in the nebular region where these grains condensed was 16O-rich. This contrasts with an 16O-poor gas present during the formation of chondrules, suggesting that CAIs and AOAs formed in a spatially restricted region of the solar nebula containing 16O-rich gas. The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun.

  15. Free energy for protonation reaction in lithium-ion battery cathode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedek, R.; Thackeray, M. M.; van de Walle, A.

    2008-01-01

    Calculations are performed of free energies for proton-for-lithium-ion exchange reactions in lithium-ion battery cathode materials. First-principles calculations are employed for the solid phases and tabulated ionization potential and hydration energy data for aqueous ions. Layered structures, spinel LiMn 2 O 4 , and olivine LiFePO 4 are considered. Protonation is most favorable energetically in layered systems, such as Li 2 MnO 3 and LiCoO 2 . Less favorable are ion-exchange in spinel LiMn 2 O 4 and LiV 3 O 8 . Unfavorable is the substitution of protons for Li in olivine LiFePO 4 , because of the large distortion of the Fe and P coordination polyhedra. The reaction free energy scales roughly linearly with the volume change in the reaction

  16. Exploring the plutonic crust at a fast-spreading ridge:new drilling at Hess Deep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Kathryn M. [Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Snow, Jonathan E. [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Earth & Atmospheric Sciences; Klaus, Adam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). United States Implementing Organization.; Guerin, Gilles [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Borehole Research Group; Abe, Natsue [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka (Japan). Inst. for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE); Akizawa, Norikatsu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Ceuleneer, Georges [Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (UMS 831), CNRS; Cheadle, Michael J. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Adriao, Alden de Brito [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Geology Inst. (IGEO); Faak, Kathrin [Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany). Geological Inst.; Falloon, Trevor J. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia). Inst. for Marine and Antarctic Studies; Friedman, Sarah A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology; Godard, Marguerite M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Geosciences Montpellier-UMR 5243; Harigane, Yumiko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Marine Geology Dept.; Horst, Andrew J. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Hoshide, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Ildefonse, Benoit [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. de Tectonophysique; Jean, Marlon M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences; John, Barbara E. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Koepke, Juergen H. [Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Inst. of Mineralogy; Machi, Sumiaki [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Maeda, Jinichiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Natural History Sciences; Marks, Naomi E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry and Material Sciences Dept.; McCaig, Andrew M. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Meyer, Romain [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Earth Science and Centre for Geobiology; Morris, Antony [Univ. of Plymouth (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean & Environmental Sciences; Nozaka, Toshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Python, Marie [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Saha, Abhishek [Indian Inst. of Science (IISC), Bangalore (India). Centre for Earth Sciences; Wintsch, Robert P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2013-02-28

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hess Deep Expedition 345 was designed to sample lower crustal primitive gabbroic rocks that formed at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) in order to test models of magmatic accretion and the intensity of hydrothermal cooling at depth. The Hess Deep Rift was selected to exploit tectonic exposures of young EPR plutonic crust, building upon results from ODP Leg 147 as well as more recent submersible, remotely operated vehicle, and near-bottom surveys. The primary goal was to acquire the observations required to test end-member crustal accretion models that were in large part based on relationships from ophiolites, in combination with mid-ocean ridge geophysical studies. This goal was achieved with the recovery of primitive layered olivine gabbros and troctolites with many unexpected mineralogical and textural relationships, such as the abundance of orthopyroxene and the preservation of delicate skeletal olivine textures.

  17. The Wenquan ultramafic rocks in the Central East Kunlun Fault zone, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau—crustal relics of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Meng, Fancong; Feng, Huibin

    2018-06-01

    The Wenquan ultramafic rocks, located in the East Kunlun Orogenic belt in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine-clinopyroxenite and clinopyroxenite, and exhibit cumulate textures. Olivine from dunite has high Fo (forsterite, 90.0-91.8 wt%) and NiO content (0.15-0.42 wt%). Cr-spinels from all of the rocks in this suite are characterized by high Cr# (100×[Cr/(Cr + Al)], 67-91), low Mg# (100×[Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)], 17-35) and low TiO2 contents (mostly rocks show enrichment of LILE, Sr, and Ba, and depletion of Nb and Th. High-Mg# (mostly > 80) and low-CaO (evolution along the Central East Kunlun Fault zone.

  18. Petrology of dune sand derived from basalt on the Ka'u Desert, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Dune sand from the Ka'u Desert, southwest flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is moderately well-sorted (median = 1.60 Phi, deviation = 0.60, skewness = 0.25, kurtosis = 0.68) and composed mostly of frosted subangular particles of basalt glass ('unfractionated' olivine-normative tholeitte), olivine, lithic fragments (subophitic and intersertal basalts; magnetite-ilmenite-rich basalts), reticular basalt glass, magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase, in approximately that order of abundance. Quantitative lithological comparison of the dune sand with sand-sized ash from the Keanakakoi Formation supports suggestions that the dune sand was derived largely from Keanakakoi ash. The dune sand is too well sorted to have been emplaced in its present form by base-surge but could have evolved by post-eruption reworking of the ash.

  19. Areally Extensive Surface Bedrock Exposures on Mars: Many Are Clastic Rocks, Not Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Warner, Nicholas H.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Head, James W.; Cowart, Justin C.

    2018-02-01

    Areally extensive exposures of intact olivine/pyroxene-enriched rock, as well as feldspar-enriched rock, are found in isolated locations throughout the Martian highlands. The petrogenetic origin(s) of these rock units are not well understood, but some previous studies favored an effusive volcanic origin partly on the basis of distinctive composition and relatively high thermal inertia. Here we show that the regolith development, crater retention, and morphological characteristics for many of these "bedrock plains" are not consistent with competent lavas and reinterpret the high thermal inertia orbital signatures to represent friable materials that are more easily kept free of comminution products through eolian activity. Candidate origins include pyroclastic rocks, impact-generated materials, or detrital sedimentary rocks. Olivine/pyroxene enrichments in bedrock plains relative to surrounding materials could have potentially formed through deflation and preferential removal of plagioclase.

  20. The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail Katrine; Holm, Paul Martin; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Verde hotspot, like many other Ocean Island Basalt provinces, demonstrates isotopic heterogeneity on a 100–200 km scale. The heterogeneity is represented by the appearance of an EM1-like component at several of the southern islands and with a HIMU-like component present throughout...... have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113, 2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores...... of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source...

  1. Magnetite Crisis in Miniature: Vanadium, Sulfur, and Iron Valence State Measurements in Melt Inclusions from Nyamuragira Volcano (D.R. Congo, Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, E.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur (S), vanadium (V), and iron (Fe) K-edge micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy of melt inclusions (MI) from Nyamuragira volcano (D.R. Congo, Africa) shows that diffusive loss of H from olivine-hosted melt inclusions may lead to crystallization of submicron magnetite and sulfide crystallites that are imperceptible petrographically or via electron microscopy. Micro-XANES was used to constrain the evolution of oxygen fugacity (fO2) and sulfur speciation for MI preserved in Nyamuragira tephra (1986 and 2006) and lava (1938 and 1948). The S, V, and Fe valence state oxybarometry for 1938, 1948, and 2006 MI are all consistent with equilibration at FMQ-1, and sulfur in MI from these three eruptions are sulfide-dominated (water loss in olivine-hosted MIs.

  2. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didwall, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  3. Characterization of Maghsail meteorite from Oman by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and petrographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rawas, A. D.; Gismelseed, A. M.; Al-Kathiri, A. F.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A.; Al-Kathiri, S. B.; Widatallah, H. M.; Abdalla, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The meteorite found at Maghsail (16 55 70 N-53 46 69 E) west of Salalah Oman, has been studied by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-diffractometry and petrographic microscopy. In the polished section the meteorite exhibits a porphyritic texture consisting of pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts in a fine to medium grained ground mass in addition to minor phases possibly skeletal chromite, troilite and minute amount of iron oxides. X-ray diffraction supports the existence of these compounds. The Moessbauer spectra of powdered material from the core of the rock at 298 K and 78 K exhibit a mixture of magnetic and paramagnetic components. The paramagnetic components are assigned to the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene. On the other hand, the magnetic spectra reveal the presence of troilite and iron oxides. The petrographic analyses indicate that the iron oxides are terrestrial alteration products.

  4. Petrography and geochemistry of rocks from the sor-rondane mountains, droning Maude land, eastern Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.S.; Shah, M.T.; Jan, M.Q.; Majid, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mamyu rock specimens, were collected from the sor-rondane mountains and Breid Bay area of Drojnning Maud land, eastern Antarctica, during the 2nd Pakistan Antarctic Expedition, 1992-93. Petrography and geochemical studies suggest that the rocks are essentially of igneous origin. The samples dredged from ocean bottom include olivine basalt, amygdaloidal volcanics, dacites and rhyodacites. A majority of these rocks are calc-alkaline and formed by the fraction of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase +- titanomagnetite. Most of these rocks apparently formed in an island arc or continental margin set up. However, volcanics showing ocean floor basalt character are also present. A metamorphosed and deformed basement consisting of amphibolites, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses is intrude by under formed or only slightly deformed granites with a minor arkosic sandstone cover. The granites are chemically distinguished as I-type, originate at deeper crystal level by collisional/subduction related processes during organic environments. (author)

  5. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of carbonaceous chondritic clasts in the LEW 85300 polymict eucrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Hewins, R. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Xiao, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a detailed petrologic and mineralogic study of two chondritic clasts from the polymict eucrite Lewis Cliff (LEW) 85300, and performed chemical analyses by INAA and RNAA on one of these. Petrologically, the clasts are identified and are composed of dispersed aggregates, chondrules, and chondrule fragments supported by matrix. The aggregates and chondrules are composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, plus some diopside. The matrix consists of fine-grained olivine, and lesser orthopyroxene and augite. Fine-grained saponite is common in the matrix. The bulk major composition of the clast studied by INAA and RNAA shows unusual abundance patterns for lithophile, siderophile and chalcophile elements but is basically chondritic. The INAA/RNAA data preclude assignment of the LEW 85300,15 clast to any commonly accepted group of carbonaceous chondrite.

  6. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  7. Strain Measurements of Chondrules and Refraction Inclusion in Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses traditional strain measurement techniques, combined with X-ray computerized tomography (CT), to evaluate petrographic evidence in the Allende CV3 chondrite for preferred orientation and to measure strain in three dimensions. The existence of petrofabrics and lineations was first observed in carbonaceous meteorites in the 1960's. Yet, fifty years later only a few studies have reported that meteorites record such features. Impacts are often cited as the mechanism for this feature, although plastic deformation from overburden and nebular imbrication have also been proposed. Previous work conducted on the Leoville CV3 and the Parnallee LL3 chondrites, exhibited a minimum uniaxial shortening of 33% and 21%, respectively. Petrofabrics in Allende CV3 have been looked at before; previous workers using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) found a major-axis alignment of olivine inside dark inclusions and an "augen"-like preferred orientation of olivine grains around more competent chondrules

  8. Geo-Chemo-Mechanical Studies for Permanent CO{sub 2} Storage in Geologic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelemen, Peter; Park, Ah-hyung; Matter, Jurg; Gadikota, Greeshma; Lisabeth, Harrison; Zhu, Wenlu

    2013-09-30

    This two-pronged study investigated the rates and mechanisms of formation of Ca and Mg carbonate minerals via reaction of aqueous fluids with silicate minerals and rocks, and the geomechanical effects of such reactions. The kinetic studies focused on the separation of variables, following from previous studies demonstrating rapid formation of carbonates via reaction of the mineral olivine with aqueous fluids rich in NaHCO{sub 3} (plus KHCO{sub 3} and RbHCO{sub 3}) and NaCl at a high partial pressure of CO{sub 2}. We wished to separate and quantify the effects of NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl, and to investigate whether bicarbonate-rich, aqueous fluids would also cause rapid formation of carbonates via reaction with other minerals and rocks. Further, we wished to improve upon previous work by adding precise characterization of grain size distributions and surface area, and their changes as a result of reaction. We confirmed previous reports of very rapid olivine carbonation. We found that at a given temperature and CO{sub 2} partial pressure the previously observed rate enhancement in olivine carbonation is due mainly to NaHCO{sub 3}, and not to dissolved NaCl. Further, though reaction of the mineral plagioclase, and two rock compositions, were all faster in the presence of NaHCO{sub 3}-rich fluids, compared with saline and de-ionized water, they were all much slower than reaction of olivine. In the experiments showing the fastest reaction rate, average grain size tended to increase during experiments, presumably due to dissolution of small reactant grains plus growth of product phases on reactant surfaces. Porosity/surface area of grains tended to change with reaction progress, due to the formation of dissolution pits and irregular growth of product phases on reactant grain surfaces. Development of a passivating phase (e.g., a layer of silica) due to incongruent dissolution of solid reactants and/or precipitation of solid products was detected, but was relatively minor and

  9. Rare earth elements in minerals of the ALHA77005 shergottite and implications for its parent magma and crystallization history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Laura L.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of mineral REE and selected minor and trace elements were carried out on individual grains of pyroxenes, whitlockite, maskelynite, and olivine of the Antarctic shergottite ALHA77005, and the results are used to interpret its parent magma and crystallization history. The results of mineral compositions and textural observations suggest that ALHA77005 is a cumulate with about half cumulus material (olivine + chromite) and half postcumulus phases. Most of the REEs in ALHA77005 reside in whitlockite whose modal concentration is about 1 percent. Mineral REE data support previous suggestions that plagioclase and whitlockite crystallized late, and that low-Ca pyroxene initiated crystallization before high-Ca pyroxene. The REE patterns for the intercumulus liquid, calculated from distribution coefficients for ALHA77005 pyroxene, plagioclase, and whitlockite, are in very good agreement and are similar to that of Shergotty.

  10. Depleted and metasomatized oceanic lithosphere beneath La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of Earth's interior, xenoliths became the best possibility to study the chemical composition of the earth mantle as well as its various processes. Three samples out of the sample suite of mantle peridotites from San Antonio Volcano on La Palma, Canary Islands, have been chosen to illustrate three examples of diverse mantle metasomatic events. The first sample, a pyroxene-hornblende-peridotite, was influenced by an alkali-rich, silicic-hydrous undersaturated melt and/or fluid forming a conspicuous cross-cutting amphibole-apatite-dyke with several veins percolating through the rock. Forsterite content in olivine varies between 82.5 - 85.5 and 86.0 - 89.0, suggesting at least two different occurrences of metasomatic overprint. Clinopyroxenes are mostly found in association with amphibole and in textural equilibrium hinting that both minerals may have grown together, while orthopyroxene have only been found as remnant inclusions in olivine. These clinopyroxenes are Cr-Diopsides with En43.40-50.97-Wo43.99-48.64-Fs4.30-8.22 and Mg# between 85.54 and 92.36. Secondary clinopyroxenes are Ti-Augites with En39.86-46.81-Wo46.65-51.98-Fs5.86-8.72 and Mg# of 82.44 - 89.09. The second sample, a sp-dunite, is characterized by haüyne-bearing melt veins which clearly indicate host-basalt infiltration. The haüyne is always in contact with amphibole, spinel and clinopyroxene denoting that they have been formed at the same time because there is no evidence for reaction among these phases. The melt infiltration apparently took place prior to xenolith entrainment in the host basalt. Primary olivine has Fo content of 89.57 - 89.67 with NiO ranging from 0.32 - 0.334, in contrast Fo content in secondary olivine varies from 89.05 - 90.86 and NiO fluctuates between 0.24 - 0.31. Cr-Diopside compositions are in range of En41.63-47.05-Wo47.83-51-90-Fs4.93-6.64 and Mg# between 86.48 - 90.50. The third sample is also a sp-dunite and marked by a network of phlogopite

  11. Cosmic-ray production rates of neon isotopes in meteorite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, N.

    1988-01-01

    The rates of production of 21 Ne and 22 Ne in spallation reactions, both due to solar as well as galactic cosmic rays, in some major meteoritic minerals, e.g. olivines, feldspars and pyroxenes, are calculated using their energy spectra and excitation functions. The production profiles of 21 Ne and 22 Ne due to galactic cosmic rays, and the 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio depend upon the size of the meteoroid. The 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio is very sensitive to the abundance of sodium and consequently its depth profile is distinctly different in feldspars, the ratio increasing with depth rather than decreasing as in pyroxenes and olivines. In the near-surface regions, up to a depth of 2 cm, production due to solar flare protons dominates, giving rise to a steep gradient in isotopic production as well as in the 22 Ne/ 21 Ne ratio. Composite production profiles are given and compared with measurements in some meteorites. (author). 22 refs

  12. Spin Structure Analyses of Antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Song, Young Sang; Lee, Hak Bong

    2010-05-01

    We have synthesized series of powder sample of incommensurate antiferromagnetic multiferroics, (Mn, Co)WO 4 and Al doped Ba 0.5 Sr 1.5 Zn 2 Fe 12 O 22 , incommensurate antiferromagnetic multiferroics. Their spin structure was studied by using the HRPD. In addition, we have synthesized series of crystalline samples of incommensurate multiferroics, (Mn, Co)WO 4 and olivines. Their spin structure was investigated using neutron diffraction under high magnetic field. As a result, we were able to draw the phase diagram of (Mn, Co)WO 4 as a function of composition and temperature. We learned the how the spin structure changes with increased ionic substitution. Finally we have drawn the phase diagram of the multicritical olivine Mn2SiS4/Mn2GeS4 as a function of filed and temperature through the spin structure studies

  13. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  14. Spinel-Bearing, Al-Rich Chrondrules in the Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrite NWA7402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Cato, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Several Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) have been discovered in the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite NWA7402. Two of these three ARCs are spinel-bearing. Here we have characterized these unusual chondrules with respect to their mineralogy and bulk compositions. These objects will be targets for future O and Mg isotope analysis. NWA7402 is clearly unequilibrated, with wide ranges of olivine compositions in chondrules (Fo99-Fo70, excluding rims). Chromium-oxide contents in olivine, and Raman organic spectral parameters support the classification of this meteorite as petrologic type 3.1 [1]. NWA7402 is similar to, and could be paired with NWA5717, in that they both possess light and dark lithologies.

  15. Petrology and deformation style of lithospheric mantle beneath the Heldburg Dike swarm (Central Germany) subset of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Hidas, Károly; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Milke, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    The Heldburg Dike swarm is a set of Cenozoic alkali basalt dikes occurring in the central part of Germany at the border between Thuringia and Bavaria. We studied xenoliths from Strauf, Feldstein, Bramberg and from the active quarry in Zeilberg. The peridotites from Strauf, Feldstein and Bramberg have the composition of spinel lherzolite (15), spinel harzburgite (9) and dunite (3). They vary in size from 1.5 cm (Strauf) up to 20 cm (Zeilberg). We distinguish groups (A, A- and B) of peridotites based on different forsterite content in olivine. Group A consists of olivine (89.6 - 91.8 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.93, Al 0.05-0.18 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.87-0.95, Al 0.06-0.26 a pfu) and spinel (Cr# 0.13-0.65, Mg# 0.54-0.78). Clinopyroxene rare earth elements (REE) patterns are S-shaped (Feldstein, Bramberg) or U-shaped (Strauf); spoon-shaped patterns occur occasionally. Trace element (TE) patterns show negative Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Th, U anomalies. The most magnesian clinopyroxene (xenolith 3140, Feldstein) is strongly aluminous and LREE depletedwith weak anomalies in TE patterns. Group A- is contains olivine (88.9-89.5 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.89-0.90, Al 0.10-0.13 a pfu) and clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.92, Al 0.10-0.17 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is increasingly enriched in REEs from Lu to La. TE patterns are similar to those of group A but with less pronounced anomalies. Group B (3 xenoliths only) consists of olivine Fo 86.7-88.9, orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.89, Al 0.07-0.19 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.90, Al 0.10-0.26 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is enriched in LREE, concave upward in Pr. TE patterns are similar to those in group A. One of group B harzburgites contains grains (up to 0.5 mm) of Ca-Mg carbonate located in interstices. The clinopyroxene chemical composition plots away from the melting trend in the MgO-Al2O3 diagram of Upton et al. (2011), suggesting a later addition of the clinopyroxene. The composition of orthopyroxene corresponds to ca. 15

  16. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  17. H2-rich fluids from serpentinization: Geochemical and biotic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sleep, N. H.; Meibom, A.; Fridriksson, Th.; Coleman, R. G.; Bird, D. K.

    2004-01-01

    Metamorphic hydration and oxidation of ultramafic rocks produces serpentinites, composed of serpentine group minerals and varying amounts of brucite, magnetite, and/or FeNi alloys. These minerals buffer metamorphic fluids to extremely reducing conditions that are capable of producing hydrogen gas. Awaruite, FeNi3, forms early in this process when the serpentinite minerals are Fe-rich. Olivine with the current mantle Fe/Mg ratio was oxidized during serpentinization after the Moon-forming impac...

  18. Boundaries of mantle–lithosphere domains in the Bohemian Massif as extinct exhumation channels for high-pressure rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2013), s. 973-987 ISSN 1342-937X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA ČR GAP210/12/2381; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * mantle lithosphere domains * fossil olivine fabric * high pressure Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 8.122, year: 2013

  19. New argon-argon (40Ar/39Ar) radiometric age dates from selected subsurface basalt flows at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary K. V.; Turrin, Brent D.; Champion, Duane E.; Swisher, Carl C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 12 new argon-argon radiometric ages from eastern Snake River Plain olivine tholeiite basalt flows in the subsurface at the Idaho National Laboratory. The core samples were collected from flows that had previously published paleomagnetic data. Samples were sent to Rutgers University for argon-argon radiometric dating analyses.

  20. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

  1. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  2. Timescales of magma transport and mixing at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Auriol SP; Edmonds, Marie; Maclennan, John Campbell; Morgan, Daniel; Houghton, Bruce; Hartley, Margaret E; Sides, Isobel

    2016-01-01

    Modelling of volcanic processes is strongly limited by a poor knowledge of the timescales of storage, mixing and final ascent of magmas into the shallowest portions of volcanic 'plumbing' systems immediately prior to eruption. It is impossible to measure these timescales directly; however, micro-analytical techniques provide indirect estimates based on the extent of diffusion of species through melts and crystals. Here, diffusion in olivine phenocrysts from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption is us...

  3. Petrology of basalts from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, James; Melchior, John

    1983-12-01

    Loihi Seamount is the southeasternmost active volcano of the Emperor-Hawaii linear volcanic chain. It comprises a spectrum of basalt compositional varieties including basanite, alkali basalt, transitional basalt and tholeiite. Samples from four dredge collections made on Scripps Institution of Oceanography Benthic Expedition in October 1982 are tholeiite. The samples include highly vesicular, olivine-rich basalt and dense glass-rich pillow fragments containing olivine and augite phenocrysts. Both quartz-normative and olivine-normative tholeiites are present. Minor and trace element data indicate relatively high abundances of low partition coefficient elements (e.g., Ti, K, P. Rb, Ba, Zr) and suggest that the samples were derived by relatively small to moderate extent of partial melting, of an undepleted mantle source. Olivine composition, MgO, Cr and Ni abundances, and Mg/(Mg+Fe), are typical of moderately fractionated to relatively unfractionated "primary" magmas. The variations in chemistry between samples cannot be adequately explained by low-pressure fractional crystallization but can be satisfied by minor variations in extent of melting if a homogeneous source is postulated. Alternatively, a heterogeneous source with variable abundances of certain trace elements, or mixing of liquids, may have been involved. Data for 3He/ 4He, presented in a separate paper, implies a mantle plume origin for the helium composition of the Loihi samples. There is little variation in the helium isotope ratio for samples having different compositions and textures. The helium data are not distinctive enough to unequivocally separate the magma sources for the tholeiitic rocks from the other rock types such as Loihi alkalic basalts and the whole source region for Loihi may have a nearly uniform helium compositions even though other element abundances may be variable. Complex petrologic processes including variable melting, fractional crystallization and magma mixing may have blurred

  4. Extraterrestrial matter in the oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    estimates of the total abundance of cosmic dust and also quantitative estimates of the flux of stony spherules on earth. Brownlee et al. (1975) and Blanchard and Davis (1978) simulated atmospheric entry conditions on natural and artificial analogs... obliterated/masked these important events in the earth’s history. 89 References Barnes V.E. (1989), Origin of tektites, Texas J. of Sci.,41, 5-33. Blanchard M.B. and Cunningham G. (1974) Artificial meteor ablation studies - olivine. J. Geophys...

  5. Intermediate-Depth Subduction Earthquakes Recorded by Pseudotachylyte in Dry Eclogite-Facies Oceanic Lithosphere from the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambelluri, M.; Pennacchioni, G.; Gilio, M.; Bestmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    While geophysical studies and laboratory experiments provide much information on subduction earthquakes, field studies identifying the rock types for earthquake development and the deep seismogenic environments are still scarce. To date, fluid overpressure and volume decrease during hydrous mineral breakdown the widely favoured trigger of subduction earthquakes in serpentinized lithospheric mantle and hydrated low-velocity layers atop slabs. Here we document up to 40 cm-thick pseudotachylyte (PST) in Alpine oceanic gabbro and peridotite (2-2.5 GPa-550-620°C), the analogue of a modern cold subducting oceanic lithosphere. These rocks mostly remained unaltered dry systems; only very minor domains (<1%) record partial hydration and static eclogitic metamorphism. Meta-peridotite shows high-pressure olivine + antigorite (garnet + zoisite + chlorite after mantle plagioclase); meta-gabbro develops omphacite + zoisite + talc + chloritoid + garnet. Abundant syn-eclogitic pseudotachylyte cut the dry gabbro-peridotite and the eclogitized domains. In meta-peridotite, PST shows olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel microliths and clasts of high-pressure olivine + antigorite and garnet + zoisite + chlorite aggregates. In metagabbro, microfaults in damage zones near PST cut brecciated igneous pyroxene cemented by omphacite. In unaltered gabbro, glassy PST contains micron-scale garnet replacing plagioclase microliths during, or soon after, PST cooling. In the host rock, garnet coronas between igneous olivine and plagioclase only occur near PST and between closely spaced PST veins. Absence of garnet away from PST indicates that garnet growth was triggered by mineral seeds and by heat released by PST. The above evidence shows that pseudotachylyte formed at eclogite-facies conditions. In such setting, strong, dry, metastable gabbro-peridotite concentrate stress to generate large intermediate depth subduction earthquakes without much involvement of free fluid.

  6. Origin of howardites, diogenites and eucrites - A mass balance constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two petrogenetic models for the noncumulate-basaltic parts of howardite meteorites are discussed. A mass balance constraint is developed which indicates that more than half of the basaltic components in howardites formed as residual liquids from fractional crystallization of melts that had earlier produced diogentelike pyroxene cumulate components. Other model constriants involving scandium trends, clustering near olivine-pyroxene-plagioclase peritectic, and MgO/(MgO + FeO) ratios are discussed.

  7. Mantle weakening and strain localization: Implications for the long-term strength of the continental lithosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Précigout , Jacques; Gueydan , Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Mechanics of the continental lithosphere require the presence of a high-strength uppermost mantle that defines the "jelly sandwich" model for lithosphere strength layering. However, in deforming regions, growing numbers of geological and geophysical data predict a sub-Moho mantle strength lower than the crustal strength, or a "crème brûlée" model. To reconcile these two opposite views of lithosphere strength layering, we account for a new olivine rheology, which could ...

  8. Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn

    2000-01-01

    This newsletter contains something for everyone! It lists classifications of about 440 meteorites mostly from the 1997 and 1998 ANSMET (Antarctic Search for Meteorites) seasons. It also gives descriptions of about 45 meteorites of special petrologic type. These include 1 iron, 17 chondrites (7 CC, 1 EC, 9 OC) and 27 achondrites (25 HED, UR). Most notable are an acapoloite (GRA98028) and an olivine diogenite (GRA98108).

  9. A petrogenetic model of basalts from the Northern Central Indian Ridge: 3-11°S

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.; Misra, S.; Widdowson, M.

    ) to subhedral (rare) equant grains, which are almost colourless and rarely show zoning. In a few cases, olivine shows alteration along the inherent fracture to reddish- brown iddingsite. Amphiboles occur in the VT as well as in VM basalts but only as poorly... (primitive mantle normalized data from Sun and McDonough, 1989) patterns for selected samples are shown. The basalt samples collected from VT 4, VT 5 and VM 9DG locations characteristically exhibit differential variation in their trace element...

  10. Preliminary Assessment/Site Inspection Work Plan for Granite Mountain Radio Relay System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    gray to dark red vesicular olivine basalt flows. According to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Granite Mountain RRS lies within the Pergelic ...Cryaquepts- Pergelic Cryorthents, very gravelly, hilly to steep soil association. This soil association is found on the Seward Peninsula near sea level to...principal components (95 percent) and four other components (5 percent). The following are principal components. Pergelic Cryaquepts, very gravelly, hilly

  11. Infrared spectra of lunar soils. [using a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Measured data obtained by Michelson interferometer spectrometer were stored in a computer file and smoothed by being passed forward and backward through a digital four-pole low pass filter. Infrared spectra of the 10 lunar samples are presented in the format of brightness temperature versus frequency. The mol % of feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, ilmenite and ferromagnetic silicate in each sample is presented in tables. The reflectance spectra of ilmenite and enstatite are shown in graphs.

  12. 54 La Terrasse Ebebda (centre du Cameroun) : preuve d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Mais nous relevons la présence de certains minéraux lourds dans le Mbam ce sont des minéraux tels que l'augite, l'olivine qui sont d'origine volcanique et se retrouvent également sur la terrasse. Pourtant ces minéraux ne se voient pas dans les sables de la sanaga. Dans le Mbam la fréquence de l'augite est de 5% alors ...

  13. Nature and evolution of the meteorite parent bodies: Evidence from petrology and metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical as well as chemical properties of the meteorite parent bodies are reviewed and it is concluded that many differentiated meteorites were likely formed in asteroidal-sized parents. A new model is developed for the formation of pallasites at the interface between an iron core and olivine mantle in differentiated bodies only about 10 km in diameter, which are later incorporated into a second generation of larger (100 km) parent bodies.

  14. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  15. Aleutian tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magma series I: The mafic phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S. Mahlburg; Kay, Robert W.

    1985-07-01

    Diagnostic mafic silicate assemblages in a continuous spectrum of Aleutian volcanic rocks provide evidence for contrasts in magmatic processes in the Aleutian arc crust. Tectonic segmentation of the arc exerts a primary control on the variable mixing, fractional crystallization and possible assimilation undergone by the magmas. End members of the continuum are termed calc-alkaline (CA) and tholeiitic (TH). CA volcanic rocks (e.g., Buldir and Moffett volcanoes) have low FeO/MgO ratios and contain compositionally diverse phenocryst populations, indicating magma mixing. Their Ni and Cr-rich magnesian olivine and clinopyroxene come from mantle-derived mafic olivine basalts that have mixed with more fractionated magmas at mid-to lower-crustal levels immediately preceding eruption. High-Al amphibole is associated with the mafic end member. In contrast, TH lavas (e.g., Okmok and Westdahl volcanoes) have high FeO/MgO ratios and contain little evidence for mixing. Evolved lavas represent advanced stages of low pressure crystallization from a basaltic magma. These lavas contain groundmass olivine (FO 40 50) and lack Ca-poor pyroxene. Aleutian volcanic rocks with intermediate FeO/MgO ratios are termed transitional tholeiitic (TTH) and calc-alkaline (TCA). TCA magmas are common (e.g., Moffett, Adagdak, Great Sitkin, and Kasatochi volcanoes) and have resulted from mixing of high-Al basalt with more evolved magmas. They contain amphibole (high and low-Al) or orthopyroxene or both and are similar to the Japanese hypersthene-series. TTH magmas (e.g., Okmok and Westdahl) contain orthopyroxene or pigeonite or both, and show some indication of upper crustal mixing. They are mineralogically similar to the Japanese pigeonite-series. High-Al basalt lacks Mg-rich mafic phases and is a derivative magma produced by high pressure fractionation of an olivine tholeiite. The low pressure mineral assemblage of high-Al basalt results from crystallization at higher crustal levels.

  16. Aqueous synthesis of LiFePO4 with Fractal Granularity

    OpenAIRE

    Cab?n-Huertas, Zahilia; Ayyad, Omar; Dubal, Deepak P.; G?mez-Romero, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes with fractal granularity are reported. They were made from a starting material prepared in water by a low cost, easy and environmentally friendly hydrothermal method, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. Our method leads to pure olivine phase, free of the impurities commonly found after other water-based syntheses. The fractal structures consisted of nanoparticles grown into larger micro-sized formations which in turn agglomerate leading to hi...

  17. Syntheses and characterizations of LiFePO4 powders

    OpenAIRE

    Jugović, Dragana; Kuzmanović, Maja; Mitrić, Miodrag; Cvjetićanin, Nikola; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The olivine type compositions LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co) are among the most attractive materials for the positive electrode of lithium-ion battery. The benefits of using LiFePO4 are excellent cycle life, high structural stability, low cost and environmental friendliness. Here will be presented our efforts to obtain LiFePO4 powders through several synthesis methods. The differences in phase purity, microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performances of synthesized powders were investigat...

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical analysis of AlVMoO7 oxide prepared ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-16

    May 16, 2018 ... solid solution and two-phase regimes. In the voltage ... LiMn2O4) [1]. Among these compounds, olivine LiFePO4, ... polyanions provide numerous metal oxidation states, struc- tural stability ... 2.1a Sol–gel synthesis (SG): In SG synthesis method, ... AlVMoO7 and confirms that only a single phase is formed.

  19. Case study of chondrule alteration with IR spectroscopy in NWA 2086 CV3 meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Gyollai, I.; Szabó, M.

    2015-02-01

    Analyzing the alteration in an olivine chondrule of the NWA 2086 CV3 meteorite, infrared spectral, electron microprobe and optical microscopic observations were correlated to each other. The intensity and wavelength positions of olivine peaks changed characteristically with the progression of alteration and related Fe/Mg substitution inward of the chondrule. Moderate to good correlations were identified between Fo% composition and positions of 830 and 860 cm-1 IR peaks. The disappearance of 1020 cm-1 peak by structural change happens already at a low level alteration without changing the optical appearance of the mineral. The existence of the 980 cm-1 peak is found to be an indicator of the intact phase of olivine. While profiles perpendicular to the chondrule's perimeter showed that the alteration progressed 15-20 μm distance inward without observable fractures (probablly by some diffusion related process), the "alteration distance" from various obvious fractures inside the chondrule was only 3-5 μm distance. These observations suggest that the substitution was more effective close to the matrix, and also related to some fluids that although were able to circulate along the large internal fractures too, did not produce such strong substitution there, like what happened close to the matrix. It was also demonstrated that the poorly exploited contact mode observations with ATR based reflection method in infrared spectroscopy provide a useful tool to analyze the alteration at micrometer scale without much sample preparation, and enable identifying alterations already at such a low level where the olivines still look optically intact.

  20. Mineralogy of asbestos from the metamorphic complex from north eastern Takab-NW Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajialioghli, R.; Moazzen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ultramafic rocks from the Takht-e-Soleyman metamorphic complex, in Precambrian age, are classified as serpentinized meta peridotites and serpentinites, based on degree of serpentinization. Serpentine forms more than 90 volume% of the serpentinites. On the basis of serpentine polymorphs, textural relations and micro-structure features, variety of serpentinites are determined as massive serpentinites, serpentinite schists and chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Chrysotile in serpentinites has been formed due to static condition and brittle deformations. During static state chrysotile and lizardite after olivine and pyroxene are formed as pseudomorphic mesh and bastite textures in the massive serpentinites. Then serpentinization processes reactivated by formation and development of joints and fractures related to brittle deformations at the local sheared zones. Chrysotile occur as fine grained crystals in the serpentinite matrix and veinlets with mm thickness filling fractures of the chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Slight thickness of chrysotile veinlet in the investigated serpentinites can be attributed to the olivine rich composition of protolite. Low amounts of Cr 2 O 3 in composition of the analyzed chrysotile supports low clinopyroxene and high olivine in protolite of serpentinites. Serpentinite schists are formed under ductile deformation condition at the regional sheared zones. Amphibole asbestos occur as veins having meter scale thickness filling of joints and fractures at the regional sheared zone. Length of thin and long asbestos amphibole arrives up to cm. On the basis of petrography, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and microprope analysis, both chrysotile- and amphibole asbestos have been recognized in the Takht-e-Soleyman serpentintes.

  1. The Potential for Low-Temperature Abiotic Hydrogen Generation and a Hydrogen-Driven Deep Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The release and oxidation of ferrous iron during aqueous alteration of the mineral olivine is known to reduce aqueous solutions to such extent that molecular hydrogen, H2, forms. H2 is an efficient energy carrier and is considered basal to the deep subsurface biosphere. Knowledge of the potential for H2 generation is therefore vital to understanding the deep biosphere on Earth and on extraterrestrial bodies. Here, we provide a review of factors that may reduce the potential for H2 generation with a focus on systems in the core temperature region for thermophilic to hyperthermophilic microbial life. We show that aqueous sulfate may inhibit the formation of H2, whereas redox-sensitive compounds of carbon and nitrogen are unlikely to have significant effect at low temperatures. In addition, we suggest that the rate of H2 generation is proportional to the dissolution rate of olivine and, hence, limited by factors such as reactive surface areas and the access of water to fresh surfaces. We furthermore suggest that the availability of water and pore/fracture space are the most important factors that limit the generation of H2. Our study implies that, because of large heat flows, abundant olivine-bearing rocks, large thermodynamic gradients, and reduced atmospheres, young Earth and Mars probably offered abundant systems where microbial life could possibly have emerged. Key Words: Serpentinization—Olivine—Hydrogen—Deep biosphere—Water—Mars. Astrobiology 11, 711–724. PMID:21923409

  2. Antigorite crystallographic preferred orientations in serpentinites from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Yusuke; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Foliated antigorite serpentinites are contributing to seismic anisotropy in subduction zones. However, uncertainty remains regarding the development of antigorite crystal preferred orientations (CPO). This study analyzes the CPOs of antigorite and olivine in variably serpentinized samples of antigorite serpentinite from three localities in Southwest Japan, using U-stage, EBSD, and synchrotron X-rays. In all samples (010) poles show a maximum parallel to the lineation, and (001) poles concentrate normal to the foliation with a partial girdle about the lineation. (100) poles are less distinct and scatter widely. The three measurement methods give similar results, though orientation distributions from X-ray analysis which averages over larger sample volumes are more regular and weaker than U-stage and EBSD which focuses on local well-crystallized grains. In olivine-bearing serpentinite, the olivine CPO does not appear to control the antigorite CPO, though there are some topotactic relationships. The antigorite CPO formed contemporaneously with serpentinization and shear deformation. Based on our analyses, in a subduction zone mantle wedge, the (010) pole of antigorite is parallel to the direction of the subduction, and (001) lattice planes are parallel to the interface of the subducting oceanic plate. By averaging single crystal elastic properties over orientation distributions wave velocities have been calculated. Fast P velocities are parallel to the subduction direction and slow velocities are perpendicular to the subducting plate with an anisotropy of 10-15%.

  3. A computational investigation of adsorption of organics on mineral surfaces: Implications for organics delivery in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, A. M.; Zega, T. J.; Laref, Slimane; Runge, K.; Deymier, P. A.; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The adsorption of simple organic compounds onto minerals that are known to occur in the early solar nebula such as olivine, spinel and water-ice, is examined using first-principles density functional theory. The calculations show that electron-rich organics and organics containing cyanide, amine and carboxylic functional groups can strongly bind to low-index surfaces of olivine and spinel. Based on the surface coverage as obtained from these calculations, it can be inferred that an estimated amount of 1013 kg of organics could have been delivered to early Earth via direct adsorption mechanisms, thereby providing an endogenous source of planetary organics. In addition, adsorption of organic compounds on magnesite, a carbonate phase believed to have formed via aqueous processes on asteroidal bodies, is also studied. The adsorption behavior of the organics is observed to be similar in both cases, i.e., for minerals that formed during the earliest stages of nebular evolution through condensation (spinel and olivine) or other processes and for those that formed via hydration processes on asteroidal bodies (magnesite). These results suggest that direct incorporation via adsorption is an important delivery mechanism of organics to both asteroidal bodies and terrestrial planets.

  4. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang′e-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang′e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source. PMID:26694712

  5. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang'e-3 landing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-12-22

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source.

  6. MINERAL ABUNDANCE AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION DERIVED FROM IN-SITU SPECTRA MEASUREMENTS OF YUTU ROVER OF CHANG’E-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From geologic perspective, understanding the types, abundance, and size distributions of minerals allows us to address what geologic processes have been active on the lunar and planetary surface. The imaging spectrometer which was carried by the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang’E-3 mission collected the reflectance at four different sites at the height of ~ 1 m, providing a new insight to understand the lunar surface. The mineral composition and Particle Size Distribution (PSD of these four sites were derived in this study using a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM and Sparse Unmixing (SU algorithm. The endmembers used were clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and agglutinate collected from the lunar sample spectral dataset in RELAB. The results show that the agglutinate, clinopyroxene and olivine are the dominant minerals around the landing site. In location Node E, the abundance of agglutinate can reach up to 70 %, and the abundances of clinopyroxene and olivine are around 10 %. The mean particle sizes and the deviations of these endmembers were retrieved. PSDs of all these endmembers are close to normal distribution, and differences exist in the mean particle sizes, indicating the difference of space weathering rate of these endmembers.

  7. Comparison of Nickel XANES Spectra and Elemental Maps from a Ureilite, a LL3.8 Ordinary Chondrite, Two Carbonaceous Chondrites and Two Large Cluster IDPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel in the extraterrestrial world is commonly found in both Fe-Ni sulfide and Fe-Ni met-al forms [1] and in the pure metal state in the interior of iron meteorites where it is not easily oxidized. Ni is also found in olivine, pyroxene and glasses and in some melts the partitioning of Ni between the olivines and glass is controlled by the amount of S in the melt [2]. Its most common valence state is Ni(2+) but Ni also occurs as Ni(0), Ni(+), and Ni(3+) and rarely as Ni(2-), Ni(1-) and Ni(4+) [3]. It's valence state in olivines is Ni(2+) in octa-hedral coordination on the M1 site and rarely on the M2 site.[4]. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorp-tion near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well established and can be used to determine not only va-lence states but also coordination sites [5]. We report here Ni XANES spectroscopy and elemental maps collected from 2 carbonaceous chondrites, 2 large clus-ter IDPs, 1 ureilite and 1 LL3 orginary chondrite.Using XANES it may be possible to find a common trait in the large cluster IDPs that will also be found in mete-orite samples.

  8. Velocity and stress distributions of deep seismic zone under Izu-Bonin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Jia, Zhengyuan

    2017-04-01

    Deep earthquakes can provide the deep information of the Earth directly. We have collected the waveform data from 77 deep earthquakes with depth greater than 300 km under Izu-Bonin in Japan. To obtain the velocity structures of P- and S-wave, we have inversed the double-differences of travel times from deep event-pairs. These velocity anomalies can further yield the Poisson's ratio and the porosity. Our results show that the average P-wave velocity anomaly is lower 6%, however the S-wave anomaly is higher 2% than the iasp91 model. The corresponding Poisson's ratio and porosity anomaly are -24% and -4%, respectively, which suggest that the possibility of water in the deep seismic zone is very few and the porosity might be richer. To obtain the stress distribution, we have used the ISOLA method to analyse the non-double-couple components of moment tensors of 77 deep earthquakes. The focal mechanism results show that almost half of all earthquakes have larger double-couple (DC) components, but others have clear isotropic (ISO) or compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components. The non-double-couple components (ISO and CLVD) seem to represent the volume around a deep earthquake changes as it occurs, which could be explained the metastable olivine phase transition. All results indicate that the metastable olivine wedge (MOW) might exist in the Pacific slab under the Izu-Bonin region and the deep earthquakes might be induced by the phase change of metastable olivine.

  9. The New Peruvian Meteorite Carancas: Mössbauer Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Varela, M. E.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2013-02-01

    The Carancas meteorite fell on 15 September 2007 approximately 10 km south of Desaguadero, near Lake Titicaca, Peru, producing bright lights, clouds of dust in the sky and intense detonations. The Carancas meteorite is classified as a H4-5 ordinary chondrite with shock stage S3 and a degree of weathering W0. The Carancas meteorite is characterized by well defined chondrules composed either of olivine or pyroxene. The Mössbauer spectra show an overlapping of paramagnetic and magnetic phases. The spectra show two quadrupole doublets associated to olivine and pyroxene; and two magnetic sextets, associated with the primary phases kamacite/taenite and Troilite (Fe2+). Metal particles were extracted from the bulk powdered samples exhibit only kamacite and small amounts of the intergrowth tetrataenite/antitaenite. X-Ray diffractogram shows the primary phases olivine, pyroxene, troilite, kamacite, diopside and albite. Iron oxides has not been detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy or XRD as can be expected for a meteorite immediately recovered after its fall.

  10. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, F.; Chang, S.; Dickinson, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules

  11. Geochemistry and mineral chemistry of Shahabad gabbroic intrusion, NW Nourabad, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Shahabad gabbroic intrusion, with NW-SE trend cropped out at the boundary of Zagros and Sanandaj-Sirjan zones is composed of olivine gabbro, orthogabbro and troctolite. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine are the main minerals; and magnetite, titanomagnetite and serpentine are minor and secondary minerals. Microprobe analyses of the minerals show that plagioclase is labradorite, pyroxene diopsidic augite and olivine, chrysolite. The rocks appear to have calc-alkaline and metaluminous nature. The plots of some trace elements and composition of clinopyroxenes in the tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate a volcanic arc environment. In addition, spider diagram pattern of elements shows Sr enrichment and Ti, Nb, Zr and P depletion, typical characteristics of volcanic arc subduction related magmas. Furthermore, close similarity between the patterns of spider diagram for the Shahabad pluton with those of Andean basic rocks suggests that the Shahabad calc-alkaline basic magma may have formed in a subduction environment. Based on geological, geochemical and mineralogical features, formation of the gabbros, as a part of ophiolite mélange, is attributed to a suprasubduction system.

  12. The oldest magnetic record in our solar system identified using nanometric imaging and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P; Nagy, Lesleis; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Kovács, András; Valdez-Grijalva, Miguel A; Fabian, Karl; Russell, Sara S; Genge, Matthew J; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2018-03-21

    Recordings of magnetic fields, thought to be crucial to our solar system's rapid accretion, are potentially retained in unaltered nanometric low-Ni kamacite (~ metallic Fe) grains encased within dusty olivine crystals, found in the chondrules of unequilibrated chondrites. However, most of these kamacite grains are magnetically non-uniform, so their ability to retain four-billion-year-old magnetic recordings cannot be estimated by previous theories, which assume only uniform magnetization. Here, we demonstrate that non-uniformly magnetized nanometric kamacite grains are stable over solar system timescales and likely the primary carrier of remanence in dusty olivine. By performing in-situ temperature-dependent nanometric magnetic measurements using off-axis electron holography, we demonstrate the thermal stability of multi-vortex kamacite grains from the chondritic Bishunpur meteorite. Combined with numerical micromagnetic modeling, we determine the stability of the magnetization of these grains. Our study shows that dusty olivine kamacite grains are capable of retaining magnetic recordings from the accreting solar system.

  13. CM and CO chondrites: A common parent body or asteroidal neighbors? Insights from chondrule silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Davidson, Jemma

    2017-10-01

    By investigating the petrology and chemical composition of type II (FeO-rich) chondrules in the Mighei-like carbonaceous (CM) chondrites we constrain their thermal histories and relationship to the Ornans-like carbonaceous (CO) chondrites. We identified FeO-rich relict grains in type II chondrules by their Fe/Mn ratios; their presence indicates chondrule recycling among type II chondrules. The majority of relict grains in type II chondrules are FeO-poor olivine grains. Consistent with previous studies, chemical similarities between CM and CO chondrite chondrules indicate that they had similar formation conditions and that their parent bodies probably formed in a common region within the protoplanetary disk. However, important differences such as mean chondrule size and the lower abundance of FeO-poor relicts in CM chondrite type II chondrules than in CO chondrites suggest CM and CO chondrules did not form together and they likely originate from distinct parent asteroids. Despite being aqueously altered, many CM chondrites contain pre-accretionary anhydrous minerals (i.e., olivine) that are among the least thermally metamorphosed materials in chondrites according to the Cr2O3 content of their ferroan olivine. The presence of these minimally altered pre-accretionary chondrule silicates suggests that samples to be returned from aqueously altered asteroids by the Hayabusa2 and OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return missions, even highly hydrated, may contain silicates that can provide information about the pre-accretionary histories and conditions of asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, respectively.

  14. Theoretical evaluation of high-energy lithium metal phosphate cathode materials in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Wilmont F.; Spotnitz, Robert M.

    Lithium metal phosphates (olivines) are emerging as long-lived, safe cathode materials in Li-ion batteries. Nano-LiFePO 4 already appears in high-power applications, and LiMnPO 4 development is underway. Current and emerging Fe- and Mn-based intercalants, however, are low-energy producers compared to Ni and Co compounds. LiNiPO 4, a high voltage olivine, has the potential for superior energy output (>10.7 Wh in 18650 batteries), compared with commercial Li(Co,Ni)O 2 derivatives (up to 9.9 Wh). Speculative Co and Ni olivine cathode materials charged to above 4.5 V will require significant advances in electrolyte compositions and nanotechnology before commercialization. The major drivers toward 5 V battery chemistries are the inherent abuse tolerance of phosphates and the economic benefit of LiNiPO 4: it can produce 34% greater energy per dollar of cell material cost than LiAl 0.05Co 0.15Ni 0.8O 2, today's "standard" cathode intercalant in Li-ion batteries.

  15. Chromium Oxidation State in Planetary Basalts: Oxygen Fugacity Indicator and Critical Variable for Cr-Spinel Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P. V.; Le, Loan; Papike, J. J.; Jone, J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cr is a ubiquitous and relatively abundant minor element in basaltic, planetary magmas. At the reduced oxidation states (olivine. However, understanding the Cr valence in quenched melts has historically been plagued with analytical issues, and only recently has reliable methodology for quantifying Cr valence in quenched melts been developed. Despite this substantial difficulty, the pioneering works of Hanson and Jones and Berry and O'Neill provided important insights into the oxidation state of Cr in in silicate melts. Here we present a series of 1-bar gas mixing experiments performed with a Fe-rich basaltic melt in which have determined the Cr redox ratio of the melt at over a range of fO2 values by measuring this quantity in olivine with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The measured Cr redox ratio of the olivine phenocrysts can be readily converted to the ratio present in the conjugate melt via the ratio of crystal-liquid partition coefficients for Cr3+ and Cr2+. We have applied these results to modeling Cr spinel stability and Cr redox ratios in a primitive, iron-rich martian basalt.

  16. Mineralogical composition of the meteorite El Pozo (Mexico): a Raman, infrared and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Hernández-Bernal, Maria del Sol

    2011-12-01

    The Raman (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of El Pozo meteorite (an ordinary chondrite L5 type; village Valle of Allende, founded in State of Chihuahua, Mexico: 26°56'N and 105°24'W, 1998). RMP measurements in the range of 100-3500 cm(-1) revealed principal characteristic bands of the major minerals: olivine, two polymorph modifications of pyroxene (OPx and CPx) and plagioclase. Some bands of the minor minerals (hematite and goethite) were also identified. All these minerals were clearly distinguished using IR and XRD techniques. XRD technique has shown the presence of some metallic phases such as kamacite and taenite as well as troilite and chromite. These minerals do not have characteristic Raman spectra because Fe-Ni metals have no active modes for Raman spectroscopy and troilite is a weak Raman scatterer. Raman mapping microspectroscopy was a key part in the investigation of El Pozo meteorite's spatial distribution of the main minerals because these samples are structurally and chemically complex and heterogeneous. The mineral mapping by Raman spectroscopy has provided information for a certain spatial region on which a spatial distribution coexists of the three typical mineral assemblages: olivine; olivine+orthopyroxene; and orthopyroxene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Petrology of a sequence of pyroclastic rocks from the Taurus-Littrow (Apollo 17 landing site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, G.; McKay, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    We have studied 13 samples from core 740012 using petrographic methods and electron probe microanalysis. The samples represent most of the major units described in the core by Nagle (1978). Below 5.5 cm, the samples consist entirely of whole and broken orange glass droplets and the partly to completely crystallized black equivalents. We believe these droplets are pyroclastic ejecta from a lunar volcano. The crystalline droplets contain olivine and ilmenite as major phases. Minor phases include pyroxene, Cr-spinels, and metallic Fe. Four different properties of these droplets suggest that a wide range of cooling rates are represented. These properties are the grain shapes, the degree of crystallization, the olivine shapes or textures, and the olivine compositions. Many droplets contain vesicles indicating that a gas phase was involved in the eruption. Above 5.5 cm the core sequence has undergone in situ reworking by micrometeorites and contains ''exotic'' fragments including basalt and agglutinates. We conclude that the sequence below 5.5 cm represents 3.5 b.y. old volcanic pyroclastic ejecta which was deposited in a relativley short time period, was buried, and was subsequently brought to the lunar surface by the Shorty Crater impact where it was subjected to minor in situ reworking

  18. An in-depth look at the lunar crater Copernicus: Exposed mineralogy by high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Mall, Urs; Bhatt, Megha; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Brønstad, Kjell; Nathues, Andreas; Søraas, Finn; Ullaland, Kjetil; Pedersen, Rolf B.

    2011-05-01

    Newly acquired, sequentially spaced, high-resolution near-infrared spectra across the central section of crater Copernicus' interior have been analyzed using a range of complementary techniques and indexes. We have developed a new interpretative method based on a multiple stage normalization process that appears to both confirm and expand on previous mineralogical estimations and mapping. In broad terms, the interpreted distribution of the principle mafic species suggests an overall composition of surface materials dominated by calcium-poor pyroxenes and minor olivine but with notable exceptions: the southern rim displays strong ca-rich pyroxene absorption features and five other locations, the uppermost northern crater wall, opposite rim sections facing the crater floor, and the central peak Pk1 and at the foot of Pk3, show instead strong olivine signatures. We also propose impact glass an alternative interpretation to the source of the weak but widespread olivine-like spectral signature found in low-reflectance samples, since it probably represents a major regolith constituent and component in large craters such as Copernicus. The high quality and performance of the SIR-2 data allows for the detection of diagnostic key mineral species even when investigating spectral samples with very subdued absorption features, confirming the intrinsic high-quality value of the returned data.

  19. Insights into chondrule formation process and shock-thermal history of the Dergaon chondrite (H4-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dergaon fall represents a shock-melted H4-5 (S5 ordinary chondrite which includes at least ten textural varieties of chondrules and belongs to the high chondrule-matrix ratio type. Our study reveals that the chondrules are of diverse mineralogy with variable olivine-pyroxene ratios (Type II, igneous melt textures developed under variable cooling rates and formed through melt fractionations from two different melt reservoirs. Based on the experimental analogues, mineralogical associations and phase compositions, it is suggested that the Dergaon chondrules reflect two contrasting environments: a hot, dust-enriched and highly oxidized nebular environment through melting, without significant evaporation, and an arrested reducing environment concomitant with major evaporation loss of alkali and highly volatile trace elements. Coexistence of chlorapatite and merrillite suggests formation of the Dergaon matrix in an acidic accretionary environment. Textural integration and chemical homogenization occurred at ∼1 atmospheric pressure and a mean temperature of 765 °C mark the radiogenic thermal event. Equilibrated shock features (olivine mosaicism, diaplectic plagioclase, polycrystalline troilite due to an impact-induced thermal event reflect a shock pressure >45 GPa and temperature of 600 °C. By contrast, the local disequilibrium shock features (silicate melt veins comprising of olivine crystallites, troilite melt veins and metal droplets correspond to a shock pressure up to 75 GPa and temperature >950 °C.

  20. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  1. Petrogenesis and geochemical characterisation of ultramafic cumulate rocks from Hawes Head, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daczko, N.R.; Emami, S.; Allibone, A.H.; Turnbull, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Early Cretaceous parts of the western Median Batholith (Western Fiordland Orthogneiss) represent the exposed root of a magmatic arc of dioritic to monzodioritic composition (SiO 2 = 51-55 wt%; Na 2 O/K 2 O = 3.7-8.8 in this study). We characterise for the first time the field relationships, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of ultramafic and mafic cumulates at Hawes Head, the largest exposure of ultramafic rocks in western Fiordland. We distinguish three related rock types at Hawes Head: hornblende peridotite (MgO = 21-35 wt%); hornblendite (MgO = 15-16 wt%); and pyroxenite (MgO = 21 wt%). Petrogenetic relationships between the ultramafic rocks and the surrounding Misty Pluton of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss are demonstrated by: (i) mutually cross-cutting relationships; (ii) similar mafic phases (e.g. pyroxene and amphibole) with elevated Mg-numbers (e.g. olivine Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.77-0.82); (iii) fractionation trends in mineral geochemistry; and (iv) shared depleted heavy rare earth element patterns. In addition, the application of solid/liquid partition coefficients indicates that olivine in the ultramafic rocks at Hawes Head crystallised from a magma with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.54-0.57. The olivine grains therefore represent a plausible early crystallising phase of the adjacent Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.51-0.55). (author). 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  3. Mineralogy, geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic tuffs from Ataraws, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fugha, H.

    1997-01-01

    Magistracy are common in tuff and paralytic's materials of Pleistocene age in western Jordan. The dominant phases are olivine, augite, plagioclase, magnetite and ilmenite. Chemical analysis of the whole rocks samples indicate alkali olivine magma origin. Low concentration of Li and Rb in Tuff samples are used as an argument against the contamination of the basaltic magma during its journey to the surface. The Mg O and mg- values (Mg/Mg+Fe 2+ ) in samples from volcano exhibit different degrees of fractionation, which are indicated by the varying concentrations of incompatible trace elements (Ba, Rb, Sr). The thermometric evacuation of tuff formation by using pyroxenes thermometers revealed a temperature range between 1022-1083 deg. and pressure of 5-10 K bars. The low Mg-ratio (Mg/Mg+Fe 2+ ) is due to fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene in tuff samples. The variation of incompatible elements imply derivation from a peridotite source in the upper mantle with low degree of melting (<20%).The volcanic activity took place in phases corresponding to rifting sinistral displacement along the Jordan Rift. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs, 6 figs

  4. Mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Late-Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Kojid area (south of Lahijan, northern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza delavari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic rocks of Kojid area (south of Lahijan crop out in northern Alborz. They show mainly pillow structure with numerous cross-cutting dykes. Based on lithostratigraphic relationships and interpillow pelagic limestones, the volcanics are Late Cretaceous in age. The volcanics of Kojid area are predominantly basic in composition (olivine basalt and basalt and minor more evolved suites such as trachyandesite and dacite. Olivine phenocrysts display forsterite (Fo content of 63 to 83%. The phenocrystic and interstitial clinopyroxene crystals are augite to diopside in composition, with Na2O, Al2O3 and TiO2 contents of 0.24- 0.68, 2.3-6.53 and 1-5.1 wt.%, respectively. Furthermore, plagioclase is labradorite (An%= 51-68. The results of various geothermobarometric methods of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and olivine indicate good correlation with each other. Different thermometric calculations yielded temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1250 °C which are compatible with temperatures of basic melts. Moreover, clinopyroxene and plagioclase barometry of the phenocrysts (4 to 8 Kb and interstitial phases (

  5. Psyche's UV Reflectance Spectra: Exploring the origins of the largest exposed-core metallic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy

    2016-10-01

    (16) Psyche is the largest of the M-class asteroids, and is presumed to be the exposed core of a differentiated asteroid stripped of its mantle through hit-and-run collisions. However, other origins for Psyche have been proposed, including that it formed from a highly-reduced, metal rich material in the inner solar system or that its surface is olivine that has been space weathered. If (16) Psyche is an exposed core, then studying its properties enhances our understanding of the cores of all terrestrial planets, including the Earth's. If it accreted in the inner part of the solar system and was later injected into the asteroid belt, then Psyche sheds light on the conditions and subsequent evolution of the early solar system. Lastly, if Psyche is weathered olivine, then olivine may be more abundant in the solar system than currently measured, rectifying the so-called Great Dunite Shortage. Our program to obtain high-resolution UV spectra of Psyche with the COS G140L mode and the STIS NUV MAMA G230L mode to measure spectral signatures between 90 - 315 nm is designed to distinguish between the 3 hypothesized cases. These observations will enable identification of absorption bands, especially Fe-O charge transfer bands and will be sensitive to spectral blueing that occurs at UV wavelengths for space-weathered objects. When combined, the presence of these UV features, or not, provides a novel test of Psyche formation theories.

  6. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  7. Petrography and geochemistry of the Javaherdasht basalts (east of Guilan Province): The investigation of the role of crystal fractionation and crustal contamination in the magmatic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghnazar, Sh.; Malakotian, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Javaherdasht Basalts show compositional range from olivine basalts to quartz basaltic andesites. Petrographic studies indicate that the differentiation of clinopyroxene and olivine minerals has main role for lithologic variety of the basalts. The corrosion golf, crenated margins and lack of the same colour in the clinopyroxene phenochrysts margins with matrix Pyroxene grains express a nonequilibrium and are petrographic features for crustal contamination of the basalts.The positive correlation Ca O,Ca O/Al 2 O 3 and Cr with Mg and Ca O/Al 2 O 3 with Sc and the negative correlation Al 2 O 3 with Mg are geochemical characters for the differentiation of clinopyroxene and olivine in the magmatic evolution of the area.The high ratios of Ba/Zr and Pb/Nd and law ratio of Ce/Pb and positive correlation of SiO 2 and Rb with 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and negative correlation of Nd-Sr isotopes display the contamination of these basalts with continental crust.

  8. Study of fossil tracks due to 50≤Z≤92 galactic cosmic ray nuclei in meteoritic crystals: Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.I.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.; Rebetez, M.; Spohr, R.; Vetter, J.; Perron, C.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of investigation of charge and energy spectra of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei, based on fossil track study of extraterrestrial olivine crystals has been developed. The results of an investigation of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei (Z=50-92) in meteoritic olivine crystals are presented. The technique was based on calibration of olivine crystals with accelerated Xe, Au, Pb and U ions and well-controlled partial annealing of 'fresh' and 'fossil' tracks. It allows us to determine the charge spectra and abundances of cosmic ray nuclei based on fossil track length study in meteoritic and Moon crystals. The comparative studies of the spectra of ''fossil' tracks and tracks due to 208 Pb and 238 U nuclei have shown that the group of 210 μm 'fossil' tracks, first observed in 1980 at JINR is due to Th-U nuclei-products of recent r-process nucleosyntesis in our Galaxy. The method in principle allows one to resolve Pt-Pb peaks in fossil tracks, to establish the upper limit of the abundance of Z>110 nuclei in the Galactic cosmic rays at the level ≤10 -3 to the abundance of actinide nuclei and to get information on the history of Z>50 cosmic ray nuclei in time interval up to 220 M.Y

  9. Geochemical study of young basalts in East Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Amel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The young basalts in East Azerbaijan are placed in West Alborz – Azerbaijan zone. Volcanic activities have extended from the Pliocene to the Quaternary by eruption from fracture systems and faults. Rocks under study are olivine-basalt and trachybasalts. The main minerals are olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase set in glassy or microcrystalline matrix and olivine are present as phenocryst. The textures in the studied rocks are mainly hyaloporphyric, hyalomicrolitic and porphyritic. Trace elements and rare earth elements on spider diagrams have high LREE/HREE ratio. Rare earth elements on diagram display negative slope indicating alkaline nature for the basalts under study. As it may be observed, on tectonic diagrams, the Marand basalts are placed on Island Arc basalt (IAB field, whereas the Ahar, Heris, Kalaibar and Miyaneh basalts are classified as Ocean Island Basalts (OIB and finally the basalts of Sohrol area are plotted on continental rift Basalt (CRB field. The Marand and Sohrol basalts were likely originated from lithospheric - astenospheric mantle with 2 to 5 % partial melting whereas, the Ahar, Heris and Kalaibar basalts having same source experienced 1-2% partial melting rate and the Miyaneh basalts possibly produced from lithospheric mantle with 10-20% partial melting rate pointing to shallow depth of mantle and the higher rate of melting. Based on tectonic setting diagrams, all the rocks studied are plotted in post collisional environments.

  10. Water in the Cratonic Mantle: Insights from FTIR Data on Lac De Gras Xenoliths (Slave Craton, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Griffin, William L.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The mantle lithosphere beneath the cratonic part of continents is the deepest (> 200 km) and oldest (>2-3 Ga) on Earth, remaining a conundrum as to how these cratonic roots could have resisted delamination by asthenospheric convection over time. Water, or trace H incorporated in mineral defects, could be a key player in the evolution of continental lithosphere because it influences melting and rheology of the mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Lac de Gras kimberlite in the Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR. The cratonic mantle beneath Lac de Gras is stratified with shallow (water contents extending to higher values than those from the shallow ones. The FTIR spectra of olivines from the shallow samples have more prominent Group II OH bands compared to the olivines from the deep samples, consistent with a more oxidized mantle environment. The range of olivine water content is similar to that observed in Kaapvaal craton peridotites at the same depths (129-184 km) but does not extend to as high values as those from Udachnaya (Siberian craton). The Slave, Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons will be compared in terms of water content distribution, controls and role in cratonic root longevity.

  11. Mineralogy and geochemistry of picro-dolerite dykes from the central Deccan Traps flood basaltic province, India, and their geodynamic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Ashish; Viljoen, K. S.; Rathod, A.

    2018-04-01

    Constituent mineral compositions and whole rock major element geochemistry of picro-dolerite dykes from the central part of the Deccan flood basalt province are presented and discussed. The dykes are characterized by an MgO content of about 13 wt%, coupled with 13-16 modal percents of olivine. A high whole rock molar Mg# value of 71 and the presence of magnesian olivine phenocrysts ( Fo78) are consistent with a primitive (i.e. unevolved) geochemistry. The nature and composition of clinopyroxene (augite and pigeonite), plagioclase feldspar (labradorite) and Fe-Ti oxides (mostly ilmenite and magnetite) are also discussed, with implications drawn with respect to the geodynamics. High MgO magmas and rocks such as picrites are generally considered to be indicative of plume magmatism, formed by high degrees of partial melting in, e.g. the high-temperature region of a plume head. Recent age data is consistent with a model in which the Deccan LIP picritic magmatism is associated with the main phase of Deccan Trap activity at 66 Ma, as a result of a syn- to post rifting phase associated with the impact of the Rèunion mantle plume. It is speculated that the differentiation of primary olivine basaltic magma of picritic composition, may have been the mechanism for the generation of alkalic basalts which occurs in the Deccan Trap basaltic sequence.

  12. Tunable morphology synthesis of LiFePO4 nanoparticles as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Shao, Guangjie; Fan, Yuqian; Wang, Guiling; Song, Jianjun; Liu, Tingting

    2014-06-25

    Olivine LiFePO4 with nanoplate, rectangular prism nanorod and hexagonal prism nanorod morphologies with a short b-axis were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal in glycerol and water system. The influences of solvent composition on the morphological transformation and electrochemical performances of olivine LiFePO4 are systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. It is found that with increasing water content in solvent, the LiFePO4 nanoplates gradually transform into hexagonal prism nanorods that are similar to the thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the LiFePO4 crystal. This indicates that water plays an important role in the morphology transformation of the olivine LiFePO4. The electrochemical performances vary significantly with the particle morphology. The LiFePO4 rectangular prism nanorods (formed in a glycerol-to-water ratio of 1:1) exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with the other morphological particles because of their moderate size and shorter Li(+) ion diffusion length along the [010] direction. The initial discharge capacity of the LiFePO4@C with a rectangular prism nanorod morphology reaches to 163.8 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C and over 75 mAh g(-1) at the high discharging rate of 20 C, maintaining good stability at each discharging rate.

  13. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  14. Compositions of Bedrock Containing Craters on Mars as Viewed by TES, THEMIS, and CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. S.; Rogers, D.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of Martian high thermal inertia crater surfaces has been made using derived THEMIS thermal inertia data. High thermal inertia surfaces or interpreted bedrock are defined as any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J K-1m-2s-1/2 and may refer to in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. While three different surface morphologies (valley and crater walls, crater floors, and plains surface) were originally identified [Edwards et al., in press], the focus of this study is to better characterize the compositional, thermophysical, and geological characteristics of the crater floors surface. These surfaces may be related to impact-associated volcanism that often occurs in conjunction with large energetic impacts. These craters are commonly modified, lack a central peak, have shallow sloped walls, and little to no visible ejecta, indicating the relatively old ages of these impacts. They are generally large, ranging in size from 18.5 to 179km in diameter, with an average of ~52km [Edwards et al., in press]. Boulders are also observed in high-resolution imagery (e.g. HiRISE) along with fine scale randomly oriented cracks and fractures. TES spectra for ~60 of the 92 originally identified sites have been examined in detail and can be broken down into two distinctive spectral groups, olivine bearing (~80%, with >10% olivine and often >20%) and non-olivine bearing craters (~20%, with inertia crater floors. In this case, magma is likely derived from decompression melting of the mantle due to the removal of overlying material. This magma reaches the surface through fractures and cracks in the basement rock likely caused by the impact event. This is consistent with the observed compositions, as material derived directly from the Martian mantle is expected to be significantly more mafic than the surrounding country rock. These sites are likely locations where the some of the most primitive material on Mars is observed and can be used to

  15. Trace element analysis by EPMA in geosciences: detection limit, precision and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, V. G.; Sobolev, A. V.; Magnin, V.

    2018-01-01

    Use of the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) for trace element analysis has increased over the last decade, mainly because of improved stability of spectrometers and the electron column when operated at high probe current; development of new large-area crystal monochromators and ultra-high count rate spectrometers; full integration of energy-dispersive / wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS/WDS) signals; and the development of powerful software packages. For phases that are stable under a dense electron beam, the detection limit and precision can be decreased to the ppm level by using high acceleration voltage and beam current combined with long counting time. Data on 10 elements (Na, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) in olivine obtained on a JEOL JXA-8230 microprobe with tungsten filament show that the detection limit decreases proportionally to the square root of counting time and probe current. For all elements equal or heavier than phosphorus (Z = 15), the detection limit decreases with increasing accelerating voltage. The analytical precision for minor and trace elements analysed in olivine at 25 kV accelerating voltage and 900 nA beam current is 4 - 18 ppm (2 standard deviations of repeated measurements of the olivine reference sample) and is similar to the detection limit of corresponding elements. To analyse trace elements accurately requires careful estimation of background, and consideration of sample damage under the beam and secondary fluorescence from phase boundaries. The development and use of matrix reference samples with well-characterised trace elements of interest is important for monitoring and improving of the accuracy. An evaluation of the accuracy of trace element analyses in olivine has been made by comparing EPMA data for new reference samples with data obtained by different in-situ and bulk analytical methods in six different laboratories worldwide. For all elements, the measured concentrations in the olivine reference sample

  16. Searching for a Differentiated Asteroid Family: A Spectral Survey of the Massalia, Merxia, and Agnia Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Lim, Lucy F.; Trilling, David E.

    2017-10-01

    Asteroid families were formed by catastrophic collisions or large cratering events that caused fragmentation of the parent body and ejection of asteroidal fragments with velocities sufficient to prevent re-accretion. Due to these formation processes, asteroid families provide us with the opportunity to probe the interiors of the former parent bodies. Differentiation of a large initially chondritic parent body is expected to result in an “onion shell" object with an iron-nickel core, a thick olivine-dominated mantle, and a thin plagioclase/pyroxene crust. However, most asteroid families tend to show similar spectra (and therefore composition) among the members. Spectroscopic studies have observed a paucity of metal-like materials and olivine-dominated assemblages within Main Belt asteroid families.The deficit of olivine-rich mantle material in the meteorite record and in asteroid observations is known as the “Missing Mantle" problem. For years the best explanation has been the “battered to bits" hypothesis: differentiated parent bodies (aside from Vesta) were disrupted very early in the Solar System and the olivine-rich material was collisionally broken down over time. Alternatively, Elkins-Tanton et al. (2013) have suggested that previous work has overestimated the amount of olivine produced by the differentiation of a chondritic parent body.We have completed a visible and near-infrared wavelength spectral survey of asteroids in the Massalia, Merxia, and Agnia S-type Main Belt asteroid families. These families were carefully chosen for the spectroscopic survey because they have compositions most closely associated with a history of thermal metamorphism and because they represent a range of collisional formation scenarios. Additionally, members of the Merxia and Agnia families were identified as products of differentiation by Sunshine et al. (2004).Our spectral analyses suggest that the observed families contain products of partial differentiation. We will

  17. Geochemical reversals within the lower 100 m of the Palisades sill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorring, Matthew L.; Naslund, H. R.

    1995-03-01

    Transects through the lower part of the Palisades sill were made at Fort Lee and Alpine, New Jersey in order to characterize the petrologic signature of previously proposed “reversals” in the normal, tholeiitic differentiation trend. Petrographic and geochemical data include: (1) modal and grain size analyses, (2) bulk rock major and trace element concentrations by DCP-AES, and (3) augite, orthopyroxene, magnetite, and olivine compositions by electron microprobe analysis. Anomalous horizons, defined by increased bulk rock Mg?, Cr, Ni, and Co concentrations and abrupt modal and grain-size changes, occur at 10 m (the well known olivine zone), 27 m, 45 m, and 95 m above the basal contact. Thermal models coupled with estimates of the emplacement rate and total magma volume indicate that the olivine zone (OZ) is an early-stage feature, related to the emplacement of initial magma into the Palisades chamber. Stoke’s Law calculations indicate that the settling velocity of average-sized olivine crystals in a high-titanium, quartz-normative (HTQ) magma is too slow for significant gravity settling to have occurred prior to the solidification of the basal 20 m of the sill. It is suggested that the OZ resulted from the emplacement of a heterogeneous initial magma from a compositionally stratified, sub-Palisades storage chamber located within the upper crust; however, heterogeneity may have been derived directly from the mantle or during rapid ascent. Geochemical models indicate that the OZ contains accumulated olivine that is not in cotectic (or constant) proportions with the other cumulus phases, suggesting a mechanical sorting process. Magma chamber recharge is proposed to have occurred at the 27 m and 45 m levels, when a slightly more-primitive HTQ magma was injected into the Palisades sill cha- mber. Zones of elevated Mg? and Cr, 6 to 10 m thick, at these two horizons may indicate the thickness of the hybrid magma formed by the mixing of these two compositions

  18. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  19. Lithospheric strength in the active boundary between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate constrained from lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; van der Werf, Thomas; Kriegsman, Leo M.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Tikoff, Basil; Drury, Martyn R.

    2017-04-01

    The lower crust is the most poorly understood of the lithospheric layers in terms of its rheology, particularly at active plate boundaries. We studied naturally deformed lower crustal xenoliths within an active plate boundary, in order to link their microstructures and rheological parameters to the well-defined active tectonic context. The Baja California shear zone (BCSZ), located at the western boundary of the Baja California microplate, comprises the active boundary accommodating the relative motion between the Pacific plate and Baja California microplate. The basalts of the Holocene San Quintin volcanic field carry lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths, which sample the Baja California microplate lithosphere in the vicinity of the BCSZ. The lower crustal xenoliths range from undeformed gabbros to granoblastic two-pyroxene granulites. Two-pyroxene geothermometry shows that the granulites equilibrated at temperatures of 690-920 oC. Phase equilibria (P-T pseudosections using Perple_X) indicate that symplectites with intergrown pyroxenes, plagioclase, olivine and spinel formed at 3.6-5.4 kbar, following decompression from pressures exceeding 6 kbar. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the water content of plagioclase varies among the analyzed xenoliths; plagioclase is relatively dry in two xenoliths while one xenolith contains hydrated plagioclase grains. Microstructural observations and analysis of the crystallographic texture provide evidence for deformation of plagioclase by a combination of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding. To constrain the strength of the lower crust and upper mantle near the BCSZ we estimated the differential stress using plagioclase and olivine grain size paleopiezomtery, respectively. Differential stress estimates for plagioclase range from 10 to 32 MPa and for olivine are 30 MPa. Thus the active microplate boundary records elevated crustal temperatures, heterogeneous levels of hydration, and low strength in both the lower crust and

  20. Cooling History and Redox State of NWA 8694 Chassignite: Comparison with Chassigny and NWA 2737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    NWA 8694 is a new chassignite whose constituent minerals are more Fe-rich than those in the other known chassignites (Chassigny and NWA 2737), and may suggest a petrogenetic relationship to nakhlites. In this abstract we report mineralogy of NWA 8694 to infer its cooling rate and redox state, and discuss its thermal and shock history in comparison with other chassignites. NWA 8694 is a cumulate dunite of approximately 2 mm olivine with interstitial pyroxene and feldspar. Olivine is homogeneous (Fo(sub 55-56)), but Ca decreases at the approximately 50-100 micrometer rim (0.25-0.1 wt% CaO). Because the Ca-depleted rim is narrower than those in other chassignites (approximately 50 ?micrometer), NWA 8694 may have cooled slightly faster than the others (approximately 30 C/yr), but would be in the same order. Pyroxenes are low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, both exhibiting sub-micron exsolution textures (0.2-0.3 micrometer wide lamellae with the spacing of 0.8-1.8 micrometers). Although the low-Ca pyroxene host has an orthopyroxene composition (Wo approximately 2), the EBSD analysis suggests a pigeonite structure (P2(sub 1)/c), which is also reported from the Chassigny pyroxene. The size of exsolution texture is a bit smaller, but broadly similar to those in other chassignites, implying a similar fast cooling rate (35-43 C/yr). Feldspars are isotropic (plagioclase: clustered around An25Or10, K-feldspar: approximately An19Or78), suggestive of extensive shock metamorphism, consistent with undulatory extinction of olivine. Feldspar compositions are around the equilibrium isotherm of approximately 800 C. The olivine and chromite compositions give an equilibration temperature of 760-810 C and logfO2 of QFM+/-0.3. The inferred fast cooling rate and high fO2 of NWA 8694 are both similar to those of Chassigny and NWA 2737, and suggest a common formation condition (e.g., thick lava flow or shallow intrusion) under oxidizing condition. The Fe-rich mineral compositions of NWA 8694 may be

  1. Atom Probe Tomography of Phase and Grain Boundaries in Experimentally-Deformed and Hot-Pressed Wehrlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukjati, J.; Parman, S. W.; Cooper, R. F.; Zhao, N.

    2017-12-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) was used to characterize the chemistry of three grain boundaries: an olivine-olivine (ol-ol) and olivine-clinopyroxene (ol-cpx) boundary in fine-grained experimentally-deformed wehrlite and an ol-cpx boundary in a fine-grained, hot-pressed wehrlite. Grain boundaries were extracted and formed into APT tips using a focused ion beam (FIB). The tips were analyzed in a reflectron-equipped LEAP4000HR (Harvard University) at 1% or 0.5% detection rate, 5pJ laser energy and 100kHz pulse rate. Total ion counts are between 40 and 100 million per tip. Examination of grain and phase boundaries in wehrlite are of interest since slow-diffusing and olivine-incompatible cations present in cpx (e.g. Ca and Al) may control diffusion-accommodated grain boundary sliding and affect mantle rheology (Sundberg & Cooper, 2008). At steady state, ol-cpx aggregates are weaker than either ol or cpx end member, the results of which are not currently well-explained. We investigate grain boundary widths to understand the transport of olivine-incompatible elements. Widths of grain/phase boundary chemical segregation are between 3nm and 6nm for deformed ol-ol and ol-cpx samples; minimally-deformed (hot-pressed) samples having slightly wider chemical segregation widths. Chemical segregation widths were determined from profiles of Na, Al, P, Cl, K, Ca, or Ni, although not all listed elements can be used for all samples (e.g. Na, K segregation profiles can only be observed for ol-ol sample). These estimates are consistent with prior estimates of grain boundary segregation by atom probe tomography on ol-ol and opx-opx samples (Bachhav et al., 2015) and are less than ol-ol interface widths analyzed by STEM/EDX (Hiraga, Anderson, & Kohlstedt, 2007). STEM/EDX will be performed on deformed wehrlite to investigate chemical profile as a function of applied stress orientation and at length scales between those observable by APT and EPMA. Determination of phase boundary chemistry and

  2. Deformation and fluid-enhanced annealing in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Pannonian Basin (Styrian Basin, Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, Laszlo; Hidas, Károly; János Kovács, István; Tommasi, Andrea; Garrido, Carlos; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In the Carpathian-Pannonian region, xenolith-bearing Neogene alkali basaltic volcanism occurred in five volcanic fields [1], from which the Styrian Basin Volcanic Field (SBVF) is the westernmost one. In this study, we present new petrographic and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) data, and structural hydroxyl ("water") contents of upper mantle xenoliths from 12 volcanic outcrops across the SBVF. The studied xenoliths are mostly coarse granular hydrous spinel lherzolites. Amphiboles, replacing pyroxenes and spinels, are present in almost every sample. The peridotites are highly annealed, olivines and pyroxenes show no significant amount of intragranular deformation. Despite the annealed texture of the peridotites, olivine CPO is unambiguous and varies between [010]-fiber, orthogonal and [100]-fiber symmetry. The CPO of pyroxenes is coherent with coeval deformation with olivine. The fabric and CPO of amphiboles suggest postkinematic epitaxial overgrowth on the precursor pyroxenes. The structural hydroxyl content of the studied xenoliths exhibits rather high, equilibrium values, up to 10, 290 and 675 ppm in olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, respectively. The olivines contain more structural hydroxyl in the annealed xenoliths than in the more deformed ones. The xenoliths show equilibrium temperatures from 850 to 1100 °C, which corresponds to lithospheric mantle depths between 30 and 60 km. Equilibrium temperatures show correlation with the varying CPO symmetries and grain size: coarser grained xenoliths with [100]-fiber and orthorhombic symmetry appear in the high temperature (>1000 °C) xenoliths, which is characteristic for asthenospheric environments [2]. Most of the samples display transitional CPO symmetry between [010]-fiber and orthogonal, which indicate lithospheric deformation under varying stress field from transtensional to transpressional settings [3], probably related to the Miocene evolution of the Pannonian Basin, during which varying compressive and

  3. Genesis of the Permian Kemozibayi sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion in Altay, NW China: Evidence from zircon geochronology, Hf and O isotopes and mineral chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dongmei; Qin, Kezhang; Xue, Shengchao; Mao, Yajing; Evans, Noreen J.; Niu, Yanjie; Chen, Junlu

    2017-11-01

    The recently discovered Kemozibayi mafic-ultramafic intrusion and its associated magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits are located at the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountain, Central Asian Orogenic Belt in north Xinjiang, NW China. The intrusion is composed of olivine websterite, norite, gabbro and diorite. Disseminated and net-textured Ni-Cu sulfide ores are hosted in the center of the gabbro. In this work, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic and sulfide S isotopic data, and whole rock and mineral chemical analyses are combined in order to elucidate the characteristics of the mantle source, nature of subduction processes, degree of crustal contamination, geodynamic setting of bimodal magmatism in the region, and the metallogenic potential of economic Cu-Ni sulfide deposit at depth. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of the gabbro yields Permian ages (278.3 ± 1.9 Ma), coeval with the Kalatongke Cu-Ni deposit and with Cu-Ni deposits in the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan areas. Several lines of evidence (positive εHf(t) from + 7.1 to + 13.3, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 contents in clinopyroxene from olivine websterite, high whole rock TiO2 contents) suggest that the primary magma of the Kemozibayi intrusion was a calc-alkaline basaltic magma derived from depleted mantle, and that the degree of partial melting in the magma source was high. The evolution of the Kemozibayi mafic-ultramafic complex was strongly controlled by fractional crystallization and the crystallization sequence was olivine websterite, norite, and then gabbro. This is evidenced by whole rock Fe2O3 contents that are positively correlated with MgO and negatively correlated with Al2O3, CaO and Na2O, similar LREE enrichment and negative Nb, Ta, Hf anomalies in chondrite and primitive mantle-normalized patterns, and a decrease in total REE and trace elements contents and magnetite content from gabbro through to norite and olivine websterite. Varied and low εHf(t) (+ 7.1 to + 13.3) and high δ18O values (+ 6.4‰ to

  4. Implications of Zn/Fe ratios for the sources of Colorado Plateau basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, S.; Reid, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Early Miocene to recent mafic magmatism migrated across the Arizona Transition Zone towards the center of the stable Colorado Plateau at a rate of ~ 3-6 km/Myr (Roy et al., 2009). Present-day volcanic centers are close to a stepwise change in the thickness of the lithosphere between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range. Accordingly, volcanic migration might track progressive thinning of the lithosphere towards the center of the Colorado Plateau. This project aims to determine the conditions of melt generation across the transition zone in order to investigate the temporal/spatial correlation between volcanism and thinning of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere. Pressure and temperature estimates for Colorado Plateau basalts can be obtained from the Mg and Si contents of melts (Lee et al, 2009) but require melting of a peridotitic source. Eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths reported in Colorado Plateau basalts show that melt sources could be olivine-poor. Zn/Fe ratios in melts can help to distinguish contributions from olivine-poor sources because they are sensitive to differences in bulk chemistry and to mineralogy (Le Roux et al., 2010). Specifically, Zn/Fe is not fractionated between melt, olivine, and orthopyroxene, but is highly fractionated when clinopyroxene and garnet are present. Our work to date has focused on laser ablation-IC-PMS analysis of individual olivine grains from high-Mg basalts (>8.0 wt. %) from the San Francisco and Mormon Mountain volcanic fields. Preliminary values of Zn/Fe ratios that represent the averages of multiple analyses of several grains in individual samples range from 7.9 to 9.3 (x10000). Variations of up to 1.7 (x10000) in the ratios exist between individual grains within samples and could be the result of co-crystallization of clinopyroxene with olivine. The lowest values in each sample should approach the Zn/Fe ratios of parental melts, and are, in turn, similar to MORB values and predicted peridotite melts. The results suggest

  5. Formation of chondrules in a moderately high dust enriched disk: Evidence from oxygen isotopes of chondrules from the Kaba CV3 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Andreas T.; Defouilloy, Céline; Kita, Noriko T.

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen three-isotope analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry of chondrule olivine and pyroxene in combination with electron microprobe analysis were carried out to investigate 24 FeO-poor (type I) and 2 FeO-rich (type II) chondrules from the Kaba (CV) chondrite. The Mg#'s of olivine and pyroxene in individual chondrules are uniform, which confirms that Kaba is one of the least thermally metamorphosed CV3 chondrites. The majority of chondrules in Kaba contain olivine and pyroxene that show indistinguishable Δ17O values (= δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O) within analytical uncertainties, as revealed by multiple spot analyses of individual chondrules. One third of chondrules contain olivine relict grains that are either 16O-rich or 16O-poor relative to other indistinguishable olivine and/or pyroxene analyses in the same chondrules. Excluding those isotopically recognized relicts, the mean oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O, δ17O, and Δ17O) of individual chondrules are calculated, which are interpreted to represent those of the final chondrule melt. Most of these isotope ratios plot on or slightly below the primitive chondrule mineral (PCM) line on the oxygen three-isotope diagram, except for the pyroxene-rich type II chondrule that plots above the PCM and on the terrestrial fractionation line. The Δ17O values of type I chondrules range from ∼-8‰ to ∼-4‰; the pyroxene-rich type II chondrule yields ∼0‰, the olivine-rich type II chondrule ∼-2‰. In contrast to the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, the Yamato 81020 CO3, and the Allende CV3 chondrite, type I chondrules in Kaba only possess Δ17O values below -3‰ and a pronounced bimodal distribution of Δ17O values, as evident for those other chondrites, was not observed for Kaba. Investigation of the Mg#-Δ17O relationship revealed that Δ17O values tend to increase with decreasing Mg#'s, similar to those observed for CR chondrites though data from Kaba cluster at the high Mg# (>98) and the low Δ17O

  6. Engineering New Catalysts for In-Process Elimination of Tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry G. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The key objective of this project was to develop a new and more efficient methodology for engineering and economically producing optimized robust catalysts for the reduction or elimination of tars in biomass gasification. Whereas current catalyst technology typically disposes thin layers of catalytically-active material onto rigid supports via wet chemistry-based methods, this project investigated novel thermal methods for directly incorporating catalytically active materials onto robust supports as well as novel approaches for incorporating catalytically active materials on and/or within an otherwise inert refractory support material which is then subsequently formed and processed to create a catalytically-active material on all exposed surfaces. Specifically, the focus of this engineered catalyst development was on materials which were derived from, or otherwise related to, olivine-like minerals, due to the inherent attrition resistance and moderate catalytic properties exhibited by natural olivine when used in a fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Task 1 of this project successfully demonstrated the direct thermal impregnation of catalytically-active materials onto an olivine substrate, with the production of a Ni-olivine catalyst. Nickel and nickel oxide were thermally impregnated onto an olivine substrate and when reduced were shown to demonstrate improved catalytic activity over the baseline olivine material and equal the tar-decomposing performance of Ni-olivine catalysts prepared by conventional wet impregnation. Task 2 involved coordination with our subcontracted project partners to further develop and characterize catalyst formulations and to optimize activity and production methods. Within this task, several significant new materials were developed. NexTech Materials developed a sintered ceramic nickel-magnesium-silicate catalyst that demonstrated superb catalytic activity and high resistance to deactivation by H2S. Alfred University developed both supported

  7. Petrography and mineral chemistry of metamorphosed mantle peridotites of Nain Ophiolite (Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Shirdashtzadeh

    2017-07-01

    A at the Centre for Cooperative Research of the Kanazawa University (Kanazawa, Japan. The Micro-Raman spectroscopy (a HORIBA Jobin Yvon, LabRAM HR800 system equipped with a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser of Showa Optronics co., Ltd, J100GS-16, and an optical microscope of Olympus, BX41, Kanazawa University were used in determination of serpentine minerals. Results The lherzolite is primarily composed olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel, but secondary hydrous and non-hydrous Mg-silicate minerals have been formed during the further serpentinization and metamorphism. Lherzolite is including of olivine (~70 Vol%, forsterite-rich, orthopyroxene (~15-20 Vol%, enstatite – bronzite, clinopyroxene (5-7 Vol%, diopside - augite, and vermicular brown Cr-spinel (60-70 Vol%, chrysolite, orthopyroxene (~30 Vol%, bronzite, a small amount of clinopyroxene, and subhedral dark brown Cr-spinel, talc, tremolite, magnetite, and chlorite. Dunites are composed exclusively of olivine, minor amounts of subhedral, dark brown Cr-spinel, serpentine, metamorphic tremolite, talc and chlorite. The rocks show secondary textures of mesh, poikiloblastic, nematoblastic and jack-straw textures, but original granublastic and porphyroclastic textures are well preserved. Pyroxenes show kink bands, warped cleavages, and undulatory extinction related to metamorphic condition of upper mantle. Petrographical features indicate that a metamorphism at amphibolite facies occurred after serpentinization and chloritization of the Darreh Deh peridotites. Chrysotile cut the primary phases of olivine and pyroxene, but not the metamorphic phases of olivine neoblasts, tremolite, talc and chlorite. Some chlorite crosscut the serpentine veins, and some are in the rim of Cr-spinel and clinopyroxenes. They are mostly replaced by tremolite. Metamorphic olivines have recrystallized as fine-grained neoblasts with lower CaO content (in comparison with the primary and replacive olivines, because they have been formed at the

  8. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhengrong [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Qiu, Lin [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Shuang [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bolton, Edward [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bercovici, David [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Ague, Jay [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Karato, Shun-Ichiro [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Oristaglio, Michael [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhu, Wen-Iu [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lisabeth, Harry [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Johnson, Kevin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    A program of laboratory experiments, modeling and fieldwork was carried out at Yale University, University of Maryland, and University of Hawai‘i, under a DOE Award (DE-FE0004375) to study mineral carbonation as a practical method of geologic carbon sequestration. Mineral carbonation, also called carbon mineralization, is the conversion of (fluid) carbon dioxide into (solid) carbonate minerals in rocks, by way of naturally occurring chemical reactions. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, such as volcanic basalt, are natural candidates for carbonation, because the magnesium and iron silicate minerals in these rocks react with brines of dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. By trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) underground as a constituent of solid rock, carbonation of natural basalt formations would be a secure method of sequestering CO2 captured at power plants in efforts to mitigate climate change. Geochemical laboratory experiments at Yale, carried out in a batch reactor at 200°C and 150 bar (15 MPa), studied carbonation of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacting with CO2 brines in the form of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions. The main carbonation product in these reactions is the carbonate mineral magnesite (MgCO3). A series of 32 runs varied the reaction time, the reactive surface area of olivine grains and powders, the concentration of the reacting fluid, and the starting ratio of fluid to olivine mass. These experiments were the first to study the rate of olivine carbonation under passive conditions approaching equilibrium. The results show that, in a simple batch reaction, olivine carbonation is fastest during the first 24 hours and then slows significantly and even reverses. A natural measure of the extent of carbonation is a quantity called the carbonation fraction, which compares the amount of carbon removed from solution, during a run, to the maximum amount

  9. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-10-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  10. Petrography and petrology of the Nornahraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Bali, Enikő; Jakobsson, Sigurður; Sverrisdóttir, Guðrún; Höskuldssson, Ármann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; The 2014 Nornahraun Eruption Team

    2015-04-01

    The on-going fissure eruption north of Dyngjujökull is becoming the largest of its kind in Iceland since the 1783-84 Laki eruption. The erupted lava is olivine tholeiite, containing up to 5% normative olivine. It is relatively macrocryst-poor, initially containing less than 1% phenocrysts by volume, increasing to over 1% as the eruption has progressed. Plagioclase is the dominant macrocryst phase but olivine and augite are also present. In most of the samples, crystallization of the groundmass is substantial, with plagioclase and augite as the key groundmass minerals and minor olivine. It features subophitic texture, typical for olivine tholeiites, where the interstitial glass contains dendritic Fe-Ti oxide. During the first two months of the eruption, magma composition has been constant, displaying uniform major and trace element composition and nearly uniform isotopic compositions (Halldórsson et al. (a), this session). The major and trace element contents, in addition to the isotope ratios of lead, are indistinguishable from basalts in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Halldórsson et al. (b), this session). The compositional trends are consistent with crystallization along the ol-plag-cpx cotectic. Crystallization depth estimates, based on the pressure dependence of the cotectic (Yang et al., 1996), indicate that the magma equilibrated at a minimum depth between 6-9 km, consistent with depth estimates derived from CO2-bearing fluid inclusions trapped in plagioclase phenocrysts (Bali et al., this session). The bulk of the earthquakes associated with this volcano-tectonic episode are also in this range (e.g., Sigmundsson et al., 2015). Calculations with several different magma geothermometers suggest that the temperature of the magma as it rises to the surface is about 1170-1180°C, in good agreement with on-site measurements by thermal imaging cameras. The eruption has been characterized by steady, high emission of SO2. The sulfur-rich nature of the lava is

  11. Evolution of asteroid (4) Vesta in the light of Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangjam, Guneshwar; Mengel, Kurt; Nathues, Andreas; Schmidt, Kai H.; Hoffmann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid (4) Vesta has been visited by the NASA Dawn spacecraft in 2011/12. The combination of compositional/elemental information from the three onboard instruments with mineralogical information from the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) clan of stony achondrites has shed new light on the surface lithologic heterogeneity and the early evolution. Although petrologic/chemical models have tried to unravel the evolutionary processes, inconsistencies exist for some chemical major element/phase [e.g., 1, 2]. A revised evolutionary model is presented here [3]. The three oxygen isotope signature of HEDs and, thus, of proto-Vesta is best met by a mixture of 80% ordinary plus 20 % CV chondrites. Assuming a 27Al-triggered magma ocean within the first MA after accretion and taking into account the reliable major element data of the silicate fraction of the chondritic mixture results a crystallization sequence that differs from the earlier models [1, 2, 3]. The crystallized phase obtained by 'MELTS' software [4] starts with olivine and continues with minor olivine plus orthopyroxene until the liquid reaches a Kd value (partition coefficient) of 0.31 where the fractionated melt is in equilibrium with the residual liquid [5]. The abundance of minerals and rocks formed in this model are converted in volume proportions assuming a spherical shape of early Vesta (262 km radius) with a core (FeNi, FeNiS) radius of 110 km [6]. Two scenarios are considered to describe the early bulk silicate Vesta. First, the early-crystallized olivine accumulated at the base of the silicate shell is accounted for a dunitic lower mantle having a thickness of 46 km while the later crystallized phases form an orthopyroxenitic upper mantle and a crust of thickness 84 and 22 km, respectively. Second, an olivine-rich lower mantle that gradually changes to orthopyroxene-rich upper mantle is expected having an overall shell thickness of 137 km, with a 15 km thick crust. An important result is that the deep

  12. Deformation of the Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    The Qinling orogen, middle part of the China Central Orogenic Belt, is well documented that was constructed by multiple convergences and subsequent collisions between the North China and South China Blocks mainly based on geochemistry and geochronology of ophiolites, magmatic rocks as well as sedimentary reconstruction. However, this model is lack of constraints from deformation of subduction/collision. The Songshugou ophiolite outcropped to the north of the Shangdan suture zone represents fragments of oceanic crust and upper mantle. Previous works have revealed that the ophiolite was formed at an ocean ridge and then emplaced in the northern Qinling belt. Hence, deformation of the ophiolite would provide constraints for the rifting and subduction processes. The ophiolite consists chiefly of metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks. The ultramafic rocks contain coarse dunite, dunitic mylonite and harzburgite, with minor diopsidite veins. The mafic rocks are mainly amphibolite, garnet amphibolite and amphibole schist, which are considered to be eclogite facies and retrograde metamorphosed oceanic crust. Amphibole grains in the mafic rocks exhibit a strong shape-preferred orientation parallel to the foliation, which is also parallel to the lithologic contacts between mafic and ultramafic rocks. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses show strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in dunite including A-, B-, and C-types formed by (010)[100], (010)[001] and (100)[001] dislocation slip systems, respectively. A-type CPO suggests high temperature plastic deformation in the upper mantle. In comparison, B-type may be restricted to regions with significantly high water content and high differential stress, and C-type may also be formed in wet condition with lower differential stress. Additionally, the dunite evolved into amphibolite facies metamorphism with mineral assemblages of olivine + talc + anthophyllite. Assuming a pressure of 1.5 GPa

  13. Lithosphere destabilization by melt percolation during pre-oceanic rifting: Evidence from Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Ranalli, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Orogenic peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolite Massifs (Lanzo, Voltri, External and Internal Ligurides, - NW Italy, and Mt. Maggiore - Corsica) derive from the mantle lithosphere of the Ligurian Tethys. Field/structural and petrologic/geochemical studies provide constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle during pre-oceanic passive rifting of the late Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. Continental rifting by far-field tectonic forces induced extension of the lithosphere by means of km-scale extensional shear zones that developed before infiltration of melts from the asthenosphere (Piccardo and Vissers, 2007). After significant thinning of the lithosphere, the passively upwelling asthenosphere underwent spinel-facies decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. Silica-undersaturated melt fractions percolated through the lithospheric mantle via diffuse/focused porous flow and interacted with the host peridotite through pyroxenes-dissolving/olivine-precipitating melt/rock reactions. Pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation modified the composition of the primary silica-undersaturated melts into derivative silica-saturated melts, while the host lithospheric spinel lherzolites were transformed into pyroxene-depleted/olivine-enriched reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. The derivative liquids interacted through olivine-dissolving/orthopyroxene+plagioclase-crystallizing reactions with the host peridotites that were impregnated and refertilized (Piccardo et al., 2015). The saturated melts stagnated and crystallized in the shallow mantle lithosphere (as testified by diffuse interstitial crystallization of euhedral orthopyroxene and anhedral plagioclase) and locally ponded, forming orthopyroxene-rich/olivine-free gabbro-norite pods (Piccardo and Guarnieri, 2011). Reactive and impregnated peridotites are characterized by high equilibration temperatures (up to 1250 °C) even at low pressure, plagioclase-peridotite facies

  14. Nature of the magma storage system beneath the Damavand volcano (N. Iran): An integrated study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Amir; Amini, Sadraddin; De Rosa, Rosanna; Donato, Paola

    2018-02-01

    Damavand intraplate stratovolcano constructed upon a moderately thick crust (58-67 km) over the last 2 Ma. The erupted products are dominantly trachyandesite-trachyte (TT) lavas and pyroclasts, with minor mafic magmas including tephrite-basanite-trachybasalt and alkali olivine basalts emplaced as cinder cones at the base of the stratovolcano. The TT products are characterized by a mineral assemblage of clinopyroxene (diopside-augite), orthopyroxene (clinoenstatite), feldspar (An2-58, Ab6-69, Or2-56), high Ti phlogopite, F-apatite, Fesbnd Ti oxides, and minor amounts of olivine (Fo73-80), amphibole and zircon, whereas olivine (Fo78-88), high Mg# (80-89) diopside, feldspar, apatite and Fesbnd Ti oxide occur in the mafic magmas. The presence of hydrous and anhydrous minerals, normal zonings, mafic cumulates, and the composition of magmatic inclusions in the TT products suggest evolutionary processes in polybaric conditions. In the same way, disequilibrium textures - including orthopyroxene mantled with clinopyroxene, reaction rim of phlogopite and amphibole, the coexistence of olivine and orthopyroxene, reverse, oscillatory and complex zonings of pyroxene and feldspar crystals - suggest magmatic evolutions in open systems with a varying temperature, oxygen fugacity, water as well as pressure and, to a lesser extent, melt chemistry. Mineral assemblages are used to model the physicochemical conditions and assess default parameters for the thermodynamic simulation of crystallization using MELTS software to track the P-T-H2O-ƒO2 evolution of the magma plumbing system. Thermobarometry and MELTS models estimated the initial nucleation depth at 16-17 kb (56-60 km) for olivine (Fo89) and high Al diopside crystals occurring in the mafic primary magma; it then stopped and underwent fractionation between 8 and 10 kb (28-35 km), corresponding with Moho depth, and continued to differentiate in the lower crust, in agreement with the geophysical models. The mafic rocks were formed

  15. Petrography and mineral chemistry of wehrlites in contact zone of gabbro intrusions and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghaseminejad

    2014-10-01

    , banded meta-chert, and succession of schist and marble (Davoudzadeh, 1972; Jabbari, 1997; Pirnia Naeini, 2006; Torabi, 2012; Shirdashtzadeh, 2006. In this ophiolite, the leucogabbro intrusions crosscut all other rock units. Materials and Methods Mineralogical analyses were conducted by wavelength-dispersive EPMA (JEOL JXA-8800R at the Cooperative Centre of Kanazawa University (Japan. The analyses were performed under an accelerating voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 15 nA. JEOL software using ZAF corrections was employed for data reduction. Natural and synthetic minerals of known composition are used as standards. The Fe3+ content in minerals was estimated by assuming mineral stoichiometry. Results In the contact zone of leucogabbros and mantle peridotites of the Naein ophiolite, wehrlite and olivine clinopyroxenite are formed. Rock-forming minerals of these wehrlites are olivine (chrysolite, clinopyroxene (diopside, Cr-spinel, serpentine, amphibole (tremolite and tremolitic hornblende, epidote and magnetite. Comparison of mineral chemistry of olivine, clinopyroxene and chromian spinel in wehrlites and mantle peridotites indicate that chemical composition of clinopyroxene and olivine in these rocks are different, but chemistry of Cr-spinels in harzburgite and wehrlite are nearly same. Discussion According to the resistance of Cr-spinel against the metamorphism and alteration, it can be concluded that the wehrlites in contact zone of gabbros and mantle peridotites are formed at the expense of harzburgite. Olivine and clinopyroxene of wehrlites are formed by serpentine metamorphism and interaction of serpentine and calcium of gabbro, respectively. Field study of the research area shows that the leucogabbro intrudes the harzburgite. This research shows that after the serpentinization of mantle harzburgite, the gabbro intrusions crosscut the serpentinized peridotites, and wehrlite and olivine clinopyroxenite formed in the contact zone. Acknowledgements The authors thank

  16. Shallow fractionation signature of phase chemistry in Taburiente lavas, La Palma, Canary Islands: Results of MELTS modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetschow, H. A.; Nelson, B. K.

    2002-12-01

    Depth of crystal fractionation influences the chemical evolution of ocean island basalts and has significant implications for the physical structures of these volcanoes. In contrast to dominantly shallow systems such as Hawaii, a range of fractionation depths have been reported for Canary Islands lavas. Magmas erupted on La Palma preserve fluid- and melt-inclusion evidence for high-pressure (> 10 kbar) crystallization (Klügel et al., 1998; Hansteen et al., 1998; Nikogosian et al., 2002). If high-pressure fractional crystallization were an early and dominant process, it would generate specific patterns in rock and phase chemistry of eruptive sequences. Alkalic basalts from Taburiente volcano display coherent major element trends consistent with evolution dominated by fractional crystallization while their phenocryst compositions, trace elements, and isotopic trends require mixing between multiple sources. The current model confirms the importance of both fractionation and mixing to achieve the full range of lavas observed. A low-pressure (1 kbar) thermodynamic fractional crystallization model performed with the MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) software closely reproduces major element trends from two stratigraphic sequences. This model also predicts the observed sequence of groundmass clinopyroxene compositions and phenocryst zoning reversals. In all low pressure simulations, olivine remains a modally significant liquidus phase during the first 20% and last 30% of the crystallization sequence, resulting in a negative correlation between the CaO and Fo content of olivine. These results are consistent with the presence of olivine phenocrysts that bear petrographic evidence of early crystallization, as well as observed compositional trends of groundmass olivine and clinopyroxene in Taburiente lavas. MELTS models that include an initial period of high pressure (12 kbar) clinopyroxene fractionation produce major element trends comparable to the low pressure model, but

  17. Noble metal abundances in komatiite suites from Alexo, Ontario and Gorgona Island, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügmann, G. E.; Arndt, N. T.; Hofmann, A. W.; Tobschall, H. J.

    1987-08-01

    The distribution of the chalcophile and siderophile metals Cu, Ni, Au, Pd, Ir, Os and Ru in an Archaean komatiite flow from Alexo, Ontario and in a Phanerozoic komatiitic suite of Gorgona Island, Colombia, provides new information about the geochemical behaviour of these elements. Copper, Au and Pd behave as incompatible elements during the crystallization of these ultramafic magmas. In contrast, Ni, Ir, Os and Ru concentrations systematically decrease with decreasing MgO contents, a pattern characteristic of compatible elements. These trends are most probably controlled by olivine crystallization, which implies that Ir, Os and Ru are compatible in olivine. Calculated partition coefficients for Ir, Os and Ru between olivine and the melt are about 1.8. Compared to primitive mantle, parental komatiitic liquids are enriched in (incompatible) Cu, Au and Pd and depleted in (compatible) Ir, Os and Ru. Within both Archaean and Phanerozoic komatiites, noble metal ratios such as Au/Pd, Ir/Os, Os/Ru and Ru/Ir and ratios of lithophile and siderophile elements such as Ti/Pd, Ti/Au are constant and similar to primitive mantle values. This implies that Au and Pd are moderately incompatible elements and that there has been no significant fractionation of siderophile and lithophile elements since the Archaean. Platinum-group element abundances of normal MORB are highly variable and always much lower than in komatiites, because MORB magma is saturated with sulfur and a variable but minor amount of sulfide segregated during mantle melting or during the ascent of magma to the surface. Sulfide deposits associated with komatiites display similar chalcophile element patterns to those of komatiites. Noble metal ratios such as Pd/Ir, Au/Ir, Pd/Os and Pd/Ru can be used to determine the composition of the host komatiite at the time of sulfide segregation.

  18. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and its tholeiitic melt metasomatism beneath NE termination of the Eger Rift (Europe): the case study of the Steinberg (Upper Lusatia, SE Germany) xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    The ca. 30 Ma Steinberg basanite occurs at the NE termination of the Eger (Ohře) Rift in the NW Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, and belongs to the Cenozoic alkaline Central European Volcanic Province. The basanite hosts a suite of mantle xenoliths, most of which are harzburgites containing relatively magnesian olivine (Fo 90.5-91.6) and Al-poor (0.04-0.13 a pfu) orthopyroxene (mg# 0.90-0.92). Some of these harzburgites also contain volumetrically minor clinopyroxene (mg# 0.92-0.95, Al 0.03-0.13 a pfu) and have U-shaped LREE-enriched REE patterns. The Steinberg harzburgites are typical for the Lower Silesian - Upper Lusatian domain of the European subcontinental lithospheric mantle. They represent residual mantle that has undergone extensive partial melting and was subsequently affected by mantle metasomatism by mixed carbonatite-silicate melts. The Steinberg xenolith suite comprises also dunitic xenoliths affected by metasomatism by melt similar to the host basanite, which lowered the Fo content in olivine to 87.6 %. This metasomatism happened shortly before xenolith entrainment in the erupting lava. One of the xenoliths is a wehrlite (olivine Fo 73 %, clinopyroxene mg# 0.83-0.85, subordinate orthopyroxene mg# 0.76-0.77). Its clinopyroxene REE pattern is flat and slightly LREE-depleted. This wehrlite is considered to be a tholeiitic cumulate. One of the studied harzburgites contains clinopyroxene with similar trace element contents to those in wehrlite. This type of clinopyroxene records percolation of tholeiitic melt through harzburgite. The tholeiitic melt might be similar to Cenozoic continental tholeiites occurring in the Central European Volcanic Province (e.g., Vogelsberg, Germany).

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  20. Titanian chondrodite- and titanian clinohumite-bearing metadunite from the 3800 Ma Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland: chemistry, petrology, and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymek, R.F.; Boak, J.L.; Brothers, S.C.

    Titanian chondrodite (Ti-Ch) and clinohumite (Ti-Cl) have been discovered in a serpentinite from the 3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland, where they occur with olivine, magnesite, magnetite, and Ni-Co-Pb sulfides in a matrix of antigorite. This serpentinite has the bulk composition of a dunite, with high Ni and Cr and its REE pattern is broadly similar to those reported for cumulate dunites of igneous origin. The highly magnesian phase compositions indicate that the metadunite evolved from a serpentinite precursor, which experienced additional late serpentinization. Two different generations of olivine and antigorite, both with slightly different compositions, indicate an extremely complex history for the sample. However, the titanian humites locally occur as inclusions in olivine, indicating that they formed relatively early. Ti-Ch occurs as separate grains and also forms lamellar intergrowths with Ti-Cl. The two-phase intergrowths may represent the reaction Ti-Ch + forsterite = Ti-Cl. The sample lacks geikielite or any magnesian ilmenite, indicating that the terminal breakdown of titanian humites by the reaction titanian humites = forsterite + geikielite + H/sub 2/O was not approached. Chemographic relations for the system MgTiO/sub 3/-Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O was not approached. Chemographic relations for the system MgTiO/sub 3/-Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O reveal that Ti-Ch should be the high-pressure humite phase. The only other known occurrence of a Ti-Ch and Ti-Cl intergrowth is in kimberlite, and the possibility that Ti-Ch is a mantle phase should be reconsidered. However, the authors do not regard the Isua sample to be of mantle origin, although the intergrowths may record decompression during the polymetamorphic history of the region.

  1. Petrology of the 1995/2000 Magma of Copahue, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, A.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    Phreatomagmatic eruptions of Copahue in July/August,1995 and July/August 2000 produced mixed juvenile clasts, silica-rich debris from the hydrothermal system, and magmatic scoria with 88 percent SiO2. These high-SiO2 clasts carry an as yet unidentified (crystobalite?), euhedral silica phase in great abundance, which is riddled with tan, primary melt inclusions. The mixed clasts have bands of mafic material with small euhedral olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase that are mixed with an intermediate magma with coarser, resorbed phenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, clino- and ortho- pyroxene, and rare occurrences of the silica phase. These ejecta are intimate mixtures of a relatively felsic magma similar to Pleistocene Copahue lavas and a mafic basaltic andesite, with minor contributions of a magma contaminated with silica-rich hydrothermal wallrock material. Two-pyroxene geothermometry indicates crystallization temperatures of 1020 deg - 1045 deg C. Glass inclusions (59-63 percent SiO2) in plagioclase and olivine crystals yield very low volatile contents in the melt (0.4-1.5 percent H2O). The 1995/2000 magmas resided at shallow level and degassed into the active volcano-hydrothermal system which discharges acid fluids into the Copahue crater lake and hot springs. More mafic magma intruded this shallow batch and the mixture rose into the hydrothermal system and assimilated siliceous wall rock. A Ti-diffusion profile in a magnetite crystal suggests that the period between magma mixing and eruption was on the order of 4-10 weeks, and the temperature difference between resident and intruding magma was about 50-60 oC.

  2. Titanium, vanadium and chromium valences in silicates of ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 and ureilite Y-791538 record highly-reduced origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S. R.; Goodrich, C. A.; Wirick, S.

    2017-05-01

    Titanium, Cr, and V valences were determined by applying micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy methods to individual grains of olivine and pyroxene in the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 and ureilite Y-791538, as well as to plagioclase in NWA 7325. The advantages of applying multiple, multivalent-element-based oxybarometers to individual grains are (1) the ability to cover the entire oxygen fugacity (fO2) range encountered in nature, and (2) the increased reliability from consistent results for semi-independent fO2 proxies. fO2 values were inferred from each mineral valence determination after correcting with available laboratory-experiment-derived, valence-specific partition coefficients to obtain melt valences and then calibrating with the fO2 values of the relevant equal species proportions points suggested for igneous (primarily basaltic) systems. The resulting olivine and pyroxene valences are highly reduced and similar in the two meteorites with substantial fractions of Cr2+, Ti3+ and V2+. The exception is Cr in NWA 7325 pyroxene which is much more oxidized than the Cr in its olivine. Chromium and Ti in plagioclase in NWA 7325 is relatively oxidized (V valence not determined). The anomalously oxidized Cr in NWA 7325 pyroxene may be due to a secondary reheating event that oxidized Cr in the pyroxene without similarly oxidizing Ti and V. Such a separation of the redox couples may be an effect of re-equilibration kinetics, where the valence of Cr would be more rapidly modified. These valences yielded similar mean fO2s for the two meteorites; IW-3.1 ± 0.2 for NWA 7325 and IW-2.8 ± 0.2 for Y-791538, consistent with an origin of NWA 7325 in either Mercury or an asteroid that experienced redox conditions similar to those on the ureilite parent body.

  3. Particle size-controllable microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 using water/ethylene glycol solvent blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Haering, Dominik; Doeff, Marca M.; Nilges, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Particle size-tuned platelets of the high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 for Li-ion batteries have been synthesized by a simple one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal process using an array of water/ethylene glycol (EG) solvent mixtures. Particle size control was achieved by altering the concentration of the EG co-solvent in the mixture between 0 and 100 vol%, with amounts of 0-80 vol% EG producing single phase, olivine-type LiCoPO4. The particle sizes of the olivine materials were significantly reduced from about 1.2 μm × 1.2 μm × 500 nm (0 vol% EG) to 200 nm × 100 nm × 50 nm (80 vol% EG) with increasing EG content, while specific surface areas increased from 2 to 13 m2 g-1. The particle size reduction could mainly be attributed to the modified viscosities of the solvent blends. Owing to the soft template effect of EG, the crystals exhibited the smallest dimensions along the [010] direction of the Li diffusion pathways in the olivine crystal structure, resulting in enhanced lithium diffusion properties. The relationship between the synthesis, crystal properties and electrochemical performance was further elucidated, indicating that the electrochemical performances of the as-prepared materials mainly depend on the solvent composition and the respective particle size range. LiCoPO4 products obtained from reaction media with low and high EG contents exhibited good electrochemical performances (initial discharge capacities of 87-124 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C), whereas materials made from medium EG concentrations (40-60 vol% EG) showed the highest capacities and gravimetric energy densities (up to 137 mAh g-1 and 658 Wh kg-1 at 0.1 C), excellent rate capabilities, and cycle life.

  4. Enhanced electrochemical performance and thermal stability of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 via nano-sized LiMnPO4 coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Jianguo; Wu, Ceng; Cao, Yanbing; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong; Hu, Guorong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LiMnPO 4 was introduced to modify Ni-rich cathode materials. • LiMnPO 4 uniformly coated NCA composite has been constructed successfully. • Olivine structured skin restrains the formation of residues on NCA during cycling. • LiMnPO 4 improves the structural and thermal stability of NCA@LMP. - Abtract: LiNi 0.80 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 has been widely pursued as an alternative to LiCoO 2 cathode materials for lithium ion batteries because of its high capacity and acceptable cycling property. However, that NCA can react with commercialized electrolyte during cycling restrains its wide use. Here, olivine structured LiMnPO 4 has been introduced to modify the surface of NCA by a sol-gel method. Characterizations from structure, morphology and composition analysis technologies demonstrate that a LiMnPO 4 layer has been uniformly coated on NCA particles. The electrochemical performance and thermo stability of modified samples are characterized by electrochemical tests, XRD and metallic nail penetration tests. The olivine structured skin, which provides structural and thermal stability, is used to encapsulate the high powered core via using the effective coating technique. The modified material displays a high discharge capacity of 211.0 mAh g −1 at 0.2 C and better rate performance and promoted cycling stability than the uncoated control sample. Furthermore, the thermal stability of coated sample in the delithiated state is upgraded to the pristine powders remarkably.

  5. Origin of primitive ocean island basalts by crustal gabbro assimilation and multiple recharge of plume-derived melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Grégoire, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Chemical Geodynamics relies on a paradigm that the isotopic composition of ocean island basalt (OIB) represents equilibrium with its primary mantle sources. However, the discovery of huge isotopic heterogeneity within olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive basalts from Kerguelen, Iceland, Hawaii and South Pacific Polynesia islands implies open-system behavior of OIBs, where during magma residence and transport, basaltic melts are contaminated by surrounding lithosphere. To constrain the processes of crustal assimilation by OIBs, we employed the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS), an energy-constrained thermodynamic model of recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization. For a case study of the 21-19 Ma basaltic series, the most primitive series ever found among the Kerguelen OIBs, we performed sixty-seven simulations in the pressure range from 0.2 to 1.0 GPa using compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions as parental magmas, and metagabbro xenoliths from the Kerguelen Archipelago as wallrock. MCS modeling requires that the assimilant is anatectic crustal melts (P2O5 ≤ 0.4 wt.% contents) derived from the Kerguelen oceanic metagabbro wallrock. To best fit the phenocryst assemblage observed in the investigated basaltic series, recharge of relatively large masses of hydrous primitive basaltic melts (H2O = 2-3 wt%; MgO = 7-10 wt.%) into a middle crustal chamber at 0.2 to 0.3 GPa is required. Our results thus highlight the important impact that crustal gabbro assimilation and mantle recharge can have on the geochemistry of mantle-derived olivine-phyric OIBs. The importance of crustal assimilation affecting primitive plume-derived basaltic melts underscores that isotopic and chemical equilibrium between ocean island basalts and associated deep plume mantle source(s) may be the exception rather than the rule.

  6. Comet Mineralogy as Inferred from Infrared Spectra of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    For most comets, infrared (IR) spectroscopy (remote sensing) is the method through which we diagnose the mineralogy and size distribution of dust in their comae. The shape and contrast of the IR spectral features depend on the particle size: optically active minerals (absorbing of visible and near-IR solar photons) and submicron solid grains or highly porous (> 90% vacuum) grains primarily contribute to the shapes of the observed resonances. Comet mineralogies typically are determined by fitting thermal emission models of ensembles of discrete mineral grains to observed IR spectral energy distributions. The absorptivities (Q-abs) and scattering efficiencies (Q-scat) of the discrete mineral grains are computed using Mie scattering, Maxwell-Garnet mixing, Discrete Dipole Approximation, and Multi-Layered Sphere codes. These techniques when applied to crystalline minerals, specifically olivine (Mg_x, Fe_1-x)2 Si04, x>0.9, require the use of ellipsoidal shaped particles with elongated axial ratios or hollow spheres to produce the shapes of the resonances observed both from comet comae and laboratory samples. The wavelength positions of the distinct resonances from submicron-radii crystalline silicates, as well as their thermal equilibrium temperatures, constrain the crystalline olivine to have a relatively high Mg-content (x>0.9, or Fo>90). Only resonances computed for submicron Mg-rich crystalline olivine and crystalline orthopyroxene match the observed IR spectral features. However, this has led to the interpretation that micron-radii and larger crystals are absent from comet comae. Furthermore, the mass fraction of silicate crystals is dependent upon whether just the submicron portion of the size distribution is being compared or the submicron crystals compare to the aggregates of porous amorphous silicates that are computationally tractable as porous spheres. We will discuss the Deep Impact results as examples of these challenges to interpreting mid-IR spectra of

  7. Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Wolfgang; Fu, Yunjiao; Ilger, Jan-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The well defined composition of the Comanche rock's carbonate (Magnesite0.62Siderite0.25Calcite0.11Rhodochrosite0.02) and its host rock's composition, dominated by Mg-rich olivine, enable us to reproduce the atmospheric CO2partial pressure that may have triggered the formation of these carbonates. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions (including CO2partial pressure) may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops (Gusev Crater) and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving (1) ultramafic rocks (ca. 32 wt% olivine; Fo0.72Fa0.28), (2) pure water, and (3) CO2partial pressures of ca. 0.5 to 2.0 bar at water-to-rock ratios of ca. 500 molH2O mol-1rock and ca. 5°C (278 K). Our modeled carbonate composition (Magnesite0.64Siderite0.28Calcite0.08) matches the measured composition of carbonates preserved in the Comanche rocks. Considerably different carbonate compositions are achieved at (1) higher temperature (85°C), (2) water-to-rock ratios considerably higher and lower than 500 mol mol-1 and (3) CO2partial pressures differing from 1.0 bar in the model set up. The Comanche rocks, hosting the carbonate, may have been subjected to long-lasting (>104 to 105 years) aqueous alteration processes triggered by atmospheric CO2partial pressures of ca. 1.0 bar at low temperature. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock colu