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Sample records for olivine melt inclusion

  1. Mantle-derived trace element variability in olivines and their melt inclusions

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    Neave, David A.; Shorttle, Oliver; Oeser, Martin; Weyer, Stefan; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2018-02-01

    Trace element variability in oceanic basalts is commonly used to constrain the physics of mantle melting and the chemistry of Earth's deep interior. However, the geochemical properties of mantle melts are often overprinted by mixing and crystallisation processes during ascent and storage. Studying primitive melt inclusions offers one solution to this problem, but the fidelity of the melt-inclusion archive to bulk magma chemistry has been repeatedly questioned. To provide a novel check of the melt inclusion record, we present new major and trace element analyses from olivine macrocrysts in the products of two geographically proximal, yet compositionally distinct, primitive eruptions from the Reykjanes Peninsula of Iceland. By combining these macrocryst analyses with new and published melt inclusion analyses we demonstrate that olivines have similar patterns of incompatible trace element (ITE) variability to the inclusions they host, capturing chemical systematics on intra- and inter-eruption scales. ITE variability (element concentrations, ratios, variances and variance ratios) in olivines from the ITE-enriched Stapafell eruption is best accounted for by olivine-dominated fractional crystallisation. In contrast, ITE variability in olivines and inclusions from the ITE-depleted Háleyjabunga eruption cannot be explained by crystallisation alone, and must have originated in the mantle. Compatible trace element (CTE) variability is best described by crystallisation processes in both eruptions. Modest correlations between host and inclusion ITE contents in samples from Háleyjabunga suggest that melt inclusions can be faithful archives of melting and magmatic processes. It also indicates that degrees of ITE enrichment can be estimated from olivines directly when melt inclusion and matrix glass records of geochemical variability are poor or absent. Inter-eruption differences in olivine ITE systematics between Stapafell and Háleyjabunga mirror differences in melt

  2. Diffusion of Water through Olivine and Clinopyroxene: Implications for Melt Inclusion Fidelity

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    Plank, T. A.; Lloyd, A. S.; Ferriss, E.

    2016-12-01

    The maximum H2O concentrations measured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from arc tephra fall within a narrow range of 3-5 wt%. A major question is whether this reflects parental water concentrations or diffusive exchange through the host crystal during storage and ascent. Laboratory experiments have shown that water can diffuse through 500 micron olivine in minutes to days at 1100°C. We have tested these predictions with a natural experiment using volatile (H2O, CO2, S) diffusion along melt embayments to constrain ascent rates during the 1974 eruption of Volcan Fuego to 5-8 minutes from 7 km depth [1]. Thus, olivine-hosted MIs may move from their storage region to the surface during some eruptions rapidly enough to retain almost all of their original water. Only the smallest MIs (500 microns) and large melt inclusions (>50 microns), and 4) rapid post-eruptive cooling (< 1min, clast sizes < 1 cm). The rapid diffusion of H through olivine and cpx presents a challenge to MI fidelity, but not necessarily if the above conditions are met. [1] Lloyd et al., 2014, JVGR. [2] Ferriss et al., 2016, AmMin.

  3. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea's east rift zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

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    Tuohy, Robin M.; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W.; Swanson, Donald A.; Kent, Adam J. R.

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2 concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai'i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n = 10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n = 38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea's summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the summit

  4. Magma transport and olivine crystallization depths in Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone inferred from experimentally rehomogenized melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Robin M; Wallace, Paul J.; Loewen, Matthew W; Swanson, Don; Kent, Adam J R

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O and CO2 in olivine-hosted melt inclusions can be used to estimate crystallization depths for the olivine host. However, the original dissolved CO2concentration of melt inclusions at the time of trapping can be difficult to measure directly because in many cases substantial CO2 is transferred to shrinkage bubbles that form during post-entrapment cooling and crystallization. To investigate this problem, we heated olivine from the 1959 Kīlauea Iki and 1960 Kapoho (Hawai‘i) eruptions in a 1-atm furnace to temperatures above the melt inclusion trapping temperature to redissolve the CO2 in shrinkage bubbles. The measured CO2 concentrations of the experimentally rehomogenized inclusions (⩽590 ppm for Kīlauea Iki [n=10]; ⩽880 ppm for Kapoho, with one inclusion at 1863 ppm [n=38]) overlap with values for naturally quenched inclusions from the same samples, but experimentally rehomogenized inclusions have higher within-sample median CO2 values than naturally quenched inclusions, indicating at least partial dissolution of CO2 from the vapor bubble during heating. Comparison of our data with predictions from modeling of vapor bubble formation and published Raman data on the density of CO2 in the vapor bubbles suggests that 55-85% of the dissolved CO2 in the melt inclusions at the time of trapping was lost to post-entrapment shrinkage bubbles. Our results combined with the Raman data demonstrate that olivine from the early part of the Kīlauea Iki eruption crystallized at <6 km depth, with the majority of olivine in the 1-3 km depth range. These depths are consistent with the interpretation that the Kīlauea Iki magma was supplied from Kīlauea’s summit magma reservoir (∼2-5 km depth). In contrast, olivine from Kapoho, which was the rift zone extension of the Kīlauea Iki eruption, crystallized over a much wider range of depths (∼1-16 km). The wider depth range requires magma transport during the Kapoho eruption from deep beneath the

  5. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

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    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  6. Tracking the Martian Mantle Signature in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions of Basaltic Shergottites Yamato 980459 and Tissint

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    Peters, T. J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.; Usui, T.; Moriwaki, R.; Economos, R.; Schmitt, A.; McKeegan, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Martian shergottite meteorites are basaltic to lherzolitic igneous rocks that represent a period of relatively young mantle melting and volcanism, approximately 600-150 Ma (e.g. [1,2]). Their isotopic and elemental composition has provided important constraints on the accretion, evolution, structure and bulk composition of Mars. Measurements of the radiogenic isotope and trace element concentrations of the shergottite meteorite suite have identified two end-members; (1) incompatible trace element enriched, with radiogenic Sr and negative epsilon Nd-143, and (2) incompatible traceelement depleted, with non-radiogenic Sr and positive epsilon 143-Nd(e.g. [3-5]). The depleted component represents the shergottite martian mantle. The identity of the enriched component is subject to debate, and has been proposed to be either assimilated ancient martian crust [3] or from enriched domains in the martian mantle that may represent a late-stage magma ocean crystallization residue [4,5]. Olivine-phyric shergottites typically have the highest Mg# of the shergottite group and represent near-primitive melts having experienced minimal fractional crystallization or crystal accumulation [6]. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) in these shergottites represent the most chemically primitive components available to understand the nature of their source(s), melting processes in the martian mantle, and origin of enriched components. We present trace element compositions of olivine hosted melt inclusions in two depleted olivinephyric shergottites, Yamato 980459 (Y98) and Tissint (Fig. 1), and the mesostasis glass of Y98, using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss our data in the context of understanding the nature and origin of the depleted martian mantle and the emergence of the enriched component.

  7. Multicomponent Diffusion in Experimentally Cooled Melt Inclusions

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    Saper, L.; Stolper, E.

    2017-12-01

    Glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions are compositionally zoned, characterized by a boundary layer depleted in olivine-compatible components that extends into the melt inclusion from its wall. The boundary layer forms in response to crystallization of olivine and relaxes with time due to diffusive exchange with the interior of the inclusion. At magmatic temperatures, the time scale for homogenization of inclusions is minutes to hours. Preservation of compositional gradients in natural inclusions results from rapid cooling upon eruption. A model of MgO concentration profiles that couples crystal growth and diffusive relaxation of a boundary layer can be used to solve for eruptive cooling rates [1]. Controlled cooling-rate experiments were conducted to test the accuracy of the model. Mauna Loa olivine containing >80 µm melt inclusions were equilibrated at 1225°C in a 1-atm furnace for 24 hours, followed by linear cooling at rates of 102 - 105 °C/hr. High-resolution concentration profiles of 40 inclusions were obtained using an electron microprobe. The model of [1] fits the experimental data with low residuals and the best-fit cooling rates are within 30% of experimental values. The initial temperature of 1225 °C is underestimated by 65°C. The model was modified using (i) MELTS to calculate the interface melt composition as a function of temperature, and (ii) a concentration-dependent MgO diffusion coefficient using the functional form of [2]. With this calibration the best-fit starting temperatures are within 5°C of the experimental values and the best-fit cooling rates are within 20% of experimental rates. The evolution of the CaO profile during cooling is evidence for strong diffusive coupling between melt components. Because CaO is incompatible in olivine, CaO concentrations are expected to be elevated in the boundary layer adjacent to the growing olivine. Although this is observed at short time scales, as the profile evolves the CaO concentration near the

  8. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions as an archive of redox heterogeneity in magmatic systems

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    Hartley, Margaret E.; Shorttle, Oliver; Maclennan, John; Moussallam, Yves; Edmonds, Marie

    2017-12-01

    The redox state of volcanic products determines their leverage on the oxidation of Earth's oceans and atmosphere, providing a long-term feedback on oxygen accumulation at the planet's surface. An archive of redox conditions in volcanic plumbing systems from a magma's mantle source, through crustal storage, to eruption, is carried in pockets of melt trapped within crystals. While melt inclusions have long been exploited for their capacity to retain information on a magma's history, their permeability to fast-diffusing elements such as hydrogen is now well documented and their retention of initial oxygen fugacities (fO2) could be similarly diffusion-limited. To test this, we have measured Fe3+/ΣFe by micro-XANES spectroscopy in a suite of 65 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and 9 matrix glasses from the AD 1783 Laki eruption, Iceland. This eruption experienced pre-eruptive mixing of chemically diverse magmas, syn-eruptive degassing at the vent, and post-eruptive degassing during lava flow up to 60 km over land, providing an ideal test of whether changes in the fO2 of a magma may be communicated through to its cargo of crystal-hosted melt inclusions. Melt inclusions from rapidly quenched tephra samples have Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.206 ± 0.008 (ΔQFM of +0.7 ± 0.1), with no correlation between their fO2 and degree of trace element enrichment or differentiation. These inclusions preserve the redox conditions of the mixed pre-eruptive Laki magma. When corrected for fractional crystallisation to 10 wt.% MgO, these inclusions record a parental magma [Fe3+/ΣFe](10) of 0.18 (ΔQFM of +0.4), significantly more oxidised than the Fe3+/ΣFe of 0.10 that is often assumed for Icelandic basalt magmas. Melt inclusions from quenched lava selvages are more reduced than those from the tephra, having Fe3+/ΣFe between 0.133 and 0.177 (ΔQFM from -0.4 to +0.4). These inclusions have approached equilibrium with their carrier lava, which has been reduced by sulfur degassing. The progressive re

  9. Boron isotopic composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: New evidence supporting wet komatiite origin

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    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2011-12-01

    A fundamental question in the genesis of komatiites is whether these rocks originate from partial melting of dry and hot mantle, 400-500 °C hotter than typical sources of MORB and OIB magmas, or if they were produced by hydrous melting of the source at much lower temperatures, similar or only moderately higher than those known today. Gorgona Island, Colombia, is a unique place where Phanerozoic komatiites occur and whose origin is directly connected to the formation of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province. The genesis of Gorgona komatiites remains controversial, mostly because of the uncertain origin of volatile components which they appear to contain. These volatiles could equally result from shallow level magma contamination, melting of a "damp" mantle or fluid-induced partial melting of the source due to devolatilization of the ancient subducting plate. We have analyzed boron isotopes of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Gorgona komatiites. These inclusions are characterized by relatively high contents of volatile components and boron (0.2-1.0 wt.% H 2O, 0.05-0.08 wt.% S, 0.02-0.03 wt.% Cl, 0.6-2.0 μg/g B), displaying positive anomalies in the overall depleted, primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element and REE spectra ([La/Sm] n = 0.16-0.35; [H 2O/Nb] n = 8-44; [Cl/Nb] n = 27-68; [B/Nb] n = 9-30, assuming 300 μg/g H 2O, 8 μg/g Cl and 0.1 μg/g B in PM; Kamenetsky et al., 2010. Composition and temperature of komatiite melts from Gorgona Island constrained from olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Geology 38, 1003-1006). The inclusions range in δ11B values from - 11.5 to + 15.6 ± 2.2‰ (1 SE), forming two distinct trends in a δ11B vs. B-concentration diagram. Direct assimilation of seawater, seawater-derived components, altered oceanic crust or marine sediments by ascending komatiite magma cannot readily account for the volatile contents and B isotope variations. Alternatively, injection of < 3wt.% of a 11B enriched fluid to the mantle source could

  10. The parent magma of the nakhlite meteorites - Clues from melt inclusions

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    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Several forms of trapped liquid found within nakhlite meteorites have been examined, including interstitial melt and magmatic inclusions within the cores of large olivine grains. Differences in the mineralogy and texture between two types of trapped melt inclusions, and between these inclusions and the mesostasis, indicate that vitrophyric inclusions are most appropriate for estimating the composition of a nakhlite parental magma in equilibrium with early-forming olivine and augite. Parent liquids were calculated from the mineralogy of large inclusions in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, using a system of mass-balance equations solved by linear regression methods. The chosen parental liquids were cosaturated in olivine and augite and had Mg/Fe values consistent with measured augite/liquid Kds. These parental magma compositions are similar to other published compositions for Nakhla, Chassigny, and Shergotty parental melts, and may correspond to a significant magma type on Mars.

  11. Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Kerguelen plume-derived picritic basalts: evidence for interaction with the Kerguelen Plateau lithosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisova, A.U.; Nikogosian, I.; Shimizu, N.; Weis, D.; Scoates, J.S.; Touret, J.L.R.; Damasceno, D.

    2002-01-01

    Melt, fluid and crystal inclusions have been studied in olivine phenocrysts from a suite of picritic basalts dredged during the "Marion Dufresne" MD 109 cruise (Dredge 6) from a seamount located between the Kerguelen Archipelago and Heard Island (Southern Indian Ocean). A two-stage polybaric

  12. Chemical 3D-imaging of glass inclusions from allende (CV3) olivine via SIMS: A new insight on chondrule formation conditions

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    Florentin, L.; Deloule, E.; Faure, F.; Mangin, D.

    2018-06-01

    Natural glass inclusions - hosted in Mg-rich olivines from Allende (CV3) type I chondrules - and synthetic melt inclusions - trapped in forsterite crystallized from CMAS (CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) melts - were mapped by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for CMAS major oxides. The first ever 3D chemical images of extra-terrestrial glass inclusions were obtained, along with chemical depth profiles for each oxide. Results show similar patterns for both synthetic glass inclusions (trapped in olivine formed by slow crystallization in a magmatic liquid) and natural inclusions from Allende's olivines. No incompatible-rich boundary layer or diffusion pattern was observed in either case. The absence of an incompatible-rich boundary layer suggests that the olivine overgrowth surrounding glass inclusions in Allende's olivines was formed during slow cooling of the host olivine and likely the surrounding chondrule. This provides new constraints on the cooling rates of type I chondrules.

  13. Origin of spinel lamella and/or inclusions in olivine of harzburgite form the Pauza ultramafic rocks from the Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq

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    Mohammad, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Karim, K.

    2009-04-01

    Exsolution lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel occur in olivine of harzburgite of the Pauza ultramafic rocks, Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. The lamella is up to 80μm long and up to 50 μm wide. The lamellae and octahedral inclusions of chromian spinel are distributed heterogeneously in the host olivine crystal. They are depleted in Al2O3 relative to the subhedral spinel grains in the matrix and spinel lamella in orthopyroxene. Olivine (Fo92 - 93) with spinel lamellae occurs as fine-grained crystals around orthopyroxene, whereas olivine (Fo90-91) free from spinel is found in matrix. Based on back-scattered images analyses, enrichments of both Cr # and Fe+3 in the chromian spinel lamella in olivine (replacive olivine) relative to that in adjacent orthopyroxene. As well as the compositions of chromian spinel lamellae host olivine are more Mg-rich than the matrix olivine. Furthermore the restriction of olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral inclusions on around orthopyroxene, and the similarity of spinel lamella orientations in both olivine and adjacent orthopyroxene. This study concludes that the spinel inclusions in olivine are remnant (inherited from former orthopyroxene) spinel exsolution lamella in orthopyroxene, that has been formed in upper mantle conditions ( T = 1200 °C, P = 2.5 GPa ). Replacive olivine are formed by reaction of ascending silica poor melt and orthopyroxene in harzburgite as pressure decrease the solubility of silica-rich phase (orthopyroxene) in the system increase, therefore ascending melt dissolve pyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella and precipitate replacive olivine with spinel inclusions. We can conclude that the olivines with spinel lamella are not necessary to be original and presenting ultrahigh-pressure and/or ultra deep-mantle conditions as previously concluded. It has been formed by melting of orthopyroxene (orthopyroxene with spinel exsolution lamella = olivine with spinel lamellae and octahedral

  14. Crustal accretion along the global mid-ocean ridge system based on basaltic glass and olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositions

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    Wanless, V. D.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The depth and distribution of crystallization at mid-ocean ridges controls the overall architecture of the oceanic crust, influences hydrothermal circulation, and determines geothermal gradients in the crust and uppermost mantle. Despite this, there is no overall consensus on how crystallization is distributed within the crust/upper mantle or how this varies with spreading rate. Here, we examine crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges by combining crystallization pressures calculated from major element barometers on mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses with vapor-saturation pressures from melt inclusions to produce a detailed map of crystallization depths and distributions along the global ridge system. We calculate pressures of crystallization from >11,500 MORB glasses from the global ridge system using two established major element barometers (1,2). Additionally, we use vapor-saturation pressures from >400 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five ridges with variable spreading rates to constrain pressures and distributions of crystallization along the global ridge system. We show that (i) crystallization depths from MORB glasses increase and become less focused with decreasing spreading rate, (ii) maximum glass pressures are greater than the maximum melt inclusion pressure, which indicates that the melt inclusions do not record the deepest crystallization at mid-ocean ridges, and (iii) crystallization occurs in the lower crust/upper mantle at all ridges, indicating accretion is distributed throughout the crust at all spreading rates, including those with a steady-state magma lens. Finally, we suggest that the remarkably similar maximum vapor-saturation pressures (~ 3000 bars) in melt inclusion from all spreading rates reflects the CO2 content of the depleted upper mantle feeding the global mid-ocean ridge system. (1) Michael, P. & W. Cornell (1998), Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B8), 18325-18356; (2) Herzberg, C. (2004), Journal of Petrology, 45(12), 2389.

  15. Deducing Water Concentrations in the Parent Magma of Cumulate Clinopyroxene and Olivine: Implications for a Hydrous Parent Melt of a Primitive Deccan Lava

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    Seaman, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water concentrations of clinopyroxene megacrysts in the Powai ankaramite flow, located near Mumbai, Deccan province, India, indicate that the parent magma of the flow hosted at least 4.3 wt.% water, an unusually high water concentration for a continental flood basalt magma. The Powai flow hosts clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Chatterjee and Sheth (2015) showed that phenocrysts in the flow were part of a cumulate layer intruded by basaltic melt at 6 kb and 1230oC, so the phenocrysts record characteristics of the cumulate parent melt. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts are oscillatorily zoned in water, Mg, Fe, and Ca concentrations, and have concentric bands 100-200 microns thick of 10-20 micron diameter melt inclusions. Olivine phenocrysts host only larger isolated melt inclusions. Zones in the cpx phenocrysts where melt inclusion-rich concentric bands occur have higher concentrations of water than inclusion-free zones. Water concentrations of cpx were used to calculate water concentrations in the melt from which the crystals formed using partition coefficients of Hauri et al. (2004). Water concentrations in the parent magma were between 4.3 and 8.2 wt. % based on water concentrations in cpx. Both Mg and Fe are relatively depleted in the water- and melt inclusion-rich zones in cpx, and Ca is enriched in these zones. Oscillatory zoning in cpx may be a result of repeated growth of cpx in water- richer and water-poorer boundary layers where water lowered melt viscosity and enhanced diffusion and crystal growth rates. Water-enhanced growth rates may have resulted in capture of melt inclusions preserved in water-rich cpx zones. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts preserve lower water concentrations ( 1.2 wt. %) than those indicated by water concentration in cpx phenocrysts. This disparity may be evidence of water loss from melt inclusions in olivine (Gaetani et al., 2009) or may indicate that cpx and ol crystals did not crystallize from the same parent at the same time.

  16. Limitations on the Estimation of Parental Magma Temperature Using Olivine-melt Equilibria: Hotspots Not So Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Estimates of temperatures of magmas parental to picritic tholeiites using olivine-melt equilibria and FeO-MgO relationships depend strongly on the assumption that a liquid composition, usually a glass, is related to the most magnesian olivine in the rock, or to an olivine composition in equilibrium with mantle peridotite, along an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. The liquid Fe2+/Fe3+ also has to be known; where data exist, average values from wet chemical determinations are used. Crystallization histories of tholeiitic picrites from islands, spreading ridges, and large igneous provinces, however, usually reveal them to be hybrid rocks that are assembled by two types of magma mixing: 1) between a) differentiated magmas that are on olivine-plagioclase or olivine-plagioclase-clinopyroxene cotectics and b) crystal sludges with abundant olivine that may have accumulated from liquids crystallizing olivine alone; and 2) between primitive magma strains in which olivine crystallized either alone or with other silicate minerals at elevated pressure on separate liquid lines of descent. Many picrites give evidence that both types of mixing have occurred. If either type has occurred, the assumption of olivine-control linking a glass and an olivine composition can only circumstantially be correct. Oxidation state can also be underestimated and therefore FeO contents overestimated if basalts have degassed S, as at Hawaii. In Case 1, hybrid host glass compositions often have higher FeO at given MgO content than liquids which produced many olivine crystals in the rock. In Case 2, the separate parental melt strains are revealed by diversity of compositions of both melt inclusions and Cr-spinel and are most often interpreted to mean local heterogeneity of the mantle source. The inclusions do not always affirm an olivine-controlled liquid line of descent. Instead, inclusions with Gorgona, but not in MORB. Where fresh glass is lacking (e.g., Gorgona), bulk-rock compositions

  17. Network topology of olivine-basalt partial melts

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    Skemer, Philip; Chaney, Molly M.; Emmerich, Adrienne L.; Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu

    2017-07-01

    The microstructural relationship between melt and solid grains in partially molten rocks influences many physical properties, including permeability, rheology, electrical conductivity and seismic wave speeds. In this study, the connectivity of melt networks in the olivine-basalt system is explored using a systematic survey of 3-D X-ray microtomographic data. Experimentally synthesized samples with 2 and 5 vol.% melt are analysed as a series of melt tubules intersecting at nodes. Each node is characterized by a coordination number (CN), which is the number of melt tubules that intersect at that location. Statistically representative volumes are described by coordination number distributions (CND). Polyhedral grains can be packed in many configurations yielding different CNDs, however widely accepted theory predicts that systems with small dihedral angles, such as olivine-basalt, should exhibit a predominant CN of four. In this study, melt objects are identified with CN = 2-8, however more than 50 per cent are CN = 4, providing experimental verification of this theoretical prediction. A conceptual model that considers the role of heterogeneity in local grain size and melt fraction is proposed to explain the formation of nodes with CN ≠ 4. Correctly identifying the melt network topology is essential to understanding the relationship between permeability and porosity, and hence the transport properties of partial molten mantle rocks.

  18. Melt Inclusion Analysis of RBT 04262 with Relationship to Shergottites and Mars Surface Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. A.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Martian meteorite RBT 04262 is in the shergottite class. It displays the two lithologies typically found in "lherzolitic shergottites": one with a poikilitic texture of large pyroxene enclosing olivine and another with non-poikilitic texture. In the case of RBT 04262, the latter strongly ressembles an olivine- phyric shergottite which led the initial classification of this meteorite in that class. RBT 04262 has been studied with regards to its petrology, geochemistry and cosmic ray exposure and belongs to the enriched oxidized end-member of the shergottites. Studies on RBT 04262 have primarily focused on the bulk rock composition or each of the lithologies independently. To further elucidate RBT 04262's petrology and use it to better understand Martian geologic history, an in-depth study of its melt inclusions (MI) is being conducted. The MI chosen for this study are found within olivine grains. MI are thought to be trapped melts of the crystallizing magma preserved by the encapsulating olivine and offer snapshots of the composition of the magma as it evolves. Some MI, in the most Mg-rich part of the olivine of olivine-pyric shergottites, may even be representative of the meteorite parent melt.

  19. A Parent Magma for the Nakhla Martian Meteorite: Reconciliation of Estimates from 1-Bar Experiments, Magmatic Inclusions in Olivine, and Magmatic Inclusions in Augite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Goodrich, Cyrena Anne

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma for the Nakhla (martian) meteorite has been estimated from mineral-melt partitioning and from magmatic inclusions in olivine and in augite. These independent lines of evidence have converged on small range of likely compositions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano as revealed by XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helz, R. T.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Kelley, K. A.

    2017-03-01

    The 1959 summit eruption of K$\\bar{i}$lauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most K$\\bar{i}$lauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.

  1. Olivine-melt relationships and syneruptive redox variations in the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano as revealed by XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Brounce, Maryjo N.; Kelley, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The 1959 summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano exhibited high lava fountains of gas-rich, primitive magma, containing olivine + chromian spinel in highly vesicular brown glass. Microprobe analysis of these samples shows that euhedral rims on olivine phenocrysts, in direct contact with glass, vary significantly in forsterite (Fo) content, at constant major-element melt composition, as do unzoned groundmass olivine crystals. Ferric/total iron (Fe+ 3/FeT)ratios for matrix and interstitial glasses, plus olivine-hosted glass inclusions in eight 1959 scoria samples have been determined by micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (μ-XANES). These data show that much of the variation in Fo content reflects variation in oxidation state of iron in the melt, which varies with sulfur concentration in the glass and (locally) with proximity to scoria edges in contact with air. Data for 24 olivine-melt pairs in the better-equilibrated samples from later in the eruption show KD averaging 0.280 ± 0.03 for the exchange of Fe and Mg between olivine and melt, somewhat displaced from the value of 0.30 ± 0.03 given by Roeder and Emslie (1970). This may reflect the low SiO2 content of the 1959 magmas, which is lower than that in most Kīlauea tholeiites. More broadly, we show the potential of μ-XANES and electron microprobe to revisit and refine the value of KD in natural systems.The observed variations of Fe+ 3/FeT ratios in the glasses reflect two distinct processes. The main process, sulfur degassing, produces steady decrease of the Fe+ 3/FeT ratio. Melt inclusions in olivine are high in sulfur (1060–1500 ppm S), with Fe+ 3/FeT = 0.160–0.175. Matrix glasses are degassed (mostly S eruption and (2) the melts originally had Fe+ 3/FeT ≥ 0.175, consistent with oxygen fugacity (fO2) at least 0.4 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer at 1 atm and magmatic temperature of 1200 °C.The second process is interaction between the

  2. Polymineralic inclusions in mantle chromitites from the Oman ophiolite indicate a highly magnesian parental melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Hugh; Mameri, Lucan; Barry, Tiffany

    2018-06-01

    Polymineralic inclusions interpreted as melt inclusions in chromite from the dunitic Moho Transition Zone in the Maqsad area of the Oman ophiolite have been analysed and compositions integrated using a rastering technique on the scanning electron microscope. The inclusions now comprise a range of inter-grown hydrous phases including pargasite, aspidolite, phlogopite and chlorite, indicating that the parental melts were hydrous. Average inclusion compositions for seven samples contain between 23.1 and 26.8 wt% MgO and 1.7-3.6 wt% FeO. Compositions were corrected to allow for the low FeO concentrations using coexisting olivine compositions. These suggest that the primary melt has between 20 and 22 wt% MgO and 7-9.7 wt% FeO and has an affinity with boninitic melts, although the melts have a higher Ti content than most boninites. Average rare earth element concentrations suggest that the melts were derived from a REE depleted mantle source although fluid-mobile trace elements indicate a more enriched source. Given the hydrous nature of the inclusions this enrichment could be fluid driven. An estimate of the melt temperature can be made from the results of homogenisation experiments on these inclusions and suggests 1300 °C, which implies for a harzburgite solidus, relatively shallow melting at depths of <50 km and is consistent with a boninitic origin. The current "basaltic" nature of the chromite host to highly magnesian melt inclusions suggests that the dunitic Moho Transition Zone operated as a reaction filter in which magnesian melts were transformed into basalts by the removal of high magnesian olivines, particularly in areas where the Moho Transition Zone is unusually thick. We propose therefore that podiform mantle chromitites, even those with an apparent MORB-like chemical signature, have crystallised from a highly magnesian parental melt. The data presented here strongly support the view that this took place in a subduction initiation setting.

  3. Meeting the Continental Crust: the Hidden Olivine Trauma in Subduction Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Reyes, P.; Ruprecht, P.; Rabbia, O. M.; Hernandez, L.

    2017-12-01

    In a conventional framework, olivine zonation represents concentric growth from an evolving liquid. Alternatively, it has been suggested (e.g. Welsch et al. 2014) that olivine develop dendritic textures and compositional discontinuities due to rapid growth and boundary layer effects, respectively, where any complex zoning is quickly erased through diffusive re-equilibration in the high temperature magmatic environment. In particular, olivine crystals from large volcanic centers in convergent margins rarely preserve such dendritic textures and complex zoning due prolonged magma residence. Small volume, mafic monogenetic vents may bypass such crustal re-equilibration and potentially record the otherwise elusive early olivine growth history. We selected tephra deposits from Los Hornitos, in the Andean arc of Central Chile (35.5˚S), that represents primitive magmas ( 15 wt.% MgO) and contain magnesian olivines (Fo>88) hosting quenched melt inclusions. We obtained detailed quantitative EPMA zoning profiles and measured volatile contents (H, C, S, Cl) in the co-existing melt inclusions. Furthermore, we analyzed mineral morphologies connecting compositional zoning with growth textures. We find that 40% of the olivine crystals retain dendritic shapes while the others are polyhedral with trapped melt inclusions and cavities. The polyhedral crystals are normally zoned (Fo92 to Fo88; Ni 4000 ppm to 1000 ppm), however an oscillatory zonation depicted by concentric -coupled Fo and Ni- enriched layers exist and therefore even those crystals still preserve also a more complete growth history. The related melt inclusions yield values of up to 6000 ppm of S. Such zonation may imply sudden growth during elevated degrees of undercooling (-ΔT > 60°C) as the magmas transit from the hot mantle to the cooler conditions in the crust. Moreover, the preservation of such Fo and Ni zonation requires limited time between crystal growth and eruption. The elevated S content in melt inclusions

  4. Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Yaakov; Class, Cornelia; Goldstein, Steven L; Hanyu, Takeshi

    2016-09-29

    Mantle melting, which leads to the formation of oceanic and continental crust, together with crust recycling through plate tectonics, are the primary processes that drive the chemical differentiation of the silicate Earth. The present-day mantle, as sampled by oceanic basalts, shows large chemical and isotopic variability bounded by a few end-member compositions. Among these, the HIMU end-member (having a high U/Pb ratio, μ) has been generally considered to represent subducted/recycled basaltic oceanic crust. However, this concept has been challenged by recent studies of the mantle source of HIMU magmas. For example, analyses of olivine phenocrysts in HIMU lavas indicate derivation from the partial melting of peridotite, rather than from the pyroxenitic remnants of recycled oceanic basalt. Here we report data that elucidate the source of these lavas: high-precision trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts point to peridotite that has been metasomatized by carbonatite fluids. Moreover, similarities in the trace-element patterns of carbonatitic melt inclusions in diamonds and HIMU lavas indicate that the metasomatism occurred in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, fused to the base of the continental crust and isolated from mantle convection. Taking into account evidence from sulfur isotope data for Archean to early Proterozoic surface material in the deep HIMU mantle source, a multi-stage evolution is revealed for the HIMU end-member, spanning more than half of Earth's history. Before entrainment in the convecting mantle, storage in a boundary layer, upwelling as a mantle plume and partial melting to become ocean island basalt, the HIMU source formed as Archean-early Proterozoic subduction-related carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  5. Constraining the Volatile Regime of Primitive Somma-Vesuvius Magmas Based on the Compositions of Phenocrysts and Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyushevsky, L. V.; Esposito, R.; De Vivo, B.; Redi, D.; Lima, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; Gurenko, A.

    2017-12-01

    The volcanic complex of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius is located in the Campanian Plain on east of Naples. We present the results of a mineralogical and melt inclusion studies of primitive volcanic products erupted during the last 2 magmatic cycles of Soma-Vesuvius, aimed at better understanding the volatile fluxes and eruptive behaviour of the volcano. Our results suggest that despite large differences in the compositions of the erupted magmas (from olivine-bearing basaltic lavas to leucite-bearing phonolites) and the eruption style (from plinian to strombolian), there was very little change in the nature of the parental magmas. Melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in all volcanic products and styles reveal the highest volatile contents in the most magnesian, early formed crystals (Fo90; H2O 4-5 wt%; CO2 3,000-4,000 ppm), decreasing to near 0 levels of concentrations in olivine Fo70. Major and trace element compositions of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts (Mg#92-70) also suggest a similar parental magma composition and similar liquid lines of decent for all Somma-Vesuvius eruptions. Our results are best explained by a model which relates the eruption style to the intensity of melt supply under the volcano. High intensity plinian eruptions occur after a prolonged repose time, whereas strombolian eruptions occur during periods of more frequent volcanic activity [1]. We will also discuss possible implications for the role of carbonate assimilation during magma evolution of Somma-Vesuvius and for total volatile budget of the SOmma-Vesuvius eruptions. [1] [42] Lima, A., Danyushevsky, L.V., De Vivo, B. and Fedele, L. 2003: A model for the evolution of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magmatic system based on fluid and melt inclusion investigations. In: Melt Inclusions in volcanic systems: Methods, applications and Problems (B. De Vivo & R.J. Bodnar, Eds), Series: Developments in Volcanology. No. 5 Elsevier, Amsterdam, 227-251

  6. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2015-12-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  7. Melting mode and source lithology inferred from trace element systematic in historical olivine from Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.

    2017-04-01

    Trace element concentrations and ratios in olivine phenocrysts, such as fractionation-corrected Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, have been shown useful as probes of pyroxenite derived component in mixtures of primary mantle melts (e.g. Sobolev et al., 2007). For instance, higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca contents are expected in partial melts of pyroxenite compared to those of lherzolite. We have measured trace element concentrations in olivine from 1730-1736 AD (Timanfaya) and 1824 AD eruptions in Lanzarote (Canary Islands), which erupted mafic and mantle nodule bearing magmas, ranging in composition from highly silica-undersaturated basanite through alkali basalt to tholeiite. The early basanite exhibit the largest olivine trace element variation covering the range of those from MORB and OIB worldwide, whereas later erupted tholeiite have values typical from pyroxenite derived melts. The Fo value decreased systematically with time during the 1730-36 eruption and the proportion of silica-saturated primary melt increased in the parental magma mixture with time. At the end of the eruption, tholeiite magmas crystallized olivine with, increasing concentrations of Mn and Ca and higher Ca/Al at relatively uniform Ni x (FeO/MgO) and Fe/Mn, all of which is readily explained by increased decompression melting at lower temperature. The basanite from the eruption that took place in 1824 AD has olivine with even higher Fo value and trace element variability similar those of the Timanfaya basanite. The fact that the Lanzarote basanite contain olivine with trace element systematic spanning that of MORB and pyroxenite melt can be explained by CO2-flux melting of a lithologically heterogeneous source, generating the diverse compositions. Initial reactive porous flow through depleted oceanic lithosphere and equilibration with dunitic restite of percolating pyroxenite melt may have amplified the observed Ni depletion in olivine of the earliest basanite. The fact that olivine compositions and

  8. Deep pooling of low degree melts and volatile fluxes at the 85°E segment of the Gakkel Ridge: Evidence from olivine-hosted melt inclusions and glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison M.; Behn, Mark D.; Humphris, Susan E.; Sohn, Robert A.; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    We present new analyses of volatile, major, and trace elements for a suite of glasses and melt inclusions from the 85°E segment of the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge. Samples from this segment include limu o pele and glass shards, proposed to result from CO 2-driven explosive activity. The major element and volatile compositions of the melt inclusions are more variable and consistently more primitive than the glass data. CO 2 contents in the melt inclusions extend to higher values (167-1596 ppm) than in the co-existing glasses (187-227 ppm), indicating that the melt inclusions were trapped at greater depths. These melt inclusions record the highest CO 2 melt concentrations observed for a ridge environment. Based on a vapor saturation model, we estimate that the melt inclusions were trapped between seafloor depths (˜ 4 km) and ˜ 9 km below the seafloor. However, the glasses are all in equilibrium with their eruption depths, which is inconsistent with the rapid magma ascent rates expected for explosive activity. Melting conditions inferred from thermobarometry suggest relatively deep (25-40 km) and cold (1240°-1325 °C) melting conditions, consistent with a thermal structure calculated for the Gakkel Ridge. The water contents and trace element compositions of the melt inclusions and glasses are remarkably homogeneous; this is an unexpected result for ultra-slow spreading ridges, where magma mixing is generally thought to be less efficient based on the assumption that steady-state crustal magma chambers are absent in these environments. All melts can be described by a single liquid line of descent originating from a pooled melt composition that is consistent with the aggregate melt calculated from a geodynamic model for the Gakkel Ridge. These data suggest a model in which deep, low degree melts are efficiently pooled in the upper mantle (9-20 km depth), after which crystallization commences and continues during ascent and eruption. Based on our melting model

  9. Ca/Al of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions as an indicator for post-entrapment processes at mid-ocean ridges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.T.; Yang, Y.M.; Yan, Q.S.; Shi, Z.F.; Zhu, Z.W.; Su, W.C.; Qin, C.J.; Ye, J.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of melt inclusions in basalts erupted at mid-ocean ridges may be modified by post-entrapment processes, so the present composition of melt inclusions may not represent their original composition at the time of entrapment. By combining the melt inclusion composition in samples from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 19°S analyzed in this study, and from the Petrological Database, we found that post-entrapment crystallization processes resulted in higher Ca/Al, Mg#[100×atomic Mg2+/(Mg2++Fe2+)], MgO and FeO contents, and lower CaO and Al2O3 contents of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions relative to those hosted in olivine. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in plagioclase with anorthite content larger than 80mol.% had been modified more readily than others. By discussing the relationships between Ca/Al and fractional crystallization, post-entrapment crystallization, and the original melt composition, we propose that Ca/Al can be regarded as an indicator of the effect of post-entrapment processes on melt inclusion composition. Specifically, i) when Ca/Al 1.0, the compositions of melt inclusions do not reflect the original melt composition nor preserve information about the mantle source. According to these criteria, plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions with Ca/Al>1.0 in basalts from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at19°S cannot represent the composition of the melt at the moment of their entrapment. (Author)

  10. Volatile and light lithophile elements in high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2017-05-01

    with most oceanic basalts. Cl and B are unfractionated from similarly compatible trace elements, and preserve records of primary melt heterogeneity. Although primitive plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series record few primary signals in their volatile contents, they nevertheless record information about crustal magma processing that is not captured in olivine-hosted melt inclusions suites.

  11. Magnetite Crisis in Miniature: Vanadium, Sulfur, and Iron Valence State Measurements in Melt Inclusions from Nyamuragira Volcano (D.R. Congo, Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, E.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur (S), vanadium (V), and iron (Fe) K-edge micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy of melt inclusions (MI) from Nyamuragira volcano (D.R. Congo, Africa) shows that diffusive loss of H from olivine-hosted melt inclusions may lead to crystallization of submicron magnetite and sulfide crystallites that are imperceptible petrographically or via electron microscopy. Micro-XANES was used to constrain the evolution of oxygen fugacity (fO2) and sulfur speciation for MI preserved in Nyamuragira tephra (1986 and 2006) and lava (1938 and 1948). The S, V, and Fe valence state oxybarometry for 1938, 1948, and 2006 MI are all consistent with equilibration at FMQ-1, and sulfur in MI from these three eruptions are sulfide-dominated (water loss in olivine-hosted MIs.

  12. Ca/Al of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions as an indicator for post-entrapment processes at mid-ocean ridges?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.T.; Yang, Y.M.; Yan, Q.S.; Shi, Z.F.; Zhu, Z.W.; Su, W.C.; Qin, C.J.; Ye, J.

    2016-07-01

    The composition of melt inclusions in basalts erupted at mid-ocean ridges may be modified by post-entrapment processes, so the present composition of melt inclusions may not represent their original composition at the time of entrapment. By combining the melt inclusion composition in samples from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 19°S analyzed in this study, and from the Petrological Database, we found that post-entrapment crystallization processes resulted in higher Ca/Al, Mg#[100×atomic Mg2+/(Mg2++Fe2+)], MgO and FeO contents, and lower CaO and Al2O3 contents of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions relative to those hosted in olivine. In addition, melt inclusions hosted in plagioclase with anorthite content larger than 80mol.% had been modified more readily than others. By discussing the relationships between Ca/Al and fractional crystallization, post-entrapment crystallization, and the original melt composition, we propose that Ca/Al can be regarded as an indicator of the effect of post-entrapment processes on melt inclusion composition. Specifically, i) when Ca/Al<0.78, melt inclusion compositions corrected for fractional crystallization to Mg#=72 can represent the primary magma at mid-ocean ridges; ii) when 0.78melt inclusions are mainly modified by post-entrapment crystallization effects, and can reveal the original melt composition after correcting for these effects; iii) when Ca/Al>1.0, the compositions of melt inclusions do not reflect the original melt composition nor preserve information about the mantle source. According to these criteria, plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions with Ca/Al>1.0 in basalts from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge at19°S cannot represent the composition of the melt at the moment of their entrapment. (Author)

  13. Melt inclusion constraints on petrogenesis of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Bali, Enikö; Maclennan, John; Neave, David A.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.

    2018-02-01

    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, on the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in central Iceland, was one of the best-monitored basaltic fissure eruptions that has ever occurred, and presents a unique opportunity to link petrological and geochemical data with geophysical observations during a major rifting episode. We present major and trace element analyses of melt inclusions and matrix glasses from a suite of ten samples collected over the course of the Holuhraun eruption. The diversity of trace element ratios such as La/Yb in Holuhraun melt inclusions reveals that the magma evolved via concurrent mixing and crystallization of diverse primary melts in the mid-crust. Using olivine-plagioclase-augite-melt (OPAM) barometry, we calculate that the Holuhraun carrier melt equilibrated at 2.1 ± 0.7 kbar (7.5 ± 2.5 km), which is in agreement with the depths of earthquakes (6 ± 1 km) between Bárðarbunga central volcano and the eruption site in the days preceding eruption onset. Using the same approach, melt inclusions equilibrated at pressures between 0.5 and 8.0 kbar, with the most probable pressure being 3.2 kbar. Diffusion chronometry reveals minimum residence timescales of 1-12 days for melt inclusion-bearing macrocrysts in the Holuhraun carrier melt. By combining timescales of diffusive dehydration of melt inclusions with the calculated pressure of H2O saturation for the Holuhraun magma, we calculate indicative magma ascent rates of 0.12-0.29 m s-1. Our petrological and geochemical data are consistent with lateral magma transport from Bárðarbunga volcano to the eruption site in a shallow- to mid-crustal dyke, as has been suggested on the basis of seismic and geodetic datasets. This result is a significant step forward in reconciling petrological and geophysical interpretations of magma transport during volcano-tectonic episodes, and provides a critical framework for the interpretation of premonitory seismic and geodetic data in volcanically active regions.

  14. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  15. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  16. TIMS analysis of Sr and Nd isotopes in melt inclusions from Italian potassium-rich lavas using prototype 1013Ω amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Janne M.; Nikogosian, Igor; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Smeets, Richard; Bouman, Claudia; Davies, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Sr and Nd isotopes were determined using new thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) techniques for a suite of 21 olivine-hosted (85-92mol% Fo) melt inclusions selected from potassic and ultra-potassic lavas from the Italian peninsula. Sr isotopes were measured using default 1011Ω resistors,

  17. Potential Temperatures of Sources of MORB, OIB and LIPs Based on AL Partitioning Between Olivine and Spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, A. V.; Batanova, V. G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Borisov, A.; Arndt, N.; Kuzmin, D.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Sushevskaya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of potential temperatures of convecting mantle is required for the understanding the global processes on the Earth [1]. The common way to estimate these is the reconstruction of primary melt compositions and liquidus temperatures based on the Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and melt. This approach requires knowledge of the compositions of primitive melts in equilibrium with olivine alone as well as composition of olivine equilibrium with primary melts. This information is in most cases unavailable or of questionable quality. Here we report a new approach to obtain crystallization temperatures of primary melts based on the olivine-spinel Al-Cr geothermometer [2]. The advantages of this approach are: (1) low rate of diffusion of Al in the olivine, which promises to preserve high magmatic temperatures and (2) common presence of spinel in assemblage with high-Mg olivine. In order to decipher influence of elevated Ti concentrations in spinel we have run several experiments at high temperatures (1400-1200 degree C), atmospheric pressure and controled oxygen fugacity. We also analysed over two thousand spinel inclusions and high-Mg host olivines from different MORB, OIB, LIP and Archean komatiites on the JXA-8230 EPMA at ISTerre, Grenoble, France. Concentrations of Al, Ti, Na, P, Zn, Cr, Mn, Ca, Co, Ni were determined with a precision of 10 ppm (2 standard errors) using a newly developed protocol [3]. When available, we also analysed matrix glass and glass inclusions in olivine and found that temperature estimations from olivine-spinel (Al-Cr) and olivine-melt (Fe-Mg) [4] equilibrium match within (+/-30 degree C). The results show contrasting crystallization temperatures of Mg-rich olivine of the same Fo content from different types of mantle-derived magmas, from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to 1550 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and

  18. What olivine and clinopyroxene mineral chemistry and melt inclusion study can tell us about magmatic processes in a post-collisional setting. Examples from the Miocene-Quaternary East Carpathian volcanic chain, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Mason, Paul R. D.

    2015-04-01

    Calc-alkaline magmatism occurred along the easternmost margin of Tisia-Dacia at the contact with East European Platform forming the Călimani-Gurghiu- Harghita volcanic chain. Its northern part represented by Călimani-Gurghiu-North Harghita (CGNH hereafter) is showing a diminishing age and volume southwards at 10-3.9 Ma. This marks the end of subduction-related magmatism along the post-collision front of the European convergent plate margin. Magma generation was associated with progressive break-off of a subducted slab and asthenosphere uprise. Fractionation and crustal assimilation were typical CGNH volcanic chain. The rocks show homogeneous 87Sr/86Sr, but a linear trend of Th/Y vs Nb/Y that reflects a common mantle source considered to be the metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge. Fractionation and/or assimilation-fractional crystallization are characteristic for each main volcanic area, suggestive of lower to middle crust magma chamber processes. The South Harghita (SH) volcanic area represents direct continuation of the CGNH volcanic chain. Here at ca. 3 Ma following a time-gap, magma compositions changed to adakite-like calc-alkaline and continued until recent times (< 0.03 Ma). This volcanism was interrupted at ~1.6-1.8 Ma by simultaneous generation of Na- and K-alkalic varieties in nearby areas, suggestive of various sources and melting mechanisms, closely related to the hanging block beneath Vrancea seismic zone. The specific geochemistry is revealed by higher Nb/Y and Th/Y ratios and lower 87Sr/86Sr as compared to the CGNH chain. Identification of primitive magmas has been difficult despite the fact that this volcanic area contains more basalts than any other in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. Since the most primitive rocks represent the best opportunity to identify the trace element composition of the mantle source beneath the East Carpathian volcanic chain we use mineral and melt inclusions in olivine and composition of the most primitive

  19. Temperature dependence of sulfide and sulfate solubility in olivine-saturated basaltic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, O.; Botcharnikov, R. E.; Holtz, F.; Diedrich, O.; Nowak, M.

    2011-12-01

    The sulfur concentration at pyrrhotite- and anhydrite-saturation in primitive hydrous basaltic melt of the 2001-2002 eruption of Mt. Etna was determined at 200 MPa, T = 1050-1250 °C and at log fO 2 from FMQ to FMQ+2.2 (FMQ is Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz oxygen buffer). At 1050 °C Au sample containers were used. A double-capsule technique, using a single crystal olivine sample container closed with an olivine piston, embedded in a sealed Au 80Pd 20 capsule, was developed to perform experiments in S-bearing hydrous basaltic systems at T > 1050 °C. Pyrrhotite is found to be a stable phase coexisting with melt at FMQ-FMQ+0.3, whereas anhydrite is stable at FMQ+1.4-FMQ+2.2. The S concentration in the melt increases almost linearly from 0.12 ± 0.01 to 0.39 ± 0.02 wt.% S at FeS-saturation and from 0.74 ± 0.01 to 1.08 ± 0.04 wt.% S at anhydrite-saturation with T ranging from 1050-1250 °C. The relationships between S concentration at pyrrhotite and/or anhydrite saturation, MgO content of the olivine-saturated melt, T, and log fO 2 observed in this study and from previous data are used to develop an empirical model for estimating the magmatic T and fO 2 from the S and MgO concentrations of H 2O-bearing olivine-saturated basaltic melts. The model can also be used to determine maximum S concentrations, if fO 2 and MgO content of the melt are known. The application of the model to compositions of melt inclusions in olivines from Mt. Etna indicates that the most primitive magmas trapped in inclusions might have been stored at log fO 2 slightly higher than FMQ+1 and at T = 1100-1150 °C, whereas more evolved melts could have been trapped at T ⩽ 1100 °C. These values are in a good agreement with the estimates obtained by other independent methods reported in the literature.

  20. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: The Melt Inclusion Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D. J.; Plank, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Melt inclusions provide a powerful means for probing the depth of magmatic processes and volatile budgets of magmas. Both objectives require that the inclusions accurately record the volatile content of the entrapped melt. However, post-entrapment cooling and diffusive loss of water lead to a decrease in internal pressure, resulting in volatile exsolution (importantly CO2) and vapor bubble growth in inclusions. Several methods have been developed recently that attempt to reconstruct the entrapped CO2 contents, but the methods yield inconsistent results. Here we report on new homogenization experiments and attempt to reconcile inconsistencies in CO2 reconstruction methods. Experiments were conducted on olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Seguam volcano using a piston cylinder apparatus at 500 MPa, 1150-1170 °C, hydrous conditions, and a run duration of 1-2 hours. FTIR analyses of the homogenized inclusions show some diffusive water gain (≤1 wt% excess) relative to unheated inclusions (most 4 wt%). Inclusions from this same sample were previously reconstructed using Raman addition (RA; Moore et al., 2015), and we have constituted the CO2 with two different computational approaches: the ideal gas law (IGL; Shaw et al., 2010) and a bubble growth model (BG; Riker, 2005). CO2 and S contents of heated inclusions are correlated, defining a S-CO2 degassing path. Relative to this empirical degassing path, IGL results are offset to higher CO2 (100s-1000s of ppm) or lower S (100s of ppm), while RA and BG results overlap and are offset to lower CO2 (≤100s of ppm) or higher S (≤100s of ppm). Because S contents of heated and unheated inclusions have similar ranges, we attribute the discrepancy to CO2. High values of CO2 from the IGL correction may be because CO2 diffusion cannot keep pace with bubble growth during rapid cooling upon eruption. Mass balance calculations indicate that a minute amount of carbonate, which could escape detection by Raman, would affect CO2

  1. Melt inclusion evidence for a volatile-enriched (H2O, Cl, B) component in parental magmas of Gorgona Island komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, V.; Sobolev, A.; McDonough, W.

    2003-04-01

    Late Cretaceous komatiites of Gorgona Island are unambiguous samples of ultra-mafic melts related to a hot and possibly 'wet' mantle plume. Despite significant efforts in studying komatiites, their volatile abundances remain largely unknown because of significant alteration of rocks and lack of fresh glasses. This work presents major, trace and volatile element data for 22 partially homogenised (at 1275oC and 1 bar pressure) melt inclusions in olivine (Fo 90.5-91.5) from a Gorgona Isl. komatiite (# Gor 94-3). Major element compositions (except FeO which is notably lower by up to 5 wt% as a result of post-entrapment re-equilibration) and most lithophile trace elements of melt inclusions are indistinguishable from the whole rock komatiites. With the exception of three inclusions that have low Na, H2O, Cl, F and S (likely compromised and degassed during heating) most compositions are characterised by relatively constant and high volatile abundances (H2O 0.4-0.8 wt%, Cl 0.02-0.03 wt%, B 0.8-1.4 ppm). These are interpreted as representative of original volatiles in parental melts because they correspond to the internal volatile pressure in the closed inclusions significantly exceeding 1 bar pressure of heating experiment. Although H2O is strongly enriched (PM-normalised H2O/Ce 10-17) its concentrations correlate well with many elements (e.g. Yb, Er, Y, Ti, Sr, Be). Other positive anomalies on the overall depleted (La/Sm 0.26-0.33) PM normalized compositional spectra of melt inclusions are shown by B (B/K 2.4-5.4) and Cl (Cl/K 11-16). Compositions of melt inclusions, when corrected for Fe loss and recalculated in equilibrium with host olivine, have high MgO (15.4-16.4 wt%; Mg# of 74) and substantial H2O (0.4-0.6 wt%) contents. This together with the data on other 'enriched' elements argues for the presence of previously unknown volatile-enriched component in the parental melts of Gorgona Isl. komatiites. We discuss contamination of magmas by altered oceanic crust in the

  2. Water, lithium and trace element compositions of olivine from Lanzo South replacive mantle dunites (Western Alps): New constraints into melt migration processes at cold thermal regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Alessio; Tribuzio, Riccardo; Ottolini, Luisa; Hamada, Morihisa

    2017-10-01

    Replacive mantle dunites are considered to be shallow pathways for extraction of mantle melts from their source region. Dunites offer a unique possibility to unravel the compositional variability of the melts produced in the upper mantle, before mixing and crystal fractionation modify their original signature. This study includes a quantification of H2O, Li and trace elements (Ni, Mn, Co, Sc, V, Ti, Zr, Y and HREE) in olivine from large replacive dunite bodies (>20 m) within a mantle section exposed in the Western Italian Alps (Lanzo South ophiolite). On the basis of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel compositions, these dunites were previously interpreted to be formed by melts with a MORB signature. Variations in Ni, Mn, Co and Ca contents in olivine from different dunite bodies suggested formation by different melt batches. The variable H2O and Li contents of these olivines agree with this idea. Compared to olivine from residual peridotites and olivine phenocrysts in MORB (both having H2O 1 ppm), the Lanzo South dunite olivine has high H2O (18-40 ppm) and low Li (0.35-0.83 ppm) contents. Geochemical modelling suggests that the dunite-forming melts were produced by low melting degrees of a mixed garnet-pyroxenite-peridotite mantle source, with a contribution of a garnet pyroxenite component variable from 20 to 80%. The Lanzo dunites experienced migration of melts geochemically enriched and mainly produced in the lowermost part of the melting region. Extraction of enriched melts through dunite channels are probably characteristic of cold thermal regimes, where low temperatures and a thick mantle lithosphere inhibit mixing with melts produced at shallower depths.

  3. Melt solidification and late-stage evaporation in the evolution of a FUN inclusion from the Vigarano C3V chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Sylvester, Paul J.; Macpherson, Glenn J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on a detailed petrologic, chemical, and isotopic study of the so-called FUN inclusion (1623-5) from the Vigarano C3V chondrite. It is shown that the precursor material from which the Vigarano 1623-5 has formed contained some nuclear isotopic anomalies; this precursor was composed of melted and crystallized spinel, olivine, fassaite, and melilite. The results on the petrologic and isotopic properties of 1623-5 indicate unambiguously the action of volatilization in the evolution of this inclusion.

  4. Experimental constraints on partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; Van Westrenen, W.; van Bergen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fast diffusion and homogenization of divalent cations hamper the preservation of original chemical compositions and zoning patterns of igneous olivine phenocrysts. Sluggish intracrystalline diffusion of phosphorus in igneous olivine on the other hand allows the complex zoning patterns to be retained, making it a crucial element for reconstruction of cooling histories and evolution of the host magma. Crystallization rate variations, diffusion controlled growth or compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning have been put forward as mechanisms controlling zoning of igneous olivine in phosphorus. Here, we investigate partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivines by a comparison of natural and experimentally grown olivines. We explore the importance of variable degrees of undercooling and cooling rates in crystallizing melt (M1) with a starting composition equivalent to that of an Italian high-potassium basalt (Tliq=1274 °C). We examine the extent of compositional control on partitioning by varying the amount of alkali enrichment in starting compositions that are otherwise equivalent to melt M1. Olivine crystallization experiments were conducted in rhenium capsules suspended in a vertical 1-atm gas-mixing furnace at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) with fO2 buffered at 1.4 to 1.7 log units below the Ni-NiO buffer. Sets of dynamic crystallization experiments with various degrees of undercooling and controlled cooling rate experiments with varying cooling rates were performed. We compare the results with our extensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian K-rich mafic lavas and olivine hosted primitive melt inclusions (MIs). Phosphorus concentrations in the natural olivines reach 435 ppm P and MIs contain up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-4 µm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory, patchy and large scale sector zoning in P, uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are almost always found in P-poor zones

  5. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  6. NanoSIMS results from olivine-hosted melt embayments: Magma ascent rate during explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alexander S.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Hauri, Erik H.; Rose, William; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Plank, Terry

    2014-08-01

    The explosivity of volcanic eruptions is governed in part by the rate at which magma ascends and degasses. Because the time scales of eruptive processes can be exceptionally fast relative to standard geochronometers, magma ascent rate remains difficult to quantify. Here we use as a chronometer concentration gradients of volatile species along open melt embayments within olivine crystals. Continuous degassing of the external melt during magma ascent results in diffusion of volatile species from embayment interiors to the bubble located at their outlets. The novel aspect of this study is the measurement of concentration gradients in five volatile elements (CO2, H2O, S, Cl, F) at fine-scale (5-10 μm) using the NanoSIMS. The wide range in diffusivity and solubility of these different volatiles provides multiple constraints on ascent timescales over a range of depths. We focus on four 100-200 μm, olivine-hosted embayments erupted on October 17, 1974 during the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego. H2O, CO2, and S all decrease toward the embayment outlet bubble, while F and Cl increase or remain roughly constant. Compared to an extensive melt inclusion suite from the same day of the eruption, the embayments have lost both H2O and CO2 throughout the entire length of the embayment. We fit the profiles with a 1-D numerical diffusion model that allows varying diffusivities and external melt concentrations as a function of pressure. Assuming a constant decompression rate from the magma storage region at approximately 220 MPa to the surface, H2O, CO2 and S profiles for all embayments can be fit with a relatively narrow range in decompression rates of 0.3-0.5 MPa/s, equivalent to 11-17 m/s ascent velocity and an 8 to 12 minute duration of magma ascent from ~ 10 km depth. A two stage decompression model takes advantage of the different depth ranges over which CO2 and H2O degas, and produces good fits given an initial stage of slow decompression (0.05-0.3 MPa/s) at high

  7. Tracking the Depleted Mantle Signature in Melt Inclusions and Residual Glass of Basaltic Martian Shergottites using Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Timothy J.; Simon, Justin I.; Jones, John H.; Usui, Tomohiro; Economos, Rita C.; Schmitt, Axel K.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Trace element abundances of depleted shergottite magmas recorded by olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and interstitial mesostasis glass were measured using the Cameca ims-1270 ion microprobe. Two meteorites: Tissint, an olivine-­phyric basaltic shergottite which fell over Morocco July 18th 2001; and the Antarctic meteorite Yamato 980459 (Y98), an olivine-phyric basaltic shergottite with abundant glassy mesostasis have been studied. Chondrite-­normalized REE patterns for MI in Tissint and Y98 are characteristically LREE depleted and, within analytical uncertainty, parallel those of their respective whole rock composition; supporting each meteorite to represent a melt composition that has experienced closed-­system crystallization. REE profiles for mesostasis glass in Y98 lie about an order of magnitude higher than those from the MI; with REE profiles for Tissint MI falling in between. Y98 MI have the highest average Sm/Nd and Y/Ce ratios, reflecting their LREE depletion and further supporting Y98 as one of our best samples to probe the depleted shergotitte mantle. In general, Zr/Nb ratios overlap between Y98 and Tissint MI, Ce/Nb ratios overlap between Y98 MI and mesostasis glass, and Sm/Nd ratios overlap between Y98 mesostasis glass and Tissint MI. These features support similar sources for both, but with subtle geochemical differences that may reflect different melting conditions or fractionation paths during ascent from the mantle. Interestingly, the REE patterns for both Y98 bulk and MI analyses display a flattening of the LREE that suggests a crustal contribution to the Y98 parent melt. This observation has important implications for the origins of depleted and enriched shergottites.

  8. Olivine/melt transition metal partitioning, melt composition, and melt structure—Melt polymerization and Qn-speciation in alkaline earth silicate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2008-10-01

    The two most abundant network-modifying cations in magmatic liquids are Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. To evaluate the influence of melt structure on exchange of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ with other geochemically important divalent cations ( m-cations) between coexisting minerals and melts, high-temperature (1470-1650 °C), ambient-pressure (0.1 MPa) forsterite/melt partitioning experiments were carried out in the system Mg 2SiO 4-CaMgSi 2O 6-SiO 2 with ⩽1 wt% m-cations (Mn 2+, Co 2+, and Ni 2+) substituting for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+. The bulk melt NBO/Si-range ( NBO/Si: nonbridging oxygen per silicon) of melt in equilibrium with forsterite was between 1.89 and 2.74. In this NBO/Si-range, the NBO/Si(Ca) (fraction of nonbridging oxygens, NBO, that form bonds with Ca 2+, Ca 2+- NBO) is linearly related to NBO/Si, whereas fraction of Mg 2+- NBO bonds is essentially independent of NBO/Si. For individual m-cations, rate of change of KD( m-Mg) with NBO/Si(Ca) for the exchange equilibrium, mmelt + Mg olivine ⇌ molivine + Mg melt, is linear. KD( m-Mg) decreases as an exponential function of increasing ionic potential, Z/ r2 ( Z: formal electrical charge, r: ionic radius—here calculated with oxygen in sixfold coordination around the divalent cations) of the m-cation. The enthalpy change of the exchange equilibrium, Δ H, decreases linearly with increasing Z/ r2 [Δ H = 261(9)-81(3)· Z/ r2 (Å -2)]. From existing information on (Ca,Mg)O-SiO 2 melt structure at ambient pressure, these relationships are understood by considering the exchange of divalent cations that form bonds with nonbridging oxygen in individual Qn-species in the melts. The negative ∂ KD( m-Mg) /∂( Z/ r2) and ∂(Δ H)/∂( Z/ r2) is because increasing Z/ r2 is because the cations forming bonds with nonbridging oxygen in increasingly depolymerized Qn-species where steric hindrance is decreasingly important. In other words, principles of ionic size/site mismatch commonly observed for trace and minor elements in crystals, also

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of primary magmas trapped in melt inclusions in scoria of Beaunit Maar (Chaîne des Puys, Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, S.; Schiano, P.; Boivin, P.; Clocchiatti, R.; Chazot, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Massif Central area, characterized by a typical intraplate alkaline serie, is the largest magmatic province of the West-European Rift system. Although it has been the subject of several studies, the nature of Massif Central sources is still a matter of debate and many hypotheses are proposed, including deep-rooted continental hotspot, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and an asthenospheric flow linked to the lithospheric root of the Alpine chain. The Chaîne des Puys is the last magmatic province of the French Massif Central and is composed of hundred young well-preserved volcanoes. The present work aims to supply information on the nature and the origin of the source chemistry of alkaline serie from the Chaîne des Puys, by characterizing the trace and major element composition of minute melts preserved as quenched glass inclusions inside olivines phenocrysts in scoria from the Beaunit Maar. Heating stage experiments performed at ambient pressure on partially crystallised primary melt inclusions suggest CO_2 oversaturation of the trapped melt, and an entrapment temperature around 1200^oC±10^oC. Daughter minerals analyses point to a Ti-and Ca-rich basaltic paragenesis, in good agreement with that of erupted basalts from the Chaîne des Puys. Major element compositions show that melts trapped in inclusions evolve by limited fractional crystallization. Inclusions trapped in the more primitive olivine phenocrysts (Fo85) have alkali-basalt compositions that fall on the primitive end of the compositional trend define by the lavas of the Chaîne des Puys. Their major element chemistry rules out the hypothesis of a mantle source in the spinel stability field and requires a garnet-bearing mantle source. Analyzed for trace-element composition by LA-ICP-MS, they display homogeneous, enriched patterns, similar to those characterizing oceanic island and continental basalts. They have high concentration of LILE and LREE/HREE ratios. Such trace-element feature are typical of

  10. Interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa: Implication for merwinite formation in upper mantle, and for the metasomatic origin of sublithospheric diamonds with Ca-rich suite of inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Igor S.; Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ohtani, Eiji; Pokhilenko, Nikolay P.

    2018-03-01

    We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In the first set of experiments, we studied the reaction between powdered Mg-silicates, olivine and orthopyroxene, and a model Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2), in a homogeneous mixture, at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. In these equilibration experiments, we observed the formation of a merwinite + olivine-bearing assemblage at 3.1 GPa and 1200 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1300-1400 °C. The melts coexisting with this assemblage have a low Si and high Ca content (Ca# = molar 100 × Ca/(Ca + Mg) > 0.57). In the second set of experiments, we investigated reaction rims produced by interaction of the same Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2) with Mg-silicate, olivine and orthopyroxene, single crystals at 3.1 GPa and 1300 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1400 °C. The interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with olivine leads to merwinite formation through the expected reaction: 2Mg2SiO4 (olivine) + 6CaCO3 (liquid) = Ca3MgSi2O8 (merwinite) + 3CaMg(CO3)2 (liquid). Thus, our experiments confirm the idea that merwinite in the upper mantle may originate via interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt, and that diamonds hosting merwinite may have a metasomatic origin. It is remarkable that the interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with orthopyroxene crystals does not produce merwinite both at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. This indicates that olivine grain boundaries are preferable for merwinite formation in the upper mantle.

  11. C-O-H-S magmatic fluid system in shrinkage bubbles of melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Hauri, E. H.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Magmatic volatiles include multiple phases in the C-O-H-S system of shrinkage bubbles for which a conceptual model is still unclear during melt inclusion formation [1,2,3,4]. The present study aims to qualitatively explore the evolution of the volatile migration, during and after the formation of the shrinkage bubble in melt inclusions trapped by olivines from Holocene to present at San Cristóbal volcano (Nicaragua), Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Combined scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy observations allow to define the mineral-fluid phases inside typical shrinkage bubbles at ambient temperature. The existence of residual liquid water is demonstrated in the shrinkage bubbles of naturally quenched melt inclusion and this water could represents the principal agent for chemical reactions with other dissolved ionic species (SO42-, CO32-, etc.) and major elements (Mg, Fe, Cu, etc.) [4,5]. With the objective of following the cooling story of the bubble-inclusion system, the new methodological approach here estimate the interval of equilibrium temperatures for each SEM-Raman identified mineral phase (carbonates, hydrous carbonates, sulfurs, sulfates, etc.). Finally, two distinct mechanisms are proposed to describe the evolution of this heterogeneous fluid system in bubble samples at San Cristóbal which imply a close re-examination for similar volcanoes in subduction zone settings: (1) bubbles are already contracted and filled by volatiles by diffusion processes from the glass and leading to a C-O-H-S fluid-glass reaction enriched in Mg-Fe-Cu elements (2) bubbles are formed by oversaturation of the volatiles from the magma which is producing an immiscible metal-rich fluid. [1]Moore et al. (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 806-823 [2]Wallace et al. (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 787-794 [3]Lowenstern (2015). Am. Mineral. 100, 672-673 [4]Esposito, et al. (2016). Am. Mineral. 101, 1691-1708 [5]Kamenetsky et al. (2001). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 184, 685-702

  12. Volatile-rich komatiitic and picritic melt inclusions in Cr-spinel beach sand from Gorgona Island, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Shimizu, N.; Suzuki, K.; Tatsumi, Y.; Komiya, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2007-12-01

    degassing might also have contributed to eruption of high-density magmas to the surface. In addition, H2O, S, F and Cl contents in MIs in olivine from a picrite were identical to those of P-type MIs in Cr-spinel, but CO2 in olivine-hosted MIs were considerably lower (~50 ppm) than those in Cr-spinel. This indicates that entrapment pressure for MIs in Cr-spinel is likely to be greater than that for MIs in olivine. Therefore, in order to evaluate the volatile contents of undegassed magmas from oceanic islands, melt inclusions in Cr-spinel beach sand could be very useful.

  13. Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocrysts in lunar glass spherules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, D.S.; Fogel, R.A.; Rivers, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Apollo 17 orange glass spherules contain olivine phenocrysts with melt inclusions from depth. Tomography ( 200 spherules located 1 phenocryst. We will try to find melt inclusions and obtain original magma volatiles and compositions. In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas exsolution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO 2 ) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules. Moreover, it showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains. More direct evidence for the volatile mechanism has yet to be uncovered. Issues remaining include: the exact composition of magmatic volatiles; the hypothesized existence of graphite in the magma; the oxygen fugacity of the magma and of the lunar interior. In 1996 reported a single ∼450 micron, equant olivine phenocryst, containing four glassy melt inclusions (or inclusion cores), the largest ∼30micron in size, in a thin section of the 74001/2 drill core. The melt is assumed to sample the parent magma of the lunar basalts at depth, evidenced by the S content of the inclusion (600 ppm) which is 400 ppm greater than that of the orange glass host. Such melts potentially contain a full complement of the volatile components of the parent magma, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Although the A17 orange glass

  14. Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarlato

    2005-06-01

    by the formation of melt inclusions may not be representative of the bulk melt. However, basaltic melt inclusions trapped at 1300°C are more likely to contain bulk melt concentrations of water and carbon dioxide.

  15. An experimental study of Fe-Ni exchange between sulfide melt and olivine at upper mantle conditions: implications for mantle sulfide compositions and phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; von der Handt, Anette; Hirschmann, Marc M.

    2018-03-01

    The behavior of nickel in the Earth's mantle is controlled by sulfide melt-olivine reaction. Prior to this study, experiments were carried out at low pressures with narrow range of Ni/Fe in sulfide melt. As the mantle becomes more reduced with depth, experiments at comparable conditions provide an assessment of the effect of pressure at low-oxygen fugacity conditions. In this study, we constrain the Fe-Ni composition of molten sulfide in the Earth's upper mantle via sulfide melt-olivine reaction experiments at 2 GPa, 1200 and 1400 °C, with sulfide melt X_{{{Ni}}}^{{{Sulfide}}}={{Ni}}/{{Ni+{Fe}}} (atomic ratio) ranging from 0 to 0.94. To verify the approach to equilibrium and to explore the effect of {f_{{{O}2}}} on Fe-Ni exchange between phases, four different suites of experiments were conducted, varying in their experimental geometry and initial composition. Effects of Ni secondary fluorescence on olivine analyses were corrected using the PENELOPE algorithm (Baró et al., Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 100:31-46, 1995), "zero time" experiments, and measurements before and after dissolution of surrounding sulfides. Oxygen fugacities in the experiments, estimated from the measured O contents of sulfide melts and from the compositions of coexisting olivines, were 3.0 ± 1.0 log units more reduced than the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer (suite 1, 2 and 3), and FMQ - 1 or more oxidized (suite 4). For the reduced (suites 1-3) experiments, Fe-Ni distribution coefficients K_{{D}}{}={(X_{{{Ni}}}^{{{sulfide}}}/X_{{{Fe}}}^{{{sulfide}}})}/{(X_{{{Ni}}^{{{olivine}}}/X_{{{Fe}}}^{{{olivine}}})}} are small, averaging 10.0 ± 5.7, with little variation as a function of total Ni content. More oxidized experiments (suite 4) give larger values of K D (21.1-25.2). Compared to previous determinations at 100 kPa, values of K D from this study are chiefly lower, in large part owing to the more reduced conditions of the experiments. The observed difference does not seem

  16. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.

  17. High water contents in basaltic melt inclusions from Arenal volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Melson, W. G.; Soto, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the importance of water to arc magma genesis, fractionation and eruption, few quantitative constraints exist on the water content of Arenal magmas. Early estimates, by electron microprobe sum deficit, suggested up to 4 wt% H2O in olivine-hosted basaltic andesite melt inclusions (MI) from pre-historic ET-6 tephra (Melson, 1982), and up to 7 wt% H2O in plagioclase and orthopyroxene-hosted dacitic MI from 1968 lapilli (Anderson, 1979). These high water contents are consistent with abundant hornblende phenocrysts in Arenal volcanics, but inconsistent with geochemical tracers such as 10Be and Ba/La that suggest a low flux of recycled material (and presumably water) from the subduction zone. In order to test these ideas, and provide the first direct measurements of water in mafic Arenal magmas, we have studied olivine-hosted MI from the prehistoric (900 yBP; Soto et al., 1998) ET3 tephra layer. MI range from andesitic (> 58% SiO2) to basaltic compositions ( 4 wt%) found here for Arenal basaltic MI support the semi-quantitative data from earlier studies, but are somewhat unexpected given predictions from slab tracers. Arenal water contents (4%) approach those of the 1995 eruption of Cerro Negro in Nicaragua (4-5 wt% in basaltic MI; Roggensack et al., 1997), despite the fact that the latter has Ba/La of > 100, while Arenal has Ba/La Journal of Geology; Melson, William G. (1982) Boletin de Volcanologia; Roggensack et al. (1997) Science; Soto et al. (1998) OSIVAM; Williams-Jones et al. (2001) Journal of Volc. and Geoth. Res.

  18. Somma-Vesuvius Plinian Eruptions fed by mafic magma: insights from bubbles in melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.; Redi, D.; Cannatelli, C.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Lima, A.; Bodnar, R. J.; De Vivo, B.

    2014-12-01

    Mt. Somma-Vesuvius Plinian eruptions were first described by Pliny the younger in 79 AD during the infamous eruption that destroyed Pompeii. Today, such eruptions are still a concern to the nearly 3 million people living in the Naples metropolitan area. Understanding the source for Mt. Somma-Vesuvius magma and the coexisting volatile phase is vital to better constrain the long-term eruptive behavior of this volcano. In the present study, ~ 50 olivine phenocrysts were selected from lavas and pumices produced during mild effusive events referred to as inter-Plinian eruptions, and from highly explosive Plinian eruptions that occurred at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius between 33000 ka and 1631 AD. Selected olivine phenocrysts containing MI were examined petrographically and analyzed for Fo content. Fo varies from 69 to 73 mole% for inter-Plinian olivine crystals and from 84 to 90 mole% with one zoned olivine containing 76-81 mole% Fo, for Plinian olivine crystals. Investigated MI vary from slightly crystallized to highly crystallized. Selected crystallized MI were reheated using the Vernadsky stage, and quenched to a homogeneous glass (Group 1) or glass plus a vapor bubble (Group 2). On one hand, MI of Group 1 are hosted in olivine ranging from Fo72 to Fo76 and were all erupted from the Pompeii eruption (white pumice deposit). On the other hand, MI of Group 2 are trapped in olivine ranging from Fo69 to Fo81 and from Fo84 to Fo90, and the hosts are representative of both Plinian and inter-Plinian events. The only eruption where Group-1 and Group-2 MI coexist is the Pompeii eruption. Group 2 MIs were further analyzed by Raman to test for the presence of volatiles (CO2 or H2O) in the vapor bubbles. CO2 was detected in all MI analyzed. CO2 density was determined using the distance between the two Fermi-diad peaks, and ranges between 0.14 and 0.55 g/cm3. Six MI also showed evidence for H2O in the vapor bubble. In addition, carbonates were detected at the glass-vapor interface of five

  19. Origin and evolution of primitive melts from the Debunscha Maar, Cameroon: Consequences for mantle source heterogeneity within the Cameroon Volcanic Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Caroline N.; Hansteen, Thor H.; Devey, Colin W.; van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Suh, Cheo E.

    2017-09-01

    Debunscha Maar is a monogenetic volcano forming part of the Mt. Cameroon volcanic field, located within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). Partly glassy cauliflower bombs have primitive basanite-picrobasalt compositions and contain abundant normally and reversely zoned olivine (Fo 77-87) and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Naturally quenched melt inclusions in the most primitive olivine phenocrysts show compositions which, when corrected for post-entrapment modification, cover a wide range from basanite to alkali basalt (MgO 6.9-11.7 wt%), and are generally more primitive than the matrix glasses (MgO 5.0-5.5 wt%) and only partly fall on a common liquid line of descent with the bulk rock samples and matrix glasses. Melt inclusion trace element compositions lie on two distinct geochemical trends: one (towards high Ba/Nb) is thought to represent the effect of various proportions of anhydrous lherzolite and amphibole-bearing peridotite in the source, while the other (for example, high La/Y) reflects variable degrees of partial melting. Comparatively low fractionation-corrected CaO in the melt inclusions with the highest La/Y suggests minor involvement of a pyroxenite source component that is only visible at low degrees of melting. Most of the samples show elevated Gd/Yb, indicating up to 8% garnet in the source. The range of major and trace elements represented by the melt inclusions covers the complete geochemical range given by basalts from different volcanoes of the Cameroon volcanic line, indicating that geochemical signatures that were previously thought to be volcano-specific in fact are probably present under all volcanoes. Clinopyroxene-melt barometry strongly indicates repeated mixing of compositionally diverse melts within the upper mantle at 830 ± 170 MPa prior to eruption. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for the primitive melt inclusions suggest that the thermal influence of a mantle plume is not required to explain the magma petrogenesis.

  20. H Diffusion in Olivine and Pyroxene from Peridotite Xenoliths and a Hawaiian Magma Speedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is present as a trace element in olivine and pyroxene and its content distribution in the mantle results from melting and metasomatic processes. Here we examine how these H contents can be disturbed during decompression. Hydrogen was analyzed by FTIR in olivine and pyroxene of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) nephelinites which are part of the rejuvenated volcanism at Oahu (Hawaii) [1,2]. H mobility in pyroxene resulting from spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling Most pyroxenes in SLC peridotites exhibit exsolutions, characterized by spinel inclusions. Pyroxene edges where no exsolution are present have less H then their core near the spinel. Given that H does not enter spinel [3], subsolidus requilibration may have concentrated H in the pyroxene adjacent to the spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling. H diffusion in olivine during xenolith transport by its host magma and host magma ascent rates Olivines have lower water contents at the edge and near fractures compared to at their core, while the concentrations of all other chemical elements appear homogeneous. This suggests that some of the initial water has diffused out of the olivine. Water loss from the olivine is thought to occur during host-magma ascent and xenolith transport to the surface [4-6]. Diffusion modeling matches best the data when the initial water content used is that measured at the core of the olivines, implying that mantle water contents are preserved at the core of the olivines. The 3225 cm(sup -1) OH band at times varies independantly of other OH bands, suggesting uneven H distribution in olivine defects likely acquired during mantle metasomatism just prior to eruption and unequilibrated. Diffusion times (1-48 hrs) combined with depths of peridotite equilibration or of magma start of degassing allow to calculate ascent rates for the host nephelinite of 0.1 to 27 m/s.

  1. Diffusion Modeling of Cooling Rates of Relict Olivine in Semarkona Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewins, R. H.; Ganguly, J.; Mariani, E.

    2009-03-01

    Diffusive exchange profiles between relict olivine and melt-grown olivine in Semarkona Type IIA chondrules were oriented by EBSD to correct D. Results for Fe-Mg (D from Dohmen) and Cr (Ito and Ganguly) are concordant at 300°-400°C/hr.

  2. Origin of primitive ocean island basalts by crustal gabbro assimilation and multiple recharge of plume-derived melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Grégoire, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Chemical Geodynamics relies on a paradigm that the isotopic composition of ocean island basalt (OIB) represents equilibrium with its primary mantle sources. However, the discovery of huge isotopic heterogeneity within olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive basalts from Kerguelen, Iceland, Hawaii and South Pacific Polynesia islands implies open-system behavior of OIBs, where during magma residence and transport, basaltic melts are contaminated by surrounding lithosphere. To constrain the processes of crustal assimilation by OIBs, we employed the Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS), an energy-constrained thermodynamic model of recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization. For a case study of the 21-19 Ma basaltic series, the most primitive series ever found among the Kerguelen OIBs, we performed sixty-seven simulations in the pressure range from 0.2 to 1.0 GPa using compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions as parental magmas, and metagabbro xenoliths from the Kerguelen Archipelago as wallrock. MCS modeling requires that the assimilant is anatectic crustal melts (P2O5 ≤ 0.4 wt.% contents) derived from the Kerguelen oceanic metagabbro wallrock. To best fit the phenocryst assemblage observed in the investigated basaltic series, recharge of relatively large masses of hydrous primitive basaltic melts (H2O = 2-3 wt%; MgO = 7-10 wt.%) into a middle crustal chamber at 0.2 to 0.3 GPa is required. Our results thus highlight the important impact that crustal gabbro assimilation and mantle recharge can have on the geochemistry of mantle-derived olivine-phyric OIBs. The importance of crustal assimilation affecting primitive plume-derived basaltic melts underscores that isotopic and chemical equilibrium between ocean island basalts and associated deep plume mantle source(s) may be the exception rather than the rule.

  3. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melt in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kløve; Veksler, Ilya; Tegner, Christian

    2005-01-01

    colored type contains 30.9 6 4.2 wt% FeOt and 40.7 6 3.6 wt% SiO2, whereas the light colored type contains 8.6 6 5.9 wt% FeOt and 65.6 6 7.3 wt% SiO2. Similar light colored melt inclusions in olivine and fine grained dark and light colored interstitial pockets also give evidence of crystallization from......Silicate liquid immiscibility in basalt petrogenesis is a contentious issue. Immiscible iron and silica-rich liquids were reported in melt inclusions of lunar basalt and in groundmass glasses of terrestrial volcanics. In fully crystallized plutonic rocks, however, silicate liquid immiscibility has...

  4. A Comparative Study of Continental vs. Intraoceanic Arc Mantle Melting: Experimentally Determined Phase Relations of Hydrous, Primitive Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S.; Johnston, A.; Wallace, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that H2O and other volatiles play a crucial role in mantle melting in subduction zones. This work is a comparative study focused on determining the H2O-undersaturated, near-liquidus phase relations for two primitive subduction related compositions with the goal of determining the P-T-H2O conditions of mantle melting beneath arcs. These samples, JR-28, a calc-alkaline basalt from Volcan Jorullo, Mexico, and ID-16, a tholeiitic basalt from Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, have major element compositions that indicate they are primary, mantle-derived melts. H2O-undersaturated piston cylinder experiments have been carried out at upper mantle pressures and temperatures (1.0-2.0 GPa and 1100-1350°C). The near-liquidus mineralogy of these two compositions has been mapped in P-T- H2O space in order to constrain the conditions under which these melts are multiply saturated with a mantle residue (lherzolite or harzburgite). Previous studies of dissolved volatiles in olivine-hosted melt inclusions have provided an estimate of pre-eruptive H2O-contents for JR-28 at ≥5 wt% H2O and experiments have been carried out accordingly. Preliminary results for JR-28 at 5 wt% H2O show olivine ± Cr-rich spinel on the liquidus at 1.0 GPa and enstatite as the liquidus phase at higher pressures (1.3 to 2.0 GPa). Ca-rich pyroxene appears in only one experiment 50°C below the liquidus at 1.5 GPa. These data show that JR-28 melts are multiply saturated with a harzburgite assemblage at ~1175°C and ~1.2 GPa at 5 wt% H2O. Experiments at 7 wt% H2O show similar results, although the olivine/Cr-spinel stability field expands at the expense of the enstatite stability field. Consequently, the olivine-enstatite cotectic is shifted to higher pressures and slightly cooler temperatures. The relatively high SiO2 content in the bulk rock (~52 wt% SiO2) supports the hypothesis that JR-28 last equilibrated with a depleted or harzburgite residue rather than a more fertile mantle

  5. Inclusion Modification by Al Deoxidation and Ca Treatment in Ti Containing 18%Cr Stainless Steel Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Do, Kyung-Hyo; Choi, Won-Jin; Kim, Dong-Sic; Pak, Jong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Beum

    2013-01-01

    Titanium is added to ferritic stainless steels in the range of 0.2-0.3 wt% to improve corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. However, titanium is very reactive with oxygen in liquid steel, and it can cause an unstable Ti yield. Therefore, titanium is generally added after the aluminum deoxidation process in the ladle. However, the inclusions formed by Al-Ti deoxidation can cause nozzle clogging and various defects in final products. Calcium injection can be carried out to resolve these problems. In this study, two different deoxidation patterns of Al→Ti and Al→Ti→Ca additions were carried out in Fe-18%Cr ferritic stainless steel melt at 1873 K. The melt composition and the inclusion morphology changes during the deoxidation process were investigated. With Al→Ti addition, the Al_2O_3 inclusions changed to dual phase Al_2O_3-TiO_X inclusions with time by the reaction with Ti in the melt. The morphology of the inclusions in the melt finally changed to a polygonal type indicating that the inclusions were solid phase. The size and number of inclusions in the melt did not change with time after Ti addition. With of Al→Ti→Ca addition, Ca reacted with Al_2O_3-TiO_X inclusions to form liquid CaOAl_2O_3 inclusions embedded with solid CaTiO_3 particles. The morphology of the inclusions in the melt were observed to be spherical and polygonal. The size of inclusions in the melt increased and the number of inclusions decreased by the coalescence of liquid inclusions.

  6. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  7. Bursting the bubble of melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    Most silicate melt inclusions (MI) contain bubbles, whose significance has been alternately calculated, pondered, and ignored, but rarely if ever directly explored. Moore et al. (2015) analyze the bubbles, as well as their host glasses, and conclude that they often hold the preponderance of CO2 in the MI. Their findings entreat future researchers to account for the presence of bubbles in MI when calculating volatile budgets, saturation pressures, and eruptive flux.

  8. Slag inclusions in vacuum-melted ingots of the KhN73MBTYu nickel base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, V.A.; Kleshchev, A.S.; Kazharskaya, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of slag inclusions in ingots of the vacuum-arc-remelted nickel alloy KhN73MBTYu are considered. Type 1 inclusions are those in the surface zone; type 2 inclusions are agglomerations of nitrides and oxides formed due to the fall of lining slag; type 3 inclusions consist of agglomerations of nitrides and oxides as a result of interaction of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen with melt components. The inclusions are removed by machining of the lateral surface. It should be noted that the presence of a large amount of slag on the surface of the molten pool adversely affects the stability of the electrical regime of melting. Strict adherence to the recommendations on the melting and pouring of the initial metal reduces the pollution of the consumable electrode with nonmetallic inclusions

  9. NiO and Fe/Mn in Fo-rich olivines from OIB, MORB, and mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Baker, M.; Hofmann, A. E.; Clague, D.; Stolper, E.

    2006-12-01

    Olivines from mantle peridotites have a narrow range of NiO (0.36±0.03 [1σ] wt%), but NiO of olivines in basalts suggest NiO in mantle olivines is actually more variable: e.g., Hawaiian phenocrysts (Fo>90) have NiO >0.55%, and olivines from continental flood basalts can have >0.5% NiO. At the other end of the spectrum, some basaltic suites (e.g., Iceland, MORBs) have Fo>90 olivines with NiO >0.2%. Partial melting calculations on peridotites show it is difficult to generate liquids that crystallize Fo>90 olivines with >0.4% NiO without resorting to complex processes. Hypotheses to explain the variability of NiO in mantle-derived olivines include (1) reaction of peridotite with silica-rich melts of eclogite results in decreasing modal abundance of olivine and increasing NiO in olivine [1,2]; (2) magmas with NiO-rich olivines come from sources enriched in NiO due to a core-derived component [3]. [4] proposed that high Fe/Mn of Hawaiian vs. Icelandic and MORB lavas reflect a core-derived component in their sources. Possible core incorporation is poorly constrained but FeO and NiO are expected to increase by such processes, leading to correlations between NiO and Fe/Mn in mantle rocks with significant core-derived components. We present high-precision analyses of Fo-rich olivines from OIBs, MORBs, komatiites, and mantle peridotites, focusing on NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios. Our goal is to test hypotheses to explain elevated NiO of Fo-rich olivines in basalts. Olivines are Fo85.1-93.4; more were analyzed, but we focused on this range to avoid complications due to decreasing NiO in olivine with crystallization. Errors (1σ) are 0.01 wt% in NiO and 1.5 in Fe/Mn (wt). Our data show several features: (1) NiO contents and Fe/Mn ratios of Fo>88 olivines are positively correlated, with the low end of the trend (NiO ~0.23%, Fe/Mn ~61) defined by MORB and Iceland and the high end of the trend (NiO ~0.55%, Fe/Mn ~80) by Reunion and Hawaii. Between these end points, there is a

  10. Investigation of platinum alloys for melting of inclusion free laser glass: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumitani, T.; Toratani, H.; Meissner, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Pt alloys as crucible materials for melting LHG-8 phosphate laser glass. The tendency of forming metallic inclusions and ionic dissolution of alloy components in the glass is to be compared with that of pure Pt. Ionic Pt is introduced into the glass melt by direct dissolution of Pt at the crucible-melt interface and by vapor phase transport. It was felt that a Pt-alloy may behave sufficiently differently from Pt that a number of alloys should be studied. Pt inclusions may originate from Pt which reprecipitates from the glass melt on cooling or change in redox-conditions; from volatilized Pt which deposits in colder zones of the melting environment as crystallites which may drop back into the glass melt; and/or from Pt particles which are mechanically removed from the crucible and drop into the glass melt. Besides pure Pt, the following alloys have been tested: Pt/ 10 Ir, Pt/ 10 Rh, Pt/ 5 Au, Pt-ZGS, Pt/ 5 Au-ZGS, Pt/ 10 Rh-ZGS

  11. Experimental measurements of 3He and 4He mobility in olivine and clinopyroxene at magmatic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T. W.; Kurz, M. D.

    1993-03-01

    In-vacuo heating of 0.5 -0.7 mm olivine and clinopyroxene grains separated from Hawaiian ultramafic xenoliths leads to complete He loss within hours to days for temperatures of 700-1400°C. Diffusivities calculated from the observed release rates assuming spherical grains and initially homogeneous He distributions define Arrhenius relations with activation energies of 420 ± 20 and 290 ± 40 Kj/mol and log 10D0 of +5.1 ± .7 and +2.1 ± 1.2 cm 2/s in olivine and pyroxene, respectively. Values at 1350°C are 5.3 × 10 -9 cm 2/s in olivine and 10 times faster in pyroxene (4.7 × 10 -8 cm 2/s). These values include small corrections for grain size variations and, in the case of olivine, about 15% prior diffusive He loss. However, an important factor that has not been considered in previous studies of this type, is that the xenolith He resides predominantly within CO 2 rich fluid inclusions. Theoretical description of He loss in such a case demonstrates that the diffusivities calculated using the standard approach actually represent the product of the true volume diffusivity ( D) and the helium solubility, as represented by the distribution coefficient KDv (defined by C crystal/C fluid). Although He solubility in crystals is not well determined, estimates based on the CO 2 concentrations in these samples suggest that it is very low ( KDv of 3 × 10 -4 for pyroxene and 6 × 10 -6 for olivine; which also implies low crystal-melt distribution coefficients of .05 and .001). The resultant corrected diffusion rates are significantly faster than those obtained by the standard approach (~ 10 -4 cm 2/s at 1350°C and are thus higher than basaltic melt values). The most reasonable interpretation of this result is that He release is enhanced by internal grain fractures, including the planar healed cracks along which most fluid inclusions are arrayed. This treatment illustrates the difficulties involved in extrapolating laboratory He release measurements to nature, in particular

  12. Volcanic volatile budgets and fluxes inferred from melt inclusions from post-shield volcanoes in Hawaii and the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L.; Gazel, E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Carracedo, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Pre-eruptive volatile contents of volcanic melts recorded by melt inclusions are useful for estimating rates of deep earth ingassing and outgassing on geologic timescales. Ocean island volcanoes may erupt melts derived from recycled material and thus have implications regarding the degree to which volatile-bearing phases like magnesite can survive subduction and be recycled by intraplate magmatism. However, melt inclusions affected by degassing will not reflect the original volatile content of the primary melt. Post-shield ocean island volcanoes are thought to erupt volatile-rich melts that ascend quickly, crystallizing in deep reservoirs and are more likely to reflect the composition of the primary melt. In this study, we compare melt inclusions from post-shield volcanoes, Haleakala (East Maui, Hawaii) and Tenerife (Canary Islands), to estimate the volatile budgets of two presumably plume-related ocean-island settings. Melt inclusions from Haleakala contain up to 1.5 wt% CO2, up to 1.3 wt% H2O, and about 2000 ppm of S. The CO2 concentration is similar to estimates for primary CO2 concentrations for Hawaii, suggesting that the melt inclusions in this study trapped a melt that underwent minimal degassing. Assuming a melt production rate of 2 km3/ka for postshield Hawaiian volcanism, the average fluxes of CO2 and S are about 80 t/year and 10 t/year respectively. Melt inclusions from Tenerife contain up to 1 wt% CO2, up to 2 wt% H2O, and about 4000 ppm of S. Assuming a melt production rate of 0.8 km3/ka for the northeast rift zone of Tenerife, the average fluxes of CO2 and S are about 20 t/year and 8 t/year respectively. The concentration of CO2 is lower than estimates of the primary melt CO2 content based on CO2/Nb from El Hierro. This may indicate that the inclusions trapped a melt that had degassed significantly, or that some of the CO2 in the inclusions has been sequestered in carbonate daughter crystals, which were observed in abundance.

  13. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Clynne, Michael A.; Rasmussen, D.J.; Weis, D.

    2016-01-01

    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO>7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  14. Nuclear microprobe analysis of carbon within glass inclusions and volcanic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metrich, N.; Mosbah, M.; Trocellier, P.; Clocchiatti, R.

    1986-01-01

    Microanalysis possibilities have been explored to determine light element concentrations within glasses (melt inclusions and basaltic glass fragments) and volcanic phenocrysts. In the first step, C was examined. The study of different spectral interferences lead to calculated detection limits of 40 μg/g for basaltic glasses and 50 μg/g for olivine crystals. The C contents of all investigated specimens range from 40 μg/g (the detection limit) to 6800 μg/g. Heterogeneities were revealed within glass inclusions. Measurements show obvious concentration profiles in basaltic glass samples. Our results agree with previous published data and are reliable. Accuracy of measurements is about 20%. 12 refs

  15. The melt inclusion record from the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean Arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier; Wallace, Paul J.; Bourquin, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The >60 km3 rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff provides an exceptional probe into the behavior of volatile components in highly evolved arc magmas: it is crystal-rich (30-40 vol% crystals), was rapidly quenched by the explosive eruptive process, and contains abundant homogeneous melt inclusions in large quartz crystals. Several methods for measuring major, trace and volatile element concentrations (SIMS, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe, LA-ICPMS) were applied to these melt inclusions. We found a ~2 wt% range of H2O contents (4.5-6.5 wt% H2O, measured independently by SIMS, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy) and relatively low CO2 concentrations (15-140 ppm measured by FTIR, with most analyses <100 ppm). No obvious correlations between H2O, CO2, major and trace elements are observed. These observations require a complex, protracted magma evolution in the upper crust that included: (1) vapor-saturated crystallization in a chamber located between 1.5 and 2.5 kb pressure, (2) closed-system degassing (with up to 10 vol% exsolved gas) as melts percolated upwards through a vertically extensive mush zone (2-4 km thick), and (3) periodic gas fluxing from subjacent, more mafic and more CO2-rich magma, which is preserved as andesite bands in pumices. These processes can account for the range of observed H2O and CO2 values and the lack of correlation between volatiles and trace elements in the melt inclusions.

  16. Magma evolution at Copahue volcano (Chile/Argentina border): insights from melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatelli, C.; Aracena, C.; Leisen, M.; Moncada, D.; Roulleau, E.; Vinet, N.; Petrelli, M.; Paolillo, A.; Barra, F.; Morata, D.

    2016-12-01

    Copahue volcano is an active stratovolcano in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling at the border between Central Chile and Argentina. The volcano's eruptive style during its history has changed from mainly effusive in the Pleistocene to explosive in the Holocene. The prehistoric eruptions can be divided into pre-glacial (PG), syn-glacial (SG) and post-glacial (PM) stages, with products ranging from basaltic andesites to andesites. In order to investigate the evolution of the magma source and volatiles through time, we have focused our study on the eruptive products from the SG to the 2014 eruption (SUM2014). Sampled rocks are glomero-porphyritic, with a paragenetic mineral sequence of feldspars, ortho- and clinopyroxene, and olivine in order of abundance. All samples present a variable number of vesicles, with SUM2014 samples containing the biggest amount. Feldspar composition varies from Na-rich (andesine) in SG to Ca-rich (labradorite) in SUM2014. Two pyroxene types are present in SG and PM samples (augite and enstatite), while SUM2014 presents augite, pigeonite and enstatite. Thermobarometric estimation, based on mineral chemistry, show a bimodal distribution for SG and SUM2014 (P=10-12 kbars and 5-8 kbars) and only one interval for PM (P=7-8 kbars). Melt Inclusions Assemblages (MIAs) are found in all mineral phases, mostly re-crystallized, with one or more bubbles and daughter oxide minerals. Compositions vary from trachy-andesitic to dacitic for SG, andesitic to trachydacitic for PM, and basaltic andesitic to trachydacitic for SUM2014. Major elements systematics show the existence of a bimodal distribution of pyroxene and feldspar hosted-MIA in SUM2014, which together with the co-presence of pigeonite (low-Ca pyroxene) and augite and the bimodal distribution of P, can be interpreted as evidence of mixing of two types of magmas, evolving at different depths. Trace elements systematics for MIA in SG, PM and SUM2014 show a negative anomaly for Nb

  17. Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem: Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frezzotti, M.L.; Zavon, V.; Peccerillo, A.; Nikogosian, I.

    2002-01-01

    Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy Proceedings of workshop Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem. Napoli, Italy, September 2002, p. 71-73

  18. Olivine in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001: Evidence for a High-Temperature Origin and Implications for Signs of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Leshin, L. A.; Adcock, C. T.

    1999-01-01

    Olivine from Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 occurs as clusters within orthopyroxene adjacent to fractures containing disrupted carbonate globules and feldspathic shock glass. The inclusions are irregular in shape and range in size from approx. 40 microns to submicrometer. Some of the inclusions are elongate and boudinage-like. The olivine grains are in sharp contact with the enclosing orthopyroxene and often contain small inclusions of chromite The olivine exhibits a very limited range of composition from Fo(sub 65) to Fo(sub 66) (n = 25). The delta(sup 18)O values of the olivine and orthopyroxene analyzed by ion microprobe range from +4.3 to +5.3% and are indistinguishable from each other within analytical uncertainty. The mineral chemistries, O-isotopic data, and textural relationships indicate that the olivine inclusions were produced at a temperature greater than 800 C. It is unlikely that the olivines formed during the same event that gave rise to the carbonates in ALH 84001, which have more elevated and variable delta(sup 18)O values, and were probably formed from fluids that were not in isotopic equilibrium with the orthopyroxene or olivine The reactions most likely instrumental in the formation of olivine could be either the dehydration of hydrous silicates that formed during carbonate precipitation or the reduction of orthopyroxene and spinel If the olivine was formed by either reaction during a postcarbonate beating event, the implications are profound with regards to the interpretations of McKay et al. Due to the low diffusion rates in carbonates, this rapid, high-temperature event would have resulted in the preservation of the fine-scale carbonate zoning' while partially devolatilizing select carbonate compositions on a submicrometer scale. This may have resulted in the formation of the minute magnetite grains that McKay et al attributed to biogenic activity.

  19. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  20. Hydrogen study in melt inclusions trapped in quartz with nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, M.; Tirira, J.; Gosset, J.; Massiot, P.

    1990-01-01

    Elastic recoil spectrometry induced by 3 MeV helium-4 microbeam has been used to determine hydrogen distribution within melt inclusions trapped in quartz. These minerals were selected from different geological environments: Guadeloupe (West Indies), Pantelleria Island (South Sicily - Italy) and San Pietro (South Sardinia - Italy). Bulk hydrogen contents are calculated (H assumed to be in H 2 O form). The knowledge of hydrogen distribution assists both in a better understanding and in the establishment of volcanic dynamism hypotheses. Finally, fluid hydrogen rich inclusions are evidenced and H concentration profile is simulated and reported for the first time in glass inclusion

  1. Constraints on the Parental Melts of Enriched Shergottites from Image Analysis and High Pressure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Peslier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian basalts can be classified in at least two geochemically different families: enriched and depleted shergottites. Enriched shergottites are characterized by higher incompatible element concentrations and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and lower initial Nd-143/Nd-144 and Hf-176/Hf-177 than depleted shergottites [e.g. 1, 2]. It is now generally admitted that shergottites result from the melting of at least two distinct mantle reservoirs [e.g. 2, 3]. Some of the olivine-phyric shergottites (either depleted or enriched), the most magnesian Martian basalts, could represent primitive melts, which are of considerable interest to constrain mantle sources. Two depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, Yamato (Y) 980459 and Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789, are in equilibrium with their most magnesian olivine (Fig. 1) and their bulk rock compositions are inferred to represent primitive melts [4, 5]. Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 [3, 6, 7] and NWA 1068 [8], the most magnesian enriched basalts, have bulk Mg# that are too high to be in equilibrium with their olivine megacryst cores. Parental melt compositions have been estimated by subtracting the most magnesian olivine from the bulk rock composition, assuming that olivine megacrysts have partially accumulated [3, 9]. However, because this technique does not account for the actual petrography of these meteorites, we used image analysis to study these rocks history, reconstruct their parent magma and understand the nature of olivine megacrysts.

  2. A Tale of Two Olivines: Magma Ascent in the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, E. R.; McGee, L. E.; Smith, I. E.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) is a nephelinitic to subalkali basaltic monogenetic field centered on the city of Auckland, New Zealand. Lavas are olivine-phyric, and the deposits of several volcanoes in the field contain olivine crystals with chrome spinel (Cr-spinel) inclusions. Microprobe analyses show at least two populations of olivine, categorised by their Mg# and their spinel inclusion compositions: the first has olivines that are euhedral, have compositions slightly less forsteritic than expected for whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusions with relatively low Cr2O3 contents of ~20%. These are interpreted as antecrysts inherited from the mantle source that yielded their host magma. The second population is characterised by olivines that are sub- to euhedral, are significantly more forsteritic than expected from their host whole rock Mg#, and have Cr-spinel inclusons with relatively high Cr2O3 contents of ~50%. These are interpreted as xenocrysts. The composition of these high Cr2O3 spinels very closely resembles the composition of spinels within olivines in dunite sampled from the Dun Mountain Ophiolite on the South Island of New Zealand. The northward extension of the Dun Mountain complex beneath the North Island is defined by the Junction Magnetic Anomaly, marking a crustal terrane boundary that underlies the Auckland Volcanic Field. These data indicate that the magmas that have risen to produce the volcanoes of the Auckland Volcanic Field have carried crystals from an underlying ultramafic crust as well as from their asthenospheric source. Euhedral olivine crystals which do not contain Cr-spinel are also present in AVF lavas and these are interpreted as true phenocrysts that crystallised directly from their host magmas. The lack of reaction textures at crystal margins suggests rapid ascent rates. A crustal origin for the xenocrysts not only has large implications for ascent rate modelling of olivines, but also for the crustal structure of the

  3. Spinels of Variscan olivine hornblendites related to the Montnegre granitoids revisited (NE Spain): petrogenetic evidence of mafic magma mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galán, G.; Enrique, P.; Butjosa, L.; Fernández-Roig, L.

    2017-07-01

    Olivine hornblendites (cortlandtites) form part of the Montnegre mafic complex related to late-Variscan I-type granitoids in the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Two generations of spinel are present in these hornblendites: Spl1 forms euhedral crystals included in both olivine and Spl2. Spl2 forms euhedral to anhedral crystals associated with phlogopite and fibrous colourless amphibole forming pseudomorphs after olivine. Compositions of Spl1 are picotite-Al chromite (Fe#: 77.78-66.60; Cr#: 30.12-52.22; Fe3+/R3+: 6.99-21.89; 0.10< TiO2%< 0.62). Compositions of Spl2 are pleonaste (Fe#: 37.86-52.12; Cr#: 1.00-15.45; Fe3+/R3+: 0.31-5.21; TiO2% <0.10%). The two types of spinel follow a CrAl trend, mainly due to the substitution (Fe2+)-1Cr-1= MgAl, which is interpreted as the result of mixing between two different mantle-derived melts. The compositions of early Spl1 crystals included in olivine are characteristic of Al-rich basalts. More aluminous Spl2 would result from reaction of olivine with a less evolved, Al and K-rich mantle-derived melt after new refilling of the magma chamber or channel. As a whole, spinels from similar examples of Variscan olivine hronblendites also follow a CrAl trend with high Fe# and starting at higher Cr# than other trends of this type. Cr# heterogeneity in the early spinels from these Variscan hornblendites would be inherited from the variable Al content of the mafic melts involved in their genesis.

  4. Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Badanina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the pegmatite-forming processes responsible for the formation of the Malkhan pegmatites started at magmatic temperatures around 720 °C. The primary melts or supercritical fluids were very water- and boron-rich (maximum values of about 10% (g/g B2O3 and over the temperature interval from 720 to 600 °C formed a pseudobinary solvus, indicated by the coexistence of two types of primary melt inclusions (type-A and type-B representing a pair of conjugate melts. Due to the high water and boron concentration the pegmatite-forming melts are metastable and can be characterized either as genuine melts or silicate-rich fluids. This statement is underscored by Raman spectroscopic studies. This study suggested that the gel state proposed by some authors cannot represent the main stage of the pegmatite-forming processes in the Malkhan pegmatites, and probably in all others. However there are points in the evolution of the pegmatites where the gel- or gel-like state has left traces in form of real gel inclusions in some mineral in the Malkhan pegmatite, however only in a late, fluid dominated stage.

  5. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  6. The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornacki, A.S.; Wood, J.A.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1984-01-01

    The two textural varieties of olivine-rich Allende inclusions consist primarily of a porous, fine-grained mafic constituent that differs from the opaque meteorite matrix of CV3 chondrites by being relatively depleted in sulfides, metal grains, and carbonaceous material. Olivine is the most abundant mineral in Allende inclusion matrix; clinopyroxene, nepheline, sodalite, and Ti-Al-pyroxene occur in lesser amounts. Olivine in unrimmed olivine aggregates is ferrous and has a narrow compositional range. Olivine in rimmed olivine aggregates is, on average, more magnesian, with a wider compositional range. Olivine grains in the granular rims of Type 1B inclusions are zoned, with magnesian cores and ferrous rinds. Ferrous olivines in both varieties of inclusions commonly contain significant amounts of Al 2 O 3 , CaO and TiO 2 , refractory elements that probably occur in submicroscopic inclusions of Ca, Al, Ti-rich glass. Defocussed beam analyses of Allende matrix materials are discussed. (author)

  7. Permeability and 3-D melt geometry in shear-induced high melt fraction conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Cordonnier, B.; Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium-series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. Formation of high melt fraction conduits could result from mechanical shear, pyroxene dissolution, and lithological partitioning. Deformation experiments (e.g. Holtzman et al., 2003) demonstrate that shear stress causes initially homogeneously distributed melt to segregate into an array of melt-rich bands, flanked by melt-depleted regions. At the same average melt fraction, the permeability of high melt fraction conduits could be orders of magnitude higher than that of their homogenous counterparts. However, it is difficult to determine the permeability of melt-rich bands. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we obtained high-resolution images of 3-dimensional (3-D) melt distribution in a partially molten rock containing shear-induced high melt fraction conduits. Sample CQ0705, an olivine-alkali basalt aggregate with a nominal melt fraction of 4%, was deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa to a shear strain of 13.3. A sub-volume of CQ0705 encompassing 3-4 melt-rich bands was imaged. Microtomography data were reduced to binary form so that solid olivine is distinguishable from basalt glass. At a spatial resolution of 160 nm, the 3-D images reveal the shape and connectedness of melt pockets in the melt-rich bands. Thin melt channels formed at grain edges are connected at large melt nodes at grain corners. Initial data analysis shows a clear preferred orientation of melt pockets alignment subparallel to the melt-rich band. We use the experimentally determined geometrical parameters of melt topology to create a digital rock with identical 3-D microstructures. Stokes flow simulations are conducted on the digital rock to obtain the permeability tensor. Using this digital rock physics approach, we determine how deformation

  8. Aluminum deoxidation equilibria and inclusion modification mechanism by calcium treatment of stainless steel melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Sang Beom

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic equilibrium between aluminum and oxygen along with the inclusion morphology in Fe-16%Cr stainless steel was investigated to understand the fundamentals of aluminum deoxidation technology for ferritic stainless steels. Further, the effects of calcium addition on the changes in chemistry and morphology of inclusions were discussed. The measured results for aluminum-oxygen equilibria exhibit relatively good agreement with the calculated values, indicating that the introduction of the first- and second-order interaction parameters, recently reported, is reasonable to numerically express aluminum deoxidation equilibrium in a ferritic stainless steel. In the composition of dissolved aluminum content greater than about 60 ppm, pure alumina particles were observed, while the alumino-manganese silicates containing Cr 2 O 3 were appeared at less than 20 mass ppm of dissolved aluminum. The formation of calcium aluminate inclusions after Ca treatment could be discussed based on the thermodynamic equilibrium with calcium, aluminum, and oxygen in the steel melts. In the composition of steel melt with relatively high content of calcium and low aluminum, the log(X CaO /X Al 2 O 3 ) of inclusions linearly increases with increasing the log [a Ca /a Al 2 ·a O 2 ] with the slope close to unity. However, the slope of the line is significantly lower than the expected value in the composition of steel melt with relatively low calcium and high aluminum contents

  9. Characterization and petrologic interpretation of olivine-rich basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Wyatt, M.B.; Gellert, Ralf; Bell, J.F.; Morris, R.V.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Crumpler, L.S.; Milam, K.A.; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bartlett, P.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Des Marais, D.J.; Economou, T.; Farmer, J.D.; Farrand, W.; Ghosh, A.; Golombek, M.; Gorevan, S.; Greeley, R.; Hamilton, V.E.; Johnson, J. R.; Joliff, B.L.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D.; Moersch, J.E.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; Schrorder, C.; de Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are basalts of uniform composition and mineralogy. Olivine, the only mineral to have been identified or inferred from data by all instruments on the Spirit rover, is especially abundant in these rocks. These picritic basalts are similar in many respects to certain Martian meteorites (olivine-phyric shergottites). The olivine megacrysts in both have intermediate compositions, with modal abundances ranging up to 20-30%. Associated minerals in both include low-calcium and high-calcium pyroxenes, plagioclase of intermediate composition, iron-titanium-chromium oxides, and phosphate. These rocks also share minor element trends, reflected in their nickel-magnesium and chromium-magnesium ratios. Gusev basalts and shergottites appear to have formed from primitive magmas produced by melting an undepleted mantle at depth and erupted without significant fractionation. However, apparent differences between Gusev rocks and shergottites in their ages, plagioclase abundances, and volatile contents preclude direct correlation. Orbital determinations of global olivine distribution and compositions by thermal emission spectroscopy suggest that olivine-rich rocks may be widespread. Because weathering under acidic conditions preferentially attacks olivine and disguises such rocks beneath alteration rinds, picritic basalts formed from primitive magmas may even be a common component of the Martian crust formed during ancient and recent times. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Trace elements in olivine of ultramafic lamprophyres controlled by phlogopite-rich mineral assemblages in the mantle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veter, Marina; Foley, Stephen F.; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Groschopf, Nora

    2017-11-01

    Carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites) and associated rocks characteristically occur during the early stages of thinning and rifting of cratonic mantle lithosphere, prior to the eruption of melilitites, nephelinites and alkali basalts. It is accepted that they require volatile-rich melting conditions, and the presence of phlogopite and carbonate in the source, but the exact source rock assemblages are debated. Melts similar to carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikites) have been produced by melting of peridotites in the presence of CO2 and H2O, whereas isotopes and trace elements appear to favor distinct phlogopite-bearing rocks. Olivine macrocrysts in aillikites are usually rounded and abraded, so that it is debated whether they are phenocrysts or mantle xenocrysts. We have analyzed minor and trace element composition in olivines from the type aillikites from Aillik Bay in Labrador, Canada. We characterize five groups of olivines: [1] mantle xenocrysts, [2] the main phenocryst population, and [3] reversely zoned crystals interpreted as phenocrysts from earlier, more fractionated, magma batches, [4] rims on the phenocrysts, which delineate aillikite melt fractionation trends, and [5] rims around the reversely zoned olivines. The main phenocryst population is characterized by mantle-like Ni (averaging 3400 μg g- 1) and Ni/Mg at Mg# of 88-90, overlapping with phenocrysts in ocean island basalts and Mediterranean lamproites. However, they also have low 100 Mn/Fe of 0.9-1.3 and no correlation between Ni and other trace elements (Sc, Co, Li) that would indicate recycled oceanic or continental crust in their sources. The low Mn/Fe without high Ni/Mg, and the high V/Sc (2-5) are inherited from phlogopite in the source that originated by solidification of lamproitic melts at the base of the cratonic lithosphere in a previous stage of igneous activity. The olivine phenocryst compositions are interpreted to result from phlogopite and not high modal

  11. Separation of Non-metallic Inclusions from a Fe-Al-O Melt Using a Super-Gravity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gaoyang; Song, Bo; Guo, Zhancheng; Yang, Yuhou; Song, Mingming

    2018-02-01

    An innovative method for separating non-metallic inclusions from a high temperature melt using super gravity was systematically investigated. To explore the separation behavior of inclusion particles with densities less than that of metal liquid under a super-gravity field, a Fe-Al-O melt containing Al2O3 particles was treated with different gravity coefficients. Al2O3 particles migrated rapidly towards the reverse direction of the super gravity and gathered in the upper region of the sample. It was hard to find any inclusion particles with sizes greater than 2 μm in the middle and bottom areas. Additionally, the oxygen content in the middle region of the sample could be reduced to 0.0022 mass pct and the maximum removal rate of the oxygen content reached 61.4 pct. The convection in the melt along the direction of the super gravity was not generated by the super-gravity field, and the fluid velocity in the molten melt consisted only of the rotating tangential velocity. Moreover, the motion behavior of the Al2O3 particles was approximatively determined by Stokes' law along the direction of super gravity.

  12. Chromite symplectites in Mg-suite troctolite 76535 as evidence for infiltration metasomatism of a lunar layered intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, Stephen M.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2012-06-01

    Despite the very low chromium concentrations in its cumulus olivine (˜140 ppm), lunar troctolite 76535 contains large amounts of Cr sporadically, but highly concentrated, in symplectite assemblages consisting of Mg-Al-chromite and two pyroxenes. Previously proposed symplectite formation mechanisms include crystallization of trapped interstitial melt, diffusion of Cr from cumulus olivine, and/or remobilization of cumulus chromite grains. These mechanisms would imply that the highly Cr-depleted nature of Mg-suite parental magmas and their source materials inferred from cumulus olivine may be illusory. We have conducted a detailed petrologic and textural study of symplectites, as well as chromite veins, intercumulus assemblages, olivine-hosted melt inclusions and clinopyroxene-troilite veins in 76535 with the goals of constraining the origin of the symplectites, and the degree of Cr-depletion in Mg-suite magmas relative to other lunar basalts. Orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in melt inclusions are depleted in Cr relative to their symplectite counterparts, averaging 900 and 1200 ppm vs. 7400 and 8100 ppm Cr2O3, respectively. Olivine in contact with symplectite assemblages may exhibit a diffusion profile of Cr going into olivine, whereas olivine boundaries away from symplectites show no diffusion profile. There is also a distinct lack of primary chromite as inclusions in cumulus phases and melt inclusions. Multiple textural observations, melt inclusion chemistry, and modeling of chromite-olivine equilibrium rule out previously proposed symplectite formation mechanisms, and strongly suggest that chromite was not a primary crystallization product of the 76535 parental magma. Accordingly, the post-cumulus addition of Cr and Fe is required to produce the symplectites. After considering multiple models, the addition of Cr and Fe to 76535 via infiltration metasomatism by an exogenous chromite-saturated melt is the model most consistent with multiple textural and geochemical

  13. Results of the Electron-Beam Button Melting of very clean Ni-base superalloys for the identification of nonmetallic inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauner, F.; Stephan, H.; Stumpp, H.

    1986-02-01

    The reliability of components made of high strength materials is substantially influenced by their cleanliness. For example, the ductility, the fatigue-characteristics and the stress resistance of high strength alloys can be improved by increasing the cleanliness along with decreasing the inclusion size to below 25 ..mu..m. For the analysis of such high clean alloys with decreasing size of nonmetallic inclusions, the metallographic texting methods become troublesome and inexact for a dependable quality control. The Electron-Beam Button Melt Test offers a possibility for the examination and qualification of the small amounts of different inclusions in the high clean materials. During a process-controlled melting procedure, inclusions of high density sink to the bottom of a water-cooled copper crucible. Low density inclusions float to the pool surface and are concentrated in the upper center of the button by means of a controlled solidification of the melting pool. For the utilization of the process in the production quality control, development and research, we have developed the Electron-Beam Button Melting Furnace ES 1/07/30 B. In this paper we will present results of the application of the ES1/07/30 B. In this paper we will present results of the application of the ES 1/07/30 B to the EB-Button melting of the Ni-Base Superalloys IN718 and Astroloy. (orig.).

  14. CO 2-rich komatiitic melt inclusions in Cr-spinels within beach sand from Gorgona Island, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenji; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Maruyama, Shigenori; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2009-10-01

    The volatile content of komatiite is a key to constrain the thermal and chemical evolution of the deep Earth. We report the volatile contents with major and trace element compositions of ~ 80 melt inclusions in chromian spinels (Cr-spinels) from beach sands on Gorgona Island, Colombia. Gorgona Island is a ~ 90 Ma volcanic island, where picrites and the youngest komatiites known on the Earth are present. Melt inclusions are classified into three types on the basis of their host Cr-spinel compositions: low Ti (P type), high Ti with high Cr # (K1 type) and high Ti with low Cr # (K2 type). Chemical variations of melt inclusions in the Cr-spinels cover all of the island's lava types. P-type inclusions mainly occur in the picrites, K1-type in high-TiO 2 komatiites (some enriched basalts: E-basalts) and K2-type in low-TiO 2 komatiites. The H 2O and CO 2 contents of melt inclusions within Cr-spinels from the beach sand are highly variable (H 2O: 0.03-0.9 wt.%; CO 2: 40-4000 ppm). Evaluation of volatile content is not entirely successful because of compositional alterations of the original melt by degassing, seawater/brine assimilation and post-entrapment modification of certain elements and volatiles. However, the occurrence of many melt inclusions with low H 2O/K 2O ratios indicates that H 2O/K 2O of Gorgona komatiite is not much different from that of modern mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB) or oceanic island basalt. Trend of CO 2/Nb and Zr/Y ratios, accounted for by two-component mixing between the least degassed primary komatiite and low-CO 2/Nb evolved basalt, allow us to estimate a primary CO 2/Nb ratio of 4000 ± 2200 or a CO 2 content of 0.16 ± 0.09 wt.%. The determined CO 2/Nb ratio is unusually high, compared to that of MORB (530). Although the presence of CO 2 in the Gorgona komatiite does not affect the magma generation temperature, CO 2 degassing may have contributed to the eruption of high-density magmas. High CO 2/Nb and the relatively anhydrous nature of

  15. Physical and chemical properties of fluid and melt inclusions of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Data of melt and fluid inclusions obtained by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry techniques represent an important investigation complement to understand geological processes which took place in Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil). Melt inclusions found in augite structure, which reveals the previous presence of U in the syenitic magma. Primary fluid inclusions in magmatic augite of the albitites contain Na, denoting once more its presence in original magma. The formation of andradite from augite during shear events that generated the metamorphosed syenite (uraniferous albitite) was certified by the ICP-MS signals and uranium released by magmatic titanite (U source mineral)during the 1.9 Ga metamorphism was recorded in the fluid inclusions found in andradite, mineral that was formed in this same metamorphic event which recrystallized titanite crystals. Such uranium was responsible by precipitation of the disseminated uraninite found inside andradite. (author)

  16. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  17. Deformation, static recrystallization, and reactive melt transport in shallow subcontinental mantle xenoliths (Tok Cenozoic volcanic field, SE Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Ionov, Dmitri A.

    2008-07-01

    Partial melting and reactive melt transport may change the composition, microstructures, and physical properties of mantle rocks. Here we explore the relations between deformation and reactive melt transport through detailed microstructural analysis and crystallographic orientation measurements in spinel peridotite xenoliths that sample the shallow lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern rim of the Siberian craton. These xenoliths have coarse-grained, annealed microstructures and show petrographic and chemical evidence for variable degrees of reaction with silicate melts and fluids, notably Fe-enrichment and crystallization of metasomatic clinopyroxene (cpx). Olivine crystal preferred orientations (CPO) range from strong to weak. [010]-fiber patterns, characterized by a point concentration of [010] normal to the foliation and by dispersion of [100] in the foliation plane with a weak maximum parallel to the lineation, predominate relative to the [100]-fiber patterns usually observed in lithospheric mantle xenoliths and peridotite massifs. Variations in olivine CPO patterns or intensity are not correlated with modal and chemical compositions. This, together with the analysis of microstructures, suggests that reactive melt percolation postdated both deformation and static recrystallization. Preferential crystallization of metasomatic cpx along (010) olivine grain boundaries points to an influence of the preexisting deformation fabrics on melt transport, with higher permeability along the foliation. Similarity between orthopyroxene (opx) and cpx CPO suggests that cpx orientations may be inherited from those of opx during melt-rock reaction. As observed in previous studies, reactive melt transport does not weaken olivine CPO and seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, except in melt accumulation domains. In contrast, recovery and selective grain growth during static recrystallization may lead to development of [010]-fiber olivine CPO and, if foliations are

  18. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  19. The Cocos Ridge hydrothermal system revealed by microthermometry of fluid and melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, J.; Kurz, W.; Krenn, K.

    2017-12-01

    Microthermometric analyses of fluid and melt inclusions in hydrothermal veins and in the Cocos Ridge (CCR) basalt were used to reveal the CCR thermal history at IODP Site 344-U1414 and to constrain fluid source and flow. Hydrothermal veins are hosted by lithified sediments and CCR basalt . Site 344-U1414, located 1 km seaward of the Middle American Trench offshore Costa Rica, serves to evaluate fluid/rock interaction, the hydrologic system and geochemical processes linked with the tectonic evolution of the incoming Cocos Plate from the Early Miocene up to recent times. The veins in the sedimentary rocks are mainly filled by blocky calcite, containing numerous fluid inclusions, and sometimes crosscut fibrous quartz/chalcedony veins. The veins in the basalt can be differentiated into three types: antitaxial fibrous calcite veins, composite veins with fibrous calcite and clay minerals at the vein margins and spherulitic quartz in the center, and syntaxial blocky aragonite veins surrounded by a clay selvage in the uppermost CCR basalt sections. Secondary minerals, clay minerals, fibrous calcite, quartz/chalcedony and pyrite also filled vesicles in the basalt. Fluid inclusions were mainly found in the aragonite veins and rarely in quartz in the composite veins and vesicles. Blocky veins with embedded wall rock fragments appear in the sediments and in the basalt indicate hydraulic fracturing. The occurrence of decrepitated fluid inclusions show high homogenization temperatures up to 400 °C. Decrepitated fluid inclusions are formed by increased internal overpressure, related to isobaric heating. Elongated fluid inclusion planes, arc-like fluid inclusions and low homogenization temperatures indicate subsequent isobaric cooling. The results obtained so far from Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry indicate CO2 inclusions and petrographic observations suggest the presence of silicate melt inclusions in phenocrysts in the basalt (mainly in clinopyroxene and plagioclase

  20. Melts of garnet lherzolite: experiments, models and comparison to melts of pyroxenite and carbonated lherzolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Timothy L.; Holbig, Eva S.; Barr, Jay A.; Till, Christy B.; Krawczynski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibrium experiments on a compositionally modified olivine leucitite from the Tibetan plateau have been carried out from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1,380–1,480 °C. The experiments-produced liquids multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite phase assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel ± garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data are utilized to develop a predictive model for garnet lherzolite melting of compositionally variable mantle under anhydrous conditions over the pressure range of 1.9–6 GPa. The model estimates the major element compositions of garnet-saturated melts for a range of mantle lherzolite compositions and predicts the conditions of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions at above-solidus temperatures and pressures. We compare our predicted garnet lherzolite melts to those of pyroxenite and carbonated lherzolite and develop criteria for distinguishing among melts of these different source types. We also use the model in conjunction with a published predictive model for plagioclase and spinel lherzolite to characterize the differences in major element composition for melts in the plagioclase, spinel and garnet facies and develop tests to distinguish between melts of these three lherzolite facies based on major elements. The model is applied to understand the source materials and conditions of melting for high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, basanite–nephelinite lavas erupted early in the evolution of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, as well as younger tholeiitic to alkali lavas from Kilauea.

  1. Moessbauer spectra of olivine-rich achondrites - Evidence for preterrestrial redox reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.; Martinez, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    Moessbauer spectral measurements at 4.2 K were made on several ureilites and the two shergottites found in Antarctica, as well as two ureilite falls, three SNC meteorite falls, and two finds in order to distinguish products of preterrestrial redox reactions from phases formed during oxidative weathering on the earth. The spectra indicated that several ureilites contain major proportions of metallic iron, much of which resulted from preterrestrial carbon-induced reduction of ferrous iron in the outermost 10-100 microns of olivine grains in contact with carbonaceous material in the ureilites. The cryptocrystalline nature of these Fe inclusions in olivine renders the metal extremely vulnerable to aerial oxidation, even in ureilites collected as falls. It is inferred that the nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides identified in Brachina and Lafayette were produced by terrestrial weather of olivines before the meteorites were found. The absence of goethite in two olivine-bearing Antarctic shergottites suggests that the 2 percent ferric iron determined in their Moessbauer spectra also originated from oxidation on Mars.

  2. Shallow fractionation signature of phase chemistry in Taburiente lavas, La Palma, Canary Islands: Results of MELTS modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetschow, H. A.; Nelson, B. K.

    2002-12-01

    Depth of crystal fractionation influences the chemical evolution of ocean island basalts and has significant implications for the physical structures of these volcanoes. In contrast to dominantly shallow systems such as Hawaii, a range of fractionation depths have been reported for Canary Islands lavas. Magmas erupted on La Palma preserve fluid- and melt-inclusion evidence for high-pressure (> 10 kbar) crystallization (Klügel et al., 1998; Hansteen et al., 1998; Nikogosian et al., 2002). If high-pressure fractional crystallization were an early and dominant process, it would generate specific patterns in rock and phase chemistry of eruptive sequences. Alkalic basalts from Taburiente volcano display coherent major element trends consistent with evolution dominated by fractional crystallization while their phenocryst compositions, trace elements, and isotopic trends require mixing between multiple sources. The current model confirms the importance of both fractionation and mixing to achieve the full range of lavas observed. A low-pressure (1 kbar) thermodynamic fractional crystallization model performed with the MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) software closely reproduces major element trends from two stratigraphic sequences. This model also predicts the observed sequence of groundmass clinopyroxene compositions and phenocryst zoning reversals. In all low pressure simulations, olivine remains a modally significant liquidus phase during the first 20% and last 30% of the crystallization sequence, resulting in a negative correlation between the CaO and Fo content of olivine. These results are consistent with the presence of olivine phenocrysts that bear petrographic evidence of early crystallization, as well as observed compositional trends of groundmass olivine and clinopyroxene in Taburiente lavas. MELTS models that include an initial period of high pressure (12 kbar) clinopyroxene fractionation produce major element trends comparable to the low pressure model, but

  3. Temperatures and Melt Water Contents at the Onset of Phenocryst Growth in Quaternary Nepheline-Normative Basalts Erupted along the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift in Western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, J.; Lange, R. A.; Pu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Nepheline-normative, high-Mg basalts erupted from the western Mexican arc, along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift (TZR), have a trace-element signature consistent with an asthenosphere source, whereas calc-alkaline basalts erupted from the central Mexican arc in the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) have a trace-element signature consistent with a mantle source strongly affected by subduction fluids. In this study, olivine-melt thermometry and plagioclase-liquid hygrometry are used to constrain the temperature and melt water content of the alkaline TZR basalts. The presence of diffusion-limited growth textures in olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts provide preliminary evidence of rapid growth during ascent. For each basalt sample, a histogram of all analyzed olivines in each sample allows the most Fo-rich composition to be identified, which matches the calculated composition at the liquidus via MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995; Asimow & Ghiorso, 1998) at fO2 values of QFM +2. Therefore a newly developed olivine-melt thermometer, based on DNiol/liq (Pu et al., 2017) was used to calculate temperature at the onset of olivine crystallization during ascent. Temperatures range from 1076-1247°C, whereas those calculated using an olivine-melt thermometer based on DMgol/liq range from 1141-1236 °C. Olivine-melt thermometers based on DMgol/liq are sensitive to melt H2O content, therefore ΔT = TMg - TNi (≤ 82 degrees) may be used as a qualitative indicator of melt H2O (≤ 2.6 wt% H2O; Pu et al., 2017). When temperatures from the Ni-thermometer are applied to the most calcic plagioclase in each sample (Waters & Lange, 2015), calculated melt H2O contents range from 1.3-1.9 (± 0.4) wt%. These values are significantly lower than those obtained from high-Mg calc-alkaline basalts from the MGVF using similar methods (1.9-5.0 wt%; Pu et al., 2017), consistent with a reduced involvement of slab-derived fluids in the origin of the alkaline TZR basalts from western Mexico.

  4. A petrologic and ion microprobe study of a Vigarano Type B refractory inclusion - Evolution by multiple stages of alteration and melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    A Type B Ca-, Al-rich 6-m-diam inclusion (CAI) found in the Vigarano C3V chondrite was inspected using optical and scanning electron microscopies and ion microprobe analyses. It was found that the primary constituents of the CAI inclusion are (in percent), melilite (52), fassaite, (20), anorthite (18), spinel (10), and trace Fe-Ni metal. It is noted that, while many of the properties of the inclusion indicate solidification from a melt droplet, the Al-26/Mg-26 isotopic systematics and some textural relationships are incompatible with single-stage closed system crystallization of a homogeneous molten droplet, indicating that the history of this inclusion must have been more complex than melt solidification alone. Moreover, there was unusually high content of Na in melilite, suggesting that the droplet did not form by melting of pristine high-temperature nebular condensates.

  5. Eruption Depths, Magma Storage and Magma Degassing at Sumisu Caldera, Izu-Bonin Arc: Evidence from Glasses and Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Island arc volcanoes can become submarine during cataclysmal caldera collapse. The passage of a volcanic vent from atmospheric to under water environment involves complex modifications of the eruption style and subsequent transport of the pyroclasts. Here, we use FTIR measurements of the volatile contents of glass and melt inclusions in the juvenile pumice clasts in the Sumisu basin and its surroundings (Izu-Bonin arc) to investigate changes in eruption depths, magma storage and degassing over time. This study is based on legacy cores from ODP 126, where numerous unconsolidated (250 m), massive to normally graded pumice lapilli-tuffs were recovered over four cores (788C, 790A, 790B and 791A). Glass and clast geochemistry indicate the submarine Sumisu caldera as the source of several of these pumice lapilli-tuffs. Glass chips and melt inclusions from these samples were analyzed using FTIR for H2O and CO2 contents. Glass chips record variable H2O contents; most chips contain 0.6-1.6 wt% H2O, corresponding to eruption depths of 320-2100 mbsl. Variations in glass H2O and pressure estimates suggest that edifice collapse occurred prior-to or during eruption of the oldest of these samples, and that the edifice may have subsequently grown over time. Sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from two units record variably degassed but H2O-rich melts (1.1-5.6 wt% H2O). The lowest H2O contents overlap with glass chips, consistent with degassing and crystallization of melts until eruption, and the highest H2O contents suggest that large amounts of degassing accompanied likely explosive eruptions. Most inclusions, from both units, contain 2-4 wt% H2O, which further indicates that the magmas crystallized at pressures of ~50-100 MPa, or depths ~400-2800 m below the seafloor. Further glass and melt inclusion analyses, including major element compositions, will elucidate changes in magma storage, degassing and evolution over time.

  6. Two stage melt-rock interaction in the lower oceanic crust of the Parece Vela basin (Philippine sea), evidence from the primitive troctolites from the Godzilla Megamullion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Dick, H. J.; Ohara, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Godzilla Megamullion is a giant oceanic core complex exposed in an extinct slow- to intermediate-spreading segment of the Parece Vela Basin (Philippine sea) [1; 2]. It exposes lower crust and mantle rocks on the sea-floor, offering a unique opportunity to unravel the architecture and the composition of the lower oceanic lithosphere of an extinct back arc basin. Here we present data on primitive troctolites and associated olivine-gabbros from the breakaway area of the Godzilla Megamullion. On the basis of the olivine/plagioclase volume ratio, the troctolites are subdivided into Ol-troctolites (Ol/Pl >1) and Pl-troctolites (Ol/Plthe olivine and a melt crystallizing plagioclase and clinopyroxene. We interpret these rocks as reaction products of a dunite matrix with transient basaltic melts [e.g. 3; 4]. Pl-troctolites have euhedral plagioclase and poikilitic olivine and clinopyroxene. Irregular shapes and inverse zoning of the plagioclase chadacrysts within the olivine indicate disequilibrium between existing plagioclase and an olivine-clinopyroxene saturated melt. The occurrence of plagioclase chadacrysts within clinopyroxene ranging from irregular to euhedral in shape suggests crystallization of new lower-Na plagioclase with the clinopyroxene. Olivine oikocrysts in the Pl-troctolites have low-NiO olivine in equilibrium with a high-MgO melt. The Pl-troctolites, then, may be the product of reaction between a plagioclase cumulate and a basaltic melt produced by mixing the high-MgO melt residual to the formation of the Ol-troctolites with new magma. The effect of melt-rock reaction in the Pl- and Ol- troctolites explains the sharp decrease in plagioclase An with respect to Mg# in clinopyroxene and olivine. Furthermore, the melt is shifted towards lower Na, which is consistent with the low Na8 values of the associated MORB glasses (2.4-2.7 wt %). Our results, then, show that melt-rock interaction was a process active in the lower oceanic crust of the Parece Vela basin and

  7. Melt-peridotite reactions in upwelling EM1-type eclogite bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    or simple variations in degrees of mantle melting. The difference is also clear in major elements where the low Nb/U basalts have markedly higher alkali contents but lower FeO and Ni than the high Nb/U basalts. Four melt components have been identified based on olivine fractionation corrected compositions...

  8. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Oxygen isotopes and volatile contents of the Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: A confirmation of the deep mantle origin of H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kerr, Andrew C.

    2016-11-01

    We report O isotopes in olivine grains (Fo89-93) and volatile contents (CO2, H2O, F, S, Cl) in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from one Gorgona picrite and five komatiites with the aim of constraining the origin of H2O in these magmas. These samples have previously been analysed for major and trace elements and volatile concentrations (H2O, S, Cl) and B isotopes in melt inclusions. A distinctive feature of the included melts is relatively high contents of volatile components and boron, which show positive anomalies in, otherwise depleted, primitive mantle normalised trace and rare earth element patterns and range in δ11 B from -11.5 to 15.6‰. In this study, the olivines were systematically analysed for O isotopes (1) in the centre of grains, (2) near the grain boundaries and, (3) as close as possible to the studied melt inclusions. The majority of olivines (∼66%) are ;mantle;-like, 4.8 ‰ ≤δ18 O ≤ 5.5 ‰, with a subordinate but still significant number (∼33%) above, and only 2 grains below, this range. There is no systematic difference between the central and marginal parts of the grains. Higher than ;mantle; δ18OOl values are ascribed to low-T (Gorgona mafic and ultramafic magmas.

  10. Cotectic proportions of olivine and spinel in olivine-tholeiitic basalt and evaluation of pre-eruptive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter; Gofton, Emma; Thornber, Carl

    2006-01-01

    The volume %, distribution, texture and composition of coexisting olivine, Cr-spinel and glass has been determined in quenched lava samples from Hawaii, Iceland and mid-oceanic ridges. The volume ratio of olivine to spinel varies from 60 to 2800 and samples with >0·02% spinel have a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of approximately 100. A plot of wt % MgO vs ppm Cr for natural and experimental basaltic glasses suggests that the general trend of the glasses can be explained by the crystallization of a cotectic ratio of olivine to spinel of about 100. One group of samples has an olivine to spinel ratio of approximately 100, with skeletal olivine phenocrysts and small (within olivine phenocrysts is thought to be due to skeletal olivine phenocrysts coming into physical contact with spinel by synneusis during the chaotic conditions of ascent and extrusion. A second group of samples tend to have large olivine phenocrysts relatively free of included spinel, a few large (>100 μm) spinel crystals that show evidence of two stages of growth, and a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of 100 to well over 1000. The olivine and spinel in this group have crystallized more slowly with little physical interaction, and show evidence that they have accumulated in a magma chamber.

  11. Volatile Contents in Mafic Magmas from two Aleutian volcanoes: Augustine and Makushin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M. M.; Plank, T.; Hauri, E. H.; Nye, C.; Faust Larsen, J.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    There are several competing theories for the origin of tholeiitic (TH) vs. calc-alkaline (CA) fractionation trends in arc magmas. One relates to water (TH-dry magma, CA-wet magma), another to pressure (TH-low pressure crystallization, CA-high pressure), and a third to primary magma composition (TH-low Si/Fe#, CA-hi Si/Fe#) These theories have been difficult to test without quantitative measures of the water contents and pressures of crystallization of arc magmas. We are in the process of studying several Aleutian arc tephra suites (phenocrysts and melt inclusions) with the aim of obtaining volatile element concentrations (by SIMS), major and trace element concentrations and thermobarometric data (by EMP and laser-ICPMS). We report preliminary results on olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Augustine and Makushin volcanoes that support the role of water in calc-alkaline fractionation. Basaltic melt inclusions from Augustine, a low-K2O, calc-alkaline volcano, are hosted in Fo80-82 olivine. The inclusions yield high water contents, up to 5 wt%, and contain 60-90 ppm CO2, 3000-4500 ppm S, and 3000-6000 ppm Cl. Inclusions record vapor-saturation pressures near 2 kbar. Cl/K2O ratios in Augustine inclusions (ave. 1.9) are among the highest documented in an arc setting, and likely record a Cl- and H2O- rich fluid from the subducting plate. High water contents in Augustine primary melts may have contributed to the strong calc-alkaline trend observed at this volcano. Basaltic melt inclusions from Pakushin, a medium-K2O, tholeiitic cone on the flanks of Makushin volcano, are hosted in Fo80-86 olivine. These inclusions have low water contents (pressures (high sulfur (2000-4000 ppm) and Cl (>2000 ppm) in Pakushin melt inclusions, however, indicate that degassing was minimal. The low water contents and low vapor saturation pressures recorded in Pakushin melt inclusions are consistent with development of its tholeiitic trend, but we cannot distinguish whether the low water

  12. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  13. Eruption and Degassing Processes in a Supervolcanic System: The Volatile Record Preserved in Melt Inclusions from the 3.49Ma Tara Ignimbrite in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, S.; de Silva, S. L.; Schmitt, A. K.; Wallace, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of H2O and CO2 in quartz and sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from one of the youngest supervolcanic eruptions in the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) in the Central Andes provides information on crystallization depths and eruption and degassing processes. At least 740 km3 of high-K, metaluminous, rhyodacite to rhyolite magma erupted from the Guacha Caldera in southwest Bolivia, producing three phases of the 3.49 Ma Tara Ignimbrite: a Plinian fall-deposit, an extensive ignimbrite, and several post-caldera domes. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from Tara Plinian pumice have H2O contents of ~4.5 wt % and variable CO2 contents (110-300 ppm), corresponding to vapor saturation pressures up to 180 MPa. In contrast, sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from the Plinian-fall deposit contain bubbles, lower water contents (1.4-2.2 wt %) and lower CO2 (87-143 ppm). These vesiculated melt inclusions and low volatile contents suggest that the sanidine crystals leaked on their ascent to the surface and therefore do not record accurate pre-eruptive melt volatile contents. In contrast, quartz-hosted melt inclusions from post-caldera dome samples contain lower H2O contents of 2.5-3.5 wt % (average 2.9 wt %) and no detectable CO2, corresponding to vapor saturation pressures of 50-90 MPa. These data indicate that the preeruptive plinian stage Tara magma was vapor saturated at the time of melt inclusion entrapment and stored between 5-6 km, while those from the post-caldera domes were trapped at 2-3 km. Differences in CO2 between Plinian and dome melt inclusions require that the post-caldera dome quartzes represent a different generation of crystals that grew as the magma slowly rose and progressively degassed at 2-3 km. During this shallow crystallization, the magma evolved further and eventually fed the post-caldera domes, one of which is a high-Si rhyolite. Consistent with this interpretation, melt inclusions from post-caldera dome samples

  14. Water in melt inclusions from phenocrysts of dacite pumice of the Vetrovoy Isthmus (Iturup Island, Southern Kuriles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A. A.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Maksimovich, I. A.; Plechov, P. Yu; Chertkova, N. V.; Befus, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of one of the largest caldera eruptions of the Kurile-Kamchatka island-arc system that occurred on the island of Iturup. The object of investigation of this work are phenocrysts of quartz and plagioclase from dacite pumice of the Isthmus of the Isthmus, which is located on the island of Iturup. The purpose of this work is to determine the water content in the melts that participated in the caldera eruption of the Vetrovoy Isthmus and the patterns of their changes during the crystallization of magma. In the course of the work, the following were carried out: 1) adaptation and calibration of the Raman spectroscopy method for determining water in rhyolite melt’s inclusions glasses in quartz and plagioclase from pumice stone; 2) determination of composition and estimation of water content in melt inclusions in quartz and plagioclase according to x-ray spectral analysis; 3) establishment of the regularities of the change in the water content during the evolution of the magmatic melt; 4) evaluation of fluid pressure by comparison with experimental data

  15. Crystallization history of enriched shergottites from Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine megacrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Oeser, Martin; Médard, Etienne; Weyer, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Martian meteorites are the only samples available from the surface of Mars. Among them, olivine-phyric shergottites are basalts containing large zoned olivine crystals with highly magnesian cores (Fo 70-85) and rims richer in Fe (Fo 45-60). The Northwest Africa 1068 meteorite is one of the most primitive "enriched" shergottites (high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial ε143Nd). It contains olivine crystals as magnesian as Fo 77 and is a major source of information to constrain the composition of the parental melt, the composition and depth of the mantle source, and the cooling and crystallization history of one of the younger magmatic events on Mars (∼180 Ma). In this study, Fe-Mg isotope profiles analyzed in situ by femtosecond-laser ablation MC-ICP-MS are combined with compositional profiles of major and trace elements in olivine megacrysts. The cores of olivine megacrysts are enriched in light Fe isotopes (δ56FeIRMM-14 = -0.6 to -0.9‰) and heavy Mg isotopes (δ26MgDSM-3 = 0-0.2‰) relative to megacryst rims and to the bulk martian isotopic composition (δ56Fe = 0 ± 0.05‰, δ26Mg = -0.27 ± 0.04‰). The flat forsterite profiles of megacryst cores associated with anti-correlated fractionation of Fe-Mg isotopes indicate that these elements have been rehomogenized by diffusion at high temperature. We present a 1-D model of simultaneous diffusion and crystal growth that reproduces the observed element and isotope profiles. The simulation results suggest that the cooling rate during megacryst core crystallization was slow (43 ± 21 °C/year), and consistent with pooling in a deep crustal magma chamber. The megacryst rims then crystallized 1-2 orders of magnitude faster during magma transport toward the shallower site of final emplacement. Megacryst cores had a forsterite content 3.2 ± 1.5 mol% higher than their current composition and some were in equilibrium with the whole-rock composition of NWA 1068 (Fo 80 ± 1.5). NWA 1068 composition is thus close to a

  16. A study of experimental simulation of mantle metasomatism by the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.; Sweeney, R.J.; Green, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The chemistry of melts and fluids in the Earth's mantle is essential to understand the processes that generate them and the source areas from which they derive. The characterisation of these phases is particularly relevant with regard to the geochemical changes which would occur in a mantle subjected to the percolation of fluids (for example fluids that derive from a hydrated subducting slab to influence basic geochemistry in subduction zones) and small degree melts which percolate into a relatively cool mantle beneath continents. The development of a technique in the Geology Department of University of Tasmania, of trapping and isolating these small degree melts and fluids in pre-stressed (fractured) olivine disks inserted into run capsules is described. Little success is reported with the analysis of subsurface inclusions in olivine containing trace amounts (e.g. up to 1000 ppm) of elements of interest. This is primarily due to the fact that olivine is a heavy absorber of secondary X-rays principally a function of its higher Fe content. However, some success was achieved in the analysis of small surface melt inclusions where corrections had to be made for the overlap of the beam on the encapsulating olivine. The results carry large uncertainties (20%), primarily due to the smallness of the sample hence the large contribution of underlying olivine, and also of surrounding olivine when the beam is larger than the sample or when the beam drifts off the sample. An example of such measurements is described. Garnets in the peridotite were also analysed and this enabled the calculation of melt-garnet partition coefficients. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  17. The P3 kimberlite and P4 lamproite, Wajrakarur kimberlite field, India: mineralogy, and major and minor element compositions of olivines as records of their phenocrystic vs xenocrystic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Azhar M.; Kumar, Satya P.; Patel, Suresh C.; Thakur, Satyajeet S.; Ravi, Subramanian; Behera, Duryadhan

    2018-03-01

    Distinctly different groundmass mineralogy characterise the hypabyssal facies, Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous P3 and P4 intrusions from the Wajrakarur Kimberlite Field, southern India. P3 is an archetypal kimberlite with macrocrysts of olivine and phlogopite set in a groundmass dominated by phlogopite and monticellite with subordinate amounts of serpentine, spinel, perovskite, apatite, calcite and rare baddeleyite. P4 contains mega- and macrocrysts of olivine set in a groundmass dominated by clinopyroxene and phlogopite with subordinate amounts of serpentine, spinel, perovskite, apatite, and occasional gittinsite, and is mineralogically interpreted as an olivine lamproite. Three distinct populations of olivine, phlogopite and clinopyroxene are recognized based on their microtextural and compositional characteristics. The first population includes glimmerite and phlogopite-clinopyroxene nodules, and Mg-rich olivine macrocrysts (Fo 90-93) which are interpreted to be derived from disaggregated mantle xenoliths. The second population comprises macrocrysts of phlogopite and Fe-rich olivine (Fo 81-89) from P3, megacrysts and macrocrysts of Fe-rich olivine (Fo 85-87) from P4 and a rare olivine-clinopyroxene nodule from P4 which are suggested to have a genetic link with the precursor melt of the respective intrusions. The third population represents clearly magmatic minerals such as euhedral phenocrysts of Fe-rich olivine (Fo 85-90) crystallised at mantle depths, and olivine overgrowth rims formed contemporaneously with groundmass minerals at crustal levels. Close spatial association and contemporaneous emplacement of P3 kimberlite and P4 lamproite is explained by a unifying petrogenetic model which involves the interaction of a silica-poor carbonatite melt with differently metasomatised wall rocks in the lithospheric mantle. It is proposed that the metasomatised wall rock for lamproite contained abundant MARID-type and phlogopite-rich metasomatic veins, while that for

  18. Lithosphere destabilization by melt percolation during pre-oceanic rifting: Evidence from Alpine-Apennine ophiolitic peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Ranalli, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Orogenic peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolite Massifs (Lanzo, Voltri, External and Internal Ligurides, - NW Italy, and Mt. Maggiore - Corsica) derive from the mantle lithosphere of the Ligurian Tethys. Field/structural and petrologic/geochemical studies provide constraints on the evolution of the lithospheric mantle during pre-oceanic passive rifting of the late Jurassic Ligurian Tethys ocean. Continental rifting by far-field tectonic forces induced extension of the lithosphere by means of km-scale extensional shear zones that developed before infiltration of melts from the asthenosphere (Piccardo and Vissers, 2007). After significant thinning of the lithosphere, the passively upwelling asthenosphere underwent spinel-facies decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. Silica-undersaturated melt fractions percolated through the lithospheric mantle via diffuse/focused porous flow and interacted with the host peridotite through pyroxenes-dissolving/olivine-precipitating melt/rock reactions. Pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation modified the composition of the primary silica-undersaturated melts into derivative silica-saturated melts, while the host lithospheric spinel lherzolites were transformed into pyroxene-depleted/olivine-enriched reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. The derivative liquids interacted through olivine-dissolving/orthopyroxene+plagioclase-crystallizing reactions with the host peridotites that were impregnated and refertilized (Piccardo et al., 2015). The saturated melts stagnated and crystallized in the shallow mantle lithosphere (as testified by diffuse interstitial crystallization of euhedral orthopyroxene and anhedral plagioclase) and locally ponded, forming orthopyroxene-rich/olivine-free gabbro-norite pods (Piccardo and Guarnieri, 2011). Reactive and impregnated peridotites are characterized by high equilibration temperatures (up to 1250 °C) even at low pressure, plagioclase-peridotite facies

  19. Removal of Non-metallic Inclusions from Nickel Base Superalloys by Electromagnetic Levitation Melting in a Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjili, Mohsen Hajipour; Halali, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Samples of INCONEL 718 were levitated and melted in a slag by the application of an electromagnetic field. The effects of temperature, time, and slag composition on the inclusion content of the samples were studied thoroughly. Samples were compared with the original alloy to study the effect of the process on inclusions. Size, shape, and chemical composition of remaining non-metallic inclusions were investigated. The samples were prepared by Standard Guide for Preparing and Evaluating Specimens for Automatic Inclusion Assessment of Steel (ASTM E 768-99) method and the results were reported by means of the Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel (ASTM E 45-97). Results indicated that by increasing temperature and processing time, greater level of cleanliness could be achieved, and numbers and size of the remaining inclusions decreased significantly. It was also observed that increasing calcium fluoride content of the slag helped reduce inclusion content.

  20. Diffusion-driven magnesium and iron isotope fractionation in Hawaiian olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, F.-Z.; Dauphas, N.; Helz, R.T.; Gao, S.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion plays an important role in Earth sciences to estimate the timescales of geological processes such as erosion, sediment burial, and magma cooling. In igneous systems, these diffusive processes are recorded in the form of crystal zoning. However, meaningful interpretation of these signatures is often hampered by the fact that they cannot be unambiguously ascribed to a single process (e.g., magmatic fractionation, diffusion limited transport in the crystal or in the liquid). Here we show that Mg and Fe isotope fractionations in olivine crystals can be used to trace diffusive processes in magmatic systems. Over sixty olivine fragments from Hawaiian basalts show isotopically fractionated Mg and Fe relative to basalts worldwide, with up to 0.4??? variation in 26Mg/24Mg ratios and 1.6??? variation in 56Fe/54Fe ratios. The linearly and negatively correlated Mg and Fe isotopic compositions [i.e., ??56Fe=(??3.3??0.3)????26Mg], co-variations of Mg and Fe isotopic compositions with Fe/Mg ratios of olivine fragments, and modeling results based on Mg and Fe elemental profiles demonstrate the coupled Mg and Fe isotope fractionation to be a manifestation of Mg-Fe inter-diffusion in zoned olivines during magmatic differentiation. This characteristic can be used to constrain the nature of mineral zoning in igneous and metamorphic rocks, and hence determine the residence times of crystals in magmas, the composition of primary melts, and the duration of metamorphic events. With improvements in methodology, in situ isotope mapping will become an essential tool of petrology to identify diffusion in crystals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Vaporization and thermodynamics of forsterite-rich olivine and some implications for silicate atmospheres of hot rocky exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    2017-06-01

    We describe an experimental and theoretical study of olivine [Mg2SiO4 (Fo)-Fe2SiO4 (Fa)] vaporization. The vaporization behavior and thermodynamic properties of a fosterite-rich olivine (Fo95Fa5) have been explored by high-temperature Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) from 1750 to 2250 K. The gases observed (in order of decreasing partial pressure) are Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O. We measured the solidus temperature (∼2050 K), partial pressures of individual gases, the total vapor pressure, and thermodynamic activities and partial molar enthalpies of MgO, 'FeO', and SiO2 for the Fo95Fa5 olivine. The results are compared to other measurements and models of the olivine system. Our experimental data show olivine vaporizes incongruently. We discuss this system both as a psuedo-binary of Fo-Fa and a psuedo-ternary of MgO-'FeO'-SiO2. Iron/magnesium molar ratios in the sample before (∼0.05) and after (∼0.04) vaporization are consistent with the small positive deviations from ideality of fayalite (γ ∼ 1.17) in olivine of the composition studied (e.g., Nafziger and Muan, 1967). Our data for olivine + melt confirm prior theoretical models predicting fractional vaporization of Fe relative to Mg from molten silicates (Fegley and Cameron, 1987; Schaefer and Fegley, 2009; Ito et al., 2015). If loss of silicate atmospheres occurs from hot rocky exoplanets with magma oceans the residual planet may be enriched in magnesium relative to iron.

  2. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of methane in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Oze, C.; Rossman, G. R.; Celestian, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Olivine has been proposed to be a direct source of methane (CH4) in serpentinization systems and experiments. Here, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to verify the presence and abundance of CH4 in olivine samples from nine localities, including the San Carlos olivine. Raman analyses did not identify any methane in the olivine samples. As olivine is orthorhombic, three polarized FTIR spectra were obtained for the olivine samples. No methane was detected in any of the olivine samples using FTIR. Overall, olivine investigated in this study does not appear to be a primary source of methane.

  3. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  4. Partition of Ni between olivine and sulfide: the effect of temperature, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, M. E.; Macrae, N. D.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental distribution coefficient for Ni/ Fe exchange between olivine and monosulfide (KD3) is 35.6±1.1 at 1385° C, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 8.87} ,f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 1.02} , and olivine of composition Fo96 to Fo92. These are the physicochemical conditions appropriate to hypothesized sulfur-saturated komatiite magma. The present experiments equilibrated natural olivine grains with sulfide-oxide liquid in the presence of a (Mg, Fe)-alumino-silicate melt. By a variety of different experimental procedures, K D3 is shown to be essentially constant at about 30 to 35 in the temperature range 900 to 1400° C, for olivine of composition Fo97 to FoO, monosulfide composition with up to 70 mol. % NiS, and a wide range of f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }.

  5. Vanadium K XANES of synthetic olivine: Valence determinations and crystal orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium can exist in a large number of valence states in nature (2+?, 3+, 4+ and 5+) and determinations of V valence is therefore valuable in defining the oxidation states of earth and planetary materials over a large redox range. Synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well-suited for measurements of V valence with ∼micrometer spatial resolution and ∼ppm elemental sensitivity. Applications of microXANES have been demonstrated for basaltic glasses. Applications to minerals are feasible but complicated by orientation effects (e.g. due to polarization of the synchrotron x-ray beam) and some results for spinel have been reported. Here we report initial results for olivine from laboratory crystallization ex-periments. The goal is to define the valence partition-ing between olivine and melt and quantify the magnitude of orientation effects, the latter tested by measuring grains at a variety of orientations in the same charge.

  6. Multi-scale three-dimensional characterization of iron particles in dusty olivine: Implications for paleomagnetism of chondritic meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsle, Joshua F.; Harrison, Richard J.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Dusty olivine (olivine containing multiple sub-micrometer inclusions of metallic iron) in chondritic meteorites is considered an ideal carrier of paleomagnetic remanence, capable of maintaining a faithful record of pre-accretionary magnetization acquired during chondrule formation. Here we show how......-dimensional (3D) volume reconstruction of a dusty olivine grain, obtained by selective milling through a region of interest in a series of sequential 20 nm slices, which are then imaged using scanning electron microscopy. The data provide a quantitative description of the iron particle ensemble, including...... axes of the particles and the remanence vector imparted in different fields. Although the orientation of the vortex core is determined largely by the ellipsoidal geometry (i.e., parallel to the major axis for prolate ellipsoids and parallel to the minor axis for oblate ellipsoids), the core...

  7. Electrical Investigation of Metal-Olivine Systems and Application to the Deep Interior of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Pommier, Anne

    2017-12-01

    We report electrical conductivity measurements on metal-olivine systems at about 5 and 6 GPa and up to 1,675°C in order to investigate the electrical properties of core-mantle boundary (CMB) systems. Electrical experiments were conducted in the multianvil apparatus using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The samples are composed of one metal layer (Fe, FeS, FeSi2, or Fe-Ni-S-Si) and one polycrystalline olivine layer, with the metal:olivine ratio ranging from 1:0.7 to 1:9.2. For all samples, we observe that the bulk electrical conductivity increases with temperature from 10-2.5 to 101.8 S/m, which is higher than the conductivity of polycrystalline olivine but lower than the conductivity of the pure metal phase at similar conditions. In some experiments, a conductivity jump is observed at the temperature corresponding to the melting temperature of the metallic phase. Both the metal:olivine ratio and the metal phase geometry control the electrical conductivity of the two-layer samples. By combining electrical results, textural analyses of the samples, and previous studies of the structure and composition of Mercury's interior, we propose an electrical profile of the deep interior of the planet that accounts for a layered CMB-outer core structure. The electrical model agrees with existing conductivity estimates of Mercury's lower mantle and CMB using magnetic observations and thermodynamic calculations, and thus, supports the hypothesis of a layered CMB-outermost core structure in the present-day interior of Mercury. We propose that the layered CMB-outer core structure is possibly electrically insulating, which may influence the planet's structure and cooling history.

  8. Widespread melt/rock interaction and seismic properties of the lithosphere above mantle plumes: Evidence from mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, A.; Godard, M.; Coromina, G.; Dautria, J. M.; Barczus, H.

    2003-04-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we studied the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from the Austral-Cook, Society and Marquesas islands. Olivine forsterite contents in our sp-peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83, the lowest Fo being observed in dunites and wehrlites. Yet, their high Ni content (up to 2500 ppm) precludes a cumulate origin. These rocks are rather interpreted as resulting from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution, the dunites indicating high melt-rock ratios. Moreover, wehrlites display poikiloblastic diopside enclosing corroded olivines. Late crystallization of clinopyroxene, also observed in lherzolites, may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction occurring at the boundary of a partial melting domain developed at the expenses of lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. Yet, crystal preferred orientations and thus seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Although dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO, very weak CPO are limited to a few dunites and wehrlites, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of intense magma-rock interaction due to localized flow or accumulation of magmas. Conversely, the compositional changes result in lower seismic velocities for P- and S-waves. Relative to normal mantle, seismic anomalies may attain -2.5 (2

  9. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  10. Transport properties of olivine grain boundaries from electrical conductivity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Kohlstedt, David L.; Hansen, Lars N.; Mackwell, Stephen; Tasaka, Miki; Heidelbach, Florian; Leinenweber, Kurt

    2018-05-01

    Grain boundary processes contribute significantly to electronic and ionic transports in materials within Earth's interior. We report a novel experimental study of grain boundary conductivity in highly strained olivine aggregates that demonstrates the importance of misorientation angle between adjacent grains on aggregate transport properties. We performed electrical conductivity measurements of melt-free polycrystalline olivine (Fo90) samples that had been previously deformed at 1200 °C and 0.3 GPa to shear strains up to γ = 7.3. The electrical conductivity and anisotropy were measured at 2.8 GPa over the temperature range 700-1400 °C. We observed that (1) the electrical conductivity of samples with a small grain size (3-6 µm) and strong crystallographic preferred orientation produced by dynamic recrystallization during large-strain shear deformation is a factor of 10 or more larger than that measured on coarse-grained samples, (2) the sample deformed to the highest strain is the most conductive even though it does not have the smallest grain size, and (3) conductivity is up to a factor of 4 larger in the direction of shear than normal to the shear plane. Based on these results combined with electrical conductivity data for coarse-grained, polycrystalline olivine and for single crystals, we propose that the electrical conductivity of our fine-grained samples is dominated by grain boundary paths. In addition, the electrical anisotropy results from preferential alignment of higher-conductivity grain boundaries associated with the development of a strong crystallographic preferred orientation of the grains.

  11. Electrical conductivity of partially-molten olivine aggregate and melt interconnectivity in the oceanic upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Frost, Dan; Farla, Robert; Katsura, Tomoo; Marquardt, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    A consistent explanation for mantle geophysical anomalies such as the Lithosphere-Astenosphere Boundary (LAB) relies on the existence of little amount of melt trapped in the solid peridotite. Mathematical models have been used to assess the melt fraction possibly lying at mantle depths, but they have not been experimentally checked at low melt fraction (Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain) containing various amount of basaltic (MORB-like composition) melt (0 to 100%) at upper mantle conditions. We used the MAVO 6-ram press (BGI) combined with a Solartron gain phase analyser to acquire the electrical resistance of the sample at pressure of 1.5 GPa and temperature up to 1400°C. The results show the increase of the electrical conductivity with the temperature following an Arrhenius law, and with the melt fraction, but the effect of pressure between 1.5 and 3.0 GPa was found negligible at a melt fraction of 0.5 vol.%. The conductivity of a partially molten aggregate fits the modified Archie's law from 0.5 to 100 vol.%. At melt fractions of 0.25, 0.15 and 0.0 vol.%, the EC value deviates from the trend previously defined, suggesting that the melt is no longer fully interconnected through the sample, also supported by chemical mapping. Our results extend the previous results obtained on mixed system between 1 and 10% of melt. Since the melt appears fully interconnected down to very low melt fraction (0.5 vol.%), we conclude that (i) only 0.5 to 1 vol.% of melt is enough to explain the LAB EC anomaly, lower than previously determined; and (ii) deformation is not mandatory to enhance electrical conductivity of melt-bearing mantle rocks.

  12. Parental magma of the Skaergaard intrusion: constraints from melt inclusions in primitive troctolite blocks and FG-1 dykes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.K.; Tegner, Christian; Brooks, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Troctolite blocks with compositions akin to the Hidden Zone are exposed in a tholeiitic dyke cutting across the Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland. Plagioclase in these blocks contains finely crystallised melt inclusions that we have homogenised to constrain the parental magma to 47...... province. New major- and trace element compositions for the FG-1 dyke swarm, previously taken to represent Skaergaard magmas, overlap with the entire range of the regional flood basalt succession and do not form a coherent suite of Skaergaard like melts. These dykes are therefore re-interpreted as feeder...

  13. Geochemistry and volatile content of magmas feeding explosive eruptions at Telica volcano (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, P.; Rotolo, S. G.; Aiuppa, A.; Lanzo, G.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    Telica volcano, in north-west Nicaragua, is a young stratovolcano of intermediate magma composition producing frequent Vulcanian to phreatic explosive eruptions. The Telica stratigraphic record also includes examples of (pre)historic sub-Plinian activity. To refine our knowledge of this very active volcano, we analyzed major element composition and volatile content of melt inclusions from some stratigraphically significant Telica tephra deposits. These include: (1) the Scoria Telica Superior (STS) deposit (2000 to 200 years Before Present; Volcanic Explosive Index, VEI, of 2-3) and (2) pyroclasts from the post-1970s eruptive cycle (1982; 2011). Based on measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry, olivine-hosted (forsterite [Fo] > 80) glass inclusions fall into 2 distinct clusters: a group of H2O-rich (1.8-5.2 wt%) inclusions, similar to those of nearby Cerro Negro volcano, and a second group of CO2-rich (360-1700 μg/g CO2) inclusions (Nejapa, Granada). Model calculations show that CO2 dominates the equilibrium magmatic vapor phase in the majority of the primitive inclusions (XCO2 > 0.62-0.95). CO2, sulfur (generally 400 MPa) and early crystallization of magmas. Chlorine exhibits a wide concentration range (400-2300 μg/g) in primitive olivine-entrapped melts (likely suggesting variable source heterogeneity) and is typically enriched in the most differentiated melts (1000-3000 μg/g). Primitive, volatile-rich olivine-hosted melt inclusions (entrapment pressures, 5-15 km depth) are exclusively found in the largest-scale Telica eruptions (exemplified by STS in our study). These eruptions are thus tentatively explained as due to injection of deep CO2-rich mafic magma into the shallow crustal plumbing system. More recent (post-1970), milder (VEI 1-2) eruptions, instead, do only exhibit evidence for low-pressure (P viscosity of resident magma in shallow plumbing system (< 2.4 km), due to crystallization and degassing.

  14. Widespread melt/rock interaction and seismic properties of the lithosphere above mantle plumes: A petrological and microstructural study of mantle xenoliths from French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, A.; Godard, M.

    2002-12-01

    In addition to thermal erosion, plume/lithosphere interaction may induce significant changes in the lithosphere chemical composition. To constrain the extent of this process in an oceanic environment and its consequences on the lithosphere seismic properties, we studied the relationship between petrological processes and microstructure in mantle xenoliths from the Austral-Cook, Society and Marquesas islands. Olivine forsterite contents in our sp-peridotites vary continuously from Fo91 to Fo83, the lowest Fo being observed in dunites and wehrlites. Yet, their high Ni content (up to 2500 ppm) precludes a cumulate origin. These rocks are rather interpreted as resulting from melt/rock reactions involving olivine precipitation and pyroxene dissolution, the dunites indicating high melt-rock ratios. Moreover, wehrlites display poikiloblastic diopside enclosing corroded olivines. Late crystallization of clinopyroxene, also observed in lherzolites, may result from a near-solidus melt-freezing reaction occurring at the boundary of a partial melting domain developed at the expenses of lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that the lithosphere above a mantle plume undergoes a complex sequence of magmatic processes that significantly change its composition. Yet, crystal preferred orientations and thus seismic anisotropy are little affected by these processes. Lherzolites and harzburgites, independent from composition, show high-temperature porphyroclastic microstructures and strong olivine CPO. Although dunites and wehrlites display annealing microstructures to which is associated a progressive dispersion of the olivine CPO, very weak CPO are limited to a few dunites and wehrlites, suggesting that CPO destruction is restricted to domains of intense magma-rock interaction due to localized flow or accumulation of magmas. Conversely, the compositional changes result in lower seismic velocities for P- and S-waves. Relative to normal mantle, seismic anomalies may attain -2

  15. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.

    2018-01-01

    Space weathering is one of the most common surface process occurring on atmosphere-free bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. It is caused mainly by solar wind irradiation and the impact of micrometeoroids. In order to simulate space weathering effects, in particular those produced by hypervelocity impacts, we produced microcraters via ultra-short (∼100 fs) laser irradiation of crystallographically oriented slices of forsterite-rich (Fo94.7) olivine. The main advantages of the application of a femtosecond laser radiation to reproduce the space weathering effects are (1) the high peak irradiance (1015 W cm-2), which generates the propagation of the shock wave at the nanosecond timescale (i.e., timescale of the micrometeoroid impacts); (2) the rapid transfer of energy to the target material, which avoids the interaction of laser light with the developing vapor plume; (3) a small laser beam, which allows the effects of a single impact to be simulated. The results of our spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation validate this approach: the samples show strong darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra and structural damages similar to the natural microcraters found on regolith grains of the Moon and asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Detailed investigations of several microcrater cross-sections by transmission electron microscopy allowed the detection of shock-induced defect microstructures. From the top to the bottom of the grain, the shock wave causes evaporation, melting, solid-state recrystallization, misorientation, fracturing, and the propagation of dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to [001]. The formation of a short-lived vapor plume causes the kinetic fractionation of the gas and the preferential loss of lighter elements, mostly magnesium and oxygen. The high temperatures within the melt layer and the kinetic loss of oxygen promote the thermal reduction of iron and nickel, which leads to the formation of metallic nanoparticles (npFe0). The

  16. Olivine-bearing lithologies on the Moon: Constraints on origins and transport mechanisms from M3 spectroscopy, radiative transfer modeling, and GRAIL crustal thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Laura M.; McGovern, Patrick J.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Lemelin, Myriam; Trang, David; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Powell, Kathryn E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Wieczorek, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution hyperspectral data from Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) allow detection of olivine on the lunar surface. Olivine exposed at the surface may originate as mantle material or igneous products (intrusive or extrusive). Potential transport mechanisms include excavation of the mantle or lower crustal material by impacts that form basins and complex craters, differentiation of impact melt sheets, or magmatic emplacement of lavas, cumulates, or xenoliths. A sample of the lunar mantle, which has not been conclusively identified in the lunar sample collection, would yield fundamental new insights into the composition, structure, and evolution of the lunar interior. Olivine identified in remote spectral data is generally accepted to originate from the primary mantle, because abundant olivine is expected to exist in the mantle and lower crust, yet have sparse occurrences in the upper crust. In this study, we identified 111 M3 single-pixel spectra with characteristic absorption features consistent with olivine at Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum basins and near the craters Roche and Tsiolkovsky. In an effort to determine the origins and transport mechanisms that led to these individual exposures, we estimated mineral abundances using radiative transfer modeling and examined crustal thickness estimates, topography and slope maps, and images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). At Crisium basin, where crustal thickness is near 0 km (Wieczorek et al., 2013), mantle olivine may have been exposed by basin-forming impact and deposited on the rim. Picard crater, which is superposed on the floor of Crisium, also exhibits potential mantle olivine in its ejecta. Within Nectaris basin, olivine exposures are confined to the rims of small craters on the mare, which are inferred to excavate a layer of olivine-rich mare basalt. Olivine occurrences on the rim of Humorum basin, including those located on a graben, are likely to be cumulates of shallow

  17. Small lead and indium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Hjemsted, K.; Schmidt, B.; Bourdelle, K.K.; Johansen, A.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports implantation of lead or indium into aluminum results in spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead or indium precipitates. The precipitates grow in topotactical alignment with the matrix, giving TEM images characterized by moire fringes. The size and density of the precipitates increase with increasing fluence until coalescence begins to occur. Implantation at elevated temperatures lead to formation of large precipitates with well developed facets. This is particularly significant for implantation above the bulk melting point of the implanted species. Melting and solidification have been followed by in-situ TEM heating and cooling experiments. Superheating up to ∼50 K above the bulk melting point has been observed, and the largest inclusions melt first. Melting is associated with only partial loss of facetting of the largest inclusion. Initial growth of the inclusions occurs by trapping of atoms retained in supersaturated solution. Further growth occurs by coalescence of neighboring inclusion in the liquid phase. Solidification is accompanied by a strong undercooling ∼30 K below the bulk melting point, where the smallest inclusions solidify first. Solidification is characterized by spontaneous restoration of the facets and the topotactical alignment

  18. Volatile (Cl, F and S) and major element constraints on subduction-related mantle metasomatism along the alkaline basaltic backarc, Payenia, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2017-01-01

    We present data on volatile (S, F and Cl) and major element contents in olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from alkaline basaltic tephras along the Quaternary Payenia backarc volcanic province (~34°S–38°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). The composition of Cr-spinel inclusions and h...

  19. Deformation mechanisms and melt nano-structures in experimentally deformed olivine-orthopyroxene rocks with low melt fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloe, P.A. de

    2001-01-01

    The major part of the Earth’s upper mantle is thought to be solid, with some regions in the mantle where the rocks contain a small melt fraction These partially molten rocks are associated with important geological processes such as magma production beneath mid-oceanic ridges and may also play an

  20. In situ oxygen isotope compositions in olivines of different types of cosmic spherules: An assessment of relationships to chondritic particles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Jones, R.H.; Nagashima, K.

    bearing cosmic spherules (Rudraswami et al., 2015b). In addition, some Mg-rich relict olivine grains are very 16O-rich, with 17O ranging from −21.9 to -18.7‰, similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs... isotope analyses of the olivine grains are provided in Appendix B and Table 1, respectively. 5    Four scoriaceous spherules namely, AAS62-61-P64, AAS62-9-P43, AAS62-9-P51 and AAS62-9- P54 were identified for oxygen isotope studies (Fig. 1a...

  1. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  2. Origin of Fe-rich lherzolites and wehrlites from Tok, SE Siberia by reactive melt percolation in refractory mantle peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitri A.; Chanefo, Ingrid; Bodinier, Jean-Louis

    2005-10-01

    Lherzolite-wehrlite (LW) series xenoliths from the quaternary Tok volcanic field in the southeastern Siberian craton are distinguished from the more common lherzolite-harzburgite (LH) series by (a) low Mg numbers (0.84-0.89) at high modal olivine (66-84%) and (b) widespread replacement of orthopyroxene (0-12%) and spinel by clinopyroxene (7-22%). The LW series peridotites are typically enriched in Ca, Fe, Mn and Ti, and depleted in Si, Ni and Cr relative to refractory LH series rocks (Mg number ≥0.89), which are metasomatised partial melting residues. Numerical modelling of Fe-Mg solid/liquid exchange during melt percolation demonstrates that LW series rocks can form by reaction of host refractory peridotites with evolved (Mg numbers 0.6-0.7), silica-undersaturated silicate melts at high melt/rock ratios, which replace orthopyroxene with clinopyroxene and decrease Mg numbers. This process is most likely related to underplating and fractionation of basaltic magma in the shallow mantle, which also produced olivine-clinopyroxene cumulates found among the Tok xenoliths.

  3. Structure, morphology and melting hysteresis of ion-implanted nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.; Johnson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of nanosized metal and semimetal inclusions produced by ion implantation in aluminium are reviewed. The inclusions are from 1 nm to 15 nm in size and contain from 80 to 100,000 atoms. Embedded crystallites, which are topotactically aligned with the surrounding matrix, may not be produced in this size range by any other method. The inclusions offer unique possibilities for study of the influence of interfaces on the crystal structure of the inclusions as well as on their melting and solidification behaviour. Studies are made with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron- and x-ray diffraction and in situ RBS- channeling measurements. Bi, Cd, In, Pb and Tl inclusions all show a substantial melting/solidification temperature hysteresis, which, in all cases except for Bi, is placed around the bulk melting temperature, while bismuth melts below that temperature. (au) 46 refs

  4. Change in Frictional Behavior during Olivine Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T.; Zhu, W.; French, M. E.; Belzer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydration of mantle peridotites (serpentinization) is pervasive at plate boundaries. It is widely accepted that serpentinization is intrinsically linked to hydromechanical processes within the sub-seafloor, where the interplay between cracking, fluid supply and chemical reactions is responsible for a spectrum of fault slip, from earthquake swarms at the transform faults, to slow slip events at the subduction zone. Previous studies demonstrate that serpentine minerals can either promote slip or creep depend on many factors that include sliding velocity, temperature, pressure, interstitial fluids, etc. One missing link from the experimental investigation of serpentine to observations of tectonic faults is the extent of alteration necessary for changing the frictional behaviors. We quantify changes in frictional behavior due to serpentinization by conducting experiments after in-situ serpentinization of olivine gouge. In the sample configuration a layer of powder is sandwiched between porous sandstone blocks with 35° saw-cut surface. The starting material of fine-grained (63 120 µm) olivine powder is reacted with deionized water for 72 hours at 150°C before loading starts. Under the conventional triaxial configuration, the sample is stressed until sliding occurs within the gouge. A series of velocity-steps is then performed to measure the response of friction coefficient to variations of sliding velocity from which the rate-and-state parameters are deduced. For comparison, we measured the frictional behavior of unaltered olivine and pure serpentine gouges.Our results confirm that serpentinization causes reduced frictional strength and velocity weakening. In unaltered olivine gouge, an increase in frictional resistance with increasing sliding velocity is observed, whereas the serpentinized olivine and serpentine gouges favor velocity weakening behaviors at the same conditions. Furthermore, we observed that high pore pressures cause velocity weakening in olivine but

  5. Mineral magnetism of dusty olivine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappe, Sophie-Charlotte L. L.; Church, Nathan S.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of olivine-hosted Fe-Ni particles have been studied to assess the potential of "dusty olivine" to retain a pre-accretionary remanence in chondritic meteorites. Both body-centered (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe-Ni phases were formed by reduction of a terrestrial...... olivine precursor. The presence of Ni complicates the magnetic properties during heating and cooling due to the fcc-bcc martensitic transition. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams contain a central ridge with a broad coercivity distribution extending to 600 mT, attributed to non-interacting single......-domain (SD) particles, and a "butterfly" structure extending to 250 mT, attributed to single-vortex (SV) states. SD and SV states were imaged directly using electron holography. The location of the SD/SV boundary is broadly consistent with theoretical predictions. A method to measure the volume of individual...

  6. Annealing studies of Bi and Kr inclusions in Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern Thoft, N

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the results of experimental investigations of melting, solidification and growth of Bi and Kr inclusions made by ion implantation into aluminium. The experimental techniques used of for this study were x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray diffraction signal from crystalline Bi inclusions in Al has been recorded as a function of temperature during heating to temperatures above the bulk melting point and cooling to room temperature. Data from these measurements have been fitted using models (developed by Pawlow and Wronski) for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles, and size distributions for the inclusions have been determined in this way. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the melting and solidification of the Bi inclusions in the temperature ranges, in which these processes were observed by x-ray diffraction, establishing the facts that the inclusions melt below the bulk melting point and that a large supercooling is seen. Information about the amount and depth distribution of the Bi confined in the Al matrix has been derived from Rutherford backscattering measurements. Melting and solidification of Bi inclusions have been observed by means of ion channeling. The results of the investigations of bismuth inclusions in aluminium are compared to previous, similar results for lead inclusions in aluminium. Finally, preliminary experiments have confirmed that growth of Kr inclusions in Al can be observed using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. (au) (13 tabs., 46 ills., 77 refs.).

  7. Annealing studies of Bi and Kr inclusions in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoern Thoft, N.

    1995-04-01

    This report contains the results of experimental investigations of melting, solidification and growth of Bi and Kr inclusions made by ion implantation into aluminium. The experimental techniques used of for this study were x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering, ion channeling, and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The x-ray diffraction signal from crystalline Bi inclusions in Al has been recorded as a function of temperature during heating to temperatures above the bulk melting point and cooling to room temperature. Data from these measurements have been fitted using models (developed by Pawlow and Wronski) for the size-dependent melting temperature of small particles, and size distributions for the inclusions have been determined in this way. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the melting and solidification of the Bi inclusions in the temperature ranges, in which these processes were observed by x-ray diffraction, establishing the facts that the inclusions melt below the bulk melting point and that a large supercooling is seen. Information about the amount and depth distribution of the Bi confined in the Al matrix has been derived from Rutherford backscattering measurements. Melting and solidification of Bi inclusions have been observed by means of ion channeling. The results of the investigations of bismuth inclusions in aluminium are compared to previous, similar results for lead inclusions in aluminium. Finally, preliminary experiments have confirmed that growth of Kr inclusions in Al can be observed using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering. (au) (13 tabs., 46 ills., 77 refs.)

  8. Fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution of upper-mantle magmatism: Evidence from xenoliths in kimberlites, inclusions in diamonds and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Kuzyura, Anastasia

    2017-04-01

    Ultrabasic peridotites and pyroxenites together with basic eclogites are the upper-mantle in situ rocks among xenoliths in kimberlites. Occasionally their diamond-bearing varieties have revealed within the xenoliths. Therewith the compositions of rock-forming minerals demonstrate features characteristic for primary diamond-included minerals of peridotite and eclogite parageneses (the elevated contents of Cr-component in peridotitic garnets and Na-jadeitic component in eclogitic clinopyroxenes). High-pressure experimental study of melting equilibria on the multicomponent peridotie-pyroxenite system olivine Ol - orthopyroxene Opx - clinopyroxene Cpx - garnet Grt showed that Opx disappeared in the peritectic reaction Opx+L→Cpx (Litvin, 1991). As a result, the invariant peritectic equilibrium Ol+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L of the ultrabasic system was found to transform into the univariant cotectic assemblage Ol+Cpx+Grt+L. Further experimental investigation showed that olivine reacts with jadeitic component (Jd) with formation of garnet at higher 4.5 GPa (Gasparik, Litvin, 1997). Study of melting relations in the multicomponent system Ol - Cpx - Jd permits to discover the peritectic point Ol+Omph+Grt+L (where Omph - omphacitic clinopyroxene) at concentration 3-4 wt.% Jd-component in the system. The reactionary loss of Opx and Ol makes it possible to transform the 4-phase garnet lherzolite ultrabasic association into the bimineral eclogite assemblage. The regime of fractional Ol, Cpx and Grt crystallization must be accompanied by increasing content of jadeitic component in residual melts that causes the complete "garnetization of olivine". In the subsequent evolution, the melts would have to fractionate for basic SiO2-saturated compositions responsible for petrogenesis of eclogite varieties marked with accessory corundum Crn, kyanite Ky and coesite Coe. Both the peritectic mechanisms occur in regime of fractional crystallization. The sequence of the upper-mantle fractional

  9. Eclogite-associated potassic silicate melts and chloride-rich fluids in the mantle: a possible connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, O.; Butvina, V.

    2009-04-01

    Relics of potassium-rich (4-14 wt. % of K2O and K2O/Na2O > 1.0) melts are a specific features of some partially molten diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites worldwide [1, 2]. In addition, potassic silicic melt inclusions with up to 16 wt. % of K2O are associated with eclogite phases in kimberlitic diamonds (O. Navon, pers. comm.). According to available experimental data, no such potassium contents can be reached by "dry" and hydrous melting of eclogite. These data point to close connection between infiltration of essentially potassic fluids, partial melting and diamond formation in mantle eclogites [2]. Among specific components of these fluids, alkali chlorides, apparently, play an important role. This conclusion follows from assemblages of the melt relics with chlorine-bearing phases in eclogite xenoliths [1], findings of KCl-rich inclusions in diamonds from the xenoliths [3], and concentration of Cl up to 0.5-1.5 wt. % in the melt inclusions in diamonds. In this presentation, we review our experimental data on reactions of KCl melts and KCl-bearing fluids with model and natural eclogite-related minerals and assemblages. Experiments in the model system jadeite(±diopside)-KCl(±H2O) at 4-7 GPa showed that, being immiscible, chloride liquids provoke a strong K-Na exchange with silicates (jadeite). As a result, low-temperature ultrapotassic chlorine-bearing (up to 3 wt. % of Cl) aluminosilicate melts form. These melts is able to produce sanidine, which is characteristic phase in some partially molten eclogites. In addition, in presence of water Si-rich Cl-bearing mica (Al-celadonite-phlogopite) crystallizes in equilibrium with sanidine and/or potassic melt and immiscible chloride liquid. This mica is similar to that observed in some eclogitic diamonds bearing chloride-rich fluid inclusions [4], as well as in diamonds in partially molten eclogites [2]. Interaction of KCl melt with pyrope garnet also produce potassic aluminosilicate melt because of high

  10. Characterization and luminescent properties of thermally annealed olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin-Garcia, Maria; Correcher, Virgilio; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Heredia-Barbero, Alejandro; Roman-Lopez, Jesus; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Olivine is an iron-magnesium solid solution silicate (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 and it is probably one of the most abundant mineral phase in the Solar System, it is present in the primitive carbonaceous meteorites (i.e Allende), and in ordinary chondritic meteorite, comets or terrestrial planets. The olivine grains in those bodies have been exposed to different radiation sources like UV, electrons, cosmic radiation, etc. Here, we explore the effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on the luminescence emission of the two well-characterised olivine samples from Mexico and Spain by means of cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The analyses by X-ray dispersive energies in the scanning electron microscopy show differences between the samples in the amount of iron and magnesium and also show traces of rare elements. Olivine exhibits spectral cathodoluminescence emissions of low intensity, explained for the quenching of the luminescence of the iron, and sharp signals assigned as impurities. Cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence glow curves of the natural, and UV induced olivine samples were obtained. Our results show that thermal treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral molecular structure and the luminescence properties of this mineral phase. These results confirm an active participation of physical factors influencing the luminescent properties of olivine. -- Highlights: ► Luminescent properties of two olivines samples (Mexican and Spanish) were explored. ► EDS show different iron and magnesium content and traces of rare elements on both. ► Olivine exhibits spectral CL emissions of low intensity due to the quenching of iron. ► Treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral structure and its response to UV radiation

  11. Influence of small particles inclusion on selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haijun; Dilip, J. J. S.; Yang, Li; Teng, Chong; Stucker, Brent

    2017-12-01

    The particle size distribution and powder morphology of metallic powders have an important effect on powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM). The process development and parameter optimization require a fundamental understanding of the influence of powder on SLM. This study introduces a pre-alloyed titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V powder, which has a certain amount of small particles, for SLM. The influence of small particle inclusion is investigated through microscopy of surface topography, elemental and microstructural analysis, and mechanical testing, compared to the Ti-6Al-4V powder provided by SLM machine vendor. It is found that the small particles inclusion in Ti-6Al-4V powder has a noticeable effect on extra laser energy absorption, which may develop imperfections and deteriorate the SLM fatigue performance.

  12. A conceptual model for the asthenosphere: redox melting in the C-O-H-bearing mantle vs. geophysical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Fabrice; Tarits, Pascal; Massuyeau, Malcolm; David, Sifre; Leila, Hashim; Emmanuel, Gardes

    2013-04-01

    The asthenosphere has classically been considered as a convective layer, with its viscosity decreased by the presence of 100's ppm water in olivine, and being overtopped by a rigid and dry lithosphere. It, however, needs a new conceptual definition as the presence of water seems not able to affect the rheology of olivine; furthermore, properties such as electrical conductivity and seismic wave's velocity are not sensibly affected by water content in olivine, leaving the geophysical features of the asthenosphere unexplained. An asthenosphere impregnated by low melt fractions is consistent with constraints on melting behavior of C-O-H-bearing peridotites and may also better explain electrical conductivity and seismic features. The challenge is therefore to confront and reconcile the complexity of mantle melting in the C-O-H system with geophysical observations. This work reviews and discusses several key properties of the asthenosphere and relates their vertical and lateral heterogeneities to geodynamic processes. The first discussion is about the top of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary in the oceanic mantle. The discontinuity identified by seismic and electrical surveys is located at an average depth of 65km and is weakly influenced by the age, and therefore, the temperature of the lithosphere. This puzzling observation is shown here to be in perfect line the onset of peridotite melting in presence of both H2O and CO2. Mantle melting is therefore expected at 65 km depth, where the melt is essentially carbonatitic, inducing weakening and imposing transition in the regime of thermal transfer. Deeper, the melt evolve to silica-richer compositions. Twenty years of petrological investigations on processes that control mantle redox state unanimously concur on an increasingly reduced mantle with increasing depth. The conventional wisdom defines garnet as being increasingly abundant and increasingly able to concentrate ferric iron with increasing depth. Such oxygen

  13. Fe2+-Mg2+ order in an olivine from the lunar anorthosite 67075 and the significance of cation order in lunar and terrestrial olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, Subrata; Wan, Che'ng; McCallum, I.

    1976-01-01

    In an olivine, (Fesub(1.010)Mgsub(1.015)Casub(0.002)Mnsub(0.014)SiO 4 , from the lunar anorthosite 67075, Fe 2+ indicates a slight preference for the M1 site, the KD value being 1.197. Available data in synthetic, lunar and terrestrial olivines indicate that for iron-rich olivines (>20 mol percent Fayalite), Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site, the site preference decreasing with decreasing temperature. In magnesium-rich olivines, Fe 2+ prefers the M1 site at high temperature, but may prefer the M2 site at low temperature. The olivine from sample 67075 most likely was cooled from the crystallization temperature to 800 0 C or less in 10 days. (author)

  14. Shock melting and vaporization of lunar rocks and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; O'Keefe, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The entropy associated with the thermodynamic states produced by hypervelocity meteoroid impacts at various velocities are calculated for a series of lunar rocks and minerals and compared with the entropy values required for melting and vaporization. Taking into account shock-induced phase changes in the silicates, we calculate that iron meteorites impacting at speeds varying from 4 to 6 km/sec will produce shock melting in quartz, plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene. Although calculated with less certainty, impact speeds required for incipient vaporization vary from 7 to 11 km/sec for the range of minerals going from quartz to periclase for aluminum (silicate-like) projectiles. The impact velocities, which are required to induce melting in a soil, are calculated to be in the range of 3 to 4 km/sec, provided thermal equilibrium is achieved in the shock state.

  15. Ringwoodite growth rates from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O: Metastable olivine must be nearly anhydrous to exist in the mantle transition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division; Sharp, Thomas G. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration; Mosenfelder, Jed L. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences; Leinenweber, Kurt [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-04-15

    It has been previously demonstrated that as little as 300 ppmw H2O increases wadsleyite and ringwoodite growth rates to magnitudes that are inconsistent with the metastable olivine hypothesis. To further test this hypothesis, we present new ringwoodite growth rate measurements from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O at 18 GPa and 700, 900, and 1100 °C. These growth rates are nearly identical to those from olivine with ~300 ppmw H2O, and significantly higher than those from nominally anhydrous olivine. We infer that transformation of olivine with 75-300 ppmw H2O is primarily enhanced by hydrolytic weakening of reaction rims, which reduces the elastic strain-energy barrier to growth. We present a new method for fitting nonlinear nominally anhydrous data, to demonstrate that reduction of growth rates by elastic strain energy is an additional requirement for metastable olivine. In conclusion, based on previous thermokinetic modeling, these enhanced growth rates are inconsistent with the persistence of metastable olivine wedges into the mantle transition zone. Metastable persistence of olivine into the mantle transition-zone would therefore require < 75 ppmw H2O.

  16. Flux pinning enhancement by Y2BaCuO5 inclusions in melt processed YBaCuO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.

    1991-01-01

    While nonsuperconducting particles are known to serve as effective pinning centers in conventional superconductors, their effect in high T c superconductors is still controversial. In this paper, the author gives evidence that nonsuperconducting Y 2 BaCuO 5 (21 1) inclusions can act as pinning centers in melt processed YBaCuO superconductors even when their size is orders of magnitude larger than the coherence length. In such a case, the interface provides pinning. Theoretical estimates based on direct summations agree well with the experimental results. The applications of direct summation for obtaining the bulk pinning force is justified by direct observation of the FLL (flux line lattice), where the FLL has no long range order and the fluxoids are pinned by 211 inclusions

  17. Vaporization Studies of Olivine via Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.

  18. Transient shallow reservoirs beneath small eruptive centres: Constraints from Mg-Fe interdiffusion in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, E.; Parada, M. A.; Morgan, D. J.; Gutiérrez, F.; Castruccio, A.; Contreras, C.

    2017-11-01

    Small eruptive centres commonly have more primitive lavas than those associated with stratovolcanoes, an observation that has been taken to indicate a short magma residence in the crust relative to those reservoirs below stratovolcanoes. The Caburgua cones of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone from a basaltic small eruptive centre where this can be tested. Here, we use MELTS simulations, and the available thermobarometry data to determine the conditions of olivine crystal rim formation and the Mg-Fe diffusion modelling to determine the magma residence times of those rims in the crust. Results yield timescales varying from a few days to dozens of days, and if freezing is to be avoided, can only be explained by some form of storage or slow transport through at least one shallow magma body. The longest durations of magma residence seen in the olivine rim zones are up to 471 days. These timescales are shorter than those estimated (decadal) from the nearby, more-differentiated, and well-established stratovolcano, Villarrica, which has a dominantly basaltic andesite composition. For Caburgua cones, we propose the existence of a transient reservoir, in contrast to a long-lived reservoir such as that inferred beneath the adjacent Villarrica stratovolcano.

  19. High resolution, high sensitivity imaging and analysis of minerals and inclusions (fluid and melt) using the new CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.; McInnes, B.M.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Williams, P.J.; Dong, G.; Zaw, K.

    1999-01-01

    .g. Yankee Lode, Mole Granite, NSW [Heinrich el al., 1993] and Batu Hijau, Indonesia [McInnes et al., 1999]), and the high concentrations of some elements in many ore-related fluid inclusions [e.g. Pb ∼4 wt% at Hellyer, Tasmania (Khin Zaw et al., 1996) and Ba ∼9 wt% at Starra, Cloncurry district, Queensland (Williams et al., 2000)]. Now, using the NMP, the internal contents of individual fluid inclusions can be imaged to show clearly that these elements reside within the fluid inclusions, and to discrimination against solid phases outside the inclusion volume. Melt Inclusion Analysis and Imaging Samples of melts and fluids, responsible for metasomatic change and evolution of the earth's upper mantle are often preserved as inclusions in xenoliths. However, their quench textures can often conceal rare minor phases that concentrate important trace elements (e.g. HFSE and REE). The penetration of MeV protons enables the detection of these contributions to ∼40 μm depth, thus providing a tool to determine reliable melt composition, with detection sensitivities down to 0.2 ppm, and to image spatial variation in component elements at 1-2 μm resolution. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  20. X-ray topographic study of diamonds: implications for the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrosì, Giovanna; Nestola, Fabrizio; Tempesta, Gioacchino; Bruno, Marco; Scandale, Eugenio; Harris, Jeff W.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on the growth conditions of the diamonds through the analysis of the mineral inclusions trapped in them (Howell, 2012 and references therein). Nevertheless, to obtain rigorous information about chemical and physical conditions of diamond formation, it is crucial to determine if the crystallization of the inclusions occurred before (protogenetic nature), during (syngenetic nature) or after (epigenetic nature) the growth of diamond (Wiggers de Vries et al., 2011). X-ray topography (XRDT) can be a helpful tool to verify the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond. This technique characterizes the extended defects and reconstructs the growth history of the samples (Agrosì et al., 2013 and references therein) and, consequently contributes to elucidation of the relationship between the inclusions and the host-diamond. With this aim a diamond from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia, was investigated. The diamond crystal was the one previously studied by Nestola et al. (2011) who performed in-situ crystal structure refinement of the inclusions to obtain data about the formation pressure. The inclusions were iso-oriented olivines that did not show evident cracks and subsequently could not be considered epigenetic. Optical observations revealed an anomalous birefringence in the adjacent diamond and the inclusions had typical "diamond-imposed cubo-octahedral" shape for the largest olivine. The diffraction contrast study shows that the diamond exhibits significant deformation fields related to plastic post growth deformation. The crystallographic direction of strains was established applying the extinction criterion. Section topographs were taken to minimize the overlapping of the strain field associate with the different defects and revealed that no dislocations nucleated from the olivine inclusions. Generally, when a solid inclusion has been incorporated in the growing crystal, the associated volume distortion can be minimized by

  1. Dynamic recrystallization and grain growth in olivine rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann Slotemaker, A.

    2006-01-01

    A mechanism based description of the rheology of olivine is essential for modeling of upper mantle geodynamics. Previously, mantle flow has been investigated using flow laws for grain size insensitive (GSI) dislocation creep and/or grain size sensitive (GSS) diffusion creep of olivine. Generally,

  2. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona

  3. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.

    1982-02-01

    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  4. Simulations of Macrosegregation with consideration of inclusion effect in solidifying carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Y F; Chen, Y; Kang, X H; Fu, P X; Liu, H W; Li, D Z

    2015-01-01

    During casting of steel ingots, the inclusions such as oxide, sulfide will inevitably exist in the melt. These inclusions will flow upward together with light solutes during solidification due to their lower density relative to the steel melt, which therefore causes impacts on the thermo-solutal convection in the melt and final solute distribution. Hence, a macrosegregation model that considers the effects of inclusions on melt flow in the mushy zone is established. Of the new model two important parameters, the inclusion capturing probability by solid, k p , and the original volume fraction, n 0 , are systematically studied in terms of simulations, which shows that decreasing k p or increasing n 0 leads to stronger ascending flow in the melt. And then as a validation example, the model was used to predict the macrosegregation in a 3.3-ton steel ingot. The prediction demonstrates that with consideration of inclusions, the melt convection strength is enhanced and thus the zones of macrosegregation are expanded comparing to simulations without taking account of inclusions. Further comparison with experiment results indicates that a better agreement of the carbon segregation along the centerline of the ingot can be achieved when considering the inclusion buoyancy. (paper)

  5. The parent magma of xenoliths in shergottite EETA79001: Bulk and trace element composition inferred from magmatic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-01-01

    The SNC meteorites are samples of the Martian crust, so inferences about their origins and parent magmas are of wide planetologic significance. The EETA79001 shergottite, a basalt, contains xenoliths of pyroxene-olivine cumulate rocks which are possibly related to the ALHA77005 and LEW88516 SNC lherzolites. Olivines in the xenoliths contain magmatic inclusions, relics of magma trapped within the growing crystals. The magmatic inclusions allow a parent magma composition to be retrieved; it is similar to the composition reconstructed from xenolith pyroxenes by element distribution coefficients. The xenolith parent magma is similar but not identical to parent magmas for the shergottite lherzolites.

  6. The parent magma of the Nakhla (SNC) meteorite: Reconciliation of composition estimates from magmatic inclusions and element partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma of the Nakhla meteorite was difficult to determine, because it is accumulate rock, enriched in olivine and augite relative to a basalt magma. A parent magma composition is estimated from electron microprobe area analyses of magmatic inclusions in olivine. This composition is consistent with an independent estimate based on the same inclusions, and with chemical equilibria with the cores of Nakhla's augites. This composition reconciles most of the previous estimates of Nakhla's magma composition, and obviates the need for complex magmatic processes. Inconsistency between this composition and those calculated previously suggests that magma flowed through and crystallized into Nakhla as it cooled.

  7. Constraining Thermal Histories by Monte Carlo Simulation of Mg-Fe Isotopic Profiles in Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, C. K. I.; Dauphas, N.

    2016-12-01

    In thermochronology, random time-temperature (t-T) paths are generated and used as inputs to model fission track data. This random search method is used to identify a range of acceptable thermal histories that can describe the data. We have extended this modeling approach to magmatic systems. This approach utilizes both the chemical and stable isotope profiles measured in crystals as model constraints. Specifically, the isotopic profiles are used to determine the relative contribution of crystal growth vs. diffusion in generating chemical profiles, and to detect changes in melt composition. With this information, tighter constraints can be placed on the thermal evolution of magmatic bodies. We use an olivine phenocryst from the Kilauea Iki lava lake, HI, to demonstrate proof of concept. We treat this sample as one with little geologic context, then compare our modeling results to the known thermal history experienced by that sample. To complete forward modeling, we use MELTS to estimate the boundary condition, initial and quench temperatures. We also assume a simple relationship between crystal growth and cooling rate. Another important parameter is the isotopic effect for diffusion (i.e., the relative diffusivity of the light vs. heavy isotope of an element). The isotopic effects for Mg and Fe diffusion in olivine have been estimated based on natural samples; experiments to better constrain these parameters are underway. We find that 40% of the random t-T paths can be used to fit the Mg-Fe chemical profiles. However, only a few can be used to simultaneously fit the Mg-Fe isotopic profiles. These few t-T paths are close to the independently determined t-T history of the sample. This modeling approach can be further extended other igneous and metamorphic systems where data exist for diffusion rates, crystal growth rates, and isotopic effects for diffusion.

  8. Experimental Determination of Spinel/Melt, Olivine/Melt, and Pyroxene/Melt Partition Coefficients for Re, Ru, Pd, Au, and Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified spinels as important hosts phases for many of the highly siderophile elements (HSE). Yet experimental studies involving chromite or Cr-rich spinel have been lacking. Experimental studies of partitioning of HSEs between silicate, oxides and silicate melt are plagued by low solubilities and the presence of small metallic nuggets at oxygen fugacities relevant to magmas, which interfere with analysis of the phases of interest. We have circumvented these problems in two ways: 1) performing experiments at oxidized conditions, which are still relevant to natural systems but in which nuggets are not observed, and 2) analysis of run products with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), allowing a combination of high sensitivity and good spatial resolution.

  9. Olivine CPO in non-deformed peridotite due to topotactic replacement of antigorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi

    2014-05-01

    Olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) is thought to be the main cause of seismic anisotropy in the mantle, and its formation is generally considered to be the result of plastic deformation of mantle by dislocation creep. Olivine CPO has been reproduced in laboratory deformation experiments and considerable success has been achieved in understanding the deformation conditions (e.g. stress, temperature and water content) under which different olivine CPO patterns develop. This opens the possibility of mapping conditions in the mantle using seismic anisotropy and has been the subject of considerable study. Here we report an alternative mechanism for olivine CPO without the need for deformation. This process may be important in understanding the seismic properties of mantle in convergent margins. Metamorphic studies show peridotite in the Happo area, central Japan, formed by the dehydration of antigorite-schist related to contact metamorphism around a granite intrusion. Both field and microstructural observations suggest the olivine has not undergone strong plastic deformation. This was confirmed by TEM work that shows the olivine has very low dislocation densities and lacks low angle tilt boundaries. Such tilt boundaries are general stable even after annealing. These features show that peridotite in the Happo area formed in the absence of solid-state deformation. The olivine of the Happo peridotite formed dominantly by the dehydration breakdown of antigorite schist. We propose that the olivine CPO formed as a result of topotactic replacement of antigorite by the newly formed olivine. EBSD measurements in samples where both antigorite and new olivine are present and in contact show a very close crystallographic relationship between the two minerals: the a-axes are parallel, and the b- and c-axes are perpendicular. We conclude the strong olivine CPO in the Happo area was inherited from the original CPO of the antigorite. Such a process is likely to also

  10. Synthesis of nanometer-sized fayalite and magnesium-iron(II) mixture olivines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kovarik, Libor; Zhang, Xin; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.; Loring, John S.

    2018-04-01

    Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines. First, carbonaceous precursors are generated from sucrose, PVA, colloidal silica, Mg2+, and Fe3+. Second, these precursors are calcined in air to burn carbon and create mixtures of Fe(III)-oxides, forsterite, and SiO2. Finally, calcination in reducing CO-CO2 gas buffer leads to Fe(II)-rich olivines. XRD, Mössbauer, and IR analyses verify good bulk purity and composition. XPS indicates that surface iron is in its reduced Fe(II) form, and surface Si is consistent with olivine. SEM shows particle sizes predominately between 50 and 450 nm, and BET surface areas are 2.8-4.2 m2/g. STEM HAADF analysis demonstrates even distributions of Mg and Fe among the available M1 and M2 sites of the olivine crystals. These nanosized Fe(II)-rich olivines are suitable for laboratory studies with in situ probes that require mineral samples with high reactivity at short timescales.

  11. Melt density and the average composition of basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.; Walker, D.

    1980-01-01

    Densities of residual liquids produced by low pressure fractionation of olivine-rich melts pass through a minimum when pyroxene and plagioclase joint the crystallization sequence. The observation that erupted basalt compositions cluster around the degree of fractionation from picritic liquids corresponding to the density minimum in the liquid line of descent may thus suggest that the earth's crust imposes a density fiber on the liquids that pass through it, favoring the eruption of the light liquids at the density minimum over the eruption of denser more fractionated and less fractionated liquids.

  12. Comparisons of seismic and electromagnetic structures of the MELT area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R. L.; Hirth, G.; Forsyth, D.; Baba, K.; Chave, A.

    2003-04-01

    Both seismic and electromagnetic (EM) models from the MELT experiment show similar broad scale features in the mantle beneath the Southern EPR. In all EM models, the conductivity in the upper 50-60˜km is considerably higher to the west of the ridge than to the east. Similarly, seismic models of short period Love waves are asymmetric in velocity structure, with slower velocities to the west of the ridge within the upper 60˜km. Body wave data suggest a similar asymmetry, although the depth extent is not as well defined. West of the ridge, both the higher conductivities and lower velocities have been attributed to the presence of a small melt fraction, although the anomalous regions estimated from different techniques do not entirely agree. To the east, there is a rapid increase in resistivity and S-wave velocity, indicating that within 25˜km of the axis the mantle above 70˜km is both dry and melt-free. Further away from the ridge, the boundary between a conductive asthenospheric mantle and a resistive overlying mantle flattens, at a depth around 60-80˜km. Rayleigh wave inversions also show fairly flat velocity contours with a broad minimum centered at 60-80˜km. Both of these features are consistent with a transition from dry to damp mantle. Also away from the ridge, EM data, shear-wave splitting, and Rayleigh waves all require an azimuthally anisotropic mantle consistent with the a-axis of olivine being preferentially oriented horizontally and perpendicular to the ridge. Anisotropy in EM data suggests damp mantle conditions in the 100-200˜km depth range, with enhanced conduction along the a-axis of olivine. Rayleigh waves are most sensitive to shallower structure and require anisotropy in the upper 70˜km. In the uppermost 40˜km, the most conductive and lowest velocity regions are close to the axis but offset 5-10˜km to the west. Some anisotropic inversions recover a vertically conductive feature that could be interpreted as a few percent melt distributed in

  13. Uranium-thorium disequilibria and partitioning on melting of garnet peridotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, P.

    1993-01-01

    The abundances of isotopes in the 238 U decay series can be used as both tracers and chronometers of magmatic processes. In the subsolidus asthenosphere, the activity of each daughter isotope (defined as the product of its concentration and decay constant, and denoted by parentheses) is assumed to be equal to that of its parent. By contrast, ( 230 Th/ 238 U) is greater than unity in most recent mid-ocean-ridge and ocean-island basalts, implying that thorium is more incompatible (that is, it is partitioned into the melt phase more strongly) than uranium. Melting of spinel peridotite cannot produce the ( 230 Th) excesses, because measured partition coefficients for pyroxenes and olivine demonstrate that uranium is more incompatible than thorium for this rock. Here I report garnet-melt partitioning data which show that for this mineral-melt pair thorium does behave more incompatibility than uranium, thus supporting the suggestion that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORB) are produced by melting initiated at depths where garnet is stable. Using these data, I show that the observed ( 230 Th/ 238 U) ratios of MORB and most ocean-island basalts can be explained by slow, near-fractional melting initiated in the garnet stability field. (author)

  14. The temperature of primary melts and mantle sources of komatiites, OIBs, MORBs and LIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    There is general agreement that the convecting mantle, although mostly peridotitic in composition, is compositionally and thermally heterogeneous on different spatial scales. The amount, sizes, temperatures and compositions of these heterogeneities significantly affect mantle dynamics because they may diverge greatly from dominant peridotites in their density and fusibility. Differences in potential temperature and composition of mantle domains affect magma production and cannot be easily distinguished from each other. This has led to radically different interpretations of the melting anomalies that produce ocean-island basalts, large igneous provinces and komatiites: most scientists believe that they originate as hot, deep-sourced mantle plumes; but a small though influential group (e.g. Anderson 2005, Foulger, 2010) propose that they derive from high proportions of easily fusible recycled or delaminated crust, or in the case of komatiites contain large amount of H2O (e.g. Grove & Parman, 2004). The way to resolve this ambiguity is an independent estimation of temperature and composition of mantle sources of various types of magma. In this paper I report application of newly developed olivine-spinel-melt geothermometers based on partition of Al, Cr, Sc and Y for different primitive lavas from mid-ocean ridges, ocean-island basalts, large igneous provinces and komatiites. The results suggest significant variations of crystallization temperature for the same Fo of high magnesium olivines of different types of mantle-derived magmas: from the lowest (down to 1220 degree C) for MORB to the highest (up to over 1500 degree C) for komatiites and Siberian meimechites. These results match predictions from Fe-Mg olivine-melt equilibrium and confirm the relatively low temperature of the mantle source of MORB and higher temperatures in the mantle plumes that produce the OIB of Iceland, Hawaii, Gorgona, Archean komatiites and several LIPs (e.g Siberian and NAMP). The

  15. Melt compositions and processes in the kimberlite provience of southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn; Nielsen, Troels; Waight, Tod Earle

    2011-01-01

    ] whilst the silica content and H2O/CO2 ratio of the bulk rocks increases towards Sisimuit [2, 3]. A common carbonatite rich end-member is implicated [2]. This is in contrast to the prevailing dogma of a continuum from carbonatite though aillikite to kimberlite with increasing melting degree [4......]. The authors have demonstrated that a process of DFC (digestion fractional crystallisation) whereby the cognate olivine crystallisation is coupled to entrained xenocrystic orthopyroxene assimilation is a key process during the formation of the Majugaa occurrence of the Manitsoq region [5]. Mass balance...... considerations are here applied to the Majuagaa bulk rock in term of the DFC mechanism obtaining an estimate of parental melt and magma composition for the Majuagaa kimberlite. We use bulk rock major and trace element geochemistry together with mineral chemistry to investigate the range of melt compositions...

  16. Transfer of olivine crystallographic orientation through a cycle of serpentinisation and dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Austrheim, Håkon; Ildefonse, Benoit; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-08-01

    Our ability to decipher the mechanisms behind metamorphic transformation processes depends in a major way on the extent to which crystallographic and microstructural information is transferred from one stage to another. Within the Leka Ophiolite Complex in the Central Norwegian Caledonides, prograde olivine veins that formed by dehydration of serpentinite veins in dunites exhibit a characteristic distribution of microstructures: The outer part of the veins comprises coarse-grained olivine that forms an unusual, brick-like microstructure. The inner part of the veins, surrounding a central fault, is composed of fine-grained olivine. Where the fault movement included a dilational component, optically clear, equant olivine occurs in the centre. Electron backscatter diffraction mapping reveals that the vein olivine has inherited its crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) from the olivine in the porphyroclastic host rock; however, misorientation is weaker and associated to different rotation axes. We propose that prograde olivine grew epitaxially on relics of mantle olivine and thereby acquired its CPO. Growth towards pre-existing microfractures along which serpentinisation had occurred led to straight grain boundaries and a brick-like microstructure in the veins. When dehydration embrittlement induced slip, a strong strain localisation on discrete fault planes prevented distortion of the CPO due to cataclastic deformation; grain size reduction did not significantly modify the olivine CPO. This illustrates how a CPO can be preserved though an entire metamorphic cycle, including hydration, dehydration, and deformation processes, and that the CPO and the microstructures (e.g. grain shape) of one phase do not necessarily record the same event.

  17. Mn-Cr dating of Fe- and Ca-rich olivine from 'quenched' and 'plutonic' angrite meteorites using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Amelin, Yuri; Holden, Peter

    2015-05-01

    angrites Northwest Africa (NWA) 4590 and 4801 we have found initial 53Mn/55Mn values which are consistent with more precise work, at 0.90 (±0.4) × 10-6 and 0.13 (±1.1) × 10-6 respectively. Our work shows that SIMS can usefully constrain and distinguish the ages of angrites of different petrologic groups. In reviewing the petrology of angrites, we suggest that NWA 2999, 4590, and 4801 underwent a secondary partial melting and Cr (+/-Pb) disturbance event that the sub-volcanic Lewis Cliff 86010, and perhaps the plutonic Angra dos Reis, did not. With our higher initial 53Mn/55Mn for D'Orbigny and Sahara 99555 as well as previous data, a combined quenched angrite initial 53Mn/55Mn of 3.47 (±0.12) × 10-6 (2-sigma, MSWD 1.00) yields consistent Mn-Cr and U-Pb intervals between these angrites and Lewis Cliff 86010. Discrepant Mn-Cr timescales for other plutonic and sub-volcanic angrites represents resetting during the secondary partial melting event at ∼4557.2 Ma and indicates a relative order of disturbance of isotope systems: Mn-Cr in olivine before U-Pb in pyroxene, with Hf-W in pyroxene being the most resistant.

  18. Depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and its tholeiitic melt metasomatism beneath NE termination of the Eger Rift (Europe): the case study of the Steinberg (Upper Lusatia, SE Germany) xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    The ca. 30 Ma Steinberg basanite occurs at the NE termination of the Eger (Ohře) Rift in the NW Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, and belongs to the Cenozoic alkaline Central European Volcanic Province. The basanite hosts a suite of mantle xenoliths, most of which are harzburgites containing relatively magnesian olivine (Fo 90.5-91.6) and Al-poor (0.04-0.13 a pfu) orthopyroxene (mg# 0.90-0.92). Some of these harzburgites also contain volumetrically minor clinopyroxene (mg# 0.92-0.95, Al 0.03-0.13 a pfu) and have U-shaped LREE-enriched REE patterns. The Steinberg harzburgites are typical for the Lower Silesian - Upper Lusatian domain of the European subcontinental lithospheric mantle. They represent residual mantle that has undergone extensive partial melting and was subsequently affected by mantle metasomatism by mixed carbonatite-silicate melts. The Steinberg xenolith suite comprises also dunitic xenoliths affected by metasomatism by melt similar to the host basanite, which lowered the Fo content in olivine to 87.6 %. This metasomatism happened shortly before xenolith entrainment in the erupting lava. One of the xenoliths is a wehrlite (olivine Fo 73 %, clinopyroxene mg# 0.83-0.85, subordinate orthopyroxene mg# 0.76-0.77). Its clinopyroxene REE pattern is flat and slightly LREE-depleted. This wehrlite is considered to be a tholeiitic cumulate. One of the studied harzburgites contains clinopyroxene with similar trace element contents to those in wehrlite. This type of clinopyroxene records percolation of tholeiitic melt through harzburgite. The tholeiitic melt might be similar to Cenozoic continental tholeiites occurring in the Central European Volcanic Province (e.g., Vogelsberg, Germany).

  19. Viscosity characteristics of selected volcanic rock melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Sonder, Ingo; Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2011-02-01

    A basic experimental study of the behavior of magma rheology was carried out on remelted volcanic rocks using wide gap viscometry. The complex composition of magmatic melts leads to complicated rheologic behavior which cannot be described with one simple model. Therefore, measurement procedures which are able to quantify non-Newtonian behavior have to be employed. Furthermore, the experimental apparatus must be able to deal with inhomogeneities of magmatic melts. We measured the viscosity of a set of materials representing a broad range of volcanic processes. For the lower viscous melts (low-silica compositions), non-Newtonian behavior is observed, whereas the high-silica melts show Newtonian behavior in the measured temperature and shear rate range (T = 1423 K - 1623 K, γ˙ = 10 - 2 s - 1 - 20 s - 1 ). The non-Newtonian materials show power-law behavior. The measured viscosities η and power-law indexes m lie in the intervals 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 210 3 Pa s, 0.71 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Grímsvötn basalt), 0.9 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 350 Pa s, 0.61 ≤ m ≤ 0.93 (Hohenstoffeln olivine-melilitite), and 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 1.510 4 Pa s, 0.55 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Sommata basalt). Measured viscosities of the Newtonian high-silica melts lie in the range 10 4 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 310 5 Pa s.

  20. Carbon determination in natural crystals of olivines of deeporigin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilobreeva, S.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Minaev, V.M.; Kazakov, S.S.; Kuz'min, L.E.; Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1987-01-01

    Activation analysis and nuclear reaction analysis with registration of energy spectrum of forming prompt particles are used to determine carbon concentration and distribution in monocrystals of olivines. Carbon determination in olivine volume was carried out by activation analysis by 12 C(d, n) 13 N reaction and surface content - by registration of protons resulting from 12 C(d, p) 13 C reaction. The deuteron energy being 1.8-2.7 MeV, carbon determination limit and the analysis error were 10 -3 and 20 relat.%, respectively. By means of IR spectroscopy it is shown that carbon constitutes part of crystal lattice of olivines in monatomic form

  1. Electromagnetic detection and infrared visualization techniques for non-metallic inclusions in molten aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Ming; Ludwig, Reinhold; Shankar, Sumanth; Apelian, Diran

    2002-01-01

    The role of detecting non-metallic and weakly conducting inclusions in hot melts during the manufacturing process is of major importance. However, the key impediment to assessing melt cleanliness is the quantification of the level of inclusions. In this paper, we present the theory and practice in using a magnetic force-based detection system capable of monitoring small inclusions of micron-size dimensions. The idea is to force the non-conducting inclusions to a detection location (the free melt surface) by electromagnetic Archimedes forces. Further, an infrared (IR) imaging system can then be applied to detect their thermal signature. Finally, a novel image-processing algorithm is used to analyze the inclusion level on the measurement surface

  2. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  3. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  4. Magnetism in olivine-type LiCo(1-x)Fe(x)PO4 cathode materials: bridging theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Gershinsky, Yelena; Kosa, Monica; Dixit, Mudit; Zitoun, David; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-12-14

    In the current paper, we present a non-aqueous sol-gel synthesis of olivine type LiCo1-xFexPO4 compounds (x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00). The magnetic properties of the olivines are measured experimentally and calculated using first-principles theory. Specifically, the electronic and magnetic properties are studied in detail with standard density functional theory (DFT), as well as by including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which couples the spin to the crystal structure. We find that the Co(2+) ions exhibit strong orbital moment in the pure LiCoPO4 system, which is partially quenched upon substitution of Co(2+) by Fe(2+). Interestingly, we also observe a non-negligible orbital moment on the Fe(2+) ion. We underscore that the inclusion of SOC in the calculations is essential to obtain qualitative agreement with the observed effective magnetic moments. Additionally, Wannier functions were used to understand the experimentally observed rising trend in the Néel temperature, which is directly related to the magnetic exchange interaction paths in the materials. We suggest that out of layer M-O-P-O-M magnetic interactions (J⊥) are present in the studied materials. The current findings shed light on important differences observed in the electrochemistry of the cathode material LiCoPO4 compared to the already mature olivine material LiFePO4.

  5. Olivine-type cathode for rechargeable batteries: Role of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhasamy, Sathiyaraj; Singh, Pritam; Thurgate, Stephen; Ionescu, Mihail; Appadoo, Dominique; Minakshi, Manickam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Olivine powder was synthesized by sol–gel method using a range of chelating agents. ► Role of chelating agents in olivine cathode was investigated for battery application. ► Battery was fabricated with olivine cathode, Zn anode and aqueous electrolyte. ► Synergetic effect of additives (CA + TEA + PVP) led to improved storage capacity. - Abstract: Olivine (LiCo 1/3 Mn 1/3 Ni 1/3 PO 4 ) powders were synthesized at 550–600 °C for 6 h in air by a sol–gel method using multiple chelating agents and used as a cathode material for rechargeable batteries. Range of chelating agents like a weak organic acid (citric acid – CA), emulsifier (triethanolamine – TEA) and non-ionic surfactant (polyvinylpyrrolidone – PVP) in sol–gel wet chemical synthesis were used. The dependence of the physicochemical properties of the olivine powders such as particle size, morphology, structural bonding and crystallinity on the chelating agent was extensively investigated. Among the chelating agents used, unique cycling behavior (75 mAh/g after 25 cycles) is observed for the PVP assisted olivine. This is due to volumetric change in trapped organic layer for first few cycles. The trapped organic species in the electrode–electrolyte interface enhances the rate of lithium ion diffusion with better capacity retention. In contrast, CA and TEA showed a gradual capacity fade of 30 and 38 mAh/g respectively after multiple cycles. The combination of all the three mixed chelating agents showed an excellent electrochemical behavior of 100 mAh/g after multiple cycles and the synergistic effect of these agents are discussed.

  6. Experimental Partitioning of Chalcophile Elements between Mantle Silicate Minerals and Basaltic Melt at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of Mantle and Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, R.; Jego, S.; Ding, S.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of chalcophile elements during mantle melting, melt extraction, and basalt differentiation is critical for formation of ore deposits and geochemical model and evolution of crust-mantle system. While chalcophile elements are strongly partitioned into sulfides, their behavior with different extent of melting, in particular, in the absence of sulfides, can only be modeled with complete knowledge of the partitioning behavior of these elements between dominant mantle minerals and basaltic melt with or without dissolved sulfide (S2-). However, experimental data on mineral-melt partitioning are lacking for many chalcophile elements. Crystallization experiments were conducted at 3 GPa and 1450-1600 °C using a piston cylinder and synthetic silicate melt compositions similar to low-degree partial melt of peridotite. Starting silicate mixes doped with 100-300 ppm of each of various chalcophile elements were loaded into Pt/graphite double capsules. To test the effect of dissolved sulfur in silicate melt on mineral-melt partitioning of chalcophile elements, experiments were conducted on both sulfur-free and sulfur-bearing (1100-1400 ppm S in melt) systems. Experimental phases were analyzed by EPMA (for major elements and S) and LA-ICP-MS (for trace elements). All experiments produced an assemblage of cpx + melt ± garnet ± olivine ± spinel and yielded new partition coefficients (D) for Sn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Bi, Pb, and Se for cpx/melt, olivine/melt, and garnet/melt pairs. Derived Ds (mineral/basalt) reveal little effect of S2- in the melt on mineral-melt partition coefficients of the measured chalcophile elements, with Ds for Zn, Mo, Bi, Pb decreasing by less than a factor of 2 from S-free to S-bearing melt systems or remaining similar, within error, between S-free and S-bearing melt systems. By combining our data with existing partitioning data between sulfide phases and silicate melt we model the fractionation of these elements during mantle melting and basalt

  7. Partial reactive crystallization of variable CO2-bearing siliceous MORB-eclogite-derived melt in fertile peridotite and genesis of alkalic basalts with signatures of crustal recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of heterogeneity in the form of recycled altered oceanic crust (MORB-eclogite) has been proposed in the source of HIMU ocean island basalts (OIBs) [1]. Partial melts of recycled oceanic crust, however, are siliceous and Mg-poor and thus do not resemble the major element compositions of alkalic OIBs that are silica-poor and Mg-rich. In an upwelling heterogenous mantle, MORB-eclogite undergoes melting deeper than volatile-free peridotite, hence, andesitic partial melt derived from eclogite will react with subsolidus peridotite. We have examined the effect of such a melt-rock reaction under volatile-free conditions at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the melt-rock ratio from 8 to 50 wt.% [2]. We concluded that the reacted melts reproduce certain major element characteristics of oceanic basanites, but not nephelinites. Also, the melt-rock reaction produces olivine and garnet-bearing websteritic residue. Because presence of CO2 has been invoked in the source of many HIMU ocean islands, the effect of CO2 on such a melt-rock reaction needs to be evaluated. Accordingly, we performed reaction experiments on mixtures of 25% and 33% CO2-bearing andesitic partial melt and peridotite at 1375 °C, 3 GPa by varying the dissolved CO2 content of the reacting melts from 1 to 5 wt.% (bulk CO2 from 0.25 to 1.6 wt.%) [3, this study]. Owing to melt-rock reaction, with increasing CO2 in the bulk mixture, (a) modes of olivine and cpx decrease while melt, opx and garnet increase, (b) reacted melts evolve to greater degree of Si-undersaturation (from andesite through basanite to nephelinite), (c) enhanced crystallization of garnet take place with higher CO2 in the melt, reducing alumina content of the reacted melts, and (d) CaO and MgO content of the reacted melts increase, without affecting FeO* and Na2O contents (indicating greater propensity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ over Fe2+ and Na+ to enter silicate melt as carbonate). For a given melt-MgO, the CO2-bearing reacted melts are a better

  8. The formation of phosphoran olivine and stanfieldite from the pyrometamorphic breakdown of apatite in slags from a prehistoric ritual immolation site (Goldbichl, Igls, Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Tropper, Peter; Kaindl, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    In this study we report P-rich olivine and the tric-calcium phosphate (TCP) stanfieldite in partially molten quartzphyllites from the ritual immolation site at the Goldbichl, near Innsbruck in the Tyrol, Austria. During partial melting, foamy patches of dark glassy material formed at the surface of the rocks and also as layers within the rocks. The pyrometamorphic rocks contain mostly the mineral assemblage olivine + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + spinel + glass. During the investigation of slag samples from this prehistoric ritual immolation site, extremely P-rich, apatite-bearing micro-domains were found. In these domains phosphoran olivine was found whose P contents are approaching the maximum P contents in olivine according to the experimental investigations of Boesenberg and Hewins (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:1923-1941, 2010). The textures within these domains indicate strongly disequilibrium conditions. The phosphoran olivines formed due to reactions involving apatite and the mineral assemblage of the quartzphyllites, and coexist with plagioclase and a tri-calcium phosphate phase (TCP) showing stanfieldite Ca4(Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+)5(PO4)6 composition. In terms of its chemical composition, olivine shows a wide range in composition with P ranging from 0.3 to 0.54 a.p.f.u, which corresponds to maximal 23 wt.% P2O5. These are the highest P-contents in olivine reported from rocks so far. The incorporation of P correlates with decreasing Si contents according to the charge balancing scheme 2{{P}^{5+ }}+□{{M}_{1,2 }}=2S{{i}^{4+ }}+{{( {Mg,Fe} )}^{2+ }}{{M}_{1,2 }} . Therefore P can only be incorporated in combination with a vacancy on the M1,2 position. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of phosphoran olivines indicates that these olivines can easily be identified with this method due to the strong signals of the SiO4 and PO4 vibrations. The external vibrations of the M1,2 sites at low wave-numbers are more complex than for P-free olivine. This might be due to the effect of P5+ on

  9. Laboratory Study on Prevention of CaO-Containing ASTM "D-Type" Inclusions in Al-Deoxidized Low-Oxygen Steel Melts During Basic Slag Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Xin-Hua; Yang, Die; Lei, Shao-Long; Wang, Kun-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Present work was attempted to explore the possibility of preventing CaO-containing inclusions in Al-deoxidized low-oxygen special steel during basic slag refining, which were known as ASTM D-type inclusions. Based on the analysis on formation thermodynamics of CaO-containing inclusions, a series of laboratory experiments were designed and carried out in a vacuum induction furnace. During the experiments, slag/steel reaction equilibrium was intentionally suppressed with the aim to decrease the CaO contents in inclusions, which is different from ordinary concept that slag/steel reaction should be promoted for better control of inclusions. The obtained results showed that high cleanliness of steel was obtained in all the steel melts, with total oxygen contents varied between 0.0003 and 0.0010 pct. Simultaneously, formation of CaO-containing inclusions was successfully prohibited, and all the formed oxide inclusions were MgO-Al2O3 or/and Al2O3 in very small sizes of about 1 to 3 μm. And 90 pct to nearly 98 pct of them were wrapped by relative thicker MnS outer surface layers to produce dual-phased "(MgO-Al2O3) + MnS" or "Al2O3 + MnS" complex inclusions. Because of much better ductility of MnS, certain deformability of these complex inclusions can be expected which is helpful to improve fatigue resistance property of steel. Only very limited number of singular MnS inclusions were with sizes larger than 13 μm, which were formed during solidification because of. In the end, formation of oxide inclusions in steel was qualitatively evaluated and discussed.

  10. Evolving magma storage conditions beneath Mount St. Helens inferred from chemical variations in melt inclusions from the 1980-1986 and current (2004-2006) eruptions: Chapter 33 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Katharine V.; Berlo, Kim; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Major element, trace element, and volatile concentrations in 187 glassy melt inclusions and 25 groundmass glasses from the 1980-86 eruption of Mount St. Helens are presented, together with 103 analyses of touching FE-Ti oxide pairs from the same samples. These data are used to evaluate the temporal evolution of the magmatic plumbing system beneath the volcano during 1980-86 and so provide a framework in which to interpret analyses of melt inclusions from the current (2004-2006) eruption. Major and trace element concentrations of all melt inclusions lie at the high SiO2 end of the data array defined by eruptive products of the late Quaternary age from Mount St. Helens. For several major and trace elements, the glasses define a trend that is oblique to the whole-rock trend, indicating that different mineral assemblages were responsible for the two trends. The whole-rock trend can be ascribed to differentiation of hydrous basaltic parents in a deep-seated magma reservoir, probably at depths great enough to stabilize garnet. In contrast, the glass trends were generated by closed-system crystallization of the phenocryst and microlite mineral assemblages at low pressures. The dissolved H2O content of the melt inclusions from 1980-86, as measured by the ion microprobe, ranges from 0 to 6.7 wt. percent, with the highest values obtained from the plinian phase of May 18, 1980. Water contents decrease with increasing SiO2, consistent with decompression-driven crystallization. Preliminary data for dissolved CO2 in melt inclusions from the May 18 plinian phase from August 7, 1980, indicate that XH2O in a vapor phase was approximately constant at 0.80, irrespective of H2O content, suggestive of closed-system degassing with a high bubble fraction or gas streaming through the subvolcanic system. Temperature and f

  11. Investigating dissolution of mechanically activated olivine for carbonation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Tove Anette; Kleiv, Rolf Arne; Munz, Ingrid Anne

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Dissolution of mechanically activated olivine increased with 3 orders of magnitude. → Crystallinity changes of olivine is important for the observed dissolution rates. → Activation probably decreases with the degree of dissolution of each particle. - Abstract: Mineral carbonation is one of several alternatives for CO 2 sequestration and storage. The reaction rates of appropriate minerals with CO 2 , for instance olivine and serpentine with vast resources, are relatively slow in a CO 2 sequestration context and the rates have to be increased to make mineral carbonation a good storage alternative. Increasing the dissolution rate of olivine has been the focus of this paper. Olivine was milled with very high energy intensity using a laboratory planetary mill to investigate the effect of mechanical activation on the Mg extraction potential of olivine in 0.01 M HCl solution at room temperature and pressure. Approximately 30-40% of each sample was dissolved and water samples were taken at the end of each experiment. The pH change was used to calculate time series of the Mg concentrations, which also were compared to the final Mg concentrations in the water samples. Percentage dissolved and the specific reaction rates were estimated from the Mg concentration time series. The measured particle size distributions could not explain the rate constants found, but the specific surface area gave a good trend versus dissolution for samples milled wet and the samples milled with a small addition of water. The samples milled dry had the lowest measured specific surface areas ( 2 /g), but had the highest rate constants. The crystallinity calculated from X-ray diffractograms, was the material parameter with the best fit for the observed differences in the rate constants. Geochemical modelling of mechanically activated materials indicated that factors describing the changes in the material properties related to the activation must be included. The

  12. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends

  13. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end of t...

  14. A study on effective thermal conductivity of crystalline layers in layer melt crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Joo; Ulrich, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    An effective thermal conductivity in layer melt crystallization was explored based on a model considering inclusions inside a crystalline layer during crystal growth, molecular diffusion of inclusions migration due to temperature gradient and heat generation due to recrystallization of inclusions in the crystalline layer. The effective thermal conductivity increases with time, in general, as a result of compactness of the layer. Lower cooling temperature, i.e. greater supercooling, results in a more porous layer with lower effective thermal conductivity. A similar result is seen for the parameter of melt temperature, but less pronounced. A high concentration of the melt results in a high effective thermal conductivity while low concentration yields low effective thermal conductivity. At higher impurity levels in the melt phase, constitutional supercooling becomes more pronounced and unstable growth morphologies occur more easily. Cooling rate and Reynolds number also affect the effective thermal conductivity. The predictions of an effective thermal conductivity agree with the experimental data. The model was applied to estimate the thermal conductivities of the crystalline layer during layer melt crystallization. (author)

  15. Arsenic Sorption on Mechanically Activated Magnetite and Olivine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bujňáková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic sorption on mechanically activated minerals such as magnetite Fe3O4 (Kiruna, Sweden and olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 (Ǻheim,Norway has been studied and compared in this work. Experiments were carried out with non-activated and mechanically activatedsamples. The activation of both minerals was performed in a planetary mill at different milling conditions. The specific surface areaand consequent sorption activity were enhanced by mechanical activation. The using of olivine seems to be better than magnetite fromthe point of view of milling time, which is necessary for achievement of the same sorption effect.

  16. RELICT OLIVINES IN MICROMETEORITES: PRECURSORS AND INTERACTIONS IN THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Taylor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica micrometeorites (∼1200) and cosmic spherules (∼5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1–0.3wt%), Al 2 O 3 (0.0–0.3wt%), MnO (0.0–0.3wt%), and Cr 2 O 3 (0.1–0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.

  17. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6-m New Technology Telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4 per cent (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at a 100-m size range of NEA population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜ 1 per cent of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges below 300 m. Our findings are compared with the `battered-to-bits' scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  19. Olivine-rich asteroids in the near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Marcel; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lantz, C.; Merlin, F.; Belskaya, I. N.; Fulchignoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the framework of a 30-night spectroscopic survey of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) we present new results regarding the identification of olivine-rich objects. The following NEAs were classified as A-type using visible spectra obtained with 3.6 m NTT telescope: (293726) 2007 RQ17, (444584) 2006 UK, 2012 NP, 2014 YS34, 2015 HB117, 2015 LH, 2015 TB179, 2015 TW144. We determined a relative abundance of 5.4% (8 out of 147 observed targets) A-types at hundred meter size range of NEAs population. The ratio is at least five times larger compared with the previously known A-types, which represent less than ˜1% of NEAs taxonomically classified. By taking into account that part of our targets may not be confirmed as olivine-rich asteroids by their near-infrared spectra, or they can have a nebular origin, our result provides an upper-limit estimation of mantle fragments at size ranges bellow 300m. Our findings are compared with the "battered-to-bits" scenario, claiming that at small sizes the olivine-rich objects should be more abundant when compared with basaltic and iron ones.

  20. Strain Measurements of Chondrules and Refraction Inclusion in Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses traditional strain measurement techniques, combined with X-ray computerized tomography (CT), to evaluate petrographic evidence in the Allende CV3 chondrite for preferred orientation and to measure strain in three dimensions. The existence of petrofabrics and lineations was first observed in carbonaceous meteorites in the 1960's. Yet, fifty years later only a few studies have reported that meteorites record such features. Impacts are often cited as the mechanism for this feature, although plastic deformation from overburden and nebular imbrication have also been proposed. Previous work conducted on the Leoville CV3 and the Parnallee LL3 chondrites, exhibited a minimum uniaxial shortening of 33% and 21%, respectively. Petrofabrics in Allende CV3 have been looked at before; previous workers using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) found a major-axis alignment of olivine inside dark inclusions and an "augen"-like preferred orientation of olivine grains around more competent chondrules

  1. RELICT OLIVINES IN MICROMETEORITES: PRECURSORS AND INTERACTIONS IN THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D. [National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D. [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Taylor, S., E-mail: rudra@nio.org [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-1290 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Antarctica micrometeorites (∼1200) and cosmic spherules (∼5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1–0.3wt%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.0–0.3wt%), MnO (0.0–0.3wt%), and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.1–0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.

  2. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  3. Low temperature dissolution creep induced B-type olivine fabric during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010]ol axes subnormal to foliation and the [001]ol axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 oC) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic orientation (CPO) with the (001) and the [010] subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric is resulted from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundaries sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine can't be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  4. Experimental Melting Study of Basalt-Peridotite Hybrid Source: Melting model of Hawaiian plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, E.; Gao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eclogite component entrained in ascending plume is considered to be essentially important in producing flood basalts (e.g., Columbia River basalt, Takahashi et al., 1998 EPSL), alkalic OIBs (e.g., Kogiso et al.,2003), ferro-picrites (Tuff et al.,2005) and Hawaiian shield lavas (e.g., Hauri, 1996; Takahashi & Nakajima, 2002, Sobolev et al.,2005). Size of the entrained eclogite, which controls the reaction rates with ambient peridotite, however, is very difficult to constrain using geophysical observation. Among Hawaiian shield volcanoes, Koolau is the most enriched end-member in eclogite component (Frey et al, 1994). Reconstruction of Koolau volcano based on submarine study on Nuuanu landslide (AGU Monograph vol.128, 2002, Takahashi Garcia Lipman eds.) revealed that silica-rich tholeiite appeared only at the last stage (Makapuu stage) of Koolau volcano. Chemical compositions of lavas as well as isotopes change abruptly and coherently across a horizon (Shinozaki et al. and Tanaka et al. ibid.). Based on these observation, Takahashi & Nakajima (2002 ibid) proposed that the Makapuu stage lava in Koolau volcano was supplied from a single large eclogite block. In order to study melting process in Hawaiian plume, high-pressure melting experiments were carried out under dry and hydrous conditions with layered eclogite/peridotite starting materials. Detail of our experiments will be given by Gao et al (2015 AGU). Combined previous field observation with new set of experiments, we propose that variation in SiO2 among Hawaiian tholeiites represent varying degree of wall-rock interaction between eclogite and ambient peridotite. Makapuu stage lavas in Koolau volcano represents eclogite partial melts formed at ~3 GPa with various amount of xenocrystic olivines derived from Pacific plate. In other words, we propose that "primary magma" in the melting column of Hawaiian plume ranges from basaltic andesite to ferro-picrite depending on the lithology of the source. Solidus of

  5. Partitioning of Cu between mafic minerals, Fe-Ti oxides and intermediate to felsic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcheng; Xiong, Xiaolin; Audétat, Andreas; Li, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    This study used improved capsule technique i.e., Pt95Cu05 or Au95Cu05 alloy capsules as Cu sources to determine Cu partitioning between mafic minerals, Fe-Ti oxides and intermediate to felsic melts at 0.5-2.5 GPa, 950-1100 °C and various oxygen fugacities (fO2). In combination with the data from the mafic composition systems, the results demonstrate that Cu is generally highly incompatible in mafic minerals and moderately incompatible to compatible in Fe-Ti oxides. The general order of mineral/melt Cu partition coefficients (DCu) is garnet (0.01-0.06) ⩽ olivine (0.04-0.20) ≈ opx (0.04-0.24) ≈ amphibole (0.04-0.20) ⩽ cpx (0.04-0.45) ⩽ magnetite, titanomagnetite and Cr-spinel (0.18-1.83). The variations in DCu depend mainly on temperature, fO2 or mineral composition. In general, DCu for olivine (and perhaps opx) increases with decreasing temperature and increasing fO2. DCu increases for cpx with Na+ (pfu) in cpx, for magnetite and Cr-spinel with Fe3+ (pfu) in these phases and for titanomagnetite with Ti4+ (pfu) in this phase. The large number of DCu data (99 pairs) serves as a foundation for quantitatively understanding the behavior of Cu during magmatic processes. The generation of intermediate to felsic magmas via fractional crystallization or partial melting of mafic rocks (magmas) at deep levels of crust involves removal of or leaving assemblages of mafic minerals + Fe-Ti oxides ± sulfides. With our DCu data on mafic minerals and Fe-Ti oxides, DCubulk values around 0.2 were obtained for the sulfide-free assemblages. Cu will thus be concentrated efficiently in the derived melts during these two processes if sulfides are absent or negligible, explaining that high fO2 and sulfide-destabilization are favorable to formation of the porphyry Cu system.

  6. Correlations Between Olivine Abundance and Thermal Inertia: Implications for Global Weathering and/or Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, V. E.; McDowell, M. L.; Koeppen, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    TES data show no global trend between thermal inertia and olivine abundance. But it is premature to conclude that all dark surfaces were once more mafic OR that olivine is not preferentially removed from olivine-enriched outcrops as they erode.

  7. Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi

    2014-02-01

    Peridotite formed by contact metamorphism and dehydration breakdown of an antigorite schist from the Happo area, central Japan shows a strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (Ol CPO). The lack of mesoscale deformation structures associated with the intrusion and the lack of microstructural evidence for plastic deformation of neoblastic grains suggest that olivine CPO in this area did not form as a result of solid-state deformation. Instead, the good correspondence between the original antigorite orientation and the orientation of the newly formed olivine implies the CPO formed by topotactic growth of the olivine after antigorite. Ol CPO is likely to develop by a similar process in subduction zone environments where foliated serpentinite is dragged down to depths where antigorite is no longer stable. The Happo Ol CPO has a strong a-axis concentration perpendicular to the lineation and within the foliation-commonly referred to as B-type Ol CPO. Seismic fast directions parallel to the ocean trench are observed in many convergent margins and are consistent with the presence of B-type Ol CPO in the mantle wedge of these regions. Experimental work has shown that B-type CPO can form by dislocation creep under hydrous conditions at relatively high stresses. There are, however, several discrepancies between the characteristics of natural and laboratory samples with B-type Ol CPO. (1) The formation conditions (stress and temperature) of some natural examples with B-type CPO fall outside those predicted by experiments. (2) In deformation experiments, slip in the crystallographic c-axis direction is important but has not been observed in natural examples of B-type CPO. (3) Experimental work suggests the presence of H2O and either high shear stress or relatively low temperatures are essential for the formation of B-type CPO. These conditions are most likely to be achieved close to subduction boundaries, but these regions are also associated with serpentinization

  8. Preliminary quantification of a shape model for etch-pits formed during natural weathering of olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, M. Anna; Velbel, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Many etch-pits on olivine grains occur as a pair of cone-shaped pits sharing a base, which consequently appear as diamond-shaped etch-pits in cross-section. Quantitative image analysis of back-scattered electron images establishes empirical dimensions of olivine etch-pits in naturally weathered samples from Hawaii and North Carolina. Images of naturally etched olivine were acquired from polished thin-sections by scanning electron microscopy. An average cone-radius-to-height ratio (r:h) of 1.78 was determined for diamond-shaped cross-sections of etch-pits occurring in naturally weathered olivine grains, largely consistent with previous qualitative results. Olivine etch-pit shape as represented by r:h varies from slightly more than half the average value to slightly more than twice the average. Etch-pit shape does not appear to vary systematically with etch-pit size.

  9. An Interconnected Network of Core-Forming Melts Produced by Shear Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, D.; Groebner, N.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of terrestrial planetary is still poorly understood, and has been the subject of numerous experimental studies. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which metal-mainly iron with some nickel-could have been extracted from a silicate mantle to form the core. Most recent models involve gravitational sinking of molten metal or metal sulphide through a partially or fully molten mantle that is often referred to as a'magma ocean. Alternative models invoke percolation of molten metal along an interconnected network (that is, porous flow) through a solid silicate matrix. But experimental studies performed at high pressures have shown that, under hydrostatic conditions, these melts do not form an interconnected network, leading to the widespread assumption that formation of metallic cores requires a magma ocean. In contrast, here we present experiments which demonstrate that shear deformation to large strains can interconnect a significant fraction of initially isolated pockets of metal and metal sulphide melts in a solid matrix of polycrystalline olivine. Therefore, in a dynamic (nonhydrostatic) environment, percolation remains a viable mechanism for the segregation and migration of core-forming melts in a solid silicate mantle.

  10. Extreme alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich fluid inclusions in granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul; Schmidt, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Our study of fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and feldspar from granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark revealed extremely alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich inclusions. The solid phases (daughter crystals) are mainly nahcolite [NaHCO3], zabuyelite [Li2CO3], and in rare cases potash [K2CO3] in addition to the volatile phases CO2 and aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solution. Rare melt inclusions contain nahcolite, dawsonite [NaAl(CO3)(OH)2], and muscovite. In addition to fluid and melt inclusions, there are primary CO2-rich vapor inclusions, which mostly contain small nahcolite crystals. The identification of potash as a naturally occurring mineral would appear to be the first recorded instance. From the appearance of high concentrations of these carbonates and bicarbonates, we suggest that the mineral-forming media were water- and alkali carbonate-rich silicate melts or highly concentrated fluids. The coexistence of silicate melt inclusions with carbonate-rich fluid and nahcolite-rich vapor inclusions indicates a melt-melt-vapor equilibrium during the crystallization of the pegmatite. These results are supported by the results of hydrothermal diamond anvil cell experiments in the pseudoternary system H2O-NaHCO3-SiO2. Additionally, we show that boundary layer effects were insignificant in the Bornholm pegmatites and are not required for the origin of primary textures in compositionally simple pegmatites at least.

  11. Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafted NiO on natural olivine for dry reforming of methane C Courson, L Udron, C Petit and A Kiennemann Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 3 No 3 (June 2002 271-282 Abstract | References Full text: Acrobat PDF (1.10 MB

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural olivine is used for gasification of biomass in a fluidised bed. Characterisations by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopies (SEM and TEM have proved the presence of a (Mg,Fe2SiO4 structure (Mg/Fe ratio: 9/1 with a rather broad distribution in elemental composition. Temperature programmed reduction has revealed equally the presence of iron oxides outside of this structure. The nature of free iron oxides can be both modified by increasing the temperature of calcination and confirmed by measurements of magnetism.The introduction of nickel oxide upon natural olivine is obtained by impregnation with a nitrate salt. The type of interaction of nickel oxide with olivine is different depending upon the preparation method and the calcination temperature. For calcination at 1100 °C, the effects of the amount of NiO and the number of impregnation have been studied. At a high temperature of calcination (1400 °C, NiO is integrated into the olivine structure and the amount of free iron increases. Integrated NiO on olivine is non-reducible, resulting in an inactive catalyst. At lower calcination temperatures grafted NiO is formed, a species which is reduced under catalytic test conditions without aggregation of particles. A single impregnation of nickel (5.5 wt% of NiO gives a stable catalyst activated directly under reaction conditions (CH4+CO2 yielding 96% CO and 76% H2. Catalysts with lower amounts of NiO or a double impregnation of nickel salt lead to a less stable system.Analysis reveals that no change in olivine structure nor size of nickel deposit occurs under test conditions. Equally there are no carbon deposits formed on these catalysts. A model of the evolution of each catalytic system arising from the different preparation methods is proposed. The observed deactivation of such catalysts is attributed to the increase in the amount of free iron, which favours the oxidative properties of the catalytic system.

  12. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  13. B-type olivine fabric induced by low temperature dissolution creep during serpentinization and deformation in mantle wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Junfeng; Barou, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    The B-type olivine fabric (i.e., the [010] axes subnormal to foliation and the [001] axes subparallel to the lineation) has been regarded as an important olivine fabric for interpreting global trench-parallel S-wave polarization in fore-arc regions. However, strong serpentinization and cold temperature environment in the mantle wedge should inhibit development of the B-type olivine fabric that requires high temperature to activate solid-state plastic deformation. Here we report fabrics of olivine and antigorite generated at low temperatures (300-370 °C) during serpentinization in a fossil mantle wedge of the Val Malenco area, Central Alps. Olivine in the serpentine matrix develops a pronounced B-type fabric, while antigorite in the same matrix displays a strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) with the (001) planes and the [010] axes subparallel to foliation and lineation, respectively. The following evidence leads to the conclusion that the B-type olivine fabric results from dissolution creep assisted by grain boundary sliding (GBS) and grain rotation, rather than solid-state plastic deformation: (1) serpentinization took place at low temperatures and a fluid-enriched environment, ideal for dissolution-precipitation creep; (2) the voids and zigzag boundaries along the interface between antigorite and olivine suggest a fluid dissolution reaction; (3) the primary coarse olivine develops a nearly random fabric, indicating the B-type fabrics in the fine-grained olivine may not be inherited fabrics. These results document for the first time the B-type olivine CPO formed by dissolution creep at low temperatures during serpentinization and provide a mechanism to reconcile petrofabric observations with geophysical observations of trench parallel fast S-wave seismic anisotropy in fore-arc mantle wedge regions.

  14. Partial melting of UHP calc-gneiss from the Dabie Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Penglei; Wu, Yao; Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Li; Jin, Zhenmin

    2014-04-01

    Exhumation melting has been proposed for the ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Dabie Mountains based on melting experiments. We document here the first petrological and mineralogical evidence demonstrating that the UHP calc-gneisses from the Ganjialing area in the Dabie Mountains experienced partial melting during early exhumation. The assemblage of garnet, phengite (Si = 3.65 pfu), coesite, rutile and carbonate preserved in the calc-gneisses indicates a peak metamorphic condition of 692-757 °C and 4.0-4.8 GPa. Partial melting is indicated by several lines of evidence: the melting textures of phengite, the feldspar-dominated films, bands, branches, blebs and veins, the euhedral K-feldspars, the intergrowth film of plagioclase and K-feldspar, the plagioclase + biotite intergrowth after garnet and the epidote poikiloblasts. Polyphase inclusions in garnet are characterized with wedge-like offshoots and serrate outlines whereas those in epidote display negative crystal shapes, which can be best interpreted by entrapment of former melts. We propose a wet melting reaction of Phn + Q ± Na-Cpx + H2O = Bt + Pl + Grt + felsic melts, which likely took place at ca.650-800 °C and ca.1.0-2.0 GPa, to interpret the melting event in the calc-gneisses. Chemical exchanges between garnet and melts produced new garnet domains with higher almandine, spessartine, MREE, HREE and Y but lower grossular, pyrope, P, Sc, Ti, V and Zr contents. Zr-in-rutile thermometer reveals a low temperature of 620-643 °C at 5 GPa, indicating a later reset for Zr in rutile. Healed fractures are suggested to be responsible for the formation of some polyphase inclusions in garnet.

  15. Effect of nonmetallic inclusions on anisotropy of ductility in 35KhN3MFA steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtremel', M.A.; Yavojskij, V.I.; Volkov, V.A.; Chursin, G.M.; Chukhlov, V.I.; Fetisov, G.I.; Mochalin, N.K.; Smol'yaninov, L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of nonmetaltic inclusions and anizotropy of ductility and of impuct strength of forgings of the 35KhN3MFA steel are compared at different variants of melting and outer-furnace treatment. It is shown that method of melting rugulates anisotropy of ductility primarily through deformability of large inclusions during forging. Deformability of inclusions considerably changes due to introduction of silicocalcium in iron mold [ru

  16. Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted basaltic lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg basalt in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived basaltic melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water saturated, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported basaltic and basaltic andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous basalts on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth

  17. Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A H; Shirey, S B; Carlson, R W

    2003-06-19

    Komatiites are ultramafic volcanic rocks containing more than 18 per cent MgO (ref. 1) that erupted mainly in the Archaean era (more than 2.5 gigayears ago). Although such compositions occur in later periods of Earth history (for example, the Cretaceous komatiites of Gorgona Island), the more recent examples tend to have lower MgO content than their Archaean equivalents. Komatiites are also characterized by their low incompatible-element content, which is most consistent with their generation by high degrees of partial melting (30-50 per cent). Current models for komatiite genesis include the melting of rock at great depth in plumes of hot, diapirically rising mantle or the melting of relatively shallow mantle rocks at less extreme, but still high, temperatures caused by fluxing with water. Here we report a suite of ultramafic lava flows from the Commondale greenstone belt, in the southern part of the Kaapvaal Craton, which represents a previously unrecognized type of komatiite with exceptionally high forsterite content of its igneous olivines, low TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio, high silica content, extreme depletion in rare-earth elements and low Re/Os ratio. We suggest a model for their formation in which a garnet-enriched residue left by earlier cratonic volcanism was melted by hydration from a subducting slab.

  18. Apatite-Melt Partitioning at 1 Bar: An Assessment of Apatite-Melt Exchange Equilibria Resulting from Non-Ideal Mixing of F and Cl in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Ustunisik, G.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    The mineral apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] is present in a wide range of planetary materials. Due to the presence of volatiles within its crystal structure (X-site), many recent studies have attempted to use apatite to constrain the volatile contents of planetary magmas and mantle sources. In order to use the volatile contents of apatite to precisely determine the abundances of volatiles in coexisting silicate melt or fluids, thermodynamic models for the apatite solid solution and for the apatite components in multi-component silicate melts and fluids are required. Although some thermodynamic models for apatite have been developed, they are incomplete. Furthermore, no mixing model is available for all of the apatite components in silicate melts or fluids, especially for F and Cl components. Several experimental studies have investigated the apatite-melt and apatite-fluid partitioning behavior of F, Cl, and OH in terrestrial and planetary systems, which have determined that apatite-melt partitioning of volatiles are best described as exchange equilibria similar to Fe-Mg partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. However, McCubbin et al. recently reported that the exchange coefficients may vary in portions of apatite compositional space where F, Cl, and OH do not mix ideally in apatite. In particular, solution calorimetry data of apatite compositions along the F-Cl join exhibit substantial excess enthalpies of mixing. In the present study, we conducted apatite-melt partitioning experiments in evacuated, sealed silica-glass tubes at approximately 1 bar and 950-1050 degrees Centigrade on a synthetic Martian basalt composition equivalent to the basaltic shergottite Queen Alexandria Range (QUE) 94201. These experiments were conducted dry, at low pressure, to assess the effects of temperature and apatite composition on the partitioning behavior of F and Cl between apatite and basaltic melt along the F-Cl apatite binary join, where there is non-ideal mixing of F and Cl

  19. The role and conditions of second-stage mantle melting in the generation of low-Ti tholeiites and boninites: the case of the Manihiki Plateau and the Troodos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowin, Roman; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj; Sobolev, Alexander; Kuzmin, Dimitry; Werner, Reinhard

    2017-12-01

    High-Mg, low-Ti volcanic rocks from the Manihiki Plateau in the Western Pacific share many geochemical characteristics with subduction-related boninites such as high-Ca boninites from the Troodos ophiolite on Cyprus, which are believed to originate by hydrous re-melting of previously depleted mantle. In this paper we compare the Manihiki rocks and Troodos boninites using a new dataset on the major and trace element composition of whole rocks and glasses from these locations, and new high-precision, electron microprobe analyses of olivine and Cr-spinel in these rocks. Our results show that both low-Ti Manihiki rocks and Troodos boninites could originate by re-melting of a previously depleted lherzolite mantle source (20-25% of total melting with 8-10% melting during the first stage), as indicated by strong depletion of magmas in more to less incompatible elements (Sm/Yb Y 0.5). In comparison with Troodos boninites, the low-Ti Manihiki magmas had distinctively lower H2O contents ( 2 wt% in boninites), 100 °C higher liquidus temperatures at a given olivine Fo-number, lower fO2 (ΔQFM + 0.2) and originated from deeper and hotter mantle (1.4-1.7 GPa, 1440 °C vs. 0.8-1.0 GPa, 1300 °C for Troodos boninites). The data provide new evidence that re-melting of residual upper mantle is not only restricted to subduction zones, where it occurs under hydrous conditions, but can also take place due to interaction of previously depleted upper mantle with mantle plumes from the deep and hotter Earth interior.

  20. Stagnation and Storage of Strongly Depleted Melts in Slow-Ultraslow Spreading Oceans: Evidence from the Ligurian Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Guarnieri, Luisa; Padovano, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Our studies of Alpine-Apennine ophiolite massifs (i.e., Lanzo, Voltri, Ligurides, Corsica) show that the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys oceanic basin was a slow-ultraslow spreading basin, characterized by the exposures on the seafloor of mantle peridotites with extreme compositional variability. The large majority of these peridotites are made of depleted spinel harzburgites and plagioclase peridotites. The former are interpreted as reactive peridotites formed by the reactive percolation of under-saturated, strongly trace element depleted asthenospheric melts migrated by porous flow through the mantle lithosphere. The latter are considered as refertilized peridotites formed by peridotite impregnation by percolated silica-saturated, strongly trace element depleted melts. Strongly depleted melts were produced as low-degrees, single melt increments by near fractional melting of the passively upwelling asthenosphere during the rifting stage of the basin. They escaped single melt increment aggregation, migrated isolated through the mantle lithosphere by reactive porous or channeled flow before oceanic opening, and were transformed into silica-saturated derivative liquids that underwent entrapment and stagnation in the shallow mantle lithosphere forming plagioclase-enriched peridotites. Widespread small bodies of strongly depleted gabbro-norites testify for the local coalescence of these derivative liquids. These melts never reached the surface (i.e., the hidden magmatism), since lavas with their composition have never been found in the basin. Subsequently, aggregated MORB melts upwelled within replacive dunite channels (as evidenced by composition of magmatic clinopyroxenes in dunites), intruded at shallow levels as olivine gabbro bodies and extruded as basaltic lavas, to form the crustal rocks of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the oceanic magmatism). Km-scale bodies of MORB olivine gabbros were intruded into the plagioclase-enriched peridotites, which were formed in the

  1. Luna 24 ferrobasalt as a low-Mg primary melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.; Ryder, G.

    1980-01-01

    Luna 24 very-low titanium (VLT) ferrobasalts, metabasalts, brown glasses and impact melts form a tight compositional cluster with no gradation to other groupings postulated for the Luna 24 core components. This suggests that the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt was extruded as a liquid of its own composition and was not derived by fractional crystallization from a more magnesian parent in a surface flow. Furthermore, the characteristics of the core lithologies are not easily visualized as components of such a differential flow, e.g. brown glasses. Gravitative settling models purporting to demonstrate the validity of the flow differentiation model are merely permissive. Subsurface fractionation requires that plagioclase, not olivine, be the liquidus phase. The high-Mg component in the Luna 24 core can be constrained, though not identified, chemically, and it has neither the major element, trace element, isotopic, nor mineralogical characteristics required of a possible parent to the Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt. Thus models of fractionation lack a physical expression of the less differentiated compositions, contrary to the belief that the high-Mg component in the core is the parent material. The Luna 24 VLT ferrobasalt is probably a primary low-Mg melt from a plagioclase-bearing source region, and may have undergone little or no fractionation prior to eruption. Such a model is compatible with, and suggested by, chemical and experimental data. Caution against posulating that all Mg-poor melts are fractionated products, based on terrestrial models, is advised. The terrestrial oceanic situation of 'primary melts' with similar Mg/Fe is probably not valid for the Moon. (Auth.)

  2. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  3. When does eruption run-up begin? Multidisciplinary insight from the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daniel J.; Plank, Terry A.; Roman, Diana C.; Power, John A.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Hauri, Erik H.

    2018-03-01

    During the run-up to eruption, volcanoes often show geophysically detectable signs of unrest. However, there are long-standing challenges in interpreting the signals and evaluating the likelihood of eruption, especially during the early stages of volcanic unrest. Considerable insight can be gained from combined geochemical and geophysical studies. Here we take such an approach to better understand the beginning of eruption run-up, viewed through the lens of the 1999 sub-Plinian basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska. The eruption is of interest due to its lack of observed deformation and its apparent long run-up time (9 months), following a deep long-period earthquake swarm. We evaluate the nature and timing of recharge by examining the composition of 138 olivine macrocrysts and 53 olivine-hosted melt inclusions and through shear-wave splitting analysis of regional earthquakes. Magma mixing is recorded in three crystal populations: a dominant population of evolved olivines (Fo60-69) that are mostly reversely zoned, an intermediate population (Fo69-76) with mixed zonation, and a small population of normally zoned more primitive olivines (Fo76-80). Mixing-to-eruption timescales are obtained through modeling of Fe-Mg interdiffusion in 78 olivines. The large number of resultant timescales provides a thorough record of mixing, demonstrating at least three mixing events: a minor event ∼11 months prior to eruption, overlapping within uncertainty with the onset of deep long-period seismicity; a major event ∼50 days before eruption, coincident with a large (M5.2) shallow earthquake; and a final event about a week prior to eruption. Shear-wave splitting analysis shows a change in the orientation of the local stress field about a month after the deep long-period swarm and around the time of the M5.2 event. Earthquake depths and vapor saturation pressures of Raman-reconstructed melt inclusions indicate that the recharge magma originated from depths of at least 20

  4. The abundance and distribution of uranium in some oceanic, continental ultramafic inclusions and host basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1975-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of uranium in various continental and oceanic ultramafic inclusions and host basalts are reported. Uranium was determined by neutron activation (fission products, fission tracks and delayed-neutron methods) and alpha-particle autoradiography; data is also reported for the uranium content of various USGS standard rock powders. The concentration of uranium in both oceanic and continental samples is similar, levels are controlled by mineral compositions and their relative abundance in different rock types. Highest levels are found in feldspathic and lowest in olivine-rich inclusions. Uranium is enriched in mylonitised samples and along some inter-crystal boundaries. With the exception of some apatites, highest levels of uranium are in clinopyroxenes (chrome) and lowest in olivines; no enrichment of uranium in orthopyroxenes was observed. Attention is drawn to the problem of obtaining representative samples from the sea floor which have not been altered by saline solutions and the identification of uranium and daughter products present along inter-crystal boundaries. Differences in observed heat flow between continental and oceanic areas may reflect inadequate sampling of representative rock types present below the sea floor and lack of information for the true abundance and distribution of uranium in such rocks

  5. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  6. Petrology of the 1995/2000 Magma of Copahue, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, A.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    Phreatomagmatic eruptions of Copahue in July/August,1995 and July/August 2000 produced mixed juvenile clasts, silica-rich debris from the hydrothermal system, and magmatic scoria with 88 percent SiO2. These high-SiO2 clasts carry an as yet unidentified (crystobalite?), euhedral silica phase in great abundance, which is riddled with tan, primary melt inclusions. The mixed clasts have bands of mafic material with small euhedral olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase that are mixed with an intermediate magma with coarser, resorbed phenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, clino- and ortho- pyroxene, and rare occurrences of the silica phase. These ejecta are intimate mixtures of a relatively felsic magma similar to Pleistocene Copahue lavas and a mafic basaltic andesite, with minor contributions of a magma contaminated with silica-rich hydrothermal wallrock material. Two-pyroxene geothermometry indicates crystallization temperatures of 1020 deg - 1045 deg C. Glass inclusions (59-63 percent SiO2) in plagioclase and olivine crystals yield very low volatile contents in the melt (0.4-1.5 percent H2O). The 1995/2000 magmas resided at shallow level and degassed into the active volcano-hydrothermal system which discharges acid fluids into the Copahue crater lake and hot springs. More mafic magma intruded this shallow batch and the mixture rose into the hydrothermal system and assimilated siliceous wall rock. A Ti-diffusion profile in a magnetite crystal suggests that the period between magma mixing and eruption was on the order of 4-10 weeks, and the temperature difference between resident and intruding magma was about 50-60 oC.

  7. Rocks Whose Compositions are Determined by Flow Differentiation of Olivine- and Sulfide Droplet-Laden Magma: the Jinchuan Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Ripley, E. M.; de Waal, S. A.; Xu, Z.

    2002-12-01

    The Jinchuan intrusion in western China is an elongated, deeply-dipping dyke-like body of dominantly olivine-rich ultramafic rocks of high magnesium basaltic magma. It hosts the second largest Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in the world. More than 500 million tones of sulfide ore grading 1.2 percent Ni and 0.7 percent Cu occur mostly as next-textured and disseminated sulfide (pyrrhotite, pentlendite and chalcopyrite) with cumulus olivine in about half of the rocks of the intrusion. Based on different petrological zonations, the Jinchuan intrusion is further divided into three segments: eastern, central and western segments. The central segment is characterized by concentric enrichments of cumulus olivine and sulfide, whereas the eastern and western segments are characterized by the increase of both cumulus olivine and sulfide toward the footwall. The forsterite contents of fresh olivine from different segments are similar and vary between 82 and 86 mole percent. The small range of olivine compositional variation corresponds to less than 6 percent of fractional crystallization. Mass balance calculations based on sulfide solubility in basaltic magma indicate that the volume of the parental magma of the sulfide is many times larger than that which is currently represented in the intrusion. Large amounts of cumulus olivine (more than 40 weight percent) in the marginal samples and high concentrations of sulfide in the intrusion are consistent with an interpretation that the Jinchuan intrusion was formed by olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma ascending through a subvertical conduit to a higher level. Differentiation processes of the olivine- and sulfide droplet-laden magma varied in different parts of the conduit. Sub-vertical flow differentiation controlled the central segment of the conduit, resulting in further enrichment of olivine crystals and sulfide droplets in the conduit center. In contrast, sub-lateral flow and gravitational differentiation dominated in the eastern

  8. Production and Application of Olivine Nano-Silica in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana, Oesman; Haryadi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to produce nano silica by synthesis of nano silica through extraction and dissolution of ground olivine rock, and applied the nano silica in the design concrete mix. The producing process of amorphous silica used sulfuric acid as the dissolution reagent. The separation of ground olivine rock occurred when the rock was heated in a batch reactor containing sulfuric acid. The results showed that the optimum mole ratio of olivine- acid was 1: 8 wherein the weight ratio of the highest nano silica generated. The heating temperature and acid concentration influenced the mass of silica produced, that was at temperature of 90 °C and 3 M acid giving the highest yield of 44.90%. Characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR ) concluded that amorphous silica at a wavenumber of 1089 cm-1 indicated the presence of siloxane, Si-O-Si, stretching bond. Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed the surface and the size of the silica particles. The average size of silica particles was between 1-10 μm due to the rapid aggregation of the growing particles of nano silica into microparticles, caused of the pH control was not fully achieved.

  9. Developing a Hygrometer for Water-Undersaturated Lherzolite Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, M. R.; Till, C. B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of water on the composition of primitive mantle melts at arc volcanoes is a topic of wide interest and has been addressed in a number of previous experimental studies including Hirose & Kawamoto (1995), Gaetani & Grove (1998), Till et al. (2012) and Mitchell & Grove (2015). The current study builds upon the work by previous authors in an effort to develop a more robust hygrometer for primitive lherzolite melts at water-undersaturated conditions. The starting composition for this experimental study is a mixture of 75% primitive upper mantle and 25% primitive basalt (Baker et al., 1991) with a bulk H2O content of 2 wt. %. Experiments were performed at Arizona State University in the Experimental Petrology and Igneous processes Center (EPIC) from 1.2-1.6 GPa at 1150-1300 ºC for 2 days in a piston cylinder apparatus to reflect conditions relevant for arc melt equilibration (Till 2017). A double capsule design was used to prevent Fe and H2O loss with an inner Fe-presaturated Au80Pd20 capsule and an outer Au80Pd20 capsule. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe and determined to be successful when they demonstrated 0-5% Fe-loss, olivine-melt KDs of 0.27-0.30, and minimal H2O loss. The water-undersaturated melt composition are in equilibrium with ol+opx+sp±cpx. Run products at 1.6 GPa do not contain cpx in the mineral assemblage over the studied temperature range. Observed melt compositions have SiO2 contents of 48-49 wt. % at 1.2 GPa and 46-49 wt.% at 1.6 GPa. Our experimental results suggest an enhanced effect of water on increasing the SiO2 content of the melt compared to previous studies on systems with similar water contents and anhydrous systems. Baker, et al., JGR 96, 21819-21842 (1991). Gaetani & Grove, CMP 131, 323-346 (1998). Hirose & Kawamoto, EPSL 133, 463-473 (1995). Mitchell & Grove, CMP 170, 13 (2015). Till, Am. Mineral, 102, 931-947 (2017). Till, et al., JGR 117 (2012).

  10. Catalytic reforming of toluene as tar model compound: effect of Ce and Ce-Mg promoter using Ni/olivine catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Huajian; Hou, Xiaoxue

    2014-02-01

    Tar produced by biomass gasification as a route of renewable energy must be removed before the gas can be used. This study was undertaken using toluene as a model tar compound for evaluating its steam reforming conversion with three Ni-based catalysts, Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. Effects of Ce and Mg promoters on the reaction activity and coke deposition were studied. Overall the performance of Ce and Mg promoted Ni/olivine catalysts is better than that of only Ce promoter and Ni/olivine alone. The experimental results indicate that Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine catalysts could improve the resistance to carbon deposition, enhance energy gases yield and resist 10ppm H2S poison at 100mLmin(-1) for up to 400min. Furthermore, the activity of catalysts was related to the steam/carbon (S/C) ratios; at S/C ratio=5, T=790°C, space velocity=782h(-1) and t=2h, the Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine system yielded 89% toluene conversion, 5.6Lh(-1) product gas rate, 62.6mol% H2 content and 10% (mol useful gas mol(-1) toluene) energy yield. Moreover, at low S/C ratio, it had higher reaction activity and better ability to prevent coking. There is a small amount of carbon deposition in the form of amorphous carbon after 7h. Various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR and thermogravimetric were performed to investigate the coke deposition of Ni/olivine, Ni-Ce/olivine and Ni-Ce-Mg/olivine. It is suggested that 3% Ni-1% Ce-1% Mg/olivine was the most promising catalyst due to its minimum coke amount and the lower activation energy of coke burning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Discerning crystal growth from diffusion profiles in zoned olivine by in situ Mg–Fe isotopic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, Corliss Kin I.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Chaussidon, Marc; Helz, Rosalind T.; Roskosz, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Mineral zoning is used in diffusion-based geospeedometry to determine magmatic timescales. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge to discern mineral zoning produced by diffusion from concentration gradients inherited from crystal growth. A zoned olivine phenocryst from Kilauea Iki lava lake (Hawaii) was selected for this study to evaluate the potential of Mg and Fe isotopes for distinguishing these two processes. Microdrilling of the phenocryst (∼300 μm drill holes) followed by MC-ICPMS analysis of the powders revealed negatively coupled Mg and Fe isotopic fractionations (δ26Mg from +0.1‰ to −0.2‰ and δ56Fe from −1.2‰ to −0.2‰ from core to rim), which can only be explained by Mg–Fe exchange between melt and olivine. The data can be explained with ratios of diffusivities of Mg and Fe isotopes in olivine scaling as D2/D1 = (m1/m2)β with βMg ∼0.16 and βFe ∼0.27. LA-MC-ICPMS and MC-SIMS Fe isotopic measurements are developed and are demonstrated to yield accurate δ56Fe measurements within precisions of ∼0.2‰ (1 SD) at spatial resolutions of ∼50 μm. δ56Fe and δ26Mg stay constant with Fo# in the rim (late-stage overgrowth), whereas in the core (original phenocryst) δ56Fe steeply trends toward lighter compositions and δ26Mg trends toward heavier compositions with higher Fo#. A plot of δ56Fe vs. Fo# immediately distinguishes growth-controlled from diffusion-controlled zoning in these two regions. The results are consistent with the idea that large isotopic fractionation accompanies chemical diffusion in crystals, whereas fractional crystallization induces little or no isotopic fractionation. The cooling timescale inferred from the chemical-isotope zoning profiles is consistent with the documented cooling history of the lava lake. In the absence of geologic context, in situ stable isotopic measurements may now be used to interpret the nature of mineral zoning. Stable isotope measurements by LA-MC-ICPMS and MC

  12. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  13. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, Selcuk [CanmetMATERIALS; Li, Delin [CanmetMATERIALS

    2013-12-31

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  15. What goes up might come down: Backflow in the conduits of persistently degassing volcanoes and ramifications for melt-inclusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, J.; Qin, Z.; Picchi, D.; Keller, T.

    2017-12-01

    Many active volcanoes erupt significantly less magma than they degas, implying that large quantities of magma must descend back into the plumbing system after degassing. The resulting bidirectional flow field in the volcanic conduit is fundamentally unstable. These instabilities are important to understand, because they likely control the episodicity of eruptive behavior observed at persistently degassing volcanoes. Laboratory experiments have provided invaluable insights into the flow regimes that may arise in volcanic conduits, but are not straightforward to scale up to volcanic systems. The goal of this study is to use direct numerical simulations to virtually reproduce the analogue experiments by Stevenson and Blake, 1998, compare them to simple analytical models and gain insights into the different flow regimes and interface instabilities observed in actual volcanic conduits. Direct numerical simulations provide a compelling complement to analogue experiments, because they are not constrained by the scales or flow properties achievable in a laboratory setting. By linking virtual and analogue experiments, we show that the interface between ascending and descending fluid is not usually stationary in volcanic conduits (see fig). The intuition that buoyant, volatile-rich magma moves up while heavy, degassed magma moves down is hence not generally true in bidirectional conduit flow. Instead, our results show that a potentially significant portion of the volatile-rich magma flows downwards despite its positive buoyancy - a process commonly referred to as backflow. The existence of backflow in volcanic conduits has potentially important ramifications for understanding melt-inclusion trends, because it affects exsolved and dissolved volatile components differently. Our preliminary results suggest that carbon dioxide bubbles exsolved at depth tend to decouple from the backflow and escape into the upward moving portion of the fluid, while dissolved water is recycled

  16. Low-temperature plasticity of olivine revisited with in situ TEM nanomechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Hosni; Bollinger, Caroline; Boioli, Francesca; Schryvers, Dominique; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The rheology of the lithospheric mantle is fundamental to understanding how mantle convection couples with plate tectonics. However, olivine rheology at lithospheric conditions is still poorly understood because experiments are difficult in this temperature range where rocks and mineral become very brittle. We combine techniques of quantitative in situ tensile testing in a transmission electron microscope and numerical modeling of dislocation dynamics to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine. We find that the intrinsic ductility of olivine at low temperature is significantly lower than previously reported values, which were obtained under strain-hardened conditions. Using this method, we can anchor rheological laws determined at higher temperature and can provide a better constraint on intermediate temperatures relevant for the lithosphere. More generally, we demonstrate the possibility of characterizing the mechanical properties of specimens, which can be available in the form of submillimeter-sized particles only.

  17. Lattice stability and high-pressure melting mechanism of dense hydrogen up to 1.5 TPa

    KAUST Repository

    Geng, Hua Y.; Hoffmann, R.; Wu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    to estimate the well depth and the potential barriers that must be overcome when the crystal melts. Inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) using path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) predicts that both superheating limit and melting temperature

  18. High Resolution Melting Analysis for fast and cheap polymorphism screening of marine populations

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Isabelle Calves, Sébastien Artigaud, Carolyn S. Friedman, Christine Paillard, Jean Laroche & Claude Ferec ### Abstract This protocol permits the mutation scanning of PCR products by high-resolution DNA melting analysis requiring the inclusion of a saturating intercalating dye in the PCR mix without labelled probe. During a scanning process, fluorescent melting curves of PCR amplicons are analyzed. Mutations modifying melting curve shapes, are allowed...

  19. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  20. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  1. Hydration-reduced lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in Earth's upper mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yun-Yuan; Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Tan, Eh; Chen, Jiuhua

    2017-04-18

    Earth's water cycle enables the incorporation of water (hydration) in mantle minerals that can influence the physical properties of the mantle. Lattice thermal conductivity of mantle minerals is critical for controlling the temperature profile and dynamics of the mantle and subducting slabs. However, the effect of hydration on lattice thermal conductivity remains poorly understood and has often been assumed to be negligible. Here we have precisely measured the lattice thermal conductivity of hydrous San Carlos olivine (Mg 0.9 Fe 0.1 ) 2 SiO 4 (Fo90) up to 15 gigapascals using an ultrafast optical pump-probe technique. The thermal conductivity of hydrous Fo90 with ∼7,000 wt ppm water is significantly suppressed at pressures above ∼5 gigapascals, and is approximately 2 times smaller than the nominally anhydrous Fo90 at mantle transition zone pressures, demonstrating the critical influence of hydration on the lattice thermal conductivity of olivine in this region. Modeling the thermal structure of a subducting slab with our results shows that the hydration-reduced thermal conductivity in hydrated oceanic crust further decreases the temperature at the cold, dry center of the subducting slab. Therefore, the olivine-wadsleyite transformation rate in the slab with hydrated oceanic crust is much slower than that with dry oceanic crust after the slab sinks into the transition zone, extending the metastable olivine to a greater depth. The hydration-reduced thermal conductivity could enable hydrous minerals to survive in deeper mantle and enhance water transportation to the transition zone.

  2. Relict olivines in micrometeorites: Precursors and interactions in the earth`s atmosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J.M.C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J.D.

    is therefore useful for identifying the range of chondrites that contributes to the flux of micrometeorites (Steele, 1985a,b; Steele, 1992). The survival of the relict grains also 3    constrains the temperature the particle may have experienced during... elements present in the relict mineral helps narrow down the precursor with greater precision than the bulk chemical composition (Steele, 1985a, b; 1992), particularly because Mg-rich olivine can be compared with Mg-rich olivine in chondritic components...

  3. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  4. Evolution of the volcanic plumbing systemof Alicudi (Aeolian Islands - Italy: evidence from fluid and melt inclusionsin quartz xenoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peccerillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Quartz-rich xenoliths in lavas (basalts to andesites; 90-30 ka from Alicudi contain abundant melt and fluid inclusions. Two generations of CO2-rich fluid inclusions are present in quartz-rich xenolith grains: early (Type I inclusions related to partial melting of the host xenoliths, and late Type II inclusions related to the fluid trapping during xenolith ascent. Homogenisation temperatures of fluid inclusions correspond to two density intervals: 0.93-0.68 g/cm3 (Type I and 0.47-0.26 g/cm3 (Type II. Early Type I fluid inclusions indicate trapping pressures around 6 kbar, which are representative for the levels of partial melting of crustal rocks and xenolith formation. Late Type II fluid inclusions show lower trapping pressures, between 1.7 kbar and 0.2 kbar, indicative for shallow magma rest and accumulation during ascent to the surface. Data suggest the presence of two magma reservoirs: the first is located at lower crustal depths (about 24 km, site of fractional crystallization, mixing with source derived magma, and various degrees of crustal assimilation. The second magma reservoir is located at shallow crustal depths (about 6 km, the site where magma rested for a short time before erupting.

  5. Chemical differences between small subsamples of Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Vetter, S. K.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the chemical and petrological characterization of nine samples of an Apollo 15 mare basalt suite. The results show that all nine samples are low-silica olivine normative basalts (ONBs) similar to those described earlier for low-silica ONBs from Apollo 15 site. The samples were found to vary in texture and grain size, from fine-grained intergranular or subophitic basalts to coarse-grained granular 'microgabbros'. Several displayed macroscopic heterogeneity. Variation diagrams show that the overall trend of the data is consistent with the fractionation of olivine (plus minor Cr-spinel) from a high-MgO parent magma.

  6. Eutectic melting temperature of the lowermost Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrault, D.; Lo Nigro, G.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.

    2009-12-01

    Partial melting of the Earth's deep mantle probably occurred at different stages of its formation as a consequence of meteoritic impacts and seismology suggests that it even continues today at the core-mantle boundary. Melts are important because they dominate the chemical evolution of the different Earth's reservoirs and more generally the dynamics of the whole planet. Unfortunately, the most critical parameter, that is the temperature profile inside the deep Earth, remains poorly constrained accross the planet history. Experimental investigations of the melting properties of materials representative of the deep Earth at relevant P-T conditions can provide anchor points to refine past and present temperature profiles and consequently determine the degree of melting at the different geological periods. Previous works report melting relations in the uppermost lower mantle region, using the multi-anvil press [1,2]. On the other hand, the pyrolite solidus was determined up to 65 GPa using optical observations in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) [3]. Finally, the melting temperature of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine is documented at core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions by shock wave experiments [4]. Solely based on these reports, experimental data remain too sparse to draw a definite melting curve for the lower mantle in the relevant 25-135 GPa pressure range. We reinvestigated melting properties of lower mantle materials by means of in-situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements in the LH-DAC at the ESRF [5]. Experiments were performed in an extended P-T range for two starting materials: forsterite and a glass with chondrite composition. In both cases, the aim was to determine the onset of melting, and thus the eutectic melting temperatures as a function of pressure. Melting was evidenced from drastic changes of diffraction peak shape on the image plate, major changes in diffraction intensities in the integrated pattern, disappearance of diffraction rings

  7. Deriving global Olivine distribution on Hayabusa's target (25143) Itokawa using Near-Infrared Spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, L.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Galiano, A.; Dirri, F.

    2017-09-01

    In 2005 Hayabusa spacecraft visited asteroid Itokawa, bringing back surface samples to Earth in 2010. Near-Infrared data taken by NIRS and samples analysis confirmed hypothesis made through ground-based observations, in particular the one that sees Itokawa as an LL-chondrite like asteroid processed by space weathering. In this work, we apply spectral indices for olivine detection. In particular, we define the BAR* and relate it to the olivine abundance, by means of calibration on laboratory data. We present the distribution of BAR* calculated for nearly 38.000 spectra taken from an altitude of 3.5-7 km, defined as Home Position, which was the longest mission observation phase. In addition, a plot of olivine normalized content versus BAR* for RELAB compounds is given.

  8. A new approach to reconstructing the composition and evolution of kimberlite melts: A case study of the archetypal Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Ashton; Giuliani, Andrea; Phillips, David

    2018-04-01

    The compositions of kimberlite melts at depth and upon emplacement in the upper crust remain elusive. This can be attributed to the unquantified effects of multiple processes, such as alteration, assimilation, xenocryst contamination, and fractional crystallisation. The inability to accurately constrain the composition and physical properties of kimberlite melts prevents a comprehensive understanding of their petrogenesis. To improve constraints on the compositions of kimberlite melts, we have combined modal analysis including the discrimination of xenocrystic from magmatic phases, with mineral chemistry determinations to reconstruct a whole-rock composition. We apply this approach to a sample of "fresh" macrocrystic hypabyssal kimberlite (sample BK-1) from the Bultfontein mine (Kimberley, South Africa). The accuracy of this whole-rock reconstruction method is validated by the similarity between reconstructed and measured whole-rock compositions. A series of corrections are then applied to account for the effects of post-emplacement serpentinisation, pre-emplacement olivine crystallisation, and the inclusion and assimilation of mantle material. This approach permits discernment of melt compositions at different stages of kimberlite evolution. The primitive melt parental to the Bultfontein kimberlite is estimated to contain 17.4-19.0 wt% SiO2, 20.2-22.8 wt% MgO, 20.9-21.9 wt% CaO, 2.1-2.3 wt% P2O5, 1.2-1.4 wt% TiO2, 0.9-1.1 wt% Al2O3, and 0.6-0.7 wt% K2O, and has a Mg# of 83.4-84.4. Primary volatile contents (i.e., after an attempt to account for volatile loss) are tentatively estimated at 2.1-2.2 wt% H2O and 22.9-25.4 wt% CO2. This composition is deficient in SiO2, MgO and H2O, but enriched in CaO and CO2 compared with most previous estimates of primitive kimberlite melts. We suggest that the primitive melt parental to the Bultfontein kimberlite was a transitional silicate-carbonate melt, which was progressively enriched in SiO2, MgO, Al2O3, Cr2O3, and Na2O through

  9. Experiments and geochemical modelling of CO{sub 2} sequestration by olivine: Potential, quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B., E-mail: Bruno.Garcia@ifp.fr [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Beaumont, V.; Perfetti, E.; Rouchon, V.; Blanchet, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Oger, P.; Dromart, G. [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5570, ENS de Lyon, Site Monod, 15 Parvis Rene Descartes BP 7000, Lyon F-69342 (France); Huc, A.-Y.; Haeseler, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2010-09-15

    Aqueous solutions equilibrated with supercritical CO{sub 2} (150 deg. C and total pressure of 150 bar) were investigated in order to characterize their respective conditions of carbonation. Dissolution of olivine and subsequent precipitation of magnesite with a net consumption of CO{sub 2} were expected. A quantified pure mineral phase (powders with different olivine grain diameter [20-80 {mu}m], [80-125 {mu}m], [125-200 {mu}m] and [>200 {mu}m]), and CO{sub 2} (as dried ice) were placed in closed-batch reactors (soft Au tubes) in the presence of solutions. Different salinities (from 0 to 3400 mM) and different ratios of solution/solid (mineral phase) (from 0.1 to 10) were investigated. Experiments were performed over periods from 2 to 8 weeks. Final solid products were quantified by the Rock-Eval 6 technique, and identified using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Gaseous compounds were quantified by a vacuum line equipped with a Toepler pump and identified and measured by gas chromatography (GC). Carbon mass balances were calculated. Olivine reacted completely with CO{sub 2}, trapping up to 57 {+-} 2% (eqC of initial CO{sub 2}) as magnesite; some amorphous silica also formed. Olivine grain diameter and solution/mineral ratios appeared to be the primary controls on the reaction, salinity acting as a second order parameter. During the experiments, fluid analyses may not be performed with approach adopted but, geochemical modelling was attempted to give information about the solution composition. This showed an interesting mineral matrix evolution. Under the experimental conditions, olivine appeared to be a good candidate for CO{sub 2} trapping into a geologically stable carbonate, magnesite. The possible use of mafic and ultramafic rocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration is discussed.

  10. Geometrically necessary dislocation densities in olivine obtained using high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, David, E-mail: davidwa@earth.ox.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Hansen, Lars N. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Ben Britton, T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Angus J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Dislocations in geological minerals are fundamental to the creep processes that control large-scale geodynamic phenomena. However, techniques to quantify their densities, distributions, and types over critical subgrain to polycrystal length scales are limited. The recent advent of high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), based on diffraction pattern cross-correlation, offers a powerful new approach that has been utilised to analyse dislocation densities in the materials sciences. In particular, HR-EBSD yields significantly better angular resolution (<0.01°) than conventional EBSD (~0.5°), allowing very low dislocation densities to be analysed. We develop the application of HR-EBSD to olivine, the dominant mineral in Earth's upper mantle by testing (1) different inversion methods for estimating geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities, (2) the sensitivity of the method under a range of data acquisition settings, and (3) the ability of the technique to resolve a variety of olivine dislocation structures. The relatively low crystal symmetry (orthorhombic) and few slip systems in olivine result in well constrained GND density estimates. The GND density noise floor is inversely proportional to map step size, such that datasets can be optimised for analysing either short wavelength, high density structures (e.g. subgrain boundaries) or long wavelength, low amplitude orientation gradients. Comparison to conventional images of decorated dislocations demonstrates that HR-EBSD can characterise the dislocation distribution and reveal additional structure not captured by the decoration technique. HR-EBSD therefore provides a highly effective method for analysing dislocations in olivine and determining their role in accommodating macroscopic deformation. - Highlights: • Lattice orientation gradients in olivine were measured using HR-EBSD. • The limited number of olivine slip systems enable simple least squares inversion for GND

  11. Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references

  12. Formation of Diastereoisomeric Piperazine-2,5-dione from dl-Alanine in the Presence of Olivine and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchida, Shigeshi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Masuda, Harue

    2017-03-01

    dl-Alanine (Ala) was heated with/without powdered olivine and water at 120 °C for 8 days to investigate the formation of the diastereoisomers of piperazine-2,5-dione (diketopiperazine, DKP). When only dl-Ala was heated with a small amount of water, 3.0 % of dl-Ala changed to cis- and trans-DKP after 8 days. DKPs were not detected after heating when no water was added. The presence of a small amount of water is important factor controlling peptide production rates under thermal conditions. When DL-Ala was heated with olivine powder for 8 days, the yields of cis- and trans-DKP were 6.8 and 4.9 %, respectively. The high yield of cis-DKP compared with trans-DKP was attributed to greater thermal stability of cis-DKP. After heating for 8 days, the diastereoisomeric excess of cis-DKP without olivine was 7.3 %, whereas a much higher value of 16.3 % was obtained in the presence of olivine. Taken together, these results show that olivine is not only an efficient catalyst for the formation of DKPs but that it also play a significant role in determining the diastereoisomer selectivity of these cyclic dipeptides.

  13. Reworking of Archean mantle in the NE Siberian craton by carbonatite and silicate melt metasomatism: Evidence from a carbonate-bearing, dunite-to-websterite xenolith suite from the Obnazhennaya kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitri A.; Doucet, Luc S.; Xu, Yigang; Golovin, Alexander V.; Oleinikov, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The Obnazhennaya kimberlite in the NE Siberian craton hosts a most unusual cratonic xenolith suite, with common rocks rich in pyroxenes and garnet, and no sheared peridotites. We report petrographic and chemical data for whole rocks (WR) and minerals of 20 spinel and garnet peridotites from Obnazhennaya with Re-depletion Os isotope ages of 1.8-2.9 Ga (Ionov et al., 2015a) as well as 2 pyroxenites. The garnet-bearing rocks equilibrated at 1.6-2.8 GPa and 710-1050 °C. Some xenoliths contain vermicular spinel-pyroxene aggregates with REE patterns in clinopyroxene mimicking those of garnet. The peridotites show significant scatter of Mg# (0.888-0.924), Cr2O3 (0.2-1.4 wt.%) and high NiO (0.3-0.4 wt.%). None are pristine melting residues. Low-CaO-Al2O3 (≤0.9 wt.%) dunites and harzburgites are melt-channel materials. Peridotites with low to moderate Al2O3 (0.4-1.8 wt.%) usually have CaO > Al2O3, and some have pockets of calcite texturally equilibrated with olivine and garnet. Such carbonates, exceptional in mantle xenoliths and reported here for the first time for the Siberian mantle, provide direct evidence for modal makeover and Ca and LREE enrichments by ephemeral carbonate-rich melts. Peridotites rich in CaO and Al2O3 (2.7-8.0 wt.%) formed by reaction with silicate melts. We infer that the mantle lithosphere beneath Obnazhennaya, initially formed in the Mesoarchean, has been profoundly modified. Pervasive inter-granular percolation of highly mobile and reactive carbonate-rich liquids may have reduced the strength of the mantle lithosphere leading the way for reworking by silicate melts. The latest events before the kimberlite eruption were the formation of the carbonate-phlogopite pockets, fine-grained pyroxenite veins and spinel-pyroxene symplectites. The reworked lithospheric sections are preserved at Obnazhennaya, but similar processes could erode lithospheric roots in the SE Siberian craton (Tok) and the North China craton, where ancient melting residues and

  14. Olivine on Vesta as exogenous contaminants brought by impacts: Constraints from modeling Vesta's collisional history and from impact simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, D.; Svetsov, V.; Consolmagno, G.; Sirono, S.; Pirani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The survival of asteroid Vesta during the violent early history of the Solar System is a pivotal constraint on theories of planetary formation. Particularly important from this perspective is the amount of olivine excavated from the vestan mantle by impacts, as this constrains both the interior structure of Vesta and the number of major impacts the asteroid suffered during its life. The NASA Dawn mission revealed that olivine is present on Vesta's surface in limited quantities, concentrated in small patches at a handful of sites not associated with the two large impact basins Rheasilvia and Veneneia. The first detections were interpreted as the result of the excavation of endogenous olivine, even if the depth at which the detected olivine originated was a matter of debate. Later works raised instead the possibility that the olivine had an exogenous origin, based on the geologic and spectral features of the deposits. In this work, we quantitatively explore the proposed scenario of a exogenous origin for the detected vestan olivine to investigate whether its presence on Vesta can be explained as a natural outcome of the collisional history of the asteroid over the last one or more billion years. To perform this study we took advantage of the impact contamination model previously developed to study the origin and amount of dark and hydrated materials observed by Dawn on Vesta, a model we updated by performing dedicated hydrocode impact simulations. We show that the exogenous delivery of olivine by the same impacts that shaped the vestan surface can offer a viable explanation for the currently identified olivine-rich sites without violating the constraint posed by the lack of global olivine signatures on Vesta. Our results indicate that no mantle excavation is in principle required to explain the observations of the Dawn mission and support the idea that the vestan crust could be thicker than indicated by simple geochemical models based on the Howardite

  15. Dielectric and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel; Pala, Zdeněk; Kotlan, Jiří; Soumar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2015), s. 600-616 ISSN 1221-1451. [International Conference on Plasma Physics and Applications/16./. Magurele, Bucharest, 20.06.2013-25.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : olivine * plasma spraying * dielectric properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2015 www.infim.ro/rrp

  16. Aligning petrology with geophysics: the Father's Day intrusion and eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, L. C.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Poland, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Father's Day 2007 eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i, is an unprecedented opportunity to align geochemical techniques with the exceptionally detailed volcano monitoring data collected by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Increased CO2 emissions were measured during a period of inflation at the summit of Kilauea in 2003-2007, suggesting that the rate of magma supply to the summit had increased [Poland et al., 2012]. The June 2007 Father's Day eruption in the East Rift Zone (ERZ) occurred at the peak of the summit inflation. It offers the potential to sample magmas that have ascended on short timescales prior to 2007 from the lower crust, and perhaps mantle, with limited fractionation in the summit reservoir. The bulk rock composition of the lavas erupted are certainly consistent with this idea, with >8.5 wt% MgO compared to a typical 7.0-7.5 wt% for contemporaneous Pu`u`O`o ERZ lavas. However, our analysis of the major and trace element chemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions shows that the melts are in fact relatively evolved, with Mg# eruptions, e.g. Kīlauea Iki. The magma evidently entrained a crystal cargo of more primitive olivines, compositionally typical of summit eruption magma (with 81-84 mol% Fo). The melt inclusion chemistry shows homogenized and narrowly distributed trace element ratios, medium/low CO2 abundances and high concentrations of sulfur (unlike typical ERZ magmas). However, the chemistry is unlike melts that have partially bypassed the summit reservoir, e.g. those erupted at Kīlauea Iki, Mauna Ulu. We suggest that the Father's Day magma had been resident in the magma reservoir prior to the 2003-2007 inflation, and was evacuated from the reservoir into the ERZ in response to the increased rate of intrusion of magma from depth. Dissolved volatile contents along profiles in embayments ("open" melt inclusions) were measured and compared to diffusion models to predict timescales of magma decompression prior to eruption. These are

  17. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  18. Depleted and metasomatized oceanic lithosphere beneath La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, Astrid; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of Earth's interior, xenoliths became the best possibility to study the chemical composition of the earth mantle as well as its various processes. Three samples out of the sample suite of mantle peridotites from San Antonio Volcano on La Palma, Canary Islands, have been chosen to illustrate three examples of diverse mantle metasomatic events. The first sample, a pyroxene-hornblende-peridotite, was influenced by an alkali-rich, silicic-hydrous undersaturated melt and/or fluid forming a conspicuous cross-cutting amphibole-apatite-dyke with several veins percolating through the rock. Forsterite content in olivine varies between 82.5 - 85.5 and 86.0 - 89.0, suggesting at least two different occurrences of metasomatic overprint. Clinopyroxenes are mostly found in association with amphibole and in textural equilibrium hinting that both minerals may have grown together, while orthopyroxene have only been found as remnant inclusions in olivine. These clinopyroxenes are Cr-Diopsides with En43.40-50.97-Wo43.99-48.64-Fs4.30-8.22 and Mg# between 85.54 and 92.36. Secondary clinopyroxenes are Ti-Augites with En39.86-46.81-Wo46.65-51.98-Fs5.86-8.72 and Mg# of 82.44 - 89.09. The second sample, a sp-dunite, is characterized by haüyne-bearing melt veins which clearly indicate host-basalt infiltration. The haüyne is always in contact with amphibole, spinel and clinopyroxene denoting that they have been formed at the same time because there is no evidence for reaction among these phases. The melt infiltration apparently took place prior to xenolith entrainment in the host basalt. Primary olivine has Fo content of 89.57 - 89.67 with NiO ranging from 0.32 - 0.334, in contrast Fo content in secondary olivine varies from 89.05 - 90.86 and NiO fluctuates between 0.24 - 0.31. Cr-Diopside compositions are in range of En41.63-47.05-Wo47.83-51-90-Fs4.93-6.64 and Mg# between 86.48 - 90.50. The third sample is also a sp-dunite and marked by a network of phlogopite

  19. Theoretical Prediction of Melting Relations in the Deep Mantle: the Phase Diagram Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, D.; Ottonello, G. A.; Vetuschi Zuccolini, M.; Attene, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the outstanding progress in computer technology and experimental facilities, understanding melting phase relations in the deep mantle is still an open challenge. In this work a novel computational scheme to predict melting relations at HP-HT by a combination of first principles DFT calculations, polymer chemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics is presented and discussed. The adopted theoretical framework is physically-consistent and allows to compute multi-component phase diagrams relevant to Earth's deep interior in a broad range of P-T conditions by a convex-hull algorithm for Gibbs free energy minimisation purposely developed for high-rank simplexes. The calculated phase diagrams are in turn used as a source of information to gain new insights on the P-T-X evolution of magmas in the deep mantle, providing some thermodynamic constraints to both present-day and early Earth melting processes. High-pressure melting curves of mantle silicates are also obtained as by-product of phase diagram calculation. Application of the above method to the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MAS) ternary system highlights as pressure effects are not only able to change the nature of melting of some minerals (like olivine and pyroxene) from eutectic to peritectic (and vice versa), but also simplify melting relations by drastically reducing the number of phases with a primary phase field at HP-HT conditions. It turns out that mineral phases like Majorite-Pyrope garnet and Anhydrous Phase B (Mg14Si5O24), which are often disregarded in modelling melting processes of mantle assemblages, are stable phases at solidus or liquidus conditions in a P-T range compatible with the mantle transition zone (i.e. P = 16 - 23 GPa and T = 2200 - 2700 °C) when their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties are properly assessed. Financial support to the Senior Author (D.B.) during his stay as Invited Scientist at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP, Paris) is warmly acknowledged.

  20. Refining of high-temperature uranium melt by filtration through foam-ceramic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiferov, V.N.; Porozova, S.E.; Filippov, V.B.; Shtutsa, M.G.; Il'enko, E.V.; Kolotygina, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    An opportunity of applying foam-ceramic filters of corundum-mullite composition has been studied in refining natural uranium melts. Uranium melting conditions were chosen depending on technical characteristics of the foam ceramic filters. When their using, a portion of nonmetallic inclusions decreases by 20-30% (as little as 2.0-3.5% ingot weight), their size is reduced and their distribution in the ingot volume is equalized, contamination of uranium by the filter material being failed to be noticed. The parameters of foam-ceramic filters are optimized for provision of stable characteristics of uranium melt filtration process [ru

  1. Molten (Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4 at lower mantle conditions - Melting products and structure of quenched glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Quentin

    1990-01-01

    Infrared spectra of quenched magnesium silicate glasses synthesized by fusing olivine at pressures in excess of 50 GPa and temperatures greater than 2500 K demonstrate that silicon is dominantly present in four-fold coordination with respect to oxygen within these quenched glasses. This low coordination is attributed, by analogy with the structural behavior of glasses compressed at 300 K, to the instability of higher coordinations in glasses of these compositions on decompression. Spectra of glasses formed in a hydrous environment document that water is extensively soluble in melts at these high pressures and temperatures. Also, these results are consistent with the melting of (Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4 compositions to liquids near pyroxene in stoichiometry under these conditions, with iron-rich magnesiowuestite being the liquidus phase.

  2. Olivine weathering in soil, and its effects on growth and nutrient uptake in Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.: a pot experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein F M ten Berge

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation of basic silicate minerals regulates atmospheric CO(2 on geological time scales by locking up carbon. Mining and spreading onto the earth's surface of fast-weathering silicates, such as olivine, has been proposed to speed up this natural CO(2 sequestration ('enhanced weathering'. While agriculture may offer an existing infrastructure, weathering rate and impacts on soil and plant are largely unknown. Our objectives were to assess weathering of olivine in soil, and its effects on plant growth and nutrient uptake. In a pot experiment with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L., weathering during 32 weeks was inferred from bioavailability of magnesium (Mg in soil and plant. Olivine doses were equivalent to 1630 (OLIV1, 8150, 40700 and 204000 (OLIV4 kg ha(-1. Alternatively, the soluble Mg salt kieserite was applied for reference. Olivine increased plant growth (+15.6% and plant K concentration (+16.5% in OLIV4. At all doses, olivine increased bioavailability of Mg and Ni in soil, as well as uptake of Mg, Si and Ni in plants. Olivine suppressed Ca uptake. Weathering estimated from a Mg balance was equivalent to 240 kg ha(-1 (14.8% of dose, OLIV1 to 2240 kg ha(-1 (1.1%, OLIV4. This corresponds to gross CO(2 sequestration of 290 to 2690 kg ha(-1 (29 10(3 to 269 10(3 kg km(-2. Alternatively, weathering estimated from similarity with kieserite treatments ranged from 13% to 58% for OLIV1. The Olsen model for olivine carbonation predicted 4.0% to 9.0% weathering for our case, independent of olivine dose. Our % values observed at high doses were smaller than this, suggesting negative feedbacks in soil. Yet, weathering appears fast enough to support the 'enhanced weathering' concept. In agriculture, olivine doses must remain within limits to avoid imbalances in plant nutrition, notably at low Ca availability; and to avoid Ni accumulation in soil and crop.

  3. Vacuum induction melting of uranium ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.M.; Bagchi, S.N.; Singh, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Massive uranium ingot is produced from green salt (UF 4 ) using calciothermic reduction (CTR) or magnesiothermic reduction (MTR) process. CTR process has been replaced by MTR process at Trombay due to economic considerations. This paper highlights problems associated with the vacuum induction melting of MTR ingots and the remedial measures taken to produce good quality billets. Details of metallographic examination of inclusions in ingots and billets have been incorporated. (author). 3 figs

  4. Steam reforming of bio-oil from coconut shell pyrolysis over Fe/olivine catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Cui; Xu, Shaoping; Zhou, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam reforming of the actual bio-oil was investigated with Fe/olivine catalyst. • Most of phenols in bio-oil were converted into gas products. • A carbon conversion of 97.2% was obtained under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Catalytic steam reforming of coconut shell pyrolysis bio-oil over Fe/olivine catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The effects of calcination temperature, iron loading, reaction temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), bio-oil weight hourly space velocity (W b HSV) on gas composition and carbon conversion were investigated. The results indicate that Fe/olivine has good activity for steam reforming of bio-oil, the couple Fe 2+/3+ /Fe 2+ may be sufficiently efficient for C–C, C–O and C–H breaking. After steam reforming, most of the phenolics in pyrolysis oil are converted into light molecular compounds such as H 2 , CO, CO 2 , and CH 4 . The H 2 concentration and carbon conversion were enhanced by increasing reaction temperature from 750 to 800 °C and the S/C from 1.5 to 2, but decreased with increasing calcination temperature. In the W b HSV range of 0.5–0.6, the hydrogen concentration decreased obviously, whereas it decreased slightly by further increasing W b HSV. The highest hydrogen concentration of 47.6 vol% was obtained among the catalysts tested, and the best carbon conversion was 97.2% over 10% Fe/olivine catalyst under the reforming conditions of temperature = 800 °C, W b HSV = 0.5, S/C = 2.

  5. Olivine, dolomite and ceramic filters in one vessel to produce clean gas from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2018-01-01

    Heavy organic compounds produced during almond shells gasification in a steam and/or air atmosphere, usually called tar, are drastically reduced in the product gas by using simultaneously in one vessel a ceramic filter placed in the freeboard and a mixture of olivine and dolomite particles in the fluidized bed of the gasifier. The content of tar in the product gas during a reference gasification test with air, in presence of fresh olivine particles only, was 8600mg/Nm 3 of dry gas. By gasifying biomass with steam at the same temperature level of 820°C in a bed of olivine and dolomite (20% by weight), and in the presence of a catalytic ceramic filter inserted in the freeboard of the fluidized bed gasifier, the level of tar was brought down to 57mg/Nm 3 of dry producct gas, with a decrease of more than two orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modification of Alumina and Spinel Inclusions by Calcium in Liquid Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neerav

    2011-12-01

    Steel Cleanliness plays a crucial role in determining steel properties such as toughness, ductility, formability, corrosion resistance and surface quality. The production of clean steel often involves the elimination or chemical and morphological modification of oxide and sulfide inclusions. Along with deteriorating the steel properties, solid inclusions can affect steel castability through nozzle clogging. Nozzle clogging occurs when solid inclusions accumulate in the caster pouring system such as the ladle shroud or submerged entry nozzle (SEN). Thus, it is important to understand how to achieve desired inclusion characteristics (shape, size and chemistry) through the steelmaking process. Among the various practices adopted in industries to counteract the effect of solid inclusions, modification of solid inclusions to liquid or partially liquid state through calcium treatment is one of the methods. Calcium can be used because it has a strong ability to form oxides and sulfides. In Al-killed steels, the most common inclusions are alumina (Al2O3) inclusions, which are solid at steelmaking temperatures. On calcium treatment, solid alumina inclusions are converted to calcium aluminates, which have liquidus temperatures lower than steelmaking temperature (1600°C) [14]. It has been found that alumina inclusions may contain some MgO and such inclusions are termed alumina magnesia spinels (Al2O3.xMgO) [18]. These spinels are more stable than alumina and it has been suggested that they might be more difficult to modify [18]. But, some authors have proposed that MgO can actually help in the liquefaction of inclusions, and have demonstrated successful modification of spinels by Ca treatment [20, 21]. In the present research, the mechanism of transformation of alumina and spinel inclusions upon calcium treatment was studied by characterizing transient evolution of inclusions. A vacuum induction was used for melting, making additions (Al, Al-Mg and CaSi2) and sampling. The

  7. PIXE and light element analysis (C,N) in glass inclusions trapped in meteorites with the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.E.; Mosbah, M.; Metrich, N.; Duraud, J.P.; Kurat, G.

    1999-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and light element analysis have been performed with the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (Saclay-France) in glass inclusions of the carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Kaba and Renazzo, and in the achondrite meteorite: Chassigny. Carbon contents in olivine of chondrules are below the nuclear reactions analysis (NRA) detection limit, however, glasses from glass inclusions hosted by these grains, contain an appreciable and highly variable quantities of carbon (200-1600 ppm). This could indicate variable amounts of C trapped during glass inclusion formation. On the other hand, nitrogen is present in highly variable amounts in glasses of both, chondrites and achondrites minerals. Its abundance, correlated with depth from the section surface which suggests loss of N during analyses and therefore the possible existence of a very mobile (volatile?) species. A chondritic Rb/Sr and K/Rb ratio obtained by PIXE analyses in the glass-bearing inclusions of the Chassigny meteorite points towards a primitive source for the glass precursor of Chassigny inclusions

  8. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M; Rimstidt, J Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J

    2017-07-14

    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H 2 O activity decreases.

  9. Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid, Hector M.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Klein, Frieder; Ulrich, Sarah; Dolocan, Andrei; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2017-07-01

    The hydrothermal alteration of mantle rocks (referred to as serpentinization) occurs in submarine environments extending from mid-ocean ridges to subduction zones. Serpentinization affects the physical and chemical properties of oceanic lithosphere, represents one of the major mechanisms driving mass exchange between the mantle and the Earth's surface, and is central to current origin of life hypotheses as well as the search for microbial life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. In spite of increasing interest in the serpentinization process by researchers in diverse fields, the rates of serpentinization and the controlling factors are poorly understood. Here we use a novel in situ experimental method involving olivine micro-reactors and show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity (water activity) of the reacting fluid and demonstrate that the rate of serpentinization of olivine slows down as salinity increases and H2O activity decreases.

  10. Straightforward Downsizing of Inclusions in NiTi Alloys: A New Generation of SMA Wires with Outstanding Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Alberto; Cadelli, Andrea; Zanella, Matteo; Fumagalli, Luca

    2018-03-01

    One of most debated aspects around Nitinol quality is microcleanliness, nowadays considered as the main factor affecting fatigue life. Recent results demonstrate that fatigue is undoubtedly associated with inclusions which can act as crack initiators. However, type, size, and distribution of such particles have been observed to strongly depend on Ni/Ti ratio as well as melting and thermo-mechanical processes. Therefore, if a general reduction of non-metallic inclusions is expected to generate a beneficial effect in improving lifetime of Nitinol, on the other hand this necessarily involves a hard review of both material melting and processing. In this work, the characterization of the fatigue behavior of SMA wires with diameter below 100 µm is presented. The wires were prepared by a peculiar, non-standard combination of melting and thermo-mechanical processes (Clean Melt technology). Thermo-mechanical cycling was carried out and the fracture surfaces of all failed wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. A robust set of data was collected and analyzed by using the statistics of extremes. Results clearly demonstrate that in the new NiTi Clean Melt alloy the maximum inclusion size and area fraction are significantly reduced compared to standard Nitinol. This offers meaningful improvement in fatigue resistance over standard wires.

  11. The Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Olivine Nano-Silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griend, van de M.C; Lazaro, A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the effects of ripening the olivine nano-silica to form particles with a lower specific surface area for optimal use in high performance concrete. The nano-silica was ripened using a hydrothermal treatment in a mixed batch reactor at 90 C, pH ranging from 8 to 10

  12. Highly CO2-supersaturated melts in the Pannonian lithospheric mantle - A transient carbon reservoir?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créon, Laura; Rouchon, Virgile; Youssef, Souhail; Rosenberg, Elisabeth; Delpech, Guillaume; Szabó, Csaba; Remusat, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Smail; Asimow, Paul D.; Antoshechkina, Paula M.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Boller, Elodie; Guyot, François

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of carbonated crust is widely believed to generate a flux of carbon into the base of the continental lithospheric mantle, which in turn is the likely source of widespread volcanic and non-volcanic CO2 degassing in active tectonic intracontinental settings such as rifts, continental margin arcs and back-arc domains. However, the magnitude of the carbon flux through the lithosphere and the budget of stored carbon held within the lithospheric reservoir are both poorly known. We provide new constraints on the CO2 budget of the lithospheric mantle below the Pannonian Basin (Central Europe) through the study of a suite of xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field. Trails of secondary fluid inclusions, silicate melt inclusions, networks of melt veins, and melt pockets with large and abundant vesicles provide numerous lines of evidence that mantle metasomatism affected the lithosphere beneath this region. We obtain a quantitative estimate of the CO2 budget of the mantle below the Pannonian Basin using a combination of innovative analytical and modeling approaches: (1) synchrotron X-ray microtomography, (2) NanoSIMS, Raman spectroscopy and microthermometry, and (3) thermodynamic models (Rhyolite-MELTS). The three-dimensional volumes reconstructed from synchrotron X-ray microtomography allow us to quantify the proportions of all petrographic phases in the samples and to visualize their textural relationships. The concentration of CO2 in glass veins and pockets ranges from 0.27 to 0.96 wt.%, higher than in typical arc magmas (0-0.25 wt.% CO2), whereas the H2O concentration ranges from 0.54 to 4.25 wt.%, on the low end for estimated primitive arc magmas (1.9-6.3 wt.% H2O). Trapping pressures for vesicles were determined by comparing CO2 concentrations in glass to CO2 saturation as a function of pressure in silicate melts, suggesting pressures between 0.69 to 1.78 GPa. These values are generally higher than trapping pressures for fluid inclusions

  13. Implications of Zn/Fe ratios for the sources of Colorado Plateau basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzitis, S.; Reid, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Early Miocene to recent mafic magmatism migrated across the Arizona Transition Zone towards the center of the stable Colorado Plateau at a rate of ~ 3-6 km/Myr (Roy et al., 2009). Present-day volcanic centers are close to a stepwise change in the thickness of the lithosphere between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range. Accordingly, volcanic migration might track progressive thinning of the lithosphere towards the center of the Colorado Plateau. This project aims to determine the conditions of melt generation across the transition zone in order to investigate the temporal/spatial correlation between volcanism and thinning of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere. Pressure and temperature estimates for Colorado Plateau basalts can be obtained from the Mg and Si contents of melts (Lee et al, 2009) but require melting of a peridotitic source. Eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths reported in Colorado Plateau basalts show that melt sources could be olivine-poor. Zn/Fe ratios in melts can help to distinguish contributions from olivine-poor sources because they are sensitive to differences in bulk chemistry and to mineralogy (Le Roux et al., 2010). Specifically, Zn/Fe is not fractionated between melt, olivine, and orthopyroxene, but is highly fractionated when clinopyroxene and garnet are present. Our work to date has focused on laser ablation-IC-PMS analysis of individual olivine grains from high-Mg basalts (>8.0 wt. %) from the San Francisco and Mormon Mountain volcanic fields. Preliminary values of Zn/Fe ratios that represent the averages of multiple analyses of several grains in individual samples range from 7.9 to 9.3 (x10000). Variations of up to 1.7 (x10000) in the ratios exist between individual grains within samples and could be the result of co-crystallization of clinopyroxene with olivine. The lowest values in each sample should approach the Zn/Fe ratios of parental melts, and are, in turn, similar to MORB values and predicted peridotite melts. The results suggest

  14. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-. Cretaceous are ... produce a new scene that has the best of orig- ... developed from an olivine basalt parent magma, ..... Marcelino E, Formaggio A and Maeda E 2009 Landslide.

  15. Evolved Rocks in Ocean Islands Formed by Melting of Metasomatized Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Torsvik, T. H.; Horvath, P.; Harris, C.; Webb, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Corfu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Evolved rocks like trachyte occur as minor components of many plume-related basaltic ocean islands (e.g. Hawaii, Gran Canaria, Azores, Réunion), and are typically interpreted as products of extreme fractional crystallization from broadly basaltic magmas. Trachytes from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) suggest otherwise. Here, 6.8 Ma nepheline-bearing trachytes (SiO2 ~63%, Na2O + K2O ~12%) are enriched in all incompatible elements except Ba, Sr and Eu, which show prominent negative anomalies. Initial eNd values cluster at 4.03 ± 0.15 (n = 13), near the lower end of the range for Mauritian basalts (eNd = 3.70 - 5.75), but initial Sr is highly variable (ISr = 0.70408 - 0.71034) suggesting secondary deuteric alteration. Fractional crystallization models starting with a basaltic parent fail, because when plagioclase joins olivine in the crystallizing assemblage, residual liquids become depleted in Al2O3, produce no nepheline, and do not approach trachytic compositions. Mauritian basalts and trachytes do not fall near the ends of known miscibility gaps, eliminating liquid immiscibility processes. Partial melting of extant gabbroic bodies, either from the oceanic crust or from Réunion plume-related magmas should yield quartz-saturated melts different from the critically undersaturated Mauritian trachytes. A remaining possibility is that the trachytes represent direct, small-degree partial melts of fertile, perhaps metasomatized mantle. This is supported by the presence of trachytic glasses in many mantle xenoliths, and experimental results show that low-degree trachytic melts can be produced from mantle peridotites even under anhydrous conditions. If some feldspar is left behind as a residual phase, this would account for the negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies observed in Mauritian trachytes. Two trachyte samples that are less depleted in these elements contain xenocrysts of anorthoclase, Al-rich cpx and Cl-rich kaersutite that are out of equilibrium with host trachyte magmas

  16. Dynamic Solubility Limits in Nanosized Olivine LiFePO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Singh, Deepak P.; Borghols, Wouter J.H.; Lafont, Ugo; Haverkate, Lucas; Peterson, Vanessa K.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2011-01-01

    Because of its stability, nanosized olivine LiFePO4 opens the door toward high-power Li-ion battery technology for large-scale applications as required for plug-in hybrid vehicles. Here, we reveal that the thermodynamics of first-order phase transitions in nanoinsertion materials is distinctly

  17. The granulite suite: Impact melts and metamorphic breccias of the early lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Norman, M. D.; Keil, K.

    1993-03-01

    The granulite suite consists of two major types of rocks. One is coarse-grained and poikilitic with many euhedral crystals of olivine and plagioclase. These characteristics indicate crystallization from a melt; the poikilitic granulites are impact melt breccias. The other group is finer-grained and granoblastic, with numerous triple junctions; the granoblastic granulites are metamorphic rocks. Compositional groups identified by Lindstrom and Lindstrom contain both textural types. Two pyroxene thermometry indicates that both groups equilibrated at 1000 to 1150 C. Calculations suggest that the granoblastic group, which has an average grain size of about 80 microns, was annealed for less than 6 x 10 exp 4 y at 1000 C, and for less than 2500 y at 1150 C. Similar equilibration temperatures suggest that both groups were physically associated after impact events produced the poikilitic melts. Granulitic impactites hold important information about the pre-Nectarian bombardment history of the Moon, and the composition and thermal evolution of the early lunar crust. Granulitic impactites are widely considered to be an important rock type in the lunar crust, but how they formed is poorly understood. Metal compositions and elevated concentrations of meteoritic siderophile elements suggest that most lunar granulites are impact breccias. Their occurrence as clasts in approximately 3.9 Ga breccias, and Ar-(40-39) ages greater than or = 4.2 Ga for some granulites show that they represent a component of the lunar crust which formed prior to the Nectarian cataclysm. Petrographic characteristics of lunar granulites indicate at least two endmember textural variants which apparently formed in fundamentally different ways. One type has granoblastic textures consisting of equant, polygonal to rounded grains, and abundant triple junctions with small dispersions around 120 degrees indicating a close approach to textural equilibrium. As suggested by many authors, granoblastic granulites

  18. The evolution of complex type B Allende inclusion - An ion microprobe trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Lundberg, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed trace-element and isotopic analyses of the constituent phases in each of the major textural parts (mantle, core, and islands) of a Type B refractory inclusion, the USNM 5241 inclusion from Allende, first described by El Goresy et al. (1985). The REE data on 5241 were found to be largely consistent with a model in which the mantle and the core of 5241 formed sequentially out of a single melt by fractional crystallization. The numerical models of REE evolution in the 5241 melt, especially that of Eu, require that a significant mass of spinel-free island material was assimilated into the evolving melt during the last half of the solidification history of 5241. The trace element results pbtained thus strongly support the interpretation of El Goresy et al. (1985) that the spinel-free islands in the 5241 are trapped xenoliths.

  19. Rolling stones. Fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D.; De Boer, P.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 {mu}m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

  20. Consequences of magma eruption dynamics: Intraflow variations in petrography and mineral chemistry within a single eruptive unit from Whitewater Canyon, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustunisik, G. K.; Nielsen, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Individual lava flows are sometimes characterized by progressive changes in petrography and mineral chemistry which have been attributed to progressive magma chamber evacuation. In the case of Whitewater Canyon flow, a glacially quenched andesite unit on the NW flank of Mt. Jefferson, significant changes have been observed in phenocryst content and mineral chemistry within a transect from the early erupted components (inferred by flow morphology to be quenched against glacial ice ~10000 ybp), to the top of the 30 m thick flow unit. With the increasing distance from the quenched interface, the matrix changes from glassy to microcrystalline. The matrix material is generally similar in composition to the glassy melt inclusions rhyolitic in composition yet relatively degassed (lower Cl, S). Based on their morphology, we have identified at least 4 populations of plagioclase phenocrysts within the single flow: (1) Relatively unzoned high An cores (>An80) with oscillatory overgrowth, (2) Lower An cores (An50-60), associated with dacitic melt inclusions, (3) Cellular low An cores (An50-60) with higher An overgrowths (~An65-75), and (4) Lath shaped, sometimes oscillatory zoned moderately high An phenocrysts (An65-75) -often associated with olivine:cpx:plagioclase glomerocrysts. Melt inclusions are present in orthopyroxene and plagioclase, but only in the earliest erupted samples (within 5-10 meters of the quenched interface). This mafic component, characterized by olivine, intermediate plagioclase (An60-75), clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and oxides, was present at a range of scales from glomerocrysts to 10 cm+ enclaves. Amphibole and quartz are present only in samples from the interior of the flow unit. The width of reaction rims on amphibole increase as one progress upwards towards the flow interior. Our initial conclusions are this eruptive unit represents the progressive evacuation of a shallow magma chamber where the upper parts of the chamber had already been partially

  1. Densification and Grain Growth in Polycrystalline Olivine Rocks Synthesized By Evacuated Hot-Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, C. D.; Kohlstedt, D. L.; Zimmerman, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Experiments on laboratory-synthesized olivine-rich rocks form the starting material for many investigations of physical processes in the Earth's upper mantle (e.g., creep behavior, ionic diffusion, and grain growth). Typically, a fit of a constitutive law to experimental data provides a description of the kinetics of a process needed to extrapolate across several orders of magnitude from laboratory to geological timescales. Although grain-size is a critical parameter in determining physical properties such as viscosity, broad disagreement persists amongst the results of various studies of grain growth kinetics in olivine-rich rocks. Small amounts of impurities or porosity dramatically affect the kinetics of grain growth. In this study, we developed an improved method for densifying olivine-rich rocks fabricated from powdered, gem-quality single crystals that involves evacuating the pore space, with the aim of refining measurements of the kinetics of mantle materials. In previous studies, olivine powders were sealed in a metal can and hydrostatically annealed at roughly 300 MPa and 1250 °C. These samples, which appear opaque and milky-green, typically retain a small amount of porosity. Consequently, when annealed at 1 atm, extensive pore growth occurs, inhibiting grain growth. In addition, Fourier-transform infrared and confocal Raman spectroscopy reveal absorption peaks characteristic of CO2 in the pores of conventionally hot-pressed material. To avoid trapping of adsorbed contaminants, we developed an evacuated hot-pressing method, wherein the pore space of powder compacts is vented to vacuum during heating and pressurization. This method produces a highly dense, green-tinted, transparent material. No CO2 absorptions peaks exist in evacuated hot-pressed material. When reheated to annealing temperatures at 1 atm, the evacuated hot-pressed material undergoes limited pore growth and dramatically enhanced grain-growth rates. High-strain deformation experiments on

  2. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  3. Theoretical work on melt-coolant interactions (steam explosions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnecke, G.; Jacobs, H.; Stehle, B.; Thurnay, K.; Vaeth, L.; Lummer, M.

    1995-01-01

    The code IVA3 is used for modelling the physical processes related to steam explosions, i.e. the premixing phase preceding the explosion as well as the explosion itself. This code has been replaced by the updated version IVA-KA in May 1994, which encompasses all model and code improvements performed till the beginning of 1994. The following further work on and with IVA-KA has been performed: 1. Inclusion of friction at inner and outer walls, improvement on the drag model, improvement of boundary conditions for outgoing flow, optional inclusion of improved water material data, improvement of the numerical procedure, correction of coding errors. 2. Three FARO-experiments (investigating the behaviour of molten material falling into water) were recalculated with IVA-KA. The time dependent pressure increase is reproduced very well for one experiment, but is not quite satisfactory for a second one. The third one cannot be simulated satisfactorily because of the presence of metallic zirconium in the melt, which is not being modelled by IVA-KA at present. 3. One PREMIX-experiment (similar to FARO, but at 1 bar ambient pressure and with smaller amounts of melt) is also being analyzed with IVA-KA. First results show a good representation of the material distribution during the penetration of the melt into the water. 4. One of the first two QUEOS-experiments performed at KfK has been simulated with IVA-KA. Some results are well reproduced by IVA-KA, but there may be a deficiency of the drag laws. (orig./HP)

  4. Asthenospheric percolation of alkaline melts beneath the St. Paul region (Central Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Daniele; Seyler, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Two peridotite suites collected by submersible in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean (Hekinian et al., 2000) were studied for textures, modes, and in situ major and trace element compositions in pyroxenes. Dive SP12 runs along the immersed flank of the St. Peter and Paul Rocks islets where amphibole-bearing, ultramafic mylonites enriched in alkalies and incompatible elements are exposed (Roden et al., 1984), whereas dive SP03 sampled a small intra-transform spreading centre situated about 370 km east of the St. Peter and Paul Rocks. Both suites are characterized by undeformed, coarse-grained granular textures typical of abyssal peridotites, derived from residual mantle after ˜ 15% melting of a DMM source, starting in the garnet stability field. Trace element modelling, textures and lack of mineral zoning indicate that the residual peridotites were percolated, reacted and refertilized by ˜ 2.6% partially aggregated melts in the uppermost level of the melting region. This relatively large amount of refertilization is in agreement with the cold and thick lithosphere inferred by previous studies. Freezing of trapped melts occurred as the peridotite entered the conductive layer, resulting in late-stage crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel, ± plagioclase. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns in clinopyroxenes from SP03 indicate that they last equilibrated with (ultra-) depleted partial melts. In contrast, REE concentrations in clinopyroxenes from SP12 display U and S shaped LREE-enriched patterns and the calculated compositions of the impregnating melts span the compositional range of the regional basalts, which vary from normal MORB to alkali basalt sometimes modified by chromatographic fractionation with no, or very limited, mineral reaction. Thus the mylonitic band forming the St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks ridge is not a fragment of subcontinental lithospheric mantle left behind during the opening of the Central Atlantic, nor the source of the alkaline basalts

  5. Grain refinement of DC cast magnesium alloys with intensive melt shearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Y B; Jiang, B; Zhang, Y; Fan, Z

    2012-01-01

    A new direct chill (DC) casting process, melt conditioned DC (MC-DC) process, has been developed for the production of high quality billets/slabs of light alloys by application of intensive melt shearing through a rotor-stator high shear device during the DC casting process. The rotor-stator high shear device provides intensive melt shearing to disperse the naturally occurring oxide films, and other inclusions, while creating a microscopic flow pattern to homogenize the temperature and composition fields in the sump. In this paper, we report the grain refining effect of intensive melt shearing in the MC-DC casting processing. Experimental results on DC casting of Mg-alloys with and without intensive melt shearing have demonstrated that the MC-DC casting process can produce magnesium alloy billets with significantly refined microstructure. Such grain refinement in the MC-DC casting process can be attributed to enhanced heterogeneous nucleation by dispersed naturally occurring oxide particles, increased nuclei survival rate in uniform temperature and compositional fields in the sump, and potential contribution from dendrite arm fragmentation.

  6. Prevalence of the Ancient Wood-Ljungdahl Pathway in a Subseafloor Olivine Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. R.; Mueller, R.; Fisk, M. R.; Mason, O. U.; Popa, R.; Kieft, B.; Colwell, F. S.

    2018-05-01

    The ancient Wood-Ljungdahl pathway used for biosynthesis and energy generation was found to be the predominant metabolic pathway in a microbial community from olivine grains incubated in the Juan de Fuca subseafloor aquifer.

  7. The role of inclusions in the pitting behaviour of maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Hussain, S.W.; Ashraf, H.

    1999-01-01

    The pitting characteristics of maraging steel in artificial seawater have been investigated electrochemically using the cyclic polarization technique. Pits were found to be associated with the inclusions present in steel. The hysteresis loop observed indicates that maraging steel has poor resistance to pitting in air saturated seawater. On examination of corroded surfaces under SEM, it is noted that the pits are always associated with inclusions, which are generally the carbonitrides of TiMo presents in maraging steel in varying quantities depending on the melting practice. In order to confirm that the pitting behavior is associated with inclusions, samples from clean maraging steel, having very low inclusion level, were tested. Such samples showed much less tendency for pitting. (author)

  8. Sintering mantle mineral aggregates with submicron grains: examples of olivine and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Y.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Physical property of the major mantle minerals play an important role in the dynamic behavior of the Earth's mantle. Recently, it has been found that nano- to sub-micron scale frictional processes might control faulting processes and earthquake instability, and ultrafine-grained mineral aggregates thus have attracted the growing interest. Here we investigated a method for preparing polycrystalline clinoyproxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of sub-micron scale from natural crystals, two main constituents of the upper mantle. Nano-sized powders of both minerals are sintered under argon flow at temperatures ranging from 1130-1350 °C for 0.5-20 h. After sintering at 1180 °C and 1300 °C, we successfully fabricated polycrystalline clinopyroxene and polycrystalline olivine with grain size of physical properties of Earth's mantle.

  9. Nature of the magma storage system beneath the Damavand volcano (N. Iran): An integrated study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Amir; Amini, Sadraddin; De Rosa, Rosanna; Donato, Paola

    2018-02-01

    Damavand intraplate stratovolcano constructed upon a moderately thick crust (58-67 km) over the last 2 Ma. The erupted products are dominantly trachyandesite-trachyte (TT) lavas and pyroclasts, with minor mafic magmas including tephrite-basanite-trachybasalt and alkali olivine basalts emplaced as cinder cones at the base of the stratovolcano. The TT products are characterized by a mineral assemblage of clinopyroxene (diopside-augite), orthopyroxene (clinoenstatite), feldspar (An2-58, Ab6-69, Or2-56), high Ti phlogopite, F-apatite, Fesbnd Ti oxides, and minor amounts of olivine (Fo73-80), amphibole and zircon, whereas olivine (Fo78-88), high Mg# (80-89) diopside, feldspar, apatite and Fesbnd Ti oxide occur in the mafic magmas. The presence of hydrous and anhydrous minerals, normal zonings, mafic cumulates, and the composition of magmatic inclusions in the TT products suggest evolutionary processes in polybaric conditions. In the same way, disequilibrium textures - including orthopyroxene mantled with clinopyroxene, reaction rim of phlogopite and amphibole, the coexistence of olivine and orthopyroxene, reverse, oscillatory and complex zonings of pyroxene and feldspar crystals - suggest magmatic evolutions in open systems with a varying temperature, oxygen fugacity, water as well as pressure and, to a lesser extent, melt chemistry. Mineral assemblages are used to model the physicochemical conditions and assess default parameters for the thermodynamic simulation of crystallization using MELTS software to track the P-T-H2O-ƒO2 evolution of the magma plumbing system. Thermobarometry and MELTS models estimated the initial nucleation depth at 16-17 kb (56-60 km) for olivine (Fo89) and high Al diopside crystals occurring in the mafic primary magma; it then stopped and underwent fractionation between 8 and 10 kb (28-35 km), corresponding with Moho depth, and continued to differentiate in the lower crust, in agreement with the geophysical models. The mafic rocks were formed

  10. Consequences of Melt-Preferred Orientation for Magmatic Segregation in Deforming Mantle Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R. F.; Taylor-West, J.; Allwright, J.; Takei, Y.; Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    In partially molten regions of the mantle, deviatoric stresses cause large-scale deformation and mantle flow. The same stresses also lead to preferential wetting of coherently oriented grain boundaries [DK97, T10]. This alignment is called melt-preferred orientation (MPO). Because of the contrast between the physical properties of melt and solid grains, MPO has the potential to introduce anisotropy into the mechanical and transport properties of the liquid/solid aggregate. Here we consider the possible consequences for (and of) anisotropic viscosity and permeability of the partially molten aggregate. The consequences are evaluated in the context of laboratory experiments on partially molten rocks. The controlled experiments involve deformation of an initially uniform mixture of solid olivine and liquid basalt [KZK10]. The resultant patterns of melt segregation include two robust features: (i) melt segregation into bands with high melt fraction oriented at a low angle to the shear plane; and (ii) melt segregation associated with an imposed gradient in shear stress, in experiments where this is present. Although there are other reproducible features of experiments, these are the most robust and provide a challenge to models. A theoretical model for the effect of MPO on mantle viscosity under diffusion creep is available [TH09] and makes predictions that are consistent with laboratory experiments [TK13,KT13,QKKT14,AK14]. We review the mechanics of this model and the predictions for flow in torsional and pipe Poiseuille flow, showing a quantitative comparison with experimental results. Furthermore, it is logical to expect MPO to lead to anisotropy of permeability, and we present a general model of tensorial permeability. We demonstrate the consequences of this anisotropy for simple shear deformation of a partially molten rock. REFERENCES: DK97 = Daines & Kohlstedt (1997), JGR, 10.1029/97JB00393. T10 = Takei (2010), JGR, 10.1029/2009JB006568. KZK10 = King, Zimmerman

  11. Inclusions, Porosity, and Fatigue of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming

    dendrite arm spacings in metal powder particles of different diameters were measured and also agree with literature correlations, showing the expected increase in secondary dendrite arm spacing with increasing particle diameter. It is well-known that the fatigue behavior of cast aluminum alloy parts is largely determined by the internal defects, particularly pores and inclusions, such as oxides. This study shows that such imperfections are also present in AlSi10Mg parts produced by SLM, and serve as sites for failure initiation. The effect of hatch spacing and building orientation on tensile and fatigue properties was tested. Similar defects were found both on polished cross-sections and on fracture surfaces. The results imply that the oxide-driven pores dominate the fatigue resistance of the samples in this work. The larger oxide particles which are associated with the crack initiation likely form by oxidation of metal vapor during part manufacture. Residual porosity in parts produced by SLM mainly results from lack-of-fusion, entrapped gas, pores left in powder, evaporation of elements, and collapse of key-holes. Lack-of-fusion porosity is caused by the the insufficient overlap of melt pools in powder bed fusion and is particularly detrimental to fatigue performance due to the stress concentration at the sharp edges of the pores. The third part of this work deals with predicting lack-of-fusion porosity quantitatively by a geometrically-based model and designing processing parameters for build rate improvement without introducing porosity. The inputs into the simulation are hatch spacing, layer thickness, melt-pool cross-sectional area, and hatch rotation angle. Comparison with several data sets from the literature shows that the simulations correctly predict process conditions at which lack-of-fusion porosity becomes apparent, as well as the rate at which porosity increases with changes in process conditions such as beam speed, layer thickness, and hatch spacing

  12. Space Weathering Evolution on Airless Bodies - Laboratory Simulations with Olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Čuda, J.; Bradley, T.; Britt, D.; Filip, J.; Tuček, J.; Malina, O.; Kašlík, J.; Šišková, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2013), s. 25-26 ISSN 0002-7537. [Annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society /45./. 06.10.2013-11.10.2013, Denver] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : space weathering * asteroid * Moon * olivine Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://aas.org/files/resources/dps_abstract_book.pdf

  13. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  14. Deformability of Oxide Inclusions in Tire Cord Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Guo, Changbo; Yang, Wen; Ren, Ying; Ling, Haitao

    2018-04-01

    The deformation of oxide inclusions in tire cord steels during hot rolling was analyzed, and the factors influencing their deformability at high and low temperatures were evaluated and discussed. The aspect ratio of oxide inclusions decreased with the increasing reduction ratio of the steel during hot rolling owing to the fracture of the inclusions. The aspect ratio obtained after the first hot-rolling process was used to characterize the high-temperature deformability of the inclusions. The deformation first increased and then decreased with the increasing (MgO + Al2O3)/(SiO2 + MnO) ratio of the inclusions. It also increased with the decreasing melting temperatures of the inclusions. Young's modulus was used to evaluate the low-temperature deformability of the inclusions. An empirical formula was fitted to calculate the Young's moduli of the oxides using the mean atomic volume. The moduli values of the inclusions causing wire fracture were significantly greater than the average. To reduce fracture in tire cord steel wires during cold drawing, it is proposed that inclusions be controlled to those with high SiO2 content and extremely low Al2O3 content. This proposal is based on the hypothesis that the deformabilities of oxides during cold drawing are inversely proportional to their Young's moduli. The future study thus proposed includes an experimental confirmation for the abovementioned predictions.

  15. Controlling inclusions through filtration in investment casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Marshall, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    A technique for the placement of a ceramic foam filter in the feeding up of investment mould was developed which proved quite efficient in removing smaller and major inclusions through various filtration modes. Contaminated old aluminum scrap was used to prepare the melt without the addition of any cleansing and covering fluxes and the main reason was to produce more and more inclusions. Vigorous stirring was also intentionally carried out to form as much oxides as possible. During present research work effective filtration was observed. No leakage through sides of the filter occurred and similarly no choking was seen during feeding of molten metal. Microstructural studies showed the maximum retention of inclusions not only on the surface of filters but also within the various channels of the main body of the filter. The microstructures taken from the filtered test pieces were free from inclusions, which showed the effectiveness and proper placement of the filter. (author)

  16. Geochemistry of Ua Huka basalts (Marquesas): partial melting variations and mantle source heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielsch, G.; Caroff, M.; Maury, R.C.; Cotten, J.; Barsczus, H.G.; Guillou, H.

    1998-01-01

    The main shield volcano of Ua Huka Island (Marquesas Archipelago) was emplaced between 2.2 and 2.4 Ma, and then affected by two caldera collapse events. After a 0.9 Ma-long gap, volcanic activity resumed with the emplacement of two smaller volcanoes in the southwest part of the island, between 1.5 and 0.75 Ma. The geochemical characteristics of Ua Huka mafic lavas, which range from olivine tholeiites to alkali basalts and basanites, are consistent with a temporal decrease in partial melting degrees of a heterogeneous mantle source. The associated temporal variation of the isotopic signatures of Ua Huka basalts implies a more important contribution of a Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM) end-member during the genesis of the youngest basanitic lavas. Such a variation was not previously documented in the Marquesas Archipelago. (authors)

  17. Reply to comment by Nozaka (2014) on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Takayoshi; Wallis, Simon R.; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Seto, Yusuke; Miyake, Akira; Matsumoto, Megumi

    2014-12-01

    We would like to thank Dr. Nozaka for his interest in our work and also for supplying some of the crystal orientation data that we used in our study. He presents a detailed discussion of differences in interpretation between our two studies. The main difference is whether the strong B-type olivine CPO developed as a result of topotactic static growth after breakdown of antigorite (Nagaya et al., 2014) or if it developed due to homoepitaxial growth on a limited number of olivine grains that already showed a general B-type CPO (Nozaka, 2014). In both of our studies static growth of olivine due to the breakdown of antigorite is key in the strengthening or formation of B-type olivine CPO. This conclusion has potentially far reaching implications for the interpretation of mantle seismic anisotropy in subduction zones and is the most important take home message. However, the details of interpretation are also important. In our reply, we focus on what we consider to be the 5 main points of disagreement. We refer to Fig. 1 to explain different microstructural domains.

  18. Comment on ;Dehydration breakdown of antigorite and the formation of B-type olivine CPO; by Nagaya et al. (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaka, Toshio

    2014-12-01

    Recently, Nagaya et al. (2014) have reported the B-type crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine in thermally metamorphosed serpentinites from the Happo ultramafic complex, central Japan, and interpreted the CPO as a result of topotactic growth of olivine after antigorite. Their conclusions require the reconsideration of the genesis of B-type olivine CPO, which is generally believed to be formed by plastic deformation of hydrous peridotites, and could have an impact on structural models of supra-subduction zones. I appreciate the detailed observations by Nagaya et al. (2014) but have to point out that they committed significant misinterpretation of facts and failed to show robust evidence and rationale for their argument.

  19. Size effects in olivine control strength in low-temperature plasticity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, K. M.; Thom, C.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Goldsby, D. L.; Warren, J. M.; Wilkinson, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The strength of the lithospheric mantle during deformation by low-temperature plasticity controls a range of geological phenomena, including lithospheric-scale strain localization, the evolution of friction on deep seismogenic faults, and the flexure of tectonic plates. However, constraints on the strength of olivine in this deformation regime are difficult to obtain from conventional rock-deformation experiments, and previous results vary considerably. We demonstrate via nanoindentation that the strength of olivine in the low-temperature plasticity regime is dependent on the length-scale of the test, with experiments on smaller volumes of material exhibiting larger yield stresses. This "size effect" has previously been explained in engineering materials as a result of the role of strain gradients and associated geometrically necessary dislocations in modifying plastic behavior. The Hall-Petch effect, in which a material with a small grain size exhibits a higher strength than one with a large grain size, is thought to arise from the same mechanism. The presence of a size effect resolves discrepancies among previous experimental measurements of olivine, which were either conducted using indentation methods or were conducted on polycrystalline samples with small grain sizes. An analysis of different low-temperature plasticity flow laws extrapolated to room temperature reveals a power-law relationship between length-scale (grain size for polycrystalline deformation and contact radius for indentation tests) and yield strength. This suggests that data from samples with large inherent length scales best represent the plastic strength of the coarse-grained lithospheric mantle. Additionally, the plastic deformation of nanometer- to micrometer-sized asperities on fault surfaces may control the evolution of fault roughness due to their size-dependent strength.

  20. Fabrication of V-Cr-Ti-Y-Al-Si alloys by levitation melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuto, Toshinori; Satou, Manabu; Abe, Katsunori [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tomiyama, Shigeki [Daido Bunseki Research Inc., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Three allows of V-4Cr-4Ti type containing Si, Al and Y were fabricated by 2.5 kg scale levitation melting in this study. Workability and recrystallization behavior of the alloys were studied in order to establish the fabrication method of high-purity large ingot of V-Cr-Ti-Si-Al-Y type alloys, especially reducing interstitial impurity levels. Oxygen contents decreased with increasing yttrium contents and were kept below 180 mass ppm over wide region in the ingots. Nitrogen contents in the V-Cr-Ti-Y-Si-Al type alloys were only 100 mass ppm, which were as low as that in the starting materials. Only the V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Y, Si, Al alloy could be cold-rolled at as-melted condition. Because large yttrium inclusions were observed in the alloys containing 0.5 mass%Y, it is necessary to optimize yttrium contents to avoid large inclusions and to obtain good workability. (author)

  1. Fabrication of V-Cr-Ti-Y-Al-Si alloys by levitation melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuto, Toshinori; Satou, Manabu; Abe, Katsunori; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Shibayama, Tamaki; Tomiyama, Shigeki; Sakata, Masafumi

    2000-01-01

    Three allows of V-4Cr-4Ti type containing Si, Al and Y were fabricated by 2.5 kg scale levitation melting in this study. Workability and recrystallization behavior of the alloys were studied in order to establish the fabrication method of high-purity large ingot of V-Cr-Ti-Si-Al-Y type alloys, especially reducing interstitial impurity levels. Oxygen contents decreased with increasing yttrium contents and were kept below 180 mass ppm over wide region in the ingots. Nitrogen contents in the V-Cr-Ti-Y-Si-Al type alloys were only 100 mass ppm, which were as low as that in the starting materials. Only the V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Y, Si, Al alloy could be cold-rolled at as-melted condition. Because large yttrium inclusions were observed in the alloys containing 0.5 mass%Y, it is necessary to optimize yttrium contents to avoid large inclusions and to obtain good workability. (author)

  2. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting II. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Fractional Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In this second installment of a series that aims to investigate the dynamic interaction between the composition and abundance of the solid mantle and its melt products, the classic interpretation of fractional melting is extended to account for the dynamic nature of the process. A multiphase numerical flow model is coupled with the program AlphaMELTS, which provides at the moment possibly the most accurate petrological description of melting based on thermodynamic principles. The conceptual idea of this study is based on a description of the melting process taking place along a 1-D vertical ideal column where chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply in two local sub-systems separately on some spatial and temporal scale. The solid mantle belongs to a local sub-system (ss1) that does not interact chemically with the melt reservoir which forms a second sub-system (ss2). The local melt products are transferred in the melt sub-system ss2 where the melt phase eventually can also crystallize into a different solid assemblage and will evolve dynamically. The main difference with the usual interpretation of fractional melting is that melt is not arbitrarily and instantaneously extracted from the mantle, but instead remains a dynamic component of the model, hence the process is named dynamic fractional melting (DFM). Some of the conditions that may affect the DFM model are investigated in this study, in particular the effect of temperature, mantle velocity at the boundary of the mantle column. A comparison is made with the dynamic equilibrium melting (DEM) model discussed in the first installment. The implications of assuming passive flow or active flow are also considered to some extent. Complete data files of most of the DFM simulations, four animations and two new DEM simulations (passive/active flow) are available following the instructions in the supplementary material.

  3. Formation and Evolution of the Continental Lithospheric Mantle: Perspectives From Radiogenic Isotopes of Silicate and Sulfide Inclusions in Macrodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, S. B.; Richardson, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate and sulfide inclusions that occur in diamonds comprise the oldest (>3 Ga), deepest (>140 km) samples of mantle-derived minerals available for study. Their relevance to the evolution of the continental lithosphere is clear because terrestrial macrodiamonds are confined to regions of the Earth with continental lithospheric mantle keels. The goals of analytical work on inclusions in diamond are to obtain paragenesis constraints, radiogenic ages, and initial isotopic compositions. The purpose is to place diamond formation episodes into the broader framework of the geological processes that create and modify the continental lithosphere and to relate the source of the C and N in diamond-forming fluids to understanding the Earth's C and N cycles in the Archean. Although sulfide and silicate inclusions rarely occur in the same diamond, they both can be grouped according to their geochemical similarity with the chief rock types that comprise the mantle keel: peridotite and eclogite. Silicate inclusions are classified as harzburgitic (depleted; olivine > Fo91, garnet Cr2O3 > 3 wt% and CaO from 0 to 5 wt%), lherzolitic (fertile), or eclogitic (basaltic; garnet Cr2O3 14 wt%; Os > 2 ppm) versus eclogitic (Ni bearing kimberlites, and the generosity of mining companies because of the extreme rarity of inclusions in suites of mostly gem-quality diamonds. Most isotopic work has been on the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton with lesser work on the Slave, Siberian, and Australian cratons. Sm-Nd ages on silicate suites and Re-Os ages on sulfide suites confirm diamond formation from the Mesoarchean though the Neoproterozoic. Most important are the systematics across cratons in the context of crustal geology that lead to generalities about craton evolution. Inclusion suites date mantle keels as Mesoarchean and clearly point to subduction as the major process to form the earliest continental nuclei and to amalgamate the cratons in their present form. This is evident from the elevated

  4. Homogenisation of sulphide inclusions within diamonds: A new approach to diamond inclusion geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Iain; Hughes, Hannah S. R.; Butler, Ian B.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Muir, Duncan

    2017-11-01

    widening the scope for multiple methods for quantitative analysis, even on 'flakes' of single BMS inclusions. Finally we show that the trace elements present in peridotite (P-type) and eclogitic (E-type) BMS are distinct, with P-type diamonds having systematically higher total platinum-group element (particularly Os, Ir, Ru) and Te and As concentrations. These distinctions suggest that the PGE and semi-metal budgets of mantle-derived partial melts will be significantly dependent upon the type(s) and proportions of sulphides present in the mantle source.

  5. An Analytical Finite-Strain Parameterization for Texture Evolution in Deformed Olivine Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, N. M.; Castelnau, O.

    2017-12-01

    Current methods for calculating the evolution of flow-induced seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle describe crystal preferred orientation (CPO) using ensembles of 103-104 individual grains, and are too computationally expensive to be used in three-dimensional time-dependent convection models. We propose a much faster method based on the hypothesis that CPO of olivine polycrystals is a unique function of the finite strain. Our goal is then to determine how the CPO depends on the ratios r12 and r23 of the axes of the finite strain ellipsoid and on the two independent ratios p12 and p23 of the strengths (critical resolved shear stresses) of the three independent slip systems of olivine. To do this, we introduce a new analytical representation of olivine CPO in terms of three `structured basis functions' (SBFs) Fs(g, r12, r23) (s = 1, 2, 3), where g is the set of three Eulerian angles that describe the orientation of a crystal lattice relative to an external reference frame. Each SBF represents the virtual CPO that would be produced by the action of only one of the slip systems of olivine, and can be determined analytically to within an unknown time-dependent amplitude. The amplitudes are then determined by fitting the SBFs to the predictions of the second-order self-consistent (SOSC) model of Ponte-Castaneda (2002). To implement the SBF representation, we express the orientation distribution function (ODF) f(g) of the polycrystal approximately as a linear superposition of SBFs with weighting coefficients Cs. Substituting the superposition into the general evolution equation for the ODF and minimizing the residual error, we find that the weighting coefficients Cs(t) satisfy coupled evolution equations of the form αisCs + βisCs + γs = 0 where the coefficients αis, βis and γs can be calculated in advance from the expressions for the SBFs. These equations are solved numerically for different values of p12 and p23, yielding numerical values of Cs(r12, r23, p12, p23

  6. Traces of heavy and superheavy cosmic nuclei in olivins of extraterrestial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatova, R.; Taneva, T.

    1982-01-01

    The paths of traces of WH nuclei from cosmic rays have been measured in olivines from the meteorites Maryalakhti, Eagle Stein, Liposki khutor with radiation ages 175, 45 and 220 million years respectively. 3 cm 3 olivines of these meteorites have been examined and more than 500 traces of nuclei with Z(>=)90 have been found measured including 3 traces 1.5-1.8 times longer than the traces created by the uranium and thorium nuclei. These traces may be left by nuclei with Z(>=)110. The crystals were chosen from localizations situated at 2-7 cm, 8-9 cm and 10-12 cm from the outside atmospheric surface of the meteorite. The abundancy of the Z(>=)50 nuclei in gigantic cosmic rays, averaged for a period of ( =)110 in galactic cosmic rays. It is 1.4 x 10 -9 from that of the iron group nuclei. (authors)

  7. Timing magma migration through the Icelandic Crust: from the Moho to the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, E. J. F.; Maclennan, J.; Edmonds, M.

    2017-12-01

    The rate of magma transfer throughout the crust, particularly the amount of time it takes for melt to travel from the upper mantle to the surface, is largely unknown. Only one previous study has investigated the timescales of transport of crystals that were in equilibrium with mantle melts [1]. Despite estimating timescales on the order of months to years, the depths from which these crystals were entrained is poorly constrained. Borgarhraun is an exceptionally well-characterised picrite lava flow in the Theistareykir Volcanic System of Northern Iceland. The crystal-cargo of this lava includes macrocrysts of olivine (Fo86-90), plagioclase (An84-90), clinopyroxene and spinel with much rarer wehrlitic nodules. Crystallisation has been estimated to have taken place in deep sub-Moho magma chambers ( 24 km). Melt inclusions in primitive olivine macrocrysts (Fo88-90) are the result of mixing a suite of geochemically distinct mantle melts that were CO2 undersaturated [2-3]. Zoning in the macrocrysts holds a record of concurrent crystallisation and mixing of these variable mantle melts, as well as ascent through the crust prior to eruption [4]. We have conducted a multi-phase, multi-element approach by applying finite-element diffusion models to wehrlite olivines and plagioclase macrocrysts to constrain the timescales of crystal residence and magma ascent prior to eruption. Model results suggest that at 1250 °C the timescale of final ascent was on the order of 20-50 days, whilst longer-term crystal residence times can exceed 700 years. This analysis shows that magma can ascend from the base of the crust to the surface in under a couple of months, suggesting picrites such as Borgarhraun are the result of high speed conduits to sub-Moho magma chambers. These rapid ascent timescales have important implications for the physical modelling of primitive magmas as well as for understanding the architecture of magma-plumbing systems in the temporal domain. References [1] Ruprecht

  8. Chemical Analysis of Reaction Rims on Olivine Crystals in Natural Samples of Black Dacite Using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Lassen Peak, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lassen Volcanic Center is the southernmost volcanic region in the Cascade volcanic arc formed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Lassen Peak last erupted in 1915 in an arc related event producing a black dacite material containing xenocrystic olivine grains with apparent orthopyroxene reaction rims. The reaction rims on these olivine grains are believed to have formed by reactions that ensued from a mixing/mingling event that occurred prior to eruption between the admixed mafic andesitic magma and a silicic dacite host material. Natural samples of the 1915 black dacite from Lassen Peak, CA were prepared into 15 polished thin sections and carbon coated for analysis using a FEI Quanta 250 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to identify and measure mineral textures and disequilibrium reaction rims. Observed mineralogical textures related to magma mixing include biotite and amphibole grains with apparent dehydration/breakdown rims, pyroxene-rimmed quartz grains, high concentration of microlites in glass matrix, and pyroxene/amphibole reaction rims on olivine grains. Olivine dissolution is evidenced as increased iron concentration toward convolute edges of olivine grains as observed by Backscatter Electron (BSE) imagery and elemental mapping using NSS spectral imaging software. In an attempt to quantify the area of reaction rim growth on olivine grains within these samples, high-resolution BSE images of 30 different olivine grains were collected along with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of different phases. Olivine cores and rims were extracted from BSE images using Photoshop and saved as separate image files. ImageJ software was used to calculate the area (μm2) of the core and rim of these grains. Average pyroxene reaction rim width for 30 grains was determined to be 11.68+/-1.65 μm. Rim widths of all 30 grains were averaged together to produce an overall average rim width for the Lassen Peak black dacite. By quantifying the reaction rims on olivine grains

  9. An experimental study of pressure shadows in partially molten rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhao, Yong-Hong; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2013-11-01

    As a two-phase, solid-melt material flows around rigid particles, melt-depleted and melt-enriched regions (i.e., pressure shadows) develop due to the coupled fluxes of melt and solid driven by pressure gradients around the particles. To study this compaction-decompaction process, samples composed of fine-grained San Carlos olivine plus mid-ocean ridge basalt containing dispersed sub-millimeter-sized, single crystal beads of olivine were deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Indicated by melt distribution maps obtained from reflected-light optical and backscattered electron microscopy, melt-enriched and melt-depleted regions around the beads became observable at a local shear strain of γ≈1 in samples with an initially homogeneously distributed melt fraction of ϕ≈0.05. The melt-enriched regions (ϕbarhigh≈0.06 to 0.10) and the melt-depleted regions (ϕbarlow≈0.02 to 0.04), extending as far as one radius of the bead, were symmetrically distributed around the bead. The flow field of the olivine matrix determined from crystallographic preferred orientations agrees with theoretical predictions based on two-phase flow analysis. These experiments are the first to produce pressure shadows in partially molten rocks. One implication of this study is that it will be possible to constrain the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity, which is inferred from the distribution of melt using a combination of experimental observations and numerical simulations.

  10. Catalytic decomposition of biomass tars: Use of dolomite and untreated olivine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devi, L.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Janssen, F.J.J.G.; Paasen, van S.V.B.; Bergman, P.C.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Although biomass is getting increased attention as a renewable energy source, one of the remaining problems still to be solved is the reduction of the high level of tar present in the product gas from gasification of biomass. The purpose of the present work is to study the activity of olivine and

  11. Experimental constraints on metasomatism of mantle wedge peridotites by hybridized adakitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgne, Alexandre; Schilling, Manuel E.; Grégoire, Michel; Langlade, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a series of high-pressure (1.5 GPa) and high-temperature (1000-1300 °C) experiments were performed to investigate the petrological imprints of adakitic metasomatism on mantle wedge peridotites. Reaction couples were prepared using a powdered adakite from Cerro Pampa, Argentina (Mg# 0.7) placed in contact with a cored sample of medium-grained protogranular depleted spinel lherzolite from Pali Aike (Chile). Textural and chemical analyses of the run products allow us to identify key features of modal metasomatism by hybridized adakitic melts. The main changes in phase relations are associated with the following metasomatic reactions: incongruent dissolution of olivine and associated precipitation of secondary orthopyroxene, dissolution of primary spinel and subsequent replacement by secondary high-Cr spinel. In experiments with high water contents (9-12 wt%), precipitation of pargasitic amphibole also occurred, possibly at the expense of primary clinopyroxene. Neither phlogopite nor Ti-oxides were precipitated in any of these experiments. As expected, primary pyroxenes do not show evidence of being significantly altered following the interaction with the produced siliceous melts. Within the adakitic portion of the experimental charge, it was also observed the crystallization of secondary Ti-rich, Cr- and Na-poor diopsidic clinopyroxene, andesine plagioclase and, at low temperature, Fe-enriched secondary orthopyroxene. Considering textural criteria, we interpreted the formation of these minerals as crystallization products of the adakite component and not as true products of metasomatic reactions. The experimental results are used to discuss some of the petrological evidences presented to support modal metasomatism by slab-derived melts of mantle xenoliths extracted from several suprasubduction settings located around the Pacific Ring of Fire.

  12. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  13. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  14. Inclusion Detection in Aluminum Alloys Via Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Shaymus W.; Craparo, Joseph; De Saro, Robert; Apelian, Diran

    2018-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown promise as a technique to quickly determine molten metal chemistry in real time. Because of its characteristics, LIBS could also be used as a technique to sense for unwanted inclusions and impurities. Simulated Al2O3 inclusions were added to molten aluminum via a metal-matrix composite. LIBS was performed in situ to determine whether particles could be detected. Outlier analysis on oxygen signal was performed on LIBS data and compared to oxide volume fraction measured through metallography. It was determined that LIBS could differentiate between melts with different amounts of inclusions by monitoring the fluctuations in signal for elements of interest. LIBS shows promise as an enabling tool for monitoring metal cleanliness.

  15. Genetic relationship between deformation and low-Ca content in olivine from magmatic systems: evidence from the Poyi ultramafic intrusion, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhuo-sen; Qin, Ke-zhang; Xue, Sheng-chao

    2017-12-01

    The deformation features (e.g., undulose extinction and subgrain boundaries) and low Ca content (causing the widespread deformation observed in Ca-depleted olivine from Poyi and other intrusions. What is more important, this work fills the gaps in the interpretation of this type of olivine in volcanic rocks.

  16. Unexpected formation by pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured Fe/olivine thin films on MgO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, C.; Dupont, L.; Davoisne, C.; Le Marrec, F.; Perriere, J.; Baudrin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Olivine-type LiFePO 4 thin films were grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The formation of an original nanostructure is evidenced by transmission electron microscopy measurements. Indeed, on focused ion beam prepared cross sections of the thin film, we observe, the amazing formation of metallic iron/olivine nanostructures. The appearance of such a structure is explained owing to a topotactic relation between the two phases as well as a strong Mg diffusion from the substrate to the film surface. Magnesium migration is thus concomitant with the creation of metallic iron domains that grow from the core of the film to the surface leading to large protuberances. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iron extrusion from the olivine-type LiFePO 4 . -- Graphical Abstract: HRTEM image of olivine/Fe nanostructure obtained by PLD. Display Omitted Research highlights: → This manuscript describes the attempt to prepare textured LiFePO 4 by PLD. This is presently a challenge to better understand the physical properties of the material, used as cathode in lithium ion batteries. → We describe for the first time the iron extrusion from this material. Indeed, there were recent reports on the possible non-stoichiometry, i.e. lithium or oxygen. However, on the iron side, only some defect were observed for hydrothermally prepared material but the extrusion is new in this paper. → We prepared interesting nanostructures which could be used for different fundamental studies: electric and magnetic measurements.

  17. Eruption style at Kīlauea Volcano in Hawai‘i linked to primary melt composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides. I.R.,; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Swanson, Don; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions at basaltic volcanoes have been linked to gas segregation from magmas at shallow depths in the crust. The composition of primary melts formed at greater depths was thought to have little influence on eruptive style. Ocean island basaltic volcanoes are the product of melting of a geochemically heterogeneous mantle plume and are expected to give rise to heterogeneous primary melts. This range in primary melt composition, particularly with respect to the volatile components, will profoundly influence magma buoyancy, storage and eruption style. Here we analyse the geochemistry of a suite of melt inclusions from 25 historical eruptions at the ocean island volcano of Kīlauea, Hawai‘i, over the past 600 years. We find that more explosive styles of eruption at Kīlauea Volcano are associated statistically with more geochemically enriched primary melts that have higher volatile concentrations. These enriched melts ascend faster and retain their primary nature, undergoing little interaction with the magma reservoir at the volcano’s summit. We conclude that the eruption style and magma-supply rate at Kīlauea are fundamentally linked to the geochemistry of the primary melts formed deep below the volcano. Magmas might therefore be predisposed towards explosivity right at the point of formation in their mantle source region.

  18. Chromium Oxidation State in Planetary Basalts: Oxygen Fugacity Indicator and Critical Variable for Cr-Spinel Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A. S.; Burger, P. V.; Le, Loan; Papike, J. J.; Jone, J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cr is a ubiquitous and relatively abundant minor element in basaltic, planetary magmas. At the reduced oxidation states (melts as both divalent and trivalent forms. The ratio of trivalent to divalent Cr present in the melt has many consequences for the stability and Cr concentration of magmatic phases such as spinel, clinopyroxene, and olivine. However, understanding the Cr valence in quenched melts has historically been plagued with analytical issues, and only recently has reliable methodology for quantifying Cr valence in quenched melts been developed. Despite this substantial difficulty, the pioneering works of Hanson and Jones and Berry and O'Neill provided important insights into the oxidation state of Cr in in silicate melts. Here we present a series of 1-bar gas mixing experiments performed with a Fe-rich basaltic melt in which have determined the Cr redox ratio of the melt at over a range of fO2 values by measuring this quantity in olivine with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The measured Cr redox ratio of the olivine phenocrysts can be readily converted to the ratio present in the conjugate melt via the ratio of crystal-liquid partition coefficients for Cr3+ and Cr2+. We have applied these results to modeling Cr spinel stability and Cr redox ratios in a primitive, iron-rich martian basalt.

  19. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting I. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Equilibrium Melting, Method and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Tirone

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex process of melting in the Earth's interior is studied by combining a multiphase numerical flow model with the program AlphaMELTS which provides a petrological description based on thermodynamic principles. The objective is to address the fundamental question of the effect of the mantle and melt dynamics on the composition and abundance of the melt and the residual solid. The conceptual idea is based on a 1-D description of the melting process that develops along an ideal vertical column where local chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply at some level in space and time. By coupling together the transport model and the chemical thermodynamic model, the evolution of the melting process can be described in terms of melt distribution, temperature, pressure and solid and melt velocities but also variation of melt and residual solid composition and mineralogical abundance at any depth over time. In this first installment of a series of three contributions, a two-phase flow model (melt and solid assemblage is developed under the assumption of complete local equilibrium between melt and a peridotitic mantle (dynamic equilibrium melting, DEM. The solid mantle is also assumed to be completely dry. The present study addresses some but not all the potential factors affecting the melting process. The influence of permeability and viscosity of the solid matrix are considered in some detail. The essential features of the dynamic model and how it is interfaced with AlphaMELTS are clearly outlined. A detailed and explicit description of the numerical procedure should make this type of numerical models less obscure. The general observation that can be made from the outcome of several simulations carried out for this work is that the melt composition varies with depth, however the melt abundance not necessarily always increases moving upwards. When a quasi-steady state condition is achieved, that is when melt abundance does not varies significantly

  20. A Missing Link in Understanding Mantle Wedge Melting, Higashi-akaishi Peridotite, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. B.; Carlson, R. W.; Grove, T. L.; Wallis, S.; Mizukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Sanbagawa subduction-type metamorphic belt in SW Japan represents the deepest exposed portion of a Mesozoic accretionary complex along the Japanese island arc. Located on the island of Shikoku, the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body is the largest ultramafic lens within the Sanbagawa belt and is dominantly composed of dunite, lherzolite and garnet clinopyroxenite, interfingered in one locality with quartz-rich eclogite. Previous work indicates the P-T history of the peridotite includes rapid prograde metamorphism with peak temperatures of 700-810°C and pressures of 2.9-3.8 GPa at approximately 110-120 Ma. Here we present major and trace element and isotopic data for samples within the Higashi-akaishi peridotite body that suggest it records subduction zone melting processes. Ultramafic samples range from 40-52 wt. % SiO2 and 21-45 wt. % MgO with olivine and clinopyroxene Mg#s as high as 0.93 and have trace element concentrations diagnostic of subduction zone processes. The quartz-rich eclogite contains 62 wt. % SiO2, 6 wt. % MgO and 13 wt. % Al2O3 and has trace element concentrations that are enriched relative to the ultramafic samples. 87Sr/86Sr (.703237-.704288), 143Nd/144Nd (ɛNd=+2-6) and Pb isotopic compositions are within the range of Japanese arc rocks. 187Os/188Os values range from typical mantle values (0.123-0.129), to slightly elevated (0.133) in one peridotite with an unusually low Os content, to a high of 0.145 in the quartz-rich eclogite. The presence of garnet porphyroblasts that enclose primary euhedral chlorite, together with the chemical evidence, suggest these samples are associated with mantle melting in the presence of H2O near their peak P-T conditions and may represent both residues and trapped melts within a paleo-mantle wedge. The peak P-T conditions of these rocks are also similar to the solidus conditions of H2O-saturated fertile mantle based on experimental determinations. Thus the Higashi-akaishi peridotite may be a real world analog

  1. Investigation of melt agglomeration process with a hydrophobic binder in combination with sucrose stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Wong, Tin Wui; Cheong, Wai See

    2003-08-01

    The melt agglomeration process of lactose powder with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCO) as the hydrophobic meltable binder was investigated by studying the physicochemical properties of molten HCO modified by sucrose stearates S170, S770 and S1570. The size, size distribution, micromeritic and adhesion properties of agglomerates as well as surface tension, contact angle, viscosity and specific volume of molten HCO, with and without sucrose stearates, were examined. The viscosity, specific volume and surface tension of molten HCO were found to be modified to varying extents by sucrose stearates which are available in different HLB values and melt properties. The growth of melt agglomerates was promoted predominantly by an increase in viscosity, an increase in specific volume or a decrease in surface tension of the molten binding liquid. The agglomerate growth propensity was higher with an increase in inter-particulate binding strength, agglomerate surface wetness and extent of agglomerate consolidation which enhanced the liquid migration from agglomerate core to periphery leading to an increased surface plasticity for coalescence. The inclusion of high concentrations of completely meltable sucrose stearate S170 greatly induced the growth of agglomerates through increased specific volume and viscosity of the molten binding liquid. On the other hand, the inclusion of incompletely meltable sucrose stearates S770 and S1570 promoted the agglomeration mainly via the reduction in surface tension of the molten binding liquid with declining agglomerate growth propensity at high sucrose stearate concentrations. In addition to being an agglomeration modifier, sucrose stearate demonstrated anti-adherent property in melt agglomeration process. The properties of molten HCO and melt agglomerates were dependent on the type and concentration of sucrose stearate added.

  2. Integral analysis of cavity pressurization in a fuel rod during an ULOF driven TOP with inclusion of surface tension effects on froth gas bubbles and variable cavity conditions due to fuel melting and ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1984-02-01

    The transient cavity pressurization in an ULOF driven TOP excursion has been analyzed for the SPX-1 reactor with an equation of state that allows to simulate the contribution of small froth gas bubbles to the pressure build-up in a fuel pin with inclusion of restraints from surface tension. Calculations were performed for various bubble parameters. Estimates are made for effective gas availabilities at fuel melting which can be used in a cavity model with an ideal gas equation to arrive at similar pressure transients

  3. Lattice stability and high-pressure melting mechanism of dense hydrogen up to 1.5 TPa

    KAUST Repository

    Geng, Hua Y.

    2015-09-01

    © 2015 American Physical Society. Lattice stability and metastability, as well as melting, are important features of the physics and chemistry of dense hydrogen. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), the classical superheating limit and melting line of metallic hydrogen are investigated up to 1.5 TPa. The computations show that the classical superheating degree is about 100 K, and the classical melting curve becomes flat at a level of 350 K when beyond 500 GPa. This information allows us to estimate the well depth and the potential barriers that must be overcome when the crystal melts. Inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) using path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) predicts that both superheating limit and melting temperature are lowered to below room temperature, but the latter never reaches absolute zero. Detailed analysis indicates that the melting is thermally activated, rather than driven by pure zero-point motion (ZPM). This argument was further supported by extensive PIMD simulations, demonstrating the stability of Fddd structure against liquefaction at low temperatures.

  4. Formation of H2 and CH4 by weathering of olivine at temperatures between 30 and 70°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crill Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbons such as CH4 are known to be formed through the Fischer-Tropsch or Sabatier type reactions in hydrothermal systems usually at temperatures above 100°C. Weathering of olivine is sometimes suggested to account for abiotic formation of CH4 through its redox lowering and water splitting properties. Knowledge about the CH4 and H2 formation processes at low temperatures is important for the research about the origin and cause of early Earth and Martian CH4 and for CO2 sequestration. We have conducted a series of low temperature, long-term weathering experiments in which we have tested the CH4 and H2 formation potential of forsteritic olivine. The results show low temperature CH4 production that is probably influenced by chromite and magnetite as catalysts. Extensive analyses of a potential CH4 source trapped in the crystal structure of the olivine showed no signs of incorporated CH4. Also, the available sources of organic carbon were not enough to support the total amount of CH4 detected in our experiments. There was also a linear relationship between silica release into solution and the net CH4 accumulation into the incubation bottle headspaces suggesting that CH4 formation under these conditions could be a qualitative indicator of olivine dissolution. It is likely that minerals such as magnetite, chromite and other metal-rich minerals found on the olivine surface catalyze the formation of CH4, because of the low temperature of the system. This may expand the range of environments plausible for abiotic CH4 formation both on Earth and on other terrestrial bodies.

  5. Petrologic testament to changes in shallow magma storage and transport during 30+ years of recharge and eruption at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Carl R.; Orr, Tim R.; Heliker, Christina; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic monitoring of Kīlauea Volcano from January 1983 to October 2013 has yielded an extensive record of glass, phenocryst, melt inclusion, and bulk-lava chemistry from well-quenched lava. When correlated with 30+ years of geophysical and geologic monitoring, petrologic details testify to physical maturation of summit-to-rift magma plumbing associated with sporadic intrusion and prolonged magmatic overpressurization. Changes through time in bulk-lava major- and trace-element compositions, along with glass thermometry, record shifts in the dynamic balance of fractionation, mixing, and assimilation processes inherent to magma storage and transport during near-continuous recharge and eruption. Phenocryst composition, morphology, and texture, along with the sulfur content of melt inclusions, constrain coupled changes in eruption behavior and geochemistry to processes occurring in the shallow magmatic system. For the first 17 years of eruption, magma was steadily tapped from a summit reservoir at 1–4 km depth and circulating between 1180 and 1200°C. Furthermore, magma cooled another 30°C while flowing through the 18 km long rift conduit, before erupting olivine-spinel-phyric lava at temperatures of 1150–1170°C in a pattern linked with edifice deformation, vent formation, eruptive vigor, and presumably the flux of magma into and out of the summit reservoir. During 2000–2001, a fundamental change in steady state eruption petrology to that of relatively low-temperature, low-MgO, olivine(-spinel)-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-phryic lava points to a physical transformation of the shallow volcano plumbing uprift of the vent. Preeruptive comagmatic mixing between hotter and cooler magma is documented by resorption, overgrowth, and compositional zonation in a mixed population of phenocrysts grown at higher and lower temperatures. Large variations of sulfur (50 to >1000 ppm) in melt inclusions within individual phenocrysts and among phenocrysts in most samples

  6. Trace element distribution in peridotite xenoliths from Tok, SE Siberian craton: A record of pervasive, multi-stage metasomatism in shallow refractory mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Dmitri A.; Chazot, Gilles; Chauvel, Catherine; Merlet, Claude; Bodinier, Jean-Louis

    2006-03-01

    Spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts at Tok, SE Siberian craton range from fertile lherzolites to harzburgites and wehrlites; olivine-rich (70-84%) rocks are dominant. REE patterns in the lherzolites range from nearly flat for fertile rocks (14-17% cpx) to LREE-enriched; the enrichments are positively correlated with modal olivine, consistent with high-permeability of olivine-rich rocks during melt percolation. Clinopyroxene in olivine-rich Tok peridotites typically has convex-upward trace element patterns (La/Nd PM 1); the LREE-enrichments are positively correlated with phosphorus abundances and are mainly hosted by accessory phosphates and P-rich cryptocrystalline materials. In addition to apatite, some Tok xenoliths contain whitlockite (an anhydrous, halogen-poor and Na-Mg-rich phosphate), which is common in meteorites and lunar rocks, but has not been reported from any terrestrial mantle samples. Some olivine-rich peridotites have generations of clinopyroxene with distinct abundances of Na, LREE, Sr and Zr. The mineralogical and trace element data indicate that the lithospheric mantle section represented by the xenoliths experienced a large-scale metasomatic event produced by upward migration of mafic silicate melts followed by percolation of low- T, alkali-rich melts and fluids. Chromatographic fractionation and fractional crystallisation of the melts close to the percolation front produced strong LREE-enrichments, which are most common in the uppermost mantle and are related to carbonate- and P 2O 5-rich derivatives of the initial melt. Reversal and gradual retreat of the percolation front during thermal relaxation to ambient geotherm ("retrograde" metasomatism) caused local migration and entrapment of small-volume residual fluids and precipitation of volatile-rich accessory minerals. A distinct metasomatic episode, which mainly produced "anhydrous" late-stage interstitial materials was concomitant with the alkali basaltic magmatism, which brought

  7. Insights into chondrule formation process and shock-thermal history of the Dergaon chondrite (H4-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dergaon fall represents a shock-melted H4-5 (S5 ordinary chondrite which includes at least ten textural varieties of chondrules and belongs to the high chondrule-matrix ratio type. Our study reveals that the chondrules are of diverse mineralogy with variable olivine-pyroxene ratios (Type II, igneous melt textures developed under variable cooling rates and formed through melt fractionations from two different melt reservoirs. Based on the experimental analogues, mineralogical associations and phase compositions, it is suggested that the Dergaon chondrules reflect two contrasting environments: a hot, dust-enriched and highly oxidized nebular environment through melting, without significant evaporation, and an arrested reducing environment concomitant with major evaporation loss of alkali and highly volatile trace elements. Coexistence of chlorapatite and merrillite suggests formation of the Dergaon matrix in an acidic accretionary environment. Textural integration and chemical homogenization occurred at ∼1 atmospheric pressure and a mean temperature of 765 °C mark the radiogenic thermal event. Equilibrated shock features (olivine mosaicism, diaplectic plagioclase, polycrystalline troilite due to an impact-induced thermal event reflect a shock pressure >45 GPa and temperature of 600 °C. By contrast, the local disequilibrium shock features (silicate melt veins comprising of olivine crystallites, troilite melt veins and metal droplets correspond to a shock pressure up to 75 GPa and temperature >950 °C.

  8. Emerging melt quality control solution technologies for aluminium melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pascual, Jr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed “MTS 1500” Melt Treatment System is performing the specifi cally required melt treatment operations like degassing, cleaning, modification and/or grain refinement by an automated process in one step and at the same location. This linked process is saving time, energy and metal losses allowing - by automated dosage of the melt treatment agents - the production of a consistent melt quality batch after batch. By linking the MTS Metal Treatment System with sensors operating on-line in the melt, i.e., with a hydrogen sensor “Alspek H”, a fully automated control of parts of the process chain like degassing is possible. This technology does guarantee a pre-specifi ed and documented melt quality in each melt treatment batch. Furthermore, to ensure that castings are consistent and predictable there is a growing realization that critical parameters such as metal cleanliness must be measured prior to casting. There exists accepted methods for measuring the cleanliness of an aluminum melt but these can be both slow and costly. A simple, rapid and meaningful method of measuring and bench marking the cleanliness of an aluminum melt has been developed to offer the foundry a practical method of measuring melt cleanliness. This paper shows the structure and performance of the integrated MTS melt treatment process and documents achieved melt quality standards after degassing, cleaning, modifi cation and grain refi nement operations under real foundry conditions. It also provides an insight on a melt cleanliness measuring device “Alspek MQ” to provide foundry men better tools in meeting the increasing quality and tighter specifi cation demand from the industry.

  9. Slab melting beneath the Cascades Arc driven by dehydration of altered oceanic peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina J; Wallace, Paul J.; Hauri, E.H.; Wada, I.; Clynne, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Water is returned to Earth’s interior at subduction zones. However, the processes and pathways by which water leaves the subducting plate and causes melting beneath volcanic arcs are complex; the source of the water—subducting sediment, altered oceanic crust, or hydrated mantle in the downgoing plate—is debated; and the role of slab temperature is unclear. Here we analyse the hydrogen-isotope and trace-element signature of melt inclusions in ash samples from the Cascade Arc, where young, hot lithosphere subducts. Comparing these data with published analyses, we find that fluids in the Cascade magmas are sourced from deeper parts of the subducting slab—hydrated mantle peridotite in the slab interior—compared with fluids in magmas from the Marianas Arc, where older, colder lithosphere subducts. We use geodynamic modelling to show that, in the hotter subduction zone, the upper crust of the subducting slab rapidly dehydrates at shallow depths. With continued subduction, fluids released from the deeper plate interior migrate into the dehydrated parts, causing those to melt. These melts in turn migrate into the overlying mantle wedge, where they trigger further melting. Our results provide a physical model to explain melting of the subducted plate and mass transfer from the slab to the mantle beneath arcs where relatively young oceanic lithosphere is subducted.

  10. A holistic model for the role of the axial melt lens at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Loocke, M. P.; Lissenberg, J. C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Axial melt lenses (AML) are melt or crystal mush1 bodies located at the dyke-gabbro transition beneath intermediate- and fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs)2,3. Although it is generally thought that AMLs play a major role in the storage and differentiation of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB)1, the melt compositions within the AML and its role in the accretion of the lower crust are heavily debated4-6. Here we present the first comprehensive study of the AML horizon at a fast-spreading MOR (Hess Deep, equatorial Pacific Ocean). We show that plagioclase and pyroxene within the AML are much too evolved to be in equilibrium with MORB, with mean An (54.85) and Mg# (65.01) consistent with derivation from basaltic andesite to andesite melts (Mg# 43-26). We propose that, in between decadal eruptions, the AML is predominantly crystal mush and is fed by small volumes of evolved interstitial melts. Short-lived, focused injection of primitive melt leads to mixing of primitive melts with the extant highly fractionated melt, and triggers eruptions. This model reconciles the paradoxical compositional mismatch between the volcanic and plutonic records with the geophysical characteristics of the AML, the short residence times of Pacific MORB phenocrysts, and the incompatible trace element over-enrichments in MORB. 1Marjanović, M. et al., 2015. Distribution of melt along the East Pacific Rise from 9°30' to 10°N from an amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) technique. Geophys. J. Int. 203. 2Detrick, R. S. et al., 1987. Multi-channel seismic imaging of a crustal magma chamber along the EPR. Nature 326. 3Sinton, J. M. & Detrick, R. S., 1992. Mid-ocean ridge magma chambers. J. Geophys. Res. 97. 4Coogan, L. A., Thompson, G. & MacLeod, C. J., 2002. A textural and geochemical investigation of high level gabbros from the Oman ophiolite: implications for the role of the axial magma chamber at fast-spreading ridges. Lithos 63. 5Pan, Y. & Batiza, R., 2002. Mid-ocean ridge magma

  11. Abiotic methane formation during experimental serpentinization of olivine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollom, Thomas M

    2016-12-06

    Fluids circulating through actively serpentinizing systems are often highly enriched in methane (CH 4 ). In many cases, the CH 4 in these fluids is thought to derive from abiotic reduction of inorganic carbon, but the conditions under which this process can occur in natural systems remain unclear. In recent years, several studies have reported abiotic formation of CH 4 during experimental serpentinization of olivine at temperatures at or below 200 °C. However, these results seem to contradict studies conducted at higher temperatures (300 °C to 400 °C), where substantial kinetic barriers to CH 4 synthesis have been observed. Here, the potential for abiotic formation of CH 4 from dissolved inorganic carbon during olivine serpentinization is reevaluated in a series of laboratory experiments conducted at 200 °C to 320 °C. A 13 C-labeled inorganic carbon source was used to unambiguously determine the origin of CH 4 generated in the experiments. Consistent with previous high-temperature studies, the results indicate that abiotic formation of CH 4 from reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon during the experiments is extremely limited, with nearly all of the observed CH 4 derived from background sources. The results indicate that the potential for abiotic synthesis of CH 4 in low-temperature serpentinizing environments may be much more limited than some recent studies have suggested. However, more extensive production of CH 4 was observed in one experiment performed under conditions that allowed an H 2 -rich vapor phase to form, suggesting that shallow serpentinization environments where a separate gas phase is present may be more favorable for abiotic synthesis of CH 4 .

  12. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced by dislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establish the dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks due to a lack of suitable observational techniques. We apply high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction to map geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density, elastic strain, and residual stress in experimentally deformed single crystals of olivine. Short-range interactions are revealed by cross correlation of GND density maps. Spatial correlations between dislocation types indicate that noncollinear interactions may impede motion of proximal dislocations at temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C. Long-range interactions are revealed by autocorrelation of GND density maps. These analyses reveal periodic variations in GND density and sign, with characteristic length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. These structures are spatially associated with variations in elastic strain and residual stress on the order of 10-3 and 100 MPa, respectively. Therefore, short-range interactions generate local accumulations of dislocations, leading to heterogeneous internal stress fields that influence dislocation motion over longer length scales. The impacts of these short- and/or long-range interactions on dislocation velocities may therefore influence the strain rate of the bulk material and are an important consideration for future models of dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms in olivine. Establishing the types and impacts of dislocation interactions that occur across a range of laboratory and natural deformation conditions will help to establish the reliability of extrapolating laboratory-derived flow laws to real Earth conditions.

  13. Metallurgical characterization of melt-spun ribbons of U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Ren, Zhiyong; Tang, Qingfu; Chen, Dong; Liu, Tingyi; Su, Bin; Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Chao

    2018-06-01

    The microstructures and micro-mechanical properties of the melt-spun ribbons of U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation. Observed variations in microstructures and properties are related to the changes in ribbon thicknesses and cooling rates. The microstructures of the melt-spun ribbon consist of fine-scale columnar grains (∼1 μm) adjacent to the chill surface and coarse cellular grains in the remainder of the ribbon. In addition, the formation of inclusions in the ribbon is suppressed kinetically due to the high cooling rate during melt spinning. Compared with the water-quenched specimen prepared by traditional gravity casting and solution heat treatment, the elastic modulus values of the U-5.4 wt%Nb alloy were examined to vary with grain size and exhibited diverse energy dissipation capacities.

  14. Olivine-type cathodes. Achievements and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Hosoya, Mamoru; Chung, Sai-Cheong; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hinokuma, Koichiro; Liu, Kuang-Yu; Nishi, Yoshio

    The recent progress at Sony in the design of practical olivine-type cathodes is reviewed briefly. First principle calculations revealed LiFePO 4 is a semiconductor with ca. 0.3 eV band gap and LiMnPO 4 is an insulator with ca. 2 eV band gap, which seems the major intrinsic obstacle to a smooth redox reaction at 4 V in the Mn-rich phase. Attention is also focused on the lattice frustration induced by the strong electron (Mn 3+: 3d 4-e gσ ∗)-lattice interaction (Jahn-Teller effect) in the charged state of Li(Mn yFe 1- y)PO 4 (0≤ y≤1). Dense nanocomposite formation with disordered conductive carbon as well as the choice of the appropriate synthetic precursors is highlighted as important engineering aspects, followed by some specific issues concerning tolerance to unusual conditions.

  15. Diffusive Fractionation of Lithium Isotopes in Olivine Grain Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homolova, V.; Watson, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Diffusive fractionation of isotopes has been documented in silicate melts, aqueous fluids, and single crystals. In polycrystalline rocks, the meeting place of two grains, or grain boundaries, may also be a site of diffusive fractionation of isotopes. We have undertaken an experimental and modeling approach to investigate diffusive fractionation of lithium (Li) isotopes by grain boundary diffusion. The experimental procedure consists of packing a Ni metal capsule with predominantly ground San Carlos olivine and subjecting the capsule to 1100C and 1GPa for two days in a piston cylinder apparatus to create a nominally dry, 'dunite rock'. After this synthesis step, the capsule is sectioned and polished. One of the polished faces of the 'dunite rock' is then juxtaposed to a source material of spodumene and this diffusion couple is subject to the same experimental conditions as the synthesis step. Li abundances and isotopic profiles (ratios of count rates) were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Li concentrations linearly decrease away from the source from 550ppm to the average concentration of the starting olivine (2.5ppm). As a function of distance from the source, the 7Li/6Li ratio decreases to a minimum before increasing to the background ratio of the 'dunite rock'. The 7Li/6Li ratio minimum coincides with the lowest Li concentrations above average 'dunite rock' abundances. The initial decrease in the 7Li/6Li ratio is similar to that seen in other studies of diffusive fractionation of isotopes and is thought to be caused by the higher diffusivity (D) of the lighter isotope relative to the heavier isotope. The relationship between D and mass (m) is given by (D1/D2) =(m2/m1)^β, where β is an empirical fractionation factor; 1 and 2 denote the lighter and heavier isotope, respectively. A fit to the Li isotopic data reveals an effective DLi of ~1.2x10^-12 m/s^2 and a β of 0.1. Numerical modelling was utilized to elucidate the relationship between diffusive fractionation

  16. Study of Te Inclusion and Related Point Defects in THM-Growth CdMnTe Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yifei; Zhang, Jijun; Min, Jiahua; Liang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Ling, Liwen; Li, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Linjun

    2018-02-01

    This study establishes a model for describing the interaction between Te inclusions, dislocations and point defects in CdMnTe crystals. The role of the complex environment surrounding the formation of Te inclusions was analyzed. Images of Te inclusions captured by scanning electron microscope and infrared microscope were used to observe the morphology of Te inclusions. The morphology of Te inclusions is discussed in light of crystallography, from the crystal growth temperature at 900°C to the melting temperature of Te inclusions using the traveling heater method. The dislocation nets around Te inclusions were calculated by counting lattice mismatches between the Te inclusions and the bulk CdMnTe at 470°C. The point defects of Te antisites were found to be gathered around Te inclusions, with dislocation climb during the cooling phase of crystal growth from 470°C to room temperature. The Te inclusions, dislocation nets and surrounding point defects are considered to be an entirety for evaluating the effect of Te inclusions on CdMnTe detector performance, and an effective mobility-lifetime product (μτ) was obtained.

  17. The dissolution of high-FeO olivine rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (SE-Finland) at 25 deg. C as a function of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Lara; El Aamrani, Fatima; Rovira, Miquel; Gimenez, Javier; Casas, Ignasi; Pablo, Joan de; Bruno, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    The high-FeO olivine-rich rock from the Lovasjaervi intrusion (65% olivine, 20% plagioclase, 8% magnetite, 4% pyroxene and 3% serpentine) has been proposed as a potential redox-active backfill-additive in deep high level nuclear waste repositories. In this work, the authors report on kinetic dissolution studies of this solid under different pH and redox conditions performed by using a flow-through methodology. Assuming that silicon is mainly released to solution from the olivine contained in the solid, the experimental results have been adjusted to an empirical rate law as a function of proton concentration. The proton concentration reaction orders agree with results found in the literature for both acidic and alkaline pH ranges. The calculations conducted with the reactive transport code RETRASO show that at alkaline pH, the olivine rock might have a lower redox buffer capacity than expected

  18. Comparative in situ X-ray Diffraction Study of San Carlos Olivine: Influence of Water on the 410 km Seismic Velocity Jump in Earth’s Mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Chen; H Liu; J Girard

    2011-12-31

    A comparative study of the equation of states of hydrous (0.4 wt% H{sub 2}O) and anhydrous San Carlos olivine (<30 ppm H2O) was conducted using synchrotron X-rays up to 11 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at ambient temperature. Both samples were loaded in the same high-pressure chamber of the DAC to eliminate the possible pressure difference in different experiments. The obtained compression data were fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 123(3) GPa for hydrous olivine and K{sub 0} = 130(4) GPa for anhydrous olivine as K{sub 0}' is fixed at 4.6. Therefore, 0.4 wt% H{sub 2}2O in olivine results in a 5% reduction in bulk modulus. Previous studies reported bulk modulus reduction by water in olivine's high-pressure polymorph (wadsleyite), to which the transformation from olivine gives rise to the seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth. The new data results in a reduction in the magnitude of the discontinuity by 50% in v{sub P} and 30% in v{sub S} (for 1:5 water partitioning between olivine and wadsleyite) with respect to anhydrous mantle. Previous knowledge of the influence of water on this phase transition has been in opposition to a large amount of water [e.g., 200 ppm by Wood (1995)] existing at 410 km depth. Calculation of the seismic velocities based on newly available elasticity data of the hydrous phases indicates that the presence of water is favorable for the mineral composition model (pyrolite) and seismic observations in terms of the magnitude of the 410 km discontinuity.

  19. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  20. Double melting in polytetrafluoroethylene γ-irradiated above its melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serov, S.A.; Khatipov, S.A.; Sadovskaya, N.V.; Tereshenkov, A.V.; Chukov, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTFE irradiation leads to formation of double melting peaks in DSC curves. ► This is connected to dual crystalline morphology typical for PTFE. ► Two crystalline types exist in the PTFE irradiated in the melt. - Abstract: PTFE irradiation above its melting point leads to formation of double melting and crystallization peaks in DSC curves. Splitting of melting peaks is connected to dual crystalline morphology typical for PTFE irradiated in the melt. According to electron microscopy, two crystalline types with different size and packing density exist in the irradiated PTFE.

  1. Ar and K partitioning between clinopyroxene and silicate melt to 8 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, E. M.; Brooker, R. A.; Wartho, J.-A.; Wood, B. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Blundy, J. D.

    2002-02-01

    clinopyroxene is diopside rich at all pressures, DK and DRb increase with pressure (and temperature) in an analogous fashion to the well-documented behavior of Na. For the Ab80Di20 system, the jadeite content of the clinopyroxene increases from 22 to 75 mol% with pressure resulting in a contraction of the M2 site. This has the effect of discriminating against the large K+ and Rb+ ions, thereby countering the effect of increasing pressure. As a consequence DK and DRb do not increase with pressure in this system. In contrast to the alkalis (Na, K, and Rb), DKr values are similar to DAr despite a large difference in atomic radius. This lack of discrimination (and the constant DAr over a range of crystal compositions) is also consistent with incorporation of these heavier noble gases at crystal lattice sites and a predicted consequence of their neutrality or ;zero charge.; Combined with published DAr values for olivine, our results confirm that magma generation is an efficient mechanism for the removal of Ar from the uppermost 200 km of the mantle, and that K/Ar ratios in the residuum are controlled by the amount of clinopyroxene. Generally, Ar is more compatible than K during mantle melting because DAr for olivine is similar to DK for clinopyroxene. As a result, residual mantle that has experienced variable amounts of melt extraction may show considerable variability in time-integrated 36Ar/40Ar.

  2. Oxygen isotope and trace element compositions of platiniferous dunite pipes of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa - Signals from a recycled mantle component?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T.; Haase, K. M.; Junge, M.; Oberthür, T.; Woelki, D.; Krumm, S.

    2018-06-01

    Platiniferous dunite pipes occur in the lower mafic/ultramafic portion of the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld large igneous province (LIP). Olivine compositions in these pipes range from forsterite (Fo) 80 to 35 mol% and suggest crystallization from variably evolved magmas at high temperatures ( 1200 °C). The most primitive olivines are from a stock unit and have the highest contents of Ni (>0.15 wt%) and lowest contents of Mn (formation of the fayalitic olivines with its high Mn contents (>0.3 wt%). High δ18O values of olivine (5.7-7.0‰) and pyroxene (6.7-7.4‰) are akin to those of the Lower and Critical Zone of the Bushveld intrusion suggesting a common origin. The constant high O isotope ratios with variable Fo contents in the olivines are unlike trends observed in olivine phenocrysts in magmas forming by assimilation-fractional crystallization. We suggest that the high δ18O in the most primitive dunites reflect that of the primary melt of the Bushveld pipes, indicating either a bulk assimilation of crust prior to pipe formation or a contribution from recycled oceanic crust in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). The latter scenario is supported by the high Ni/Mn ratios in primitive pipe olivine that might be inherited from melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle source.

  3. Characterisation of Catfish (Clarias Batrachus) Oil: β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee; Nor Izzatul Adyani Yahya; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Dzulkifly Mat Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Catfish is a cheap source of essential omega-3 fatty acids especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Catfish oil was extracted and clean-up using pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) from the viscera of catfish (Clarias batrachus). However, the characteristics of catfish oils are sticky, strong fishy odour and can easily be oxidised with short shelf-life. In this study, catfish oil was converted into powder by formation of inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin. Inclusion complex was prepared by using co-precipitation and kneading methods and compared with physical mixture. The inclusion complex formed were characterised by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). FESEM images revealed that inclusion complex using co-precipitation and kneading methods has smaller in crystal sizes and appeared as different morphology compared to physical mixture. DSC proved that co-precipitation method was able to form new solid phase due to shifting of melting point to higher temperature (145.22 degree Celcius). FTIR supported the result by proving strengthening of carbonyl group (C=O). Therefore, co-precipitation method was able to successfully produce inclusion complex of catfish oil, β-cyclodextrin. (author)

  4. Melting method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste and melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Toru; Furukawa, Hirofumi; Uda, Nobuyoshi; Katsurai, Kiyomichi

    1998-01-01

    A vessel containing miscellaneous solid wastes is inserted in a crucible having a releasable material on the inner surface, they are induction-heated from the outside of the crucible by way of low temperature heating coils to melt low melting point materials in the miscellaneous wastes within a temperature range at which the vessel does not melt. Then, they are induction-heated by way of high temperature heating coils to melt the vessel and not yet melted materials, those molten materials are cooled, solidified molten material and the releasable material are taken out, and then the crucible is used again. Then, the crucible can be used again, so that it can be applied to a large scaled melting furnace which treats wastes by a unit of drum. In addition, since the cleaning of the used crucible and the application of the releasable material can be conducted without interrupting the operation of the melting furnace, the operation cycle of the melting furnace can be shortened. (N.H.)

  5. Alumina-zirconium ceramics synthesis by selective laser sintering/melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Yadroitsev, I.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, porous refractory ceramics synthesized by selective laser sintering/melting from a mixture of zirconium dioxide, aluminum and/or alumina powders are subjected to optical metallography and X-ray analysis to study their microstructure and phase composition depending on the laser processing parameters. It is shown that high-speed laser sintering in air yields ceramics with dense structure and a uniform distribution of the stabilizing phases. The obtained ceramic-matrix composites may be used as thermal and electrical insulators and wear resistant coating in solid oxide fuel cells, crucibles, heating elements, medical tools. The possibility to reinforce refractory ceramics by laser synthesis is shown on the example of tetragonal dioxide of zirconium with hardened micro-inclusion of Al 2 O 3 . By applying finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 powder inclusions, the type of the ceramic structure is significantly changed

  6. Microstructure and sound velocity of Ti-N-O synthetic inclusions in Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigliotti, M.F.X.; Gilmore, R.S.; Perocchi, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen and oxygen stabilize the alpha phase in titanium. Regions within Ti alloy parts containing high local levels of N and O can stabilize a hard-alpha phase. The ultrasonic properties of titanium-nitrogen-oxygen inclusions within Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) blocks were measured and related to inclusion chemistry. Sound velocities were measured on Ti-N-O alloy samples that had been prepared by powder metallurgy and ingot-melting techniques. The contributions to sound velocity from oxygen and nitrogen contents were determined. Then, Ti64 blocks were hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonded to contain inclusions of the Ti-N-O alloys. The signal-to-noise ratios of reflections from uncracked inclusions were found to be an increasing function of inclusion interstitial content and were related to changes in sound velocity with inclusion chemistry. Measurements were made of the reflectance of titanium-nitrogen inclusions in titanium and Ti64

  7. Nuclear microscopy of fluid inclusions at the CSIRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Win, T.T.; McInnes, B.; Cripps, G.; Suter, G.; Liu, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The deep penetration of a MeV energy proton beam and the predictable nature of X-ray production using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) make the nuclear microprobe ideally suited to the imaging and analysis of fluid and melt inclusions in minerals. MeV protons interact with a target through electronic interactions with a loss of ∼100 eV per collision. Such small energy loss leads to a smooth and predictable slowing down behaviour with a small energy uncertainty. Furthermore, the small momentum transfers in these collisions result in negligible spreading of the beam (e.g. ∼1 μm at 40 μm depth in quartz). Hence, the proton path can be regarded as linear. The principle mechanisms for proton energy loss, proton-induced ionization, secondary fluorescence and X-ray absorption and detection are understood and well characterized. This enables the integration of expected PIXE X-ray yields along the path of the proton beam and provides the foundation for a standardless microanalytical method. A strength of standardless PIXE analysis enables the approach to be extended to complex problems where the production of standards becomes impractical or unrepresentative of natural samples. One such problem is the study of ore metal transport and ore formation processes using the non-destructive analysis of fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals using a raster-scanned proton probe. In this case, the integration of PIXE X-rays can be confined to the volume of the fluid inclusion in order to calculate the yield of elemental X-rays per ppm of an element. This calculation is illustrated, which shows one volume element of the fluid inclusion excited by the beam and the X-ray path to a detector. The CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe can focus a 3 MeV proton beam into a 1.3 μm beam spot for fluid inclusion analysis and intense beams for mineral imaging at 1.8 μm resolution (Ryan et al., 2001a). Quantitative elemental images are projected using the Dynamic Analysis

  8. Primative components, crustal assimilation, and magmatic degassing of the 2008 Kilauea summit eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Orr, Tim R.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous summit and rift zone eruptions at Kīlauea starting in 2008 reflect a shallow eruptive plumbing system inundated by a bourgeoning supply of new magma from depth. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions, host glass, and bulk lava compositions of magma erupted at both the summit and east rift zone demonstrate chemical continuity at both ends of a well-worn summit-to-rift pipeline. Analysis of glass within dense-cored lapilli erupted from the summit in March – August 2008 show these are not samplings of compositionally distinct magmas stored in the shallow summit magma reservoir, but instead result from remelting and assimilation of fragments from conduit wall and vent blocks. Summit pyroclasts show the predominant and most primitive component erupted to be a homogenous, relatively trace-element-depleted melt that is a compositionally indistinguishable from east rift lava. Based on a “top-down” model for the geochemical variation in east rift zone lava over the past 30 years, we suggest that the apparent absence of a 1982 enriched component in melt inclusions, as well as the proposed summit-rift zone connectivity based on sulfur and mineral chemistry, indicate that the last of the pre-1983 magma has been flushed out of the summit reservoir during the surge of mantle-derived magma from 2003-2007.

  9. Constraining the volatile budget of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, N. J.; Bromiley, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of volatiles (F, Cl, S, H2O) in a range of lunar samples confirm the presence of volatile material in lunar magmas. It remains unknown, however, where this volatile material is stored and when it was delivered to the Moon. On Earth, point defects within mantle olivine, and its high-pressure polymorphs, are thought to be the largest reservoir of volatile material. However, as volatiles have been cycled into and out of the Earth's mantle throughout geological time, via subduction and volcanism, this masks any original volatile signatures. As the Moon has no plate tectonics, it is expected that any volatile material present in the deep lunar interior would have been inherited during accretion and differentiation, providing insight into the delivery of volatiles to the early Earth-Moon system. Our aim was, therefore, to test the volatile storage capacity of the deep lunar mantle and determine mineral/melt partitioning for key volatiles. Experiments were performed in a primitive lunar mantle composition and run at relevant T, P, and at fO2 below the IW buffer. Experiments replicated the initial stages of LMO solidification with either olivine + melt, olivine + pyroxene + melt, or pyroxene + melt as the only phases present. Mineral-melt partition coefficients (Dx) derived for volatile material (F, Cl, S, H2O) vary significantly compared to those derived for terrestrial conditions. An order of magnitude more H2O was found to partition into lunar olivine compared to the terrestrial upper mantle. DF derived for lunar olivine are comparable to the highest terrestrial derived values whilst no Cl was found to partition into lunar olivine under these conditions. Furthermore, an inverse trend between DF and DOH hints towards coupled-substitution mechanisms between H and F under low-fO2/lunar bulk composition. These results suggest that if volatile material was present in the LMO a significant proportion could be partitioned into the lower lunar mantle. The

  10. Partial melting of lower oceanic crust gabbro: Constraints from poikilitic clinopyroxene primocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Julien; Lissenberg, C. Johan; O'Driscoll, Brian; Karakas, Ozge; Falloon, Trevor; Klimentyeva, Dina N.; Ulmer, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Successive magma batches underplate, ascend, stall and erupt along spreading ridges, building the oceanic crust. It is therefore important to understand the processes and conditions under which magma differentiates at mid ocean ridges. Although fractional crystallization is considered to be the dominant mechanism for magma differentiation, open-system igneous complexes also experience Melting-Assimilation-Storage-Hybridization (MASH, Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988) processes. Here, we examine crystal-scale records of partial melting in lower crustal gabbroic cumulates from the slow-spreading Atlantic oceanic ridge (Kane Megamullion; collected with Jason ROV) and the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise (Hess Deep; IODP expedition 345). Clinopyroxene oikocrysts in these gabbros preserve marked intra-crystal geochemical variations that point to crystallization-dissolution episodes of the gabbro eutectic assemblage. Kane Megamullion and Hess Deep clinopyroxene core1 primocrysts and their plagioclase inclusions indicate crystallization from high temperature basalt (>1160 and >1200°C, respectively), close to clinopyroxene saturation temperature (fundamental mechanisms for generating the wide compositional variation observed in mid-ocean ridge basalts. We furthermore propose that such processes operate at both slow- and fast-spreading ocean ridges. Thermal numerical modelling shows that the degree of lower crustal partial melting at slow-spreading ridges can locally increase up to 50%, but the overall crustal melt volume is low (less than ca. 5% of total mantle-derived and crustal melts; ca. 20% in fast-spreading ridges).

  11. Tin in granitic melts: The role of melting temperature and protolith composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mathias; Romer, Rolf L.; Franz, Leander; López-Moro, Francisco Javier

    2018-06-01

    Granite bound tin mineralization typically is seen as the result of extreme magmatic fractionation and late exsolution of magmatic fluids. Mineralization, however, also could be obtained at considerably less fractionation if initial melts already had enhanced Sn contents. We present chemical data and results from phase diagram modeling that illustrate the dominant roles of protolith composition, melting conditions, and melt extraction/evolution for the distribution of Sn between melt and restite and, thus, the Sn content of melts. We compare the element partitioning between leucosome and restite of low-temperature and high-temperature migmatites. During low-temperature melting, trace elements partition preferentially into the restite with the possible exception of Sr, Cd, Bi, and Pb, that may be enriched in the melt. In high-temperature melts, Ga, Y, Cd, Sn, REE, Pb, Bi, and U partition preferentially into the melt whereas Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo, and Ba stay in the restite. This contrasting behavior is attributed to the stability of trace element sequestering minerals during melt generation. In particular muscovite, biotite, titanite, and rutile act as host phases for Sn and, therefore prevent Sn enrichment in the melt as long as they are stable phases in the restite. As protolith composition controls both the mineral assemblage and modal contents of the various minerals, protolith composition eventually also controls the fertility of a rock during anatexis, restite mineralogy, and partitioning behavior of trace metals. If a particular trace element is sequestered in a phase that is stable during partial melting, the resulting melt is depleted in this element whereas the restite becomes enriched. Melt generation at high temperature may release Sn when Sn-hosts become unstable. If melt has not been lost before the breakdown of Sn-hosts, Sn contents in the melt will increase but never will be high. In contrast, if melt has been lost before the decomposition of Sn

  12. A model of chemical etching of olivine in the vicinity of the trajectory of a swift heavy ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, S.A., E-mail: s.a.gorbunov@mail.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rymzhanov, R.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Starkov, N.I. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Volkov, A.E. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malakhov, A.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Searching of superheavy elements, the charge spectra of heavy nuclei in Galactic Cosmic Rays was investigated within the OLYMPIA experiment using the database of etched ion tracks in meteorite olivine. Etching results in the formation of hollow syringe-like channels with diameters of 1–10 μm along the trajectories of these swift heavy ions (SHI). According to the activated complex theory, the local chemical activity is determined by an increase of the specific Gibbs energy of the lattice stimulated by structure transformations, long-range elastic fields, and interatomic bonds breaking generated in the vicinity of the ion trajectory. To determine the dependencies of the Gibbs free energy increase in SHI tracks in olivine on the mass, energy and charge of a projectile, we apply a multiscale model of excitation and relaxation of materials in the vicinity of the SHI trajectory (SHI tracks). Effect of spreading of fast electrons from the ion trajectory causing neutralization of metallic atoms resulting in an increase of the chemical activity of olivine at long distances from the ion trajectory (up to 5 μm) is estimated and discussed.

  13. Comparative Study on Two Melting Simulation Methods: Melting Curve of Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhong-Li; Li Rui; Sun Jun-Sheng; Zhang Xiu-Lu; Cai Ling-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Melting simulation methods are of crucial importance to determining melting temperature of materials efficiently. A high-efficiency melting simulation method saves much simulation time and computational resources. To compare the efficiency of our newly developed shock melting (SM) method with that of the well-established two-phase (TP) method, we calculate the high-pressure melting curve of Au using the two methods based on the optimally selected interatomic potentials. Although we only use 640 atoms to determine the melting temperature of Au in the SM method, the resulting melting curve accords very well with the results from the TP method using much more atoms. Thus, this shows that a much smaller system size in SM method can still achieve a fully converged melting curve compared with the TP method, implying the robustness and efficiency of the SM method. (paper)

  14. Zircon (Hf, O isotopes) as melt indicator: Melt infiltration and abundant new zircon growth within melt rich layers of granulite-facies lenses versus solid-state recrystallization in hosting amphibolite-facies gneisses (central Erzgebirge, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichomirowa, Marion; Whitehouse, Martin; Gerdes, Axel; Schulz, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    In the central Erzgebirge within the Bohemian Massif, lenses of high pressure and ultrahigh pressure felsic granulites occur within meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous amphibolite-facies felsic rocks. In the felsic granulite, melt rich parts and restite form alternating layers, and were identified by petrology and bulk rock geochemistry. Mineral assemblages representing the peak P-T conditions were best preserved in melanocratic restite layers. In contrast, in the melt rich leucocratic layers, garnet and related HP minerals as kyanite are almost completely resorbed. Both layers display differences in accessory minerals: melanosomes have frequent and large monazite and Fe-Ti-minerals but lack xenotime and apatite; leucosomes have abundant apatite and xenotime while monazite is rare. Here we present a detailed petrographic study of zircon grains (abundance, size, morphology, inclusions) in granulite-facies and amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses, along with their oxygen and hafnium isotope compositions. Our data complement earlier Usbnd Pb ages and trace element data (REE, Y, Hf, U) on zircons from the same rocks (Tichomirowa et al., 2005). Our results show that the degree of melting determines the behaviour of zircon in different layers of the granulites and associated amphibolite-facies rocks. In restite layers of the granulite lenses, small, inherited, and resorbed zircon grains are preserved and new zircon formation is very limited. In contrast, new zircons abundantly grew in the melt rich leucocratic layers. In these layers, the new zircons (Usbnd Pb age, trace elements, Hf, O isotopes) best preserve the information on peak metamorphic conditions due to intense corrosion of other metamorphic minerals. The new zircons often contain inherited cores. Compared to cores, the new zircons and rims show similar or slightly lower Hf isotope values, slightly higher Hf model ages, and decreased oxygen isotope ratios. The isotope compositions (Hf, O) of new zircons indicate

  15. The origin of high-Mg magmas in Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, Cascade Arc (California): higher and lower than mantle oxygen isotope signatures attributed to current and past subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Bindeman, I.; Grove, T. L.

    2011-11-01

    We report the oxygen isotope composition of olivine and orthopyroxene phenocrysts in lavas from the main magma types at Mt Shasta and Medicine Lake Volcanoes: primitive high-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT), basaltic andesites (BA), primitive magnesian andesites (PMA), and dacites. The most primitive HAOT (MgO > 9 wt%) from Mt. Shasta has olivine δ18O (δ18OOl) values of 5.9-6.1‰, which are about 1‰ higher than those observed in olivine from normal mantle-derived magmas. In contrast, HAOT lavas from Medicine Lake have δ18OOl values ranging from 4.7 to 5.5‰, which are similar to or lower than values for olivine in equilibrium with mantle-derived magmas. Other magma types from both volcanoes show intermediate δ18OOl values. The oxygen isotope composition of the most magnesian lavas cannot be explained by crustal contamination and the trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts precludes a pyroxenitic mantle source. Therefore, the high and variable δ18OOl signature of the most magnesian samples studied (HAOT and BA) comes from the peridotitic mantle wedge itself. As HAOT magma is generated by anhydrous adiabatic partial melting of the shallow mantle, its 1.4‰ range in δ18OOl reflects a heterogeneous composition of the shallow mantle source that has been influenced by subduction fluids and/or melts sometime in the past. Magmas generated in the mantle wedge by flux melting due to modern subduction fluids, as exemplified by BA and probably PMA, display more homogeneous composition with only 0.5‰ variation. The high-δ18O values observed in magnesian lavas, and principally in the HAOT, are difficult to explain by a single-stage flux-melting process in the mantle wedge above the modern subduction zone and require a mantle source enriched in 18O. It is here explained by flow of older, pre-enriched portions of the mantle through the slab window beneath the South Cascades.

  16. Thermodynamic investigation on the formation of inclusions containing MgAl2O4 spinel during 16Cr-14Ni austenitic stainless steel manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The formation mechanism of the inclusions containing the spinel crystals has been developed based on the experimental results for the equilibrium between the Fe-16%Cr-14%Ni stainless steel melts and the inclusions as well as the compositions of the inclusions in the plant samples. In the laboratory experiments, the molar content of alumina in the inclusions linearly increases with increasing content of aluminum according to the theoretical expectation and the composition of the inclusions could be described as a function of the activity of aluminum and silicon. From the analysis of the plant samples, the content of MgO and Al 2 O 3 in the calcium silicate type inclusions continuously increases as the steel melts transfer from AOD converter to LT processes and thus, the spinel phase could be crystallized and grown in the calcium silicate matrix during cooling through tundish to cast slabs. On the other hand, the manganese silicate type inclusions were observed after tapping molten steel to the ladle, and then the MnO and Cr 2 O 3 (and SiO 2 ) in the inclusions were reduced by silicon and aluminum through LT to CC mold. The fraction of the inclusions containing spinel crystals at cast slabs was null at (Al 2 O 3 ) 2 O 3 ) > 20 mass%

  17. Melt quality induced failure of electrical conductor (EC grade aluminum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of electrical conductor grade (EC aluminum during wire drawing process was investigated. The fractured aluminum wires were subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses for an initial examination. Thermodynamic analyses of molten aluminum interaction with refractories was also carried out using FactSage at 710°C to predict the stable phases. The SEM/EDX analyses has revealed the inclusions in aluminum matrix. The typical inclusions observed were Al2O3, Al3C4 (Al-Carbide and oxides of refractories elements (Al, Mg, Si and O that have particle size ranging up to 5 μm. The transition metal boride particles were not identified during SEM/EDX analyses these might be too fine to be detected with this microscope. The overall investigation suggested that the possible cause of this failure is second phase particles presence as inclusions in the aluminum matrix, and this was associated with the poor quality of melt. During wire drawing process, these inclusions were pulled out of the aluminum matrix by the wiredrawing forces to produce micro-voids which led to ductile tearing and final fracture of wires. It was recommended to use ceramic foam filters to segregate inclusions from molten aluminum.

  18. Diversity in C-Xanes Spectra Obtained from Carbonaceous Solid Inclusions from Monahans Halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M. E.; Fries, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Rahman, Z.; Cody, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    Monahans meteorite (H5) contains fluid inclusion- bearing halite (NaCl) crystals [1]. Microthermometry and Raman spectroscopy showed that the fluid in the inclusions is an aqueous brine and they were trapped near 25degC [1]. Their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid was post metamorphism [2]. Abundant solid inclusions are also present in the halites. The solid inclusions include abundant and widely variable organics [2]. Analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and TEM reveal that these grains include macromolecular carbon similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, magnetite, sulfides, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and possibly the zeolite phillipsite [3]. Here we report organic analyses of these carbonaceous residues in Monahans halite using C-, N-, and O- X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Samples and Methods: Approximately 100 nm-thick sections were extracted with a focused ion beam (FIB) at JSC from solid inclusions from Monahans halite. The sections were analyzed using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) on beamline 5.3.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for XANES spectroscopy. Results and Discussion: C-XANES spectra of the solid inclusions show micrometer-scale heterogeneity, indicating that the macromolecular carbon in the inclusions have complex chemical variations. C-XANES features include 284.7 eV assigned to aromatic C=C, 288.4-288.8 eV assigned to carboxyl, and 290.6 eV assigned to carbonate. The carbonyl features obtained by CXANES might have been caused by the FIB used in sample preparation. No specific N-XANES features are observed. The CXANES spectra obtained from several areas in the FIB sections include type 1&2 chondritic IOM like, type 3 chondritic IOM like, and none of the above

  19. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available took place during a prolonged history of cooling and partial hydration of the magmatic olivine melanorites from over 1000-degrees-C down to approximately 600-degrees-C. The P-T conditions indicated by the reactions suggest this cooling process...

  20. Scrap tire pyrolysis using a new type two-stage pyrolyzer: Effects of dolomite and olivine on producing a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Scrap tire pyrolysis was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor to produce a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the effect of the residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor was investigated at ∼300 (auger reactor) and 500 °C (fluidized bed reactor). In addition, natural dolomite and olivine and calcined dolomite and olivine were used as the fluidized bed materials to examine their effects on reducing the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. In the experiments, the yields of the oil from the auger reactor were 1.4–3.7 wt%, and it was enriched with DL-limonene whose content in the oil was 40–50 wt%. The yields of the oil from the fluidized bed reactor were 42–46 wt%. The optimum residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor turned out to be 3.5 min. Calcined dolomite and olivine significantly decreased the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil. Metal oxides of the additives appeared to react with H_2S to form metal sulfides. The sulfur content of pyrolysis oil obtained with calcined olivine was 0.45 wt%. - Highlights: • Scrap tires were successfully pyrolyzed in a new type two-stage pyrolyzer. • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and fluidized bed reactors. • Calcination of olivine and dolomite led to a strong decrease in sulfur. • The lowest sulfur content of pyrolysis oil was 0.45 wt%. • Pyrolysis oil yields from the fluidized bed reactor were 43–46 wt%.

  1. The effect of melt composition on metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements and constraints on core formation in the angrite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, E. S.; Sitabi, A. B.; Lin, Y. H.; Rai, N.; Knibbe, J. S.; Berndt, J.; Matveev, S.; van Westrenen, W.

    2017-09-01

    We present 275 new metal-silicate partition coefficients for P, S, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ge, Mo, and W obtained at moderate P (1.5 GPa) and high T (1683-1883 K). We investigate the effect of silicate melt composition using four end member silicate melt compositions. We identify possible silicate melt dependencies of the metal-silicate partitioning of lower valence elements Ni, Ge and V, elements that are usually assumed to remain unaffected by changes in silicate melt composition. Results for the other elements are consistent with the dependence of their metal-silicate partition coefficients on the individual major oxide components of the silicate melt composition suggested by recently reported parameterizations and theoretical considerations. Using multiple linear regression, we parameterize compiled metal-silicate partitioning results including our new data and report revised expressions that predict their metal-silicate partitioning behavior as a function of P-T-X-fO2. We apply these results to constrain the conditions that prevailed during core formation in the angrite parent body (APB). Our results suggest the siderophile element depletions in angrite meteorites are consistent with a CV bulk composition and constrain APB core formation to have occurred at mildly reducing conditions of 1.4 ± 0.5 log units below the iron-wüstite buffer (ΔIW), corresponding to a APB core mass of 18 ± 11%. The core mass range is constrained to 21 ± 8 mass% if light elements (S and/or C) are assumed to reside in the APB core. Incorporation of light elements in the APB core does not yield significantly different redox states for APB core-mantle differentiation. The inferred redox state is in excellent agreement with independent fO2 estimates recorded by pyroxene and olivine in angrites.

  2. Analysis on composition and inclusions of ballpoint pen tip steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian-kun; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dong; Wu, Yan-xin; Fu, Jian-xun

    2018-04-01

    Ballpoint pen tip steel, a super free-cutting stainless steel, exhibits excellent corrosion resistance and good machining properties. In this study, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, metallographic microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the elemental contents in five ballpoint pen tips and their components, morphologies, and inclusion distributions. The results showed that the steels were all S-Pb-Te super free-cutting ferritic stainless steel. The free-cutting phases in the steels were mainly MnS, Pb, and small amounts of PbTe. MnS inclusions were in the form of chain distributions, and the aspect ratio of each size inclusion in the chain was small. The stress concentration effect could substantially reduce the cutting force when the material was machined. Some of the Pb was distributed evenly in the steel matrix as fine particles (1-2 μm), and the rest of the Pb was distributed at the middle or at both ends of the MnS inclusions. The Pb plays a role in lubrication and melting embrittlement, which substantially increases the cutting performance. PbTe was also usually distributed in the middle and at both ends of the MnS inclusions, and Te could convert the sulfides into spindles, thereby improving the cutting performance of the steel.

  3. Magmatic water contents determined through clinopyroxene: Examples from the Western Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Franz A.; Skogby, Henrik; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Dahren, Börje

    2015-07-01

    Water is a key parameter in magma genesis, magma evolution, and resulting eruption styles, because it controls the density, the viscosity, as well as the melting and crystallization behavior of a melt. The parental water content of a magma is usually measured through melt inclusions in minerals such as olivine, a method which may be hampered, however, by the lack of melt inclusions suitable for analysis, or postentrapment changes in their water content. An alternative way to reconstruct the water content of a magma is to use nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as pyroxene, which take up low concentrations of hydrogen as a function of the magma's water content. During magma degassing and eruption, however, NAMs may dehydrate. We therefore tested a method to reconstruct the water contents of dehydrated clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the Western Canary islands (n = 28) through rehydration experiments followed by infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Employing currently available crystal/melt partitioning data, the results of the experiments were used to calculate parental water contents of 0.71 ± 0.07 to 1.49 ± 0.15 wt % H2O for Western Canary magmas during clinopyroxene crystallization at upper mantle conditions. This H2O range is in agreement with calculated water contents using plagioclase-liquid-hygrometry, and with previously published data for mafic lavas from the Canary Islands and comparable ocean island systems elsewhere. Utilizing NAMs in combination with hydrogen treatment can therefore serve as a proxy for pre-eruptive H2O contents, which we anticipate becoming a useful method applicable to mafic rocks where pyroxene is the main phenocryst phase.

  4. Effect of Mantle Wedge Hybridization by Sediment Melt on Geochemistry of Arc Magma and Arc Mantle Source - Insights from Laboratory Experiments at High Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.; Tsuno, K.; Nelson, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Generation of arc magmas involves metasomatism of the mantle wedge by slab-derived H2O-rich fluids and/or melts and subsequent melting of the modified source. The chemistry of arc magmas and the residual mantle wedge are not only regulated by the chemistry of the slab input, but also by the phase relations of metasomatism or hybridization process in the wedge. The sediment-derived silica-rich fluids and hydrous partial melts create orthopyroxene-rich zones in the mantle wedge, due to reaction of mantle olivine with silica in the fluid/melt [1,2]. Geochemical evidence for such a reaction comes from pyroxenitic lithologies coexisting with peridotite in supra-subduction zones. In this study, we have simulated the partial melting of a parcel of mantle wedge modified by bulk addition of sediment-derived melt with variable H2O contents to investigate the major and trace element chemistry of the magmas and the residues formed by this process. Experiments at 2-3 GPa and 1150-1300 °C were conducted on mixtures of 25% sediment-derived melt and 75% lherzolite, with bulk H2O contents varying from 2 to 6 wt.%. Partial reactive crystallization of the rhyolitic slab-derived melt and partial melting of the mixed source produced a range of melt compositions from ultra-K basanites to basaltic andesites, in equilibrium with an orthopyroxene ± phlogopite ± clinopyroxene ± garnet bearing residue, depending on P and bulk H2O content. Model calculations using partition coefficients (from literature) of trace elements between experimental minerals and silicate melt suggest that the geochemical signatures of the slab-derived melt, such as low Ce/Pb and depletion in Nb and Ta (characteristic slab signatures) are not erased from the resulting melt owing to reactive crystallization. The residual mineral assemblage is also found to be similar to the supra-subduction zone lithologies, such as those found in Dabie Shan (China) and Sanbagawa Belt (Japan). In this presentation, we will also

  5. A geochemical approach to distinguishing competing tectono-magmatic processes preserved in small eruptive centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Brahm, Raimundo; Rowe, Michael C.; Handley, Heather K.; Morgado, Eduardo; Lara, Luis E.; Turner, Michael B.; Vinet, Nicolas; Parada, Miguel-Ángel; Valdivia, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Small eruptive centres (SECs) representing short-lived, isolated eruptions are effective samples of mantle heterogeneity over a given area, as they are generally of basaltic composition and show evidence of little magmatic processing. This is particularly powerful in volcanic arcs where the original melting process generating stratovolcanoes is often obscured by additions from the down-going slab (fluids and sediments) and the overlying crust. The Pucón area of southern Chile contains active and dormant stratovolcanoes, Holocene, basaltic SECs and an arc-scale strike-slip fault (the Liquiñe Ofqui Fault System: LOFS). The SECs show unexpected compositional heterogeneity considering their spatial proximity. We present a detailed study of these SECs combining whole rock major and trace element concentrations, U-Th isotopes and olivine-hosted melt inclusion major element and volatile contents to highlight the complex inter-relations in this small but active area. We show that heterogeneity preserved at individual SECs relates to different processes: some start in the melting region with the input of slab-derived fluids, whilst others occur later in a centre's magmatic history with the influence of crustal contamination prior to olivine crystallisation. These signals are deduced through the combination of the different geochemical tools used in this study. We show that there is no correlation between composition and distance from the arc front, whilst the local tectonic regime has an effect on melt composition: SECs aligned along the LOFS have either equilibrium U-Th ratios or small Th-excesses instead of the large—fluid influenced—U-excesses displayed by SECs situated away from this feature. One of the SECs is modelled as being generated from fluid-enriched depleted mantle, a source which it may share with the stratovolcano Villarrica, whilst another SEC with abundant evidence of crustal contamination may share its plumbing system with its neighbouring

  6. Storage of CO2 by mineral carbonation of olivine: Study of the global process for the recovery of the reaction products and the separation of chromite particles by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the study of direct carbonation of olivine in solution, for the chemical transformation of CO 2 emitted by the industries. The influence of operating conditions is evaluated in order to optimize the yield of the reaction. However, for environmental acceptability and economic viability of the project, the beneficiation of recoverable metals and products is considered. Chromite particles contained in olivine are unreactive during the carbonation reaction: the separation is developed by flotation upstream of the reaction. According to the results, the extraction of chromite by magnetic separation is also conceivable. Gravimetric separation by sedimentation is considered to recover residual olivine in the reaction products, in order to recycle them in the carbonation process. Products sieving allowed to concentrate carbonates (less than 40 μm) and silica (between 40 and 106 μm). However, the co-precipitation of mixed carbonates due to the presence of iron and nickel included in the magnesium matrix, compromises the purification and the optimal valorization of the solids. Moreover, the formation of a passivation layer on the particles surface limits the conversion of olivine. Pretreatment of olivine is envisaged for the leaching of nickel in ammoniac solution. Besides, preliminary dissolution of olivine and selective precipitation of species with pH control of the solution can be an interesting alternative for higher carbonation extent and more efficient purification of the products. (author)

  7. Geochemistry and oxygen isotope composition of main-group pallasites and olivine-rich clasts in mesosiderites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Richard C.; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2015-01-01

    origin. Although the Dawn mission did not detect mesosiderite-like material on Vesta, evidence linking the mesosiderites and HEDs includes: (i) theirnearly identical oxygen isotope compositions; (ii) the presence in both of coarse-grained Mg-rich olivines; (iii) both have synchronous Lu-Hf and Mn-Cr ages...

  8. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 2: Geology and genesis of the orebodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S. E.; Barnes, S. J.; Hill, R. E. T.; Hicks, J. D.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan Ultramafic Succession hosts a number of magmatic Fe Ni Cu PGE sulfide ore shoots, ranging from high grade massive ore to low grade disseminated sulfides. Of these, the most economically significant is the Silver Swan massive sulfide orebody, associated with the basal contact of the succession. The deposit varies in thickness between 5 and 20 m, reaches a N S strike length of 75 m, extends for at least 1.2 km of vertical plunge and is open at depth. Overlying matrix (net-textured) ore is rare. Inclusions of dacite are abundant within the lower 5 m of the massive sulfide. They range from angular fragments through smooth sinuous and plumose morphologies to fine lace-like intergrowths with the sulfide matrix, and comprise variable proportions of cores of porphyritic dacite and carapaces with skeletal plagioclase phenocrysts. Dynamic crystallisation and kinetic melting textures in the carapaces indicate that the inclusions have been heated to various temperatures, some well above their liquidus temperature. The composition of the inclusions ranges from a perfect match with the immediate footwall dacites to mixtures of dacite with up to 30% komatiite. The consistent thickness of the inclusion-bearing basal layer within the massive sulphide is interpreted as the extent of 3-D physical connectivity between the inclusions and a partially molten underlying hybrid layer. Primary contacts between the Silver Swan massive sulfide orebody and overlying ultramafic rocks are marked by thin rinds containing coarse-grained chevron-textured chromites with skeletal textures. Compositions of these chromites match those from Kambalda, Perseverance and other localities, and are inconsistent with a metamorphic origin. They are interpreted as markers of primary magmatic contacts. The combination of this feature with the general paucity of matrix ore implies that the massive ore accumulated and solidified before the accumulation of the overlying thick sequence of olivine

  9. Constraining the timescale of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii,using diffusion profiles in olivine phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ganguly, J.

    2009-12-01

    Fe-Mg diffusion profiles have been measured in olivine xenocrysts within alkalic basalts in order to constrain the timescales of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. It has been suggested that during the main tholeiitic shield-building stage, and postshield eruptive stages of Mauna Kea, magmas were stalled and stagnated near the Moho, at a depth of ~15 km. Evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from cumulates formed by gravity-settling and in situ crystallization within magma chambers (Fodor and Galar, 1997), and from clinopyroxene-wholerock thermobarometry on Hamakua basalts (Putirka, in press). The cumulates represent a ‘fossil’ magma chamber which formed primarily from tholeiitic basalts; during the later capping-lava stage of Mauna Kea, alkalic basalts tore off chunks of these cumulates during ascent to the surface. We have measured several diffusion profiles in olivine xenocrysts from a single basalt sample. Because these xenocrysts have homogenous core compositions identical to a neighboring dunite cumulate, and because they are much larger and texturally distinct from compositionally dissimilar olivine phenocrysts, they are interpreted to be cumulate olivines which were dislodged during magma recharge/mixing in the stagnation zone. Although the orientations of the phenocrysts are not yet known, the diffusion profiles have been fit using diffusion coefficients parallel to the c and a crystallographic axes (i.e. minimum and maximum values). Modeling diffusion profiles yields ∫Ddt ≤4.5 x 10-5 cm2. Assuming that the xenocrysts were broken off from the cumulate immediately when the magma chamber was recharged, it is possible to calculate the maximum stagnation time of the basalts. Thus, the retrieved ∫Ddt value yields a maximum stagnation time of ~0.7 years. References: Fodor RV, Galar, PA (1997). A View into the Subsurface of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Crystallization Processes Interpreted through the Petrology and Petrography of

  10. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  11. Effect of oxygen fugacity on OH dissolution in olivine under peridotite-saturated conditions: An experimental study at 1.5-7 GPa and 1100-1300 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi

    2016-01-01

    The dissolution of OH in olivine by experimental studies at simulated conditions has attracted increasing interest over the past three decades, and the influence of pressure, temperature and composition has been relatively well constrained. Oxygen fugacity is highly heterogeneous in the upper mantle, on both temporal and spatial scales, and is an important parameter in characterizing many chemical and physical processes in the mantle. However, less attention has been devoted to the effect of oxygen fugacity on OH dissolution in olivine, and the only few available reports on this topic have led to significant inconsistency and debate. In this study, the correlation between oxygen fugacity and OH solubility in Fe-bearing olivine has been systematically investigated by conducting experiments at 1.5-7 GPa and 1100-1300 °C and under peridotite- and fluid-saturated conditions, with natural gem-quality olivine single crystals and fresh peridotite xenoliths as starting materials and with oxygen fugacity controlled by the Fe-FeO, Ni-NiO and Fe2O3-Fe3O4 oxygen buffer pairs. The water concentrations were determined by polarized analyses using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that, at all the experimental conditions, the OH bands at both high frequency (∼3650-3450 cm-1) and low frequency (∼3450-3100 cm-1) are prominent. The intensity of OH bands at ∼3355 and 3325 cm-1 increases positively with oxygen fugacity, suggesting a dominant role of Fe3+ in their incorporation. Under otherwise identical conditions, the water content is gradually enhanced with increasing pressure, temperature or oxygen fugacity. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the enhancement of OH solubility appears not sensitive to temperature (1100-1300 °C) at a given pressure, but becomes progressively stronger with increasing pressure from 1.5 to 7 GPa given the temperature. Relative to oxygen fugacity buffers, the OH solubility is on average increased by ∼50% between Fe-FeO and

  12. Evaluation of Melt Behavior with initial Melt Velocity under SFR Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the current Korean sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) program, early dispersion of the molten metallic fuel within a subchannel is suggested as one of the inherent safety strategies for the initiating phase of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by the melt dispersal, so it could reduce the possibility of the recriticality event under a severe triple or more fault scenario for SFR. Since the behavior of the melt dispersion is unpredictable, it depends on the accident condition, particularly core region. While the voided coolant channel region is usually developed in the inner core, the unvoided coolant channel region is formed in the outer core. It is important to confirm the fuel dispersion with the core region, but there are not sufficient existing studies for them. From the existing studies, the coolant vapor pressure is considered as one of driving force to move the melt towards outside of the core. There is a complexity of the phenomena during intermixing of the melt with the coolant after the horizontal melt injections. It is too difficult to understand the several combined mechanisms related to the melt dispersion and the fragmentation. Thus, it could be worthwhile to study the horizontal melt injections at lower temperature as a preliminary study in order to identify the melt dispersion phenomena. For this reason, it is required to clarify whether the coolant vapor pressure is the driving force of the melt dispersion with the core region. The specific conditions to be well dispersed for the molten metallic fuel were discussed in the experiments with the simulant materials. The each melt behavior was compared to evaluate the melt dispersion under the coolant void condition and the boiling condition. As the results, the following results are remarked: 1. The upward melt dispersion did not occur for a given melt and coolant temperature in the nonboiling range. Over current range of conditions

  13. Evaluation of Melt Behavior with initial Melt Velocity under SFR Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol; Jerng, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    In the current Korean sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) program, early dispersion of the molten metallic fuel within a subchannel is suggested as one of the inherent safety strategies for the initiating phase of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by the melt dispersal, so it could reduce the possibility of the recriticality event under a severe triple or more fault scenario for SFR. Since the behavior of the melt dispersion is unpredictable, it depends on the accident condition, particularly core region. While the voided coolant channel region is usually developed in the inner core, the unvoided coolant channel region is formed in the outer core. It is important to confirm the fuel dispersion with the core region, but there are not sufficient existing studies for them. From the existing studies, the coolant vapor pressure is considered as one of driving force to move the melt towards outside of the core. There is a complexity of the phenomena during intermixing of the melt with the coolant after the horizontal melt injections. It is too difficult to understand the several combined mechanisms related to the melt dispersion and the fragmentation. Thus, it could be worthwhile to study the horizontal melt injections at lower temperature as a preliminary study in order to identify the melt dispersion phenomena. For this reason, it is required to clarify whether the coolant vapor pressure is the driving force of the melt dispersion with the core region. The specific conditions to be well dispersed for the molten metallic fuel were discussed in the experiments with the simulant materials. The each melt behavior was compared to evaluate the melt dispersion under the coolant void condition and the boiling condition. As the results, the following results are remarked: 1. The upward melt dispersion did not occur for a given melt and coolant temperature in the nonboiling range. Over current range of conditions

  14. Impacts of Modification of Alloying Method on Inclusion Evolution in RH Refining of Silicon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjie Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of introducing additional alloy elements not only in a different order but also at different stages of the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH process of low-carbon silicon steel production. A more economical method, described as “pre-alloying”, has been introduced. The evolution of MnO-FeO inclusions produced by pre-alloying was investigated. Results show that spherical 3FeO·MnO inclusions form first, then shelled FeO·zMnO (z = 0.7–4 inclusions nucleate on the surface of pre-existing 3FeO·MnO. Spherical FeO·zMnO (z = 3–5 is further evolved from shelled 3FeO·MnO by diffusion. Because these MnO-FeO inclusions float up into the slag before degassing, the pre-alloying process does not affect the quality of the melt in the end. Both carbon content and inclusion size conform to industry standards.

  15. Impacts of Modification of Alloying Method on Inclusion Evolution in RH Refining of Silicon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjie; Li, Huigai; Zheng, Shaobo; You, Jinglin; Han, Ke; Zhai, Qijie

    2017-10-19

    This study explores the effect of introducing additional alloy elements not only in a different order but also at different stages of the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) process of low-carbon silicon steel production. A more economical method, described as "pre-alloying", has been introduced. The evolution of MnO-FeO inclusions produced by pre-alloying was investigated. Results show that spherical 3FeO·MnO inclusions form first, then shelled FeO·zMnO (z = 0.7-4) inclusions nucleate on the surface of pre-existing 3FeO·MnO. Spherical FeO·zMnO (z = 3-5) is further evolved from shelled 3FeO·MnO by diffusion. Because these MnO-FeO inclusions float up into the slag before degassing, the pre-alloying process does not affect the quality of the melt in the end. Both carbon content and inclusion size conform to industry standards.

  16. Phosphorus zoning as a recorder of crystal growth kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baziotis, I.; Asimow, P.D.; Ntaflos, T.

    2017-01-01

    spectrometry. The petrogenetic history of each vein involves melt intrusion, cooling accompanied by both wall-rock reaction and crystallization, quench of melt to a glass, and possibly later modifications. Exotic secondary olivine crystals in the veins display concentric phosphorus (P)-rich zoning, P...

  17. Rapakivi texture formation via disequilibrium melting in a contact partial melt zone, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, a Jurassic aged dolerite sill induced partial melting of granite in the shallow crust. The melt zone can be traced in full, from high degrees of melting (>60%) along the dolerite contact, to no apparent signs of melting, 10s of meters above the contact. Within this melt zone, the well-known rapakivi texture is found, arrested in various stages of development. High above the contact, and at low degrees of melting, K-feldspar crystals are slightly rounded and unmantled. In the lower half of the melt zone, mantles of cellular textured plagioclase appear on K-feldspar, and thicken towards the contact heat source. At the highest degrees of melting, cellular-textured plagioclase completely replaces restitic K-feldspar. Because of the complete exposure and intact context, the leading models of rapakivi texture formation can be tested against this system. The previously proposed mechanisms of subisothermal decompression, magma-mixing, and hydrothermal exsolution all fail to adequately describe rapakivi generation in this melt zone. Preferred here is a closed system model that invokes the production of a heterogeneous, disequilibrium melt through rapid heating, followed by calcium and sodium rich melt reacting in a peritectic fashion with restitic K-feldspar crystals. This peritectic reaction results in the production of plagioclase of andesine-oligoclase composition—which is consistent with not just mantles in the melt zone, but globally as well. The thickness of the mantle is diffusion limited, and thus a measure of the diffusive length scale of sodium and calcium over the time scale of melting. Thermal modeling provides a time scale of melting that is consistent with the thickness of observed mantles. Lastly, the distribution of mantled feldspars is highly ordered in this melt zone, but if it were mobilized and homogenized—mixing together cellular plagioclase, mantled feldspars, and unmantled feldspars—the result would be

  18. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  19. Experimental results for TiO2 melting and release using cold crucible melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. W.; Min, B. T.; Park, I. G.; Kim, H. D.

    2000-01-01

    To simulate the severe accident phenomena using the real reactor material which melting point is about 2,800K, the melting and release method for materials with high melting point should be developed. This paper discusses the test results for TiO 2 materials using the cold crucible melting method to study the melting and release method of actual corium. To melt and release of few kg of TiO2, the experimental facility is manufactured through proper selection of design parameters such as frequency and capacity of R.F generator, crucible size and capacity of coolant. The melting and release of TiO 2 has been successfully performed in the cold crucible of 15cm in inner diameter and 30cm in height with 30kW RF power generator of 370 KHz. In the melt delivery experiment, about 2.6kg of molten TiO2, 60% of initial charged mass, is released. Rest of it is remained in the watercage in form of the rubble crust formed at the top of crucible and melt crust formed at the interface between the water-cage and melt. Especially, in the melt release test, the location of the working coil is important to make the thin crust at the bottom of the crucible

  20. A finite volume alternate direction implicit approach to modeling selective laser melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Mohanty, Sankhya

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, several studies have attempted to develop thermal models for analyzing the selective laser melting process with a vision to predict thermal stresses, microstructures and resulting mechanical properties of manufactured products. While a holistic model addressing all involved...... to accurately simulate the process, are constrained by either the size or scale of the model domain. A second challenging aspect involves the inclusion of non-linear material behavior into the 3D implicit FE models. An alternating direction implicit (ADI) method based on a finite volume (FV) formulation...... is proposed for modeling single-layer and few-layers selective laser melting processes. The ADI technique is implemented and applied for two cases involving constant material properties and non-linear material behavior. The ADI FV method consume less time while having comparable accuracy with respect to 3D...

  1. Order-disorder in olivine minerals by synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Xane) spectroscopy at the Mg, Fe and Ca K edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Mottana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Geologiche; Paris, E.; Giuli, G [INFM, Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, are presented new, high-resolution experimental spectra at the Mg and Fe K edges for the two Fe-Mg end members F o and F a, and for three other olivines. Two are the Ca end members of the family, namely monticellite (Mtc: CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (Krs: CaFeSiO4). The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of Mg, Fe, and Ca partition in the Pbnm (or {alpha}) olivine structure on the electronic properties, as well as the relationships that exist between chemical substitutions and features occurring in Xanes spectra. One wants to explore the relationships that intervene between LRO, as determined by XRD, and SRO, as determined by Xanes, on the endmembers and on a well-known intermediate member as well, and deduce from it a model for the behavior of the entire olivine solid-solution system.

  2. Order-disorder in olivine minerals by synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Xane) spectroscopy at the Mg, Fe and Ca K edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.; Marcelli, A.; Cibin, G.; Mottana, A.; Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome; Paris, E.; Giuli, G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, are presented new, high-resolution experimental spectra at the Mg and Fe K edges for the two Fe-Mg endmembers F o and F a, and for three other olivines. Two are the Ca endmembers of the family, namely monticellite (Mtc: CaMgSiO4) and kirschsteinite (Krs: CaFeSiO4). The main purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of Mg, Fe, and Ca partition in the Pbnm (or α) olivine structure on the electronic properties, as well as the relationships that exist between chemical substitutions and features occurring in Xanes spectra. One wants to explore the relationships that intervene between LRO, as determined by XRD, and SRO, as determined by Xanes, on the endmembers and on a well-known intermediate member as well, and deduce from it a model for the behavior of the entire olivine solid-solution system

  3. Water-rock interaction in a high-FeO olivine rock in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.H.; Lindberg, A.; Tullborg, E.L.

    1992-12-01

    The long-term behaviour in nature of high-FeO olivine rock in contact with surface water has been studied at the Lovasjaervi instrusion, SE-Finland. The rock has been proposed as a high-capasity, higly reactive redox-buffer backfill in a repository for spent fuel. Favourable groundwater chemistry is a major parameter relevant to safety of such a repository. Reducing conditions favour the retardation of long-lived, redox-sensitive radionuclides. Weathering influences have been studied at the natural outcrop of the rock mass. The interaction of oxidizing surface waters with rock at greater depths has been studied by using fissure filling minerals. Investigation of weathered rock from the outcrop indicates that the olivine rock is highly reactive on a geological time scale and its redox capasity is available although the instrusion as a whole is surprisingly well preserved. The fissure fillings studied allow the conclusion that oxygen seems to be efficiently removed from intruding surface water. Oxidation seem to have caused visible effects only along very conducting fractures and near the contact zones of the surrounding granitic rock. Stable isotope data of fissure filling calcites indicate that the influence of surface waters can be traced clearly down to a depth of about 50 m, but also at greater depths re-equilibration has occurred. Groundwater data from the site were not available. (orig.)

  4. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  5. Environmental monitoring at the Seqi olivine mine 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert

    monitoring studies conducted in 2010. Results from previous years have shown that operation of the mine caused levels of some elements, particularly chromium and nickel, to increase in lichens, blue mussels and seaweed within the surrounding area compared to pre-mining conditions. The main source......The olivine mine at Seqi in West Greenland operated between 2005 and 2010. Since 2004, environmental monitoring studies have been conducted at Seqi every year in order to assess premining conditions and subsequently the impact from mining during operation. This report contains the results from...... of contamination is considered the generation and spreading of metal-contaminated dust from the roads and the ore-crushing facility. Results from 2010 show that levels of chromium and nickel in lichens are still elevated but that dust deposition rates have decreased from 2008 to 2010. Similarly, levels of chromium...

  6. MELT-IIIB: an updated version of the melt code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabb, K.K.; Lewis, C.H.; O'Dell, L.D.; Padilla, A. Jr.; Smith, D.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1979-04-01

    The MELT series is a reactor modeling code designed to investigate a wide variety of hypothetical accident conditions, particularly the transient overpower sequence. MELT-IIIB is the latest in the series

  7. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  8. Petrochemistry of a xenolith-bearing Neogene alkali olivine basalt from northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeed; Stern, Charles R.

    2012-05-01

    A small isolated Neogene, possibly Quaternary, monogenetic alkali olivine basalt cone in northeastern Iran contains both mantle peridotite and crustal gabbroic xenoliths, as well as plagioclase megacrysts. The basaltic magma rose to the surface along pathways associated with local extension at the junction between the N-S right-lateral and E-W left-lateral strike slip faults that form the northeastern boundary of the Lut microcontinental block. This basalt is enriched in LREE relative to HREE, and has trace-element ratios similar to that of oceanic island basalts (OIB). Its 87Sr/86Sr (0.705013 to 0.705252), 143Nd/144Nd (0.512735 to 0.512738), and Pb isotopic compositions all fall in the field of OIB derived from enriched (EM-2) mantle. It formed by mixing of small melt fractions from both garnet-bearing asthenospheric and spinel-facies lithospheric mantle. Plagioclase (An26-32) megacrysts, up to 4 cm in length, have euhedral crystal faces and show no evidence of reaction with the host basalt. Their trace-element concentrations suggest that these megacrysts are co-genetic with the basalt host, although their 87Sr/86Sr (0.704796) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512687) ratios are different than this basalt. Round to angular, medium-grained granoblastic meta-igneous gabbroic xenoliths, ranging from ~ 1 to 6 cm in dimension, are derived from the lower continental crust. Spinel-peridotite xenoliths equilibrated in the subcontinental lithosphere at depths of 30 to 60 km and temperatures of 965 °C to 1065 °C. These xenoliths do not preserve evidence of extensive metasomatic enrichment as has been inferred for the mantle below the Damavand volcano further to the west in north-central Iran, and clinopyroxenes separated from two different mantle xenoliths have 87Sr/86Sr (0.704309 and 0.704593) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512798) ratios which are less radiogenic than either their host alkali basalt or Damavand basalts, implying significant regional variations in the composition and extent of

  9. Effect of the mode of nanoclay inclusion on morphology development and rheological properties of nylon6/ethylevinyl-alcohol blend composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, Jayita

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During melt extrusion of nanocomposites, nanoparticles can be incorporated either directly or through the masterbatch, which brings up a simple question of how the mode of nanoparticle inclusion affects the morphology and hence the rheological...

  10. Water sensitivity of the seismic properties of upper-mantle olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher; David, Emmanuel; Faul, Ulrich; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The wave speeds and attenuation of seismic waves in the upper mantle are expected to be strongly influenced by the defect chemistry of olivine grain interiors and the associated chemical complexity of grain-boundary regions. Changes in chemical environment (oxygen fugacity and/or water fugacity) can impose different defect chemistries, including the creation and retention of hydrous defects, and therefore can directly influence anelastic relaxation involving stress-induced migration of lattice defects and/or grain-boundary sliding. Here we report the first low-frequency experimental study of the seismic properties of olivine under water-undersaturated conditions. Three synthetic sol-gel derived olivine (Fo90) specimens were fabricated by hot-pressing in welded Pt capsules with various concentrations of hydroxyl, chemically bound as doubly protonated Si vacancies, charge balanced by substitution of Ti on a neighboring M-site (i.e., the Ti-clinohumite-like defect). Hydroxyl contents, determined following the subsequent mechanical testing within Pt sleeves, increased systematically with the amount of added Ti-dopant. Added Ti concentrations ranged between 176 and 802 atom ppm Ti/Si, resulting in concentrations of bound hydrogen in the three samples ranging between 330 and 1150 atom ppm H/Si. Each hot-pressed specimen was precision ground and then sleeved in Pt for mechanical testing in forced torsional oscillation under water-undersaturated conditions. Forced-oscillation tests were conducted at seismic periods of 1 - 1000 s and 200 MPa confining pressure during slow staged cooling from 1200 to 25°C. Each Ti-doped specimen showed mechanical behavior of the high-temperature background type involving monotonically increasing dissipation and decreasing shear modulus with increasing oscillation period and increasing temperature. Comparison of the mechanical data acquired in these water-undersaturated conditions with a similarly tested, but dry, Ti-bearing specimen

  11. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Allende CV3 chondrite: High precision ion microprobe studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; Ushikubo, T.; Nakashima, D.; Kita, N.T.

    grains and some of them were derived from precursors related to refractory inclusions. However, most relict olivine grains show oxygen isotope ratios that overlap with those in homogeneous chondrules. The delta sup(17)O values of four barred olivine...

  12. Theoretical work on melt-coolant interactions (steam explosions); Theoretische Arbeiten zu Schmelze-Kuehlmittel-Wechselwirkungen (Dampfexplosionen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnecke, G.; Jacobs, H.; Stehle, B.; Thurnay, K.; Vaeth, L.; Lummer, M.

    1995-08-01

    The code IVA3 is used for modelling the physical processes related to steam explosions, i.e. the premixing phase preceding the explosion as well as the explosion itself. This code has been replaced by the updated version IVA-KA in May 1994, which encompasses all model and code improvements performed till the beginning of 1994. The following further work on and with IVA-KA has been performed: 1. Inclusion of friction at inner and outer walls, improvement on the drag model, improvement of boundary conditions for outgoing flow, optional inclusion of improved water material data, improvement of the numerical procedure, correction of coding errors. 2. Three FARO-experiments (investigating the behaviour of molten material falling into water) were recalculated with IVA-KA. The time dependent pressure increase is reproduced very well for one experiment, but is not quite satisfactory for a second one. The third one cannot be simulated satisfactorily because of the presence of metallic zirconium in the melt, which is not being modelled by IVA-KA at present. 3. One PREMIX-experiment (similar to FARO, but at 1 bar ambient pressure and with smaller amounts of melt) is also being analyzed with IVA-KA. First results show a good representation of the material distribution during the penetration of the melt into the water. 4. One of the first two QUEOS-experiments performed at KfK has been simulated with IVA-KA. Some results are well reproduced by IVA-KA, but there may be a deficiency of the drag laws. (orig./HP)

  13. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Wikman, Stefan [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Cui, Daqing [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed. - Highlights: • The mechanical properties of SS316L made by selective laser melting fulfill RCC-MR. • SLM SS316L consists hierarchical structures of high heterogeneity. • Silicon rich oxide nano-inclusions are formed unexpectedly during SLM process. • Cellular structure and oxide nano-inclusions strengthen SLM SS316L.

  14. Nickel and helium evidence for melt above the core-mantle boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude; Asimow, Paul D; Ionov, Dmitri A; Vidito, Chris; Jackson, Matthew G; Geist, Dennis

    2013-01-17

    High (3)He/(4)He ratios in some basalts have generally been interpreted as originating in an incompletely degassed lower-mantle source. This helium source may have been isolated at the core-mantle boundary region since Earth's accretion. Alternatively, it may have taken part in whole-mantle convection and crust production over the age of the Earth; if so, it is now either a primitive refugium at the core-mantle boundary or is distributed throughout the lower mantle. Here we constrain the problem using lavas from Baffin Island, West Greenland, the Ontong Java Plateau, Isla Gorgona and Fernandina (Galapagos). Olivine phenocryst compositions show that these lavas originated from a peridotite source that was about 20 per cent higher in nickel content than in the modern mid-ocean-ridge basalt source. Where data are available, these lavas also have high (3)He/(4)He. We propose that a less-degassed nickel-rich source formed by core-mantle interaction during the crystallization of a melt-rich layer or basal magma ocean, and that this source continues to be sampled by mantle plumes. The spatial distribution of this source may be constrained by nickel partitioning experiments at the pressures of the core-mantle boundary.

  15. A note on fluid inclusion study of quartz from uraniferous migmatites from Sirsoti area, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana Murthy, K.V.; Shobhita, K.; Gorikhan, R.A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fluid inclusion study has been carried out on quartz from uraniferous migmatitic rocks of Sirsoti area of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh. The fluid inclusions in quartz are of two types viz. (i) H 2 O liquid + vapour and (ii) H 2 O liquid + CO 2 liquid + CO 2 gas. Homogenization temperatures of H 2 O liquid + vapour type inclusions indicate that the temperature of formation varied between 150-350degC. Ice melting temperatures indicate that the hydrothermal solutions were CO 2 -bearing with a salinity of 6-8% NaCl. A common range of homogenization temperature for both liquid-rich as well as vapour-rich inclusions provides evidence for the boiling of the ore fluids. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs

  16. Melting of Dense Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Somayazulu, Maddury

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at ∼31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low melting temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased melting temperature is observed with further increases in pressure

  17. A 2D double-porosity model for melting and melt migration beneath mid-oceanic ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Liang, Y.; Parmentier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the melting and melt extraction region of the MORB mantle is heterogeneous consisting of an interconnected network of high permeability dunite channels in a low porosity harzburgite or lherzolite matrix. In principle, one can include channel formation into the tectonic-scale geodynamic models by solving conservation equations for a chemically reactive and viscously deformable porous medium. Such an approach eventually runs into computational limitations such as resolving fractal-like channels that have a spectrum of width. To better understand first order features of melting and melt-rock interaction beneath MOR, we have formulated a 2D double porosity model in which we treat the triangular melting region as two overlapping continua occupied by the low-porosity matrix and interconnected high-porosity channels. We use melt productivity derived from a thermodynamic model and melt suction rate to close our problem. We use a high-order accurate numerical method to solve the conservation equations in 2D for porosity, solid and melt velocities and concentrations of chemical tracers in the melting region. We carry out numerical simulations to systematically study effects of matrix-to-channel melt suction and spatially distributed channels on the distributions of porosity and trace element and isotopic ratios in the melting region. For near fractional melting with 10 vol% channel in the melting region, the flow field of the matrix melt follows closely to that of the solid because the small porosity (exchange between the melt and the solid. The smearing effect can be approximated by dispersion coefficient. For slowly diffusing trace elements (e.g., LREE and HFSE), the melt migration induced dispersion can be as effective as thermal diffusion. Therefore, sub-kilometer scale heterogeneities of Nd and Hf isotopes are significantly damped or homogenized in the melting region.

  18. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  19. Effect of iron content on the creep behavior of Olivine: 2. Hydrous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2018-05-01

    We have undertaken an experimental investigation of the effect of iron content on the viscosity of Fe-Mg olivine aggregates deformed under hydrous conditions in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Fine-grained samples of Fe-bearing olivine with fayalite contents, Fax, of x = 100, 75, 50, 30 and 10 were deformed in triaxial compressive creep primarily in the dislocation creep regime under water-saturated conditions at temperatures of 1273 to 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Nickel sleeves around the samples of Fa10, Fa30 and Fa50 set the oxygen fugacity at the Ni:NiO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲300 MPa, while Fe sleeves around samples of Fa75 and Fa100 set the oxygen fugacity at the Fe:FeO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲200 MPa. Samples were deformed in triaxial compression to a maximum strain of 0.2 at differential stresses from 10 to 300 MPa and strain rates from 10-7 to 10-3 s-1. In the dislocation creep field at a given temperature, the viscosity of samples of Fa50 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than the viscosity of samples of Fa30, while the viscosity of samples of Fa30 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than that of samples of Fa10. Our experimental results can be described by the flow law ε˙disl =Cdisl(σ/μ) ndisl XFa pdisl exp(-(Qdisl0 +αdislXFa)/RT) fH2Omdisl with Cdisl = 99.7 MPa-5/4 s-1, ndisl = 3.7, pdisl = 0.5, Qdisl0 = 510 kJ/mol, αdisl = -120 kJ/mol, and mdisl = 5/4. This flow law indicates that the viscosity of olivine of a specific Fe:Mg ratio is a factor of ∼10 smaller than its counterpart deformed under anhydrous conditions. In a hydrous environment at the same thermodynamic conditions, the viscosity of the more Fe-rich mantle (∼Fa19) of Mars is a factor of ∼5 lower than that of the mantle (∼Fa8) of Earth.

  20. Geochemical study of young basalts in East Azerbaijan (Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Amel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The young basalts in East Azerbaijan are placed in West Alborz – Azerbaijan zone. Volcanic activities have extended from the Pliocene to the Quaternary by eruption from fracture systems and faults. Rocks under study are olivine-basalt and trachybasalts. The main minerals are olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase set in glassy or microcrystalline matrix and olivine are present as phenocryst. The textures in the studied rocks are mainly hyaloporphyric, hyalomicrolitic and porphyritic. Trace elements and rare earth elements on spider diagrams have high LREE/HREE ratio. Rare earth elements on diagram display negative slope indicating alkaline nature for the basalts under study. As it may be observed, on tectonic diagrams, the Marand basalts are placed on Island Arc basalt (IAB field, whereas the Ahar, Heris, Kalaibar and Miyaneh basalts are classified as Ocean Island Basalts (OIB and finally the basalts of Sohrol area are plotted on continental rift Basalt (CRB field. The Marand and Sohrol basalts were likely originated from lithospheric - astenospheric mantle with 2 to 5 % partial melting whereas, the Ahar, Heris and Kalaibar basalts having same source experienced 1-2% partial melting rate and the Miyaneh basalts possibly produced from lithospheric mantle with 10-20% partial melting rate pointing to shallow depth of mantle and the higher rate of melting. Based on tectonic setting diagrams, all the rocks studied are plotted in post collisional environments.

  1. Fuel Rod Melt Progression Simulation Using Low-Temperature Melting Metal Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung Dong Lee; Suh, Kune Y.; GoonCherl Park; Un Chul Lee

    2002-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident and various severe fuel damage experiments have shown that core damage is likely to proceed through various states before the core slumps into the lower head. Numerous experiments were conducted to address when and how the core can lose its original geometry, what geometries are formed, and in what processes the core materials are transported to the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. Core degradation progresses along the line of clad ballooning, clad oxidation, material interaction, metallic blockage, molten pool formation, melt progression, and relocation to the lower head. Relocation into the lower plenum may occur from the lateral periphery or from the bottom of the core depending upon the thermal and physical states of the pool. Determining the quantities and rate of molten material transfer to the lower head is important since significant amounts of molten material relocated to the lower head can threaten the vessel integrity by steam explosion and thermal and mechanical attack of the melt. In this paper the focus is placed on the melt flow regime on a cylindrical fuel rod utilizing the LAMDA (Lumped Analysis of Melting in Degrading Assemblies) facility at the Seoul National University. The downward relocation of the molten material is a combination of the external film flow and the internal pipe flow. The heater rods are 0.8 m long and are coated by a low-temperature melting metal alloy. The electrical internal heating method is employed during the test. External heating is adopted to simulate the exothermic Zircaloy-steam reaction. Tests are conducted in several quasi-steady-state conditions. Given the variable boundary conditions including the heat flux and the water level, observation is made for the melting location, progression, and the mass of molten material. Finally, the core melt progression model is developed from the visual inspection and quantitative analysis of the experimental data. As the core material relocates

  2. Partitioning of water between point defects, dislocations, and grain boundaries in olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielke, J. A.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Mariani, E.; Wheeler, J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the storage capacity of water in the interior of the Earth and other terrestrial planets vary significantly. One interpretation is that water in planetary interiors exists primarily as hydrogen ions, dissociated from liquid water, that are associated with point defects in the crystal structure of nominally anhydrous minerals. However, dislocations and grain boundaries may contribute significantly to the storage capacity of water in planetary interiors, but hydrogen concentrations in dislocations and grain boundaries are difficult to quantify. To measure the water storage capacity of dislocations and grain boundaries, we are analyzing results from high-temperature and high-pressure experiments where deuterium, a stable isotope of hydrogen, was incorporated into olivine, the dominate phase in the upper mantle. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium concentrations can be determined at much higher spatial resolution using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The concentration of deuterium in the samples will also be quantified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for comparison to results for hydrogen-bearing olivine. The spatial distribution of regions with different densities of geometrically-necessary dislocations and the locations of grain boundaries will be determined using electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses. Correlation of the concentration of deuterium with dislocation densities and grain boundaries will be used to examine the partitioning of water-derived species between the different types of defects. Ultimately, these data will be used to place more realistic bounds on the storage capacity of water in the interior of Earth and of other terrestrial planets.

  3. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  4. Anion and cation partitioning between olivine, plagioclase phenocrysts and the host magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho

    1984-01-01

    Partition coefficients for -1, -2, -3, +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 valent ions between the groundmass of tholeiite basalt and coexisting olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have been determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The present cation partitioning strongly supports the 'crystal structure control' mechanism. The partition coefficient for an anion is also under control of the crystal structure, so that each of the cation and anion positions in the crystal structure gives rise to a parabola-shaped peak on the partition coefficient vs. ionic radius diagram. (author)

  5. Parental magma of the Skaergaard intrusion: constraints from melt inclusions in primitive troctolite blocks and FG-1 dykes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.K.; Tegner, Christian; Brooks, Kent

    2010-01-01

    province. New major- and trace element compositions for the FG-1 dyke swarm, previously taken to represent Skaergaard magmas, overlap with the entire range of the regional flood basalt succession and do not form a coherent suite of Skaergaard like melts. These dykes are therefore re-interpreted as feeder...

  6. Shock melting method to determine melting curve by molecular dynamics: Cu, Pd, and Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2015-09-21

    A melting simulation method, the shock melting (SM) method, is proposed and proved to be able to determine the melting curves of materials accurately and efficiently. The SM method, which is based on the multi-scale shock technique, determines melting curves by preheating and/or prepressurizing materials before shock. This strategy was extensively verified using both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). First, the SM method yielded the same satisfactory melting curve of Cu with only 360 atoms using classical MD, compared to the results from the Z-method and the two-phase coexistence method. Then, it also produced a satisfactory melting curve of Pd with only 756 atoms. Finally, the SM method combined with ab initio MD cheaply achieved a good melting curve of Al with only 180 atoms, which agrees well with the experimental data and the calculated results from other methods. It turned out that the SM method is an alternative efficient method for calculating the melting curves of materials.

  7. Shock melting method to determine melting curve by molecular dynamics: Cu, Pd, and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhong-Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lu; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2015-01-01

    A melting simulation method, the shock melting (SM) method, is proposed and proved to be able to determine the melting curves of materials accurately and efficiently. The SM method, which is based on the multi-scale shock technique, determines melting curves by preheating and/or prepressurizing materials before shock. This strategy was extensively verified using both classical and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). First, the SM method yielded the same satisfactory melting curve of Cu with only 360 atoms using classical MD, compared to the results from the Z-method and the two-phase coexistence method. Then, it also produced a satisfactory melting curve of Pd with only 756 atoms. Finally, the SM method combined with ab initio MD cheaply achieved a good melting curve of Al with only 180 atoms, which agrees well with the experimental data and the calculated results from other methods. It turned out that the SM method is an alternative efficient method for calculating the melting curves of materials

  8. Experimental Constraints on a Vesta Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, C.; Jones, J. H.; Le, L.

    2014-01-01

    A magma ocean model was devised to relate eucrites (basalts) and diogenites (orthopyroxenites), which are found mixed together as clasts in a suite of polymict breccias known as howardites. The intimate association of eucritic and diogenitic clasts in howardites argues strongly that these three classes of achondritic meteorites all originated from the same planetoid. Reflectance spectral evidence (including that from the DAWN mission) has long suggested that Vesta is indeed the Eucrite Parent Body. Specifically, the magma ocean model was generated as follows: (i) the bulk Vesta composition was taken to be 0.3 CV chondrite + 0.7 L chondrite but using only 10% of the Na2O from this mixture; (ii) this composition is allowed to crystallize at 500 bar until approx. 80% of the system is solid olivine + low-Ca pyroxene; (iii) the remaining 20% liquid crystallizes at one bar from 1250C to 1110C, a temperature slightly above the eucrite solidus. All crystallization calculations were performed using MELTS. In this model, diogenites are produced by cocrystallization of olivine and pyroxene in the >1250C temperature regime, with Main Group eucrite liquids being generated in the 1300-1250C temperature interval. Low-Ca pyroxene reappears at 1210C in the one-bar calculations and fractionates the residual liquid to produce evolved eucrite compositions (Stannern Trend). We have attempted to experimentally reproduce the magma ocean. In the MELTS calculation, the change from 500 bar to one bar results in a shift of the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary so that the 1250C liquid is now in the olivine field and, consequently, olivine should be the first-crystallizing phase, followed by low-Ca pyroxene at 1210C, and plagioclase at 1170C. Because at one bar the olivine:low-Ca pyroxene boundary is a peritectic, fractional crystallization of the 1210C liquid proceeds with only pyroxene crystallization until plagioclase appears. Thus, the predictions of the MELTS calculation are clear and

  9. The Microwave Properties of Simulated Melting Precipitation Particles: Sensitivity to Initial Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. T.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.

    2016-01-01

    A simplified approach is presented for assessing the microwave response to the initial melting of realistically shaped ice particles. This paper is divided into two parts: (1) a description of the Single Particle Melting Model (SPMM), a heuristic melting simulation for ice-phase precipitation particles of any shape or size (SPMM is applied to two simulated aggregate snow particles, simulating melting up to 0.15 melt fraction by mass), and (2) the computation of the single-particle microwave scattering and extinction properties of these hydrometeors, using the discrete dipole approximation (via DDSCAT), at the following selected frequencies: 13.4, 35.6, and 94.0GHz for radar applications and 89, 165.0, and 183.31GHz for radiometer applications. These selected frequencies are consistent with current microwave remote-sensing platforms, such as CloudSat and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Comparisons with calculations using variable-density spheres indicate significant deviations in scattering and extinction properties throughout the initial range of melting (liquid volume fractions less than 0.15). Integration of the single-particle properties over an exponential particle size distribution provides additional insight into idealized radar reflectivity and passive microwave brightness temperature sensitivity to variations in size/mass, shape, melt fraction, and particle orientation.

  10. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  11. Xenoliths from Bunyaruguru volcanic field: Some insights into lithology of East African Rift upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyeva, N. S.; Senin, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The mineral composition of mantle xenoliths from kamafugites of the Bunyaruguru volcanic field has been determined. The major and some trace elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Cr, Ni, Ba, Sr, La, Ce, Nd, Nb) has been analyzed in olivine, clinopyroxene, phlogopite, Cr-spinel, titanomagnetite, perovskite and carbonates of xenoliths and their host lavas. Bunyaruguru is one of three (Katwe-Kikorongo, Fort Portal and Bunyaruguru) volcanic fields included in the Toro-Ankole province located on the North end of the West Branch of the East African Rift. The xenoliths from three craters within the Bunyaruguru volcanic field revealed the different character of metasomatic alteration, reflecting the heterogeneity of the mantle on the kilometer scale. The most unusual finding was composite glimmerite-wehrlite xenolith from the crater Kazimiro, which contains the fresh primary high-Mg olivine with inclusions of Cr-spinel that had not been previously identified in this area. The different composition of phenocryst and xenolith minerals indicates that the studied xenoliths are not cumulus of enclosing magma, but the composition of xenoliths characterizes the lithology of the upper mantle of the area. The carbonate melt inclusions in olivine Fo90 demonstrate the existence of primary carbonatitic magmas in Bunyaruguru upper mantle. The results of texture and chemical investigation of the xenolith minerals indicate the time sequence of metasomatic alteration of Bunyaruguru upper mantle: MARID metasomatism at the first stage followed by carbonate metasomatism. The abundances of REE in perovskites from kamafugite are 2-4 times higher than similar values for xenolith. Therefore the kamafugite magma was been generated from a more enriched mantle source than the source of the xenoliths. The evaluation of P-T conditions formation of clinopyroxene xenolith revealed the range of pressure 20-65 kbar and the temperatures range 830-1040 °C. The pressure of clinopyroxene phenocryst

  12. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  13. Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang

    2011-12-31

    We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

  14. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  15. Dynamics of Melting and Melt Migration as Inferred from Incompatible Trace Element Abundance in Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q.; Liang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    To better understand the melting processes beneath the mid-ocean ridge, we developed a simple model for trace element fractionation during concurrent melting and melt migration in an upwelling steady-state mantle column. Based on petrologic considerations, we divided the upwelling mantle into two regions: a double- lithology upper region where high permeability dunite channels are embedded in a lherzolite/harzburgite matrix, and a single-lithology lower region that consists of partially molten lherzolite. Melt generated in the single lithology region migrates upward through grain-scale diffuse porous flow, whereas melt in the lherzolite/harzburgite matrix in the double-lithology region is allowed to flow both vertically through the overlying matrix and horizontally into its neighboring dunite channels. There are three key dynamic parameters in our model: degree of melting experienced by the single lithology column (Fd), degree of melting experienced by the double lithology column (F), and a dimensionless melt suction rate (R) that measures the accumulated rate of melt extraction from the matrix to the channel relative to the accumulated rate of matrix melting. In terms of trace element fractionation, upwelling and melting in the single lithology column is equivalent to non-modal batch melting (R = 0), whereas melting and melt migration in the double lithology region is equivalent to a nonlinear combination of non-modal batch and fractional melting (0 abyssal peridotite, we showed, with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, that it is difficult to invert for all three dynamic parameters from a set of incompatible trace element data with confidence. However, given Fd, it is quite possible to constrain F and R from incompatible trace element abundances in residual peridotite. As an illustrative example, we used the simple melting model developed in this study and selected REE and Y abundance in diopside from abyssal peridotites to infer their melting and melt migration

  16. Petrography and petrology of the Nornahraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guðfinnsson, Guðmundur H.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Bali, Enikő; Jakobsson, Sigurður; Sverrisdóttir, Guðrún; Höskuldssson, Ármann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; The 2014 Nornahraun Eruption Team

    2015-04-01

    also shown by the presence of sulfide globules in groundmass glass and sometimes as inclusions in groundmass minerals. The globules are always Fe-rich with considerable Cu and Ni contents and minor Co content. Sulfide globules are, however, missing in phenocryst phases crystallized at higher pressures, suggesting that sulfide saturation is a late process occurring during the crystallization of the groundmass minerals due to an increase in the sulfide content of the remaining melt. The presentation will contain more detailed petrographic observations and mineral chemistry of the eruption products that will be acquired with the newly installed EPMA (JEOL JXA-8230) at the Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland. References: Bali et al., this session: Volatile budget of the Nornahraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Halldórsson et al. (a), this session: Geochemistry of the Nornahraun eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Halldórsson et al. (b), this session: Magma types and mantle sources of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland Sigmundsson et al. (2015): Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Nature, in press. Yang et al. (1996): Experiments and models of anhydrous, basaltic olivine-plagioclase-augite saturated melts from 0.001 to 10 kbar. Contrib Mineral Petrol. 124 1-18.

  17. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  18. Modelling of the controlled melt flow in a glass melting space – Its melting performance and heat losses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jebavá, Marcela; Dyrčíková, Petra; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 430, DEC 15 (2015), s. 52-63 ISSN 0022-3093 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt flow * mathematical modelling * energy distribution * space utilizatios * melting performance Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  19. Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: Selective laser melting and electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yuan; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Wikman, Stefan; Koptyug, Andrey; Liu, Leifeng; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel way using additive manufacturing to fabricated ITER First Wall Panel parts is proposed. • ITER First Wall Panel parts successfully manufactured by both SLM and EBM are compared. • Physical and mechanical properties of SLM and EBM SS316L are clearly compared. • Problems encountered for large scale part building were discussed and possible solutions are given. - Abstract: Fabrication of ITER First Wall (FW) Panel parts by two additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), was supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). For the first time, AM is applied to manufacture ITER In-Vessel parts with complex design. Fully dense SS316L was prepared by both SLM and EBM after developing optimized laser/electron beam parameters. Characterizations on the density, magnetic permeability, microstructure, defects and inclusions were carried out. Tensile properties, Charpy-impact properties and fatigue properties of SLM and EBM SS316L were also compared. ITER FW Panel parts were successfully fabricated by both SLM and EBM in a one-step building process. The SLM part has smoother surface, better size accuracy while the EBM part takes much less time to build. Issues with removing support structures might be solved by slightly changing the design of the internal cooling system. Further investigation of the influence of neutron irradiation on materials properties between the two AM technologies is needed.

  20. Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: Selective laser melting and electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuan [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rännar, Lars-Erik [Department of Quality Technology, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics, Sports Tech Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund (Sweden); Wikman, Stefan [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Koptyug, Andrey [Department of Quality Technology, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics, Sports Tech Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund (Sweden); Liu, Leifeng; Cui, Daqing [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A novel way using additive manufacturing to fabricated ITER First Wall Panel parts is proposed. • ITER First Wall Panel parts successfully manufactured by both SLM and EBM are compared. • Physical and mechanical properties of SLM and EBM SS316L are clearly compared. • Problems encountered for large scale part building were discussed and possible solutions are given. - Abstract: Fabrication of ITER First Wall (FW) Panel parts by two additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM), was supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). For the first time, AM is applied to manufacture ITER In-Vessel parts with complex design. Fully dense SS316L was prepared by both SLM and EBM after developing optimized laser/electron beam parameters. Characterizations on the density, magnetic permeability, microstructure, defects and inclusions were carried out. Tensile properties, Charpy-impact properties and fatigue properties of SLM and EBM SS316L were also compared. ITER FW Panel parts were successfully fabricated by both SLM and EBM in a one-step building process. The SLM part has smoother surface, better size accuracy while the EBM part takes much less time to build. Issues with removing support structures might be solved by slightly changing the design of the internal cooling system. Further investigation of the influence of neutron irradiation on materials properties between the two AM technologies is needed.

  1. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  2. Reaction of soda-lime-silica glass melt with water vapour at melting temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vernerová, Miroslava; Kloužek, Jaroslav; Němec, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 416, MAY 15 (2015), s. 21-30 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010844 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glass melt * sulfate * water vapour * bubble nucleation * melt foaming * glass melting Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.825, year: 2015

  3. Transition metal ions in silicate melts. I. Manganese in sodium silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C; White, W B

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra obtained on glasses quenched from sodium silicate melts show Mn/sup 3 +/ to be the dominant species for melts heated in air and Mn/sup 2 +/ to be the dominant species for melts heated at P/sub O/sub 2// = 10/sup -17/ bar. The absorption spectrum of Mn/sup 3 +/ consists of an intense band at 20,000 cm/sup -1/ with a 15,000 cm/sup -1/ satellite possibly arising from the Jahn-Teller effect. The independence of the spectrum from melt composition and the high band intensity is offered as evidence for a distinct Mn/sup 3 +/ complex in the melt. The spectrum of Mn/sup 2 +/ is weak and many expected bands are not observed. A two-band luminescence spectrum from Mn/sup 2 +/ has been tentatively interpreted as due to Mn/sup 2 +/ in interstitial sites in the network and Mn/sup 2 +/ coordiated by non-bridging oxygens.

  4. Diversity of minor elements in olivines from mantle xenoliths (Wołek Hill, SW Poland) - PIXE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Monika; Munnik, Frans; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Renno, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Wołek Hill is one of the best examined exposures of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Poland (Nowak, 2012). This is related with two facts: a great amount of mantle xenoliths were collected from that outcrop and this is one of two occurrences in Poland were modal metasomatism (related with amphibole crystals presence) was recognized. Wołek Hill is a relatively small exposure and belongs to the Złotoryja Volcanic Field, which is one of the volcanic concentrations in the Polish part of the Central European Volcanic Province (Ladenberger et al. 2006). Based on previous observations olivine crystals from the inside part of xenoliths occasionally display internal inhomogeneity visible on a BSE image. Such inhomogeneity has been related to olivine "sub-grains" with slightly shifted crystal axis. Those "sub-grains" are visible in optical microscope as transitional lamellae (Nowak, Stawikowski 2009). Besides the mentioned visible inhomogeneity olivine crystals also show diversity in Ca content inside single crystals (sometimes even more than 200 ppm). EPMA standard measurements (15 kV, 20 nA, time: 40 seconds) were limited to beam size and detection limits of the microprobe (most of the obtained results oscillate close to the detection limits - or even below it). Special conditions EPMA analyses (15 kV, 100nA, time: 100s) confirmed the differences in Ca content in the studied olivines, but did not provide any idea on how to interpret the results (Nowak, 2012). In this short summary we present preliminary data of olivine minor element composition (Ca, Zn, Cr, Ti, Co, K and also Mn, Ni, Fe) obtained with Particle Induced X-ray Emission(PIXE) measurements performed at the HZDR in Dresden using a 3 MeV proton beam, 1-1.5 nA current and an acquisition time of 3 hrs for each scan. The size of individual scans varied from ca. 30 μm up to 60-65 μm, with 8 x 8 measurement points - min. 4 μm in diameter. The measurements have been analysed with the GeoPIXE software (Ryan, 2001

  5. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  6. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...

  7. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  8. Compositional controls on spinel clouding and garnet formation in plagioclase of olivine metagabbros, Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, J.M.; Whitney, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Olivine metagabbros from the Adirondacks usually contain both clear and spinel-clouded plagioclase, as well as garnet. The latter occurs primarily as the outer rim of coronas surrounding olivine and pyroxene, and less commonly as lamellae or isolated grains within plagioclase. The formation of garnet and metamorphic spinel is dependent upon the anorthite content of the plagioclase. Plagioclase more sodic than An38??2 does not exhibit spinel clouding, and garnet rarely occurs in contact with plagioclase more albitic than An36??4. As a result of these compositional controls, the distribution of spinel and garnet mimics and visually enhances original igneous zoning in plagioclase. Most features of the arrangement of clear (unclouded) plagioclase, including the shells or moats of clear plagioclase which frequently occur inside the garnet rims of coronas, can be explained on the basis of igneous zoning. The form and distribution of the clear zones may also be affected by the metamorphic reactions which have produced the coronas, and by redistribution of plagioclase in response to local volume changes during metamorphism. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Thermal equation of state of (Mg 0.9Fe 0.1) 2SiO 4 olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Baosheng

    2006-08-01

    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out on San Carlos olivine (Mg 0.9Fe 0.1) 2SiO 4 up to 8 GPa and 1073 K. Data analysis using the high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan (HTBM) equation of state (EoS) yields the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus (∂ KT/∂ T) P = -0.019 ± 0.002 GPa K -1. The thermal pressure (TH) approach gives αKT = 4.08 ± 0.10 × 10 -3 GPa K -1, from which (∂ KT/∂ T) P = -0.019 ± 0.001 GPa K -1 is derived. Fitting the present data to the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye (MGD) formalism, the Grüneisen parameter at ambient conditions γ0 is constrained to be 1.14 ± 0.02 with fixed volume dependence q = 1. Combining the present data with previous results on iron-bearing olivine and fitting to MGD EoS, we obtain γ0 = 1.11 ± 0.01 and q = 0.54 ± 0.36. In this study the thermoelastic parameters obtained from various approaches are in good agreement with one another and previous results.

  10. High-pressure melting curve of KCl: Evidence against lattice-instability theories of melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Wolf, G.

    1986-01-01

    We show that the large curvature in the T-P melting curve of KCl is the result of a reordering of the liquid to a more densely packed arrangement. As a result theories of melting, such as the instability model, which do not take into account the structure of the liquid fail to predict the correct pressure dependence of the melting curve

  11. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  12. Laboratory duplication of comb layering in the Rhum pluton. [igneous rocks with comb layered texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is provided of the texture of harrisite comb layers, taking into account the results of crystallization experiments at controlled cooling rates, which have reproduced the textural change from 'cumulate' to comb-layered harrisite. Melted samples of harrisite were used in the dynamic crystallization experiments considered. The differentiation of a cooling rate run with respect to olivine grain size and shape is shown and three possible origins of hopper olivine in differentiated crystallization runs are considered. It is found that olivine nucleation occurred throughout cooling, except for the incubation period during early cooling. The elongate combed olivines in harrisite appa