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Sample records for olive olea europaea

  1. Genome sequence of the olive tree, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando; Julca, Irene; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Loska, Damian; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Cano, Emilio; Galán, Beatriz; Frias, Leonor; Ribeca, Paolo; Derdak, Sophia; Gut, Marta; Sánchez-Fernández, Manuel; García, Jose Luis; Gut, Ivo G; Vargas, Pablo; Alioto, Tyler S; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-06-27

    The Mediterranean olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was one of the first trees to be domesticated and is currently of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The molecular bases underlying the phenotypic differences among domesticated cultivars, or between domesticated olive trees and their wild relatives, remain poorly understood. Both wild and cultivated olive trees have 46 chromosomes (2n). A total of 543 Gb of raw DNA sequence from whole genome shotgun sequencing, and a fosmid library containing 155,000 clones from a 1,000+ year-old olive tree (cv. Farga) were generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and pair-end libraries. Assembly gave a final genome with a scaffold N50 of 443 kb, and a total length of 1.31 Gb, which represents 95 % of the estimated genome length (1.38 Gb). In addition, the associated fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was partially sequenced. Genome annotation, assisted by RNA sequencing from leaf, root, and fruit tissues at various stages, resulted in 56,349 unique protein coding genes, suggesting recent genomic expansion. Genome completeness, as estimated using the CEGMA pipeline, reached 98.79 %. The assembled draft genome of O. europaea will provide a valuable resource for the study of the evolution and domestication processes of this important tree, and allow determination of the genetic bases of key phenotypic traits. Moreover, it will enhance breeding programs and the formation of new varieties.

  2. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  3. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  4. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Patrícia; Kasper Machado, Isabel; Garavaglia, Juliano; Zani, Valdeni Terezinha; de Souza, Daiana; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2014-12-17

    The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) confer benefits to the human health. To review the scientific literature about the benefits of the polyphenols of olive leaves to human health. Literature review in the LILACS-BIREME, SciELO and MEDLINE databases for publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish with the descriptors "Olea europaea", "olive leaves", "olive leaf", "olive leaves extracts", "olive leaf extracts", "phenolic compounds", "polyphenols", "oleuropein", "chemical composition", and "health". There were identified 92 articles, but only 38 related to the objectives of the study and 9 articles cited in the works were included due to their relevance. The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves, especially the oleuropein, are associated to antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective activity. Furthermore, studies associate the oleuropein to an anti-inflammatory effect in trauma of the bone marrow and as a support in the treatment of obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyploidy in the olive complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from flow cytometry and nuclear microsatellite analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio de Casas, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evolution of the olive tree complex (Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However, to date no exhaustive study has been addressed to infer...

  6. Isolation and identification of radical scavengers in olive tree (Olea europaea) wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Altarejos, J.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    Several extracts of Olea europaea wood (Picual olive cultivar) were obtained with solvents of different polarity and their antioxidant activities determined. The active compounds were detected in fractions of an ethyl acetate extract using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After

  7. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  8. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  9. Molecular studies in olive (Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, T; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Sebastiani, L

    2011-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) and cultivated (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea). In spite of its economic and nutritional importance, there are few data about the genetic of olive if compared with other fruit crops. Available molecular data are especially related to the application of molecular markers to the analysis of genetic variability in Olea europaea complex and to develop efficient molecular tools for the olive oil origin traceability. With regard to genomic research, in the last years efforts are made for the identification of expressed sequence tag, with particular interest in those sequences expressed during fruit development and in pollen allergens. Very recently the sequencing of chloroplast genome provided new information on the olive nucleotide sequence, opening the olive genomic era. In this article, we provide an overview of the most relevant results in olive molecular studies. A particular attention was given to DNA markers and their application that constitute the most part of published researches. The first important results in genome analysis were reported.

  10. Genetic Diversity Among Historical Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genotypes from Southern Anatolia Based on SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is an ancient and important crop in both olive oil production and table use. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of olive genetic resources for cultivar development and evaluation of olive germplasm. In the study, 14 microsatellite markers (UDO4, UDO8, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO22, UDO24, UDO26, UDO28, DCA9, DCA11, DCA13, DCA15, and DCA18) were used to assess the genetic variation on 76 olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes from Mardin province together with 6 well-known Turkish and 4 well-known foreign reference cultivars. All microsatellite markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles varied between 9 and 22, with an average of 14.57. The most informative loci were DCA 11 (22 alleles) and DCA 9 (21 alleles). Dendrogram based on genetic distances was constructed for the 86 olive genotypes/cultivars, which revealed the existence of different clusters. The high genetic similarity was evident between Bakırkire2 and Zinnar5 (0.74) genotypes, while the most genetically divergent genotypes were Gürmeşe5 and Yedikardeşler2 (0.19). It was concluded that there was abundant SSR polymorphism in olive germplasm in southern Anatolia in Turkey and could be important for future breeding activities.

  11. Identification and characterization of the iridoid synthase involved in oleuropein biosynthesis in olive (Olea europaea) fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range...... of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From...... these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive...

  12. Genetic Markers Analyses and Bioinformatic Approaches to Distinguish Between Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The genetic diversity of 22 olive tree cultivars (Olea europaea L.) sampled from different Mediterranean countries was assessed using 5 SNP markers (FAD2.1; FAD2.3; CALC; SOD and ANTHO3) located in four different genes. The genotyping analysis of the 22 cultivars with 5 SNP loci revealed 11 alleles (average 2.2 per allele). The dendrogram based on cultivar genotypes revealed three clusters consistent with the cultivars classification. Besides, the results obtained with the five SNPs were compared to those obtained with the SSR markers using bioinformatic analyses and by computing a cophenetic correlation coefficient, indicating the usefulness of the UPGMA method for clustering plant genotypes. Based on principal coordinate analysis using a similarity matrix, the first two coordinates, revealed 54.94 % of the total variance. This work provides a more comprehensive explanation of the diversity available in Tunisia olive cultivars, and an important contribution for olive breeding and olive oil authenticity.

  13. The transcriptional response to the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) reveals extended differences between tolerant and susceptible olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Filomena; Coppola, Mariangela; Carbone, Fabrizio; Baldoni, Luciana; Alagna, Fiammetta; Perrotta, Gaetano; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J; Garonna, Antonio; Facella, Paolo; Daddiego, Loretta; Lopez, Loredana; Vitiello, Alessia; Rao, Rosa; Corrado, Giandomenico

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most devastating pest of cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Intraspecific variation in plant resistance to B. oleae has been described only at phenotypic level. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to study the molecular response to the olive fruit fly in two olive cultivars with contrasting level of susceptibility. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we first generated a catalogue of more than 80,000 sequences expressed in drupes from approximately 700k reads. The assembled sequences were used to develop a microarray layout with over 60,000 olive-specific probes. The differential gene expression analysis between infested (i.e. with II or III instar larvae) and control drupes indicated a significant intraspecific variation between the more tolerant and susceptible cultivar. Around 2500 genes were differentially regulated in infested drupes of the tolerant variety. The GO annotation of the differentially expressed genes implies that the inducible resistance to the olive fruit fly involves a number of biological functions, cellular processes and metabolic pathways, including those with a known role in defence, oxidative stress responses, cellular structure, hormone signalling, and primary and secondary metabolism. The difference in the induced transcriptional changes between the cultivars suggests a strong genetic role in the olive inducible defence, which can ultimately lead to the discovery of factors associated with a higher level of tolerance to B. oleae.

  14. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  16. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  17. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared the genetic profiles of six old olive cultivars from an Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to 15 modern Turkish olive cultivars from different geographical origins. The RAPD profiles successfully clarified the molecular relationships among the genotypes tested. Seventeen RAPD primers generated 153 ...

  18. Polyploidy in the Olive Complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from Flow Cytometry and Nuclear Microsatellite Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio De Casas, R.; Treier, U. A.; Galland, N.; Vargas, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evolution of the olive tree complex (Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However, to date no exhaustive study has been addressed to infer putative polyploidization events and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods Representatives of the six olive subspecies were investigated using (a) flow cytometry to estimate genome content, and (b) six highly variable nuclear microsatellites to assess the presence of multiple alleles at co-dominant loci. In addition, nine individuals from a controlled cross between two individuals of O. europaea subsp. maroccana were characterized with microsatellites to check for chromosome inheritance. Key Results Based on flow cytometry and genetic analyses, strong evidence for polyploidy was obtained in subspp. cerasiformis (tetraploid) and maroccana (hexaploid), whereas the other subspecies appeared to be diploids. Agreement between flow cytometry and genetic analyses gives an alternative approach to chromosome counting to determine ploidy level of trees. Lastly, abnormalities in chromosomes inheritance leading to aneuploid formation were revealed using microsatellite analyses in the offspring from the controlled cross in subsp. maroccana. Conclusions This study constitutes the first report for multiple polyploidy in olive tree relatives. Formation of tetraploids and hexaploids may have played a major role in the diversification of the olive complex in north-west Africa. The fact that polyploidy is found in narrow endemic subspecies from Madeira (subsp. cerasiformis) and the Agadir Mountains (subsp. maroccana) suggests that polyploidization has been favoured to overcome inbreeding depression. Lastly, based on previous phylogenetic analyses, we hypothesize that subsp. cerasiformis resulted from hybridization between ancestors

  19. Flowering in the wild olive (Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    Apr 19, 2012 ... This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female ... ecological niches in oleaster trees. ... The self-pollination may occur, but olive cultivars are ... Plants can ..... The fruit set results from the interaction.

  20. Observation of eight ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.) growing in the Garden of Gethsemane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Raffaella; Giordano, Cristiana; Salvatici, Maria Cristina; Capozzoli, Laura; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Pazzini, Massimo; Lain, Orietta; Testolin, Raffaele; Cimato, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    For thousands of years, olive trees (Olea europaea L.) have been a significant presence and a symbol in the Garden of Gethsemane, a place located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, remembered for the agony of Jesus Christ before his arrest. This investigation comprises the first morphological and genetic characterization of eight olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. Pomological traits, morphometric, and ultrastructural observations as well as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis were performed to identify the olive trees. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate their morphological variability. The study revealed a low morphological variability and minimal dissimilarity among the olive trees. According to molecular analysis, these trees showed the same allelic profile at all microsatellite loci analyzed. Combining the results of the different analyses carried out in the frame of the present work, we could conclude that the eight olive trees of the Gethsemane Garden have been propagated from a single genotype. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone-Land, Angelina; Takeoka, Gary R; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2014-04-15

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: β-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  5. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. PMID:26709230

  6. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-11

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive.

  8. The peculiar landscape of repetitive sequences in the olive (Olea europaea L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Giordani, Tommaso; Pindo, Massimo; Cattonaro, Federica; Scalabrin, Simone; Velasco, Riccardo; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Analyzing genome structure in different species allows to gain an insight into the evolution of plant genome size. Olive (Olea europaea L.) has a medium-sized haploid genome of 1.4 Gb, whose structure is largely uncharacterized, despite the growing importance of this tree as oil crop. Next-generation sequencing technologies and different computational procedures have been used to study the composition of the olive genome and its repetitive fraction. A total of 2.03 and 2.3 genome equivalents of Illumina and 454 reads from genomic DNA, respectively, were assembled following different procedures, which produced more than 200,000 differently redundant contigs, with mean length higher than 1,000 nt. Mapping Illumina reads onto the assembled sequences was used to estimate their redundancy. The genome data set was subdivided into highly and medium redundant and nonredundant contigs. By combining identification and mapping of repeated sequences, it was established that tandem repeats represent a very large portion of the olive genome (∼31% of the whole genome), consisting of six main families of different length, two of which were first discovered in these experiments. The other large redundant class in the olive genome is represented by transposable elements (especially long terminal repeat-retrotransposons). On the whole, the results of our analyses show the peculiar landscape of the olive genome, related to the massive amplification of tandem repeats, more than that reported for any other sequenced plant genome.

  9. Epicuticular Wax in Developing Olives (Olea europaea) Is Highly Dependent upon Cultivar and Fruit Ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Barrios, Gonçal; Mateu, Jordi; Ninot, Antonia; Romero, Agustí

    2016-08-03

    The epicuticular wax (EW) layer is located on the surface of most plant organs. It provides the cuticle with most of its properties and is the primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of Olea europaea cultivation, few studies have characterized the EW covering leaves and olives, which could be involved in resistance to both infection and environmental conditions. In the present study, wide-ranging screening was carried out using direct-injection electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze EW in developing olives of nine varieties. The proportions of EW fractions [wax esters (WEs), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), triterpenic acids, and aldehydes] strongly depended upon the olive cultivar and, in only a few cases, were influenced by the sampling date. The specific compositions of the major fractions, WEs and TAGs, were strictly related to the cultivar, while the degree of unsaturation and chain length of the WEs evolved throughout the 4 weeks prior to the olive turning color.

  10. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots.

  12. Genetic improvement of olive (Olea europaea L.) by conventional and in vitro biotechnology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, E; Cristofori, V; Silvestri, C

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil. Innovative strategies supported by molecular and biotechnological techniques are required to speed up novel hybridisation methods. Among traditional approaches the Gene Pool Method seems a reasonable option, but it requires availability of widely diverse germplasm from both cultivated and wild genotypes, supported by a detailed knowledge of their genetic relationships. The practice of "gene therapy" for the most important existing cultivars, combined with conventional methods, could accelerate achievement of the main goals, but efforts to overcome some technical and ideological obstacles are needed. The present review describes the benefits that olive and its products may obtain from genetic improvement using state of the art of conventional and unconventional methods, and includes progress made in the field of in vitro techniques. The uses of both traditional and modern technologies are discussed with recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejón, Juan D; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio J

    2012-10-01

    A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of the stigma.

  14. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Identification and characterisation of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghini, Elena; Mascagni, Flavia; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cavallini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous retrotransposons in the genome of most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, SINE identification has been carried out only in a limited number of plant species. This lack of information is apparent especially in non-model plants whose genome has not been sequenced yet. The aim of this work was to produce a specific bioinformatics pipeline for analysing second generation sequence reads of a non-model species and identifying SINEs. We have identified, for the first time, 227 putative SINEs of the olive tree (Olea europaea), that constitute one of the few sets of such sequences in dicotyledonous species. The identified SINEs ranged from 140 to 362 bp in length and were characterised with regard to the occurrence of the tRNA domain in their sequence. The majority of identified elements resulted in single copy or very lowly repeated, often in association with genic sequences. Analysis of sequence similarity allowed us to identify two major groups of SINEs showing different abundances in the olive tree genome, the former with sequence similarity to SINEs of Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae and the latter to SINEs of Salicaceae. A comparison of sequence conservation between olive SINEs and LTR retrotransposon families suggested that SINE expansion in the genome occurred especially in very ancient times, before LTR retrotransposon expansion, and presumably before the separation of the rosids (to which Oleaceae belong) from the Asterids. Besides providing data on olive SINEs, our results demonstrate the suitability of the pipeline employed for SINE identification. Applying this pipeline will favour further structural and functional analyses on these relatively unknown elements to be performed also in other plant species, even in the absence of a reference genome, and will allow establishing general evolutionary patterns for this kind of repeats in

  16. Isolation of antioxidative secoiridoids from olive wood (Olea europaea L.) guided by on-line HPLC-DAD-radical scavenging detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Sánchez, A.; Altarejos, J.

    2011-01-01

    The woody portion of olive tree pruning is a source of natural antioxidants of potential interest for the food industry. This work deals with the isolation and identification of further antioxidants present in an ethyl acetate extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) wood. Thus, a new secoiridoid,

  17. Comparative and evaluation of anti-leech (Limnatis Nilotica effect of Olive (Olea Europaea L. with Levamisol and Tiabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Gholami-Ahangaran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Until now, there is no registered drug for treatment of complications with leech in the world. According to the available scientific evidence, Olive is an effective anti-parasitic plant. Hence, in the present experiment we studied the inhibitory and killing effect of Olive methanolic extract on Limnatis nilotica. Methods: In this study, 100 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from some wells in western area of Iran (south region in Ilam province and evaluated the antileech effects of Olive methanolic extract (Olea europaea L. in comparison with levamisole and tinidazole. Results: The results indicated no effect of tinidasole and distilled water on killing or mortality rate of the leeches but Olea europaea L. plant and levamisole have more effect on the L. nilotica. The mean death time of leech for levamisole and Olive determined 10依0.98 and 210依 24.1 minutes, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that treatments of Olive methanolic extract and levamisole have the most effects on leeches and could be used as natural anti-L. nilotica. However it is necessary to achieve further studies for confirm of this subject.

  18. High-throughput sequencing of RNA silencing-associated small RNAs in olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Donaire

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.. sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive.

  19. Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) cv. Hojiblanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz

    2013-08-15

    The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., cv Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking. PMID:20868482

  1. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions.

  2. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  3. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  4. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  5. Selective ultrasound-enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein to its aglycon in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, María Del Mar; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2017-04-01

    Hydrolysis of oleuropein, the main phenol in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extracts, to oleuropein aglycon and other subsequent products in the hydrolytic pathway can be catalyzed by different enzymes. Three of the most used hydrolases were assayed to catalyze the process, and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger was selected. Acceleration of the enzymatic hydrolysis by ultrasound (US) was studied using a Box-Behnken design (duty cycle, amplitude, cycle time) and an oleuropein standard, and the optimum US conditions for achieving maximum yield of oleuropein aglycon were 0.5s/s duty cycle, 50% amplitude and 45s cycle. The method was applied to obtain oleuropein aglycon from commercial and laboratory extracts from olive leaves, which may have a pharmacological use as deduced by its healthy properties. The kinetics of the US-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis was monitored by analysis of the target compounds using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of all the wild olive trees tested produced virgin olive oil which complies with commercial standards, as well as for their appreciable amounts of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Tocopherol analysis by HPLC revealed the presence of α, β, γ and δ tocopherols in all the studied olive oils. Total tocopherol content was significantly influenced by the varietal factor. It ranged from 310 (SB12 to 780 mg/kg (H3. As for total tocopherols, the amount of each tocopherol varied according to genotype. α tocopherol is the most prominent, whereas β, γ and δ tocopherols are less represented. Results showed a clear influence of total phenols and o-diphenols on virgin olive oil stability (R = 0.905, 0.963 P En este trabajo se han caracterizado los aceites obtenidos a partir de siete acebuches previamente seleccionados entre varias poblaciones de Olea europea L. Subsp. oleaster. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante las campañas de producción 2003/04, 2004/05 y 2005/06.Varios parámetros analíticos fueron evaluados: composiciones en ácidos grasos, pigmentos, tocoferoles, fenoles; así mismo, se investigó la relación de estos parámetros con la estabilidad de los aceites. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que todas las muestras de frutos de acebuche produjeron aceites cuya composición de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos cumplió las normas comerciales para aceite de oliva virgen del Comit

  7. Proteomic platform for the identification of proteins in olive (Olea europaea) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2013-10-24

    The nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil extracted mechanically from the ripe fruits of Olea europaea trees are attracting constantly more attention worldwide. The preparation of high-quality protein samples from plant tissues for proteomic analysis poses many challenging problems. In this study we employed a proteomic platform based on two different extraction methods, SDS and CHAPS based protocols, followed by two precipitation protocols, TCA/acetone and MeOH precipitation, in order to increase the final number of identified proteins. The use of advanced MS techniques in combination with the Swissprot and NCBI Viridiplantae databases and TAIR10 Arabidopsis database allowed us to identify 1265 proteins, of which 22 belong to O. europaea. The application of this proteomic platform for protein extraction and identification will be useful also for other proteomic studies on recalcitrant plant/fruit tissues. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease [1, 2]. Activation ... Olea europaea Linn. (family, Oleaceae), commonly ... Although the health beneficial effects of olive fruit and leaf oils have ..... are up-regulated in the brains of patients with.

  9. Multiplicação in vitro de oliveira (Olea europaea L. Olive (Olea europaea L. in vitro multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Dutra

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de induzir a multiplicação em explantes de oliveira, segmentos nodais oriundos de plântulas mantidas in vitro foram excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo meio de cultura MS suplementado com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado, BAP (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg L-1 e ANA (0; 0,01; 0,1 e 1 mg L-1, solidificado com 6 g L-1 de ágar e pH ajustado para 5,8. Durante 100 dias, os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento a 25±1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 32 µmoles.m-2.s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Não houve indução de brotações nos segmentos nodais. O maior comprimento da parte aérea foi obtido com 0,1 mg L-1 de ANA na ausência de BAP. O meio de cultura sem BAP proporcionou maior peso de matéria fresca da parte aérea.This work had the objective to induce olive multiplication. Nodal segments from in vitro plantlets were excised and inoculated in test tubes containing MS culture medium supplemented with activated charcoal (2 g L-1, BAP (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L-1, NAA (0; 0.01; 0.1 and 1 mg L-1, agar (6 g L-1 and pH adjusted to 5.8. The explant were maintained in growth room to 25±1°C, 32 µmoles.m-2.s-1 light intensity and 16 hours photoperiod for 100 days. There was not shoots induction in the nodal segments. Larger length of aerial part were obtained with ANA 0.1 mg L-1 in the BAP absence. Culture medium without BAP provides larger weight of fresh matter of the aerial part.

  10. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  11. Intra-specific genetic diversity in wild olives (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadi, Z; Samadi-Molayousefi, H; Sheidai, M

    2012-03-19

    Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei's genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H(pop)/H(sp) within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was found for the Keshar population (H(pop) = 0.85 and H(sp) = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F(ST) test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.

  12. Histochemical location of key enzyme activities involved in receptivity and self-incompatibility in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-12-01

    Stigma-surface and style enzymes are important for pollen reception, selection and germination. This report deals with the histochemical location of the activity of four basic types of enzyme involved in these processes in the olive (Olea europaea L.). The detection of peroxidase, esterase and acid-phosphatase activities at the surface of the stigma provided evidence of early receptivity in olive pistils. The stigma maintained its receptivity until the arrival of pollen. Acid-phosphatase activity appeared in the style at the moment of anthesis and continued until the fertilization of the ovule. RNase activity was detected in the extracellular matrix of the styles of flowers just before pollination and became especially evident in pistils after self-pollination. This activity gradually decreased until it practically disappeared in more advanced stages. RNase activity was also detected in pollen tubes growing in pollinated pistils and appeared after in vitro germination in the presence of self-incompatible pistils. These findings suggest that RNases may well be involved in intraspecific pollen rejection in olive flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that evidence of enzyme activity in stigma receptivity and pollen selection has been described in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  15. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui' Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Dbara

    Full Text Available The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs and improving water use efficiency (WUE. Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui' in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may

  16. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of olive fruits (Olea Europaea L. ), and its oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bashir, M.

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on accelerating the debittering steps of olive fruits, oil extractability and the quality of extracted oil. Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 669 Gy/hr., a part of these fruits was debittered in distilled water, the second was processed with NaOH (3.6% concentration) for 3 or 6 hr. Both treated fruits with a control part were kept in brine (5.6% sodium chloride) and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Portions of all these treated fruits were subjected to oil extraction by mechanical means immediately after treatment. During the debittering period (8 days) the total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and ph values were determined in wastewater (daily), whereas the peroxide value, iodine number and the total acidity were measured in the extracted oil. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, a and K in wastewater. The most significant effect was noticed when irradiated fruits were processed with NaOH for 3 hrs. as indicated by the values of total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K concentration in wastewater. All used doses of gamma radiation, increased the extractability of the oil from the treated fruits, the total acidity and the peroxide value of that oil. (Author)

  18. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data

  19. Assessing ambient ozone injury in olive (Olea europaea L.) plants by using the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, J M; Ismail, I M; Haiba, N S; Hassan, I A; Lorenzini, G

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant chemical, ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU), was applied as stem injections or soil drenches to 5-year-old containerized plants of olive (Olea europaea L. cultivar Kalamata) in growth chambers in order to assess its ameliorative effects against realistic ozone (O3) stress. Visible injury symptoms were reduced greatly in individuals treated with EDU, with injection applications having greater protection than soil drenches. EDU application caused increases in the measured ecophysiological parameters compared to untreated individuals. In particular, the stem injection protected plants against photosynthetic impairment (unchanged net photosynthetic rates and intercellular CO2 concentration, in comparison to plants grown in filtered air). EDU application increased the protection of PSII from ambient O3 oxidative stress, although it did not retain the proportion of redox state of QA, pigment composition of photosynthetic apparatus and size of light-harvesting complex of PSII. However, the stem injection of plants with EDU induced lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values in comparison to ambient air (-2 %), indicating a better photoprotection of PSII in comparison to soil drench application. EDU application caused increases in the morphological and biometric parameters compared to individuals exposed to ambient air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting the protection of Kalamata olive trees due to EDU in terms of growth, yield, visible injury, and photosynthetic performance. Furthermore, this study proved that EDU could be a low-cost and a low-technology efficient tool for assessing O3 effects on plant performances in the field in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Peroxynitrite mediates programmed cell death both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to be induced after pollination both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to be produced in the pistil and pollen during pollination but their contribution to PCD has so far remained elusive. The possible role of ROS and NO was investigated in olive pollen–pistil interaction during free and controlled pollination and it was found that bidirectional interaction appears to exist between the pollen and the stigma, which seems to regulate ROS and NO production. Biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that both O2˙− and NO are essential for triggering PCD in self-incompatibility processes was also obtained. It was observed for the first time that peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent generated during a rapid reaction between O2˙− and NO, is produced during pollination and that this is related to an increase in protein nitration which, in turn, is strongly associated with PCD. It may be concluded that peroxynitrite mediates PCD during pollen–pistil interaction in Olea europaea L. both in self-incompatible pollen and papillar cells. PMID:22140239

  1. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  2. The Major Qualitative Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivated in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zizhang; Zhan, Mingming; Yang, Zeshen; Zumstein, Kristina; Chen, Huaping; Huang, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Olive trees, originated from Mediterranean, have been cultivated in China for decades and show great adaption to local environment. However, research on this topic is limited. In this study, the major qualitative characteristics and changes of olive grown in southwest China were investigated. The results showed that oil accumulated during fruit development and reached its maximum value when fruit had fully ripened. Phenolic and flavonoid contents increase rapidly in the early growth stage (0-90 DAFB) and then begin to decrease as fruit ripens. Compared with olive from the Mediterranean, olive from China has special characteristics: higher moisture content in the fruit combined with lower percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and oil content. This is due to southwest China's climate which is wetter and cooler compared to the Mediterranean. Our study suggests that southwest China's higher annual rainfall might contribute to higher fruit moisture content while its low temperatures would be conducive to higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the fruit.

  3. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  4. Specific Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Test to Highlight Colonization of Xylem Vessels by Xylella fastidiosa in Naturally Infected Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Luvisi, Andrea; Meyer, Joana B.; Sabella, Erika; De Bellis, Luigi; Cruz, Albert C.; Ampatzidis, Yiannis; Cherubini, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The colonization behavior of the Xylella fastidiosa strain CoDiRO, the causal agent of olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS), within the xylem of Olea europaea L. is still quite controversial. As previous literature suggests, even if xylem vessel occlusions in naturally infected olive plants were observed, cell aggregation in the formation of occlusions had a minimal role. This observation left some open questions about the whole behavior of the CoDiRO strain and its actual role in OQDS pathogenesis. In order to evaluate the extent of bacterial infection in olive trees and the role of bacterial aggregates in vessel occlusions, we tested a specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe (KO 210) for X. fastidiosa and quantified the level of infection and vessel occlusion in both petioles and branches of naturally infected and non-infected olive trees. All symptomatic petioles showed colonization by X. fastidiosa, especially in the larger innermost vessels. In several cases, the vessels appeared completely occluded by a biofilm containing bacterial cells and extracellular matrix and the frequent colonization of adjacent vessels suggested a horizontal movement of the bacteria. Infected symptomatic trees had 21.6 ± 10.7% of petiole vessels colonized by the pathogen, indicating an irregular distribution in olive tree xylem. Thus, our observations point out the primary role of the pathogen in olive vessel occlusions. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the KO 210 FISH probe is suitable for the specific detection of X. fastidiosa. PMID:29681910

  5. Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G.; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

  6. Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

  7. A possible role for flowering locus T-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Amnon; Bakhshian, Ortal; Cerezo-Medina, Sergio; Paltiel, Judith; Adler, Chen; Ben-Ari, Giora; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Lavee, Shimon; Samach, Alon

    2017-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding flowering locus T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred i n late winter. Trees exposed to an artificial warm winter expressed low levels of OeFT1/2 in leaves and did not flower. Olive flower induction thus seems to be mediated by an increase in FT levels in response to cold winters. Olive flowering is dependent on additional internal factors. It was severely reduced in trees that carried a heavy fruit load the previous season (harvested in November) and in trees without fruit to which cold temperatures were artificially applied in summer. Expression analysis suggested that these internal factors work either by reducing the increase in OeFT1/2 expression or through putative flowering repressors such as TFL1. With expected warmer winters, future consumption of olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, should benefit from better understanding these factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modelling of the carbon and water balances of olive (Olea europaea, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Olive orchards are the main component of numerous agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. In this work we present the development of a simulation model of olive orchards, which is used here to illustrate some specific features of the water and carbon balances of olives. The fraction of daily Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR) intercepted by the trees (Qd) changes substantially with solar declination. For a given LAI Qd increases as tree size is smaller. Canopy volume has a much larger effect on Qd than Leaf Area Density (LAD), implying that a submodel for canopy volume will be required. Estimates of Radiation-Use Efficiency for yield are 0.35 g dry matter/(MJ PAR) and 0.16 g oil/(MJ PAR) which are around 80% of those for sunflower under the same environment. Crop evaporation in olive orchards is characterized by a high proportion of evaporation from the soil surface (Es) and by the response of stomata to air humidity. Results from a evapotranspiration corresponds to Es, and that Water-Use Efficiency relative to transpiration is 0.9 kg fruit dry matter m-3, which is equal to that of sunflower. Important gaps in our knowledge of olive ecophysiology (dry matter partitioning and growth) require further research

  9. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiammetta Alagna

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia, included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  10. Comparative study on fatty acid composition of olive (Olea europaea L.), with emphasis on phytosterol contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kulak, Muhittin; Bindak, Recep

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the fatty acid composition and phytosterol contents of Turkish native olive cultivars, namely Kilis Yağlık and Nizip Yağlık cv. In this context, olive fruits from 34 locations were sampled and then screened for their components in comparison. Fifteen different fatty acids were found in both olive oils. In the order of abundance, the most important ones were oleic acid (18:1) > palmitic acid (16:0) > linoleic acid (18:2) > stearic acid (18:0). Significant differences were observed in the contents of oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2) but not for stearic acid content in comparison both oils (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in terms of unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). The seven phytosterols - cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ-5-avenasterol, Δ-7-stigmastenol and Δ-7-avenasterol - were studied in both oil sources. The predominant sterols were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and campesterol in the samples analysed. However, no significant differences were found in the levels of the phytosterols between the two olive cultivars. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  12. Radical-Scavenging Compounds from Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to complete knowledge on the chemical composition and radical-scavenging activity of olive tree wood. Two new monoterpene glycosides, (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-a-d-glucopyranosyl ester (6a) and (-)-perillic acid 1'-O-ß-d-primeverosyl ester (8), together with the known

  13. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barghini, E.; Natali, L.; Giordani, T.; Cossu, R.M.; Scalabrin, S.; Cattonaro, F.; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, M.; Cavallini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-100 ISSN 1340-2838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LTR retrotransposons * next-generation sequencing * olive Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.267, year: 2015

  14. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use.

  15. Phenolic compounds and sterol contents of olive (olea europaea l.) oils obtained from different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhaimi, F.; Ghafoor, K.; Adiamo, O.Q.; Babiker, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil obtained from 5 different olive cultivars was analyzed for phenolic and sterol composition. Total phenolic contents of oils were determined between 94.99 mg GAE/kg oil (Al-Joif) to 405.71 mg GAE/ kg oil (Sariulak) (p<0.05). Phenolic compounds of oils obtained from different olive verities (Ayvalik, Sariulak, Savrani, Al-Joif and Gemlik) when fully ripened were evaluated using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were identified to have higher concentrations than other compounds. Tyrosol contents were between 3.65 mg/kg to 21.47 mg/kg oil (p<0.05) in different verities. The contents of hydroxytyrosol of oils for Ayvalik and Gemlik were 1.23 and 14.42 mg/kg, respectively. Cinnamic acid was detected only in Al-Joif olive oil sample. Low amounts of syringic, vanillin, p-cumaric, quercetin and luteolin were observed in different varieties' oils. (author)

  16. Endophytic colonization and biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 in olive (Olea europaea L.) are determined neither by pyoverdine production nor swimming motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an indigenous inhabitant of olive (Olea europaea L.) rhizosphere, able to display endophytic lifestyle in roots, to induce a wide range of defence responses upon colonization of this organ and to exert effective biological control against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) (Verticillium dahliae). We aimed to evaluate the involvement of specific PICF7 phenotypes in olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol effectiveness by generating mutants impaired in swimming motility (fliI) or siderophore pyoverdine production (pvdI). Besides, the performance of mutants with diminished in vitro growth in potato dextrose agar medium (gltA) and cysteine (Cys) auxotrophy was also assessed. Results showed that olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol ability of the fliI, pvdI and gltA mutants did not significantly differ from that displayed by the parental strain PICF7. Consequently, altered in vitro growth, swimming motility and pyoverdine production contribute neither to PICF7 VWO suppressive effect nor to its colonization ability. In contrast, the Cys auxotroph mutant showed reduced olive root colonization capacity and lost full biocontrol efficacy. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that all mutants tested were able to endophytically colonize root tissue to the same extent as wild-type PICF7, discarding these traits as relevant for its endophytic lifestyle. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Characterization of a caleosin expressed during olive (Olea europaea L. pollen ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-García María

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive tree is an oil-storing species, with pollen being the second most active site in storage lipid biosynthesis. Caleosins are proteins involved in storage lipid mobilization during seed germination. Despite the existence of different lipidic structures in the anther, there are no data regarding the presence of caleosins in this organ to date. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a caleosin expressed in the olive anther over different key stages of pollen ontogeny, as a first approach to unravel its biological function in reproduction. Results A 30 kDa caleosin was identified in the anther tissues by Western blot analysis. Using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic immunolocalization methods, the protein was first localized in the tapetal cells at the free microspore stage. Caleosins were released to the anther locule and further deposited onto the sculptures of the pollen exine. As anthers developed, tapetal cells showed the presence of structures constituted by caleosin-containing lipid droplets closely packed and enclosed by ER-derived cisternae and vesicles. After tapetal cells lost their integrity, the caleosin-containing remnants of the tapetum filled the cavities of the mature pollen exine, forming the pollen coat. In developing microspores, this caleosin was initially detected on the exine sculptures. During pollen maturation, caleosin levels progressively increased in the vegetative cell, concurrently with the number of oil bodies. The olive pollen caleosin was able to bind calcium in vitro. Moreover, PEGylation experiments supported the structural conformation model suggested for caleosins from seed oil bodies. Conclusions In the olive anther, a caleosin is expressed in both the tapetal and germ line cells, with its synthesis independently regulated. The pollen oil body-associated caleosin is synthesized by the vegetative cell, whereas the protein located on the pollen exine and

  18. Antioxidant activity and chemical components as potential anticancer agents in the olive leaf (Olea europaea L. cv Leccino.) decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Nini, Antonella; Antenucci, Lina; Raimo, Gennaro; Iorizzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is correlated with a regular consumption of fruits and vegetable, many of which are rich in polyphenols. The additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in human body. Olea europaea L. leaf are rich in phenolic components, which have been proposed to play a role in cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the main components in the Olea europaea L. leaf (cv. Leccino) preserved during the decoction preparation, in order to delineate the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and its isolated compounds by using different in vitro assays including DPPH radicalscavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effect and the ability to delay the linoleic acid peroxidation process (ALP). The aqueous decoction was partitioned obtaining four extracts and the n-butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. Phytochemical investigation leads to the isolation of thirteen secondary metabolites including simple phenolics, flavonoids, secoiridoids whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. A significant free radical scavenging effect against DPPH has been evidenced in fraxamoside (1) (EC50 62.6 µM) and taxifolin (5) (EC50 50.0 µM), isolated for the first time from the water decoction. The most active compound in the TAC evaluation, was the 3,4 dihydro-phenyl glycol (8) (0.90 caffeic acid equiv.) while taxifolin and fraxamoside resulted as the most efficient inhibitors of XO activity (IC50 2.7 and 5.2 µM, respectively). Secoxyloganin (4), oleuropein (2) and tyrosol (6) showed the highest ALP activity. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of phytochemicals and their

  19. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  1. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A de novo transcriptomic approach to identify flavonoids and anthocyanins switch-off in olive (Olea europaea L. drupes at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico eIaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During ripening, the fruits of the olive tree (Olea europaea L. undergo a progressive chromatic change characterized by the formation of a red-brown spot which gradually extends on the epidermis and in the innermost part of the mesocarp. This event finds an exception in the Leucocarpa cultivar, in which we observe a destabilized equilibrium between the metabolisms of chlorophyll and other pigments, particularly the anthocyanins whose switch-off during maturation promotes the white coloration of fruits. Despite its importance, genomic information on the olive tree is still lacking. Different RNA-seq libraries were generated from drupes of ‘Leucocarpa’ and ‘Cassanese’ olive genotypes, sampled at 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF, and were used in order to identify transcripts involved in the main phenotypic changes of fruits during maturation and their corresponding expression patterns. A total of 103,359 transcripts were obtained and 3792 and 3064 were differentially expressed in ‘Leucocarpa’ and ‘Cassanese’ genotypes, respectively, during 100-130 DAF transition. Among them flavonoid and anthocyanin related transcripts such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavonol 3’-hydrogenase (F3'H, flavonol 3’5’-hydrogenase (F3'5'H, flavonol synthase (FLS, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, UDP-glucose:anthocianidin:flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT were identified.These results contribute to reducing the current gap in information regarding metabolic processes, including those linked to fruit pigmentation in the olive.

  4. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bianco

    Full Text Available Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes.In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies.This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  5. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  6. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf methanolic extract prevents HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis in rats by attenuating inflammation and augmenting antioxidant enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Othman, Mohamed S; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2017-07-01

    Gastritis is preponderantly characterized by inflammation of the lining epithelial layer and the chronic gastritis is considered as a pre-cancer lesion. For many centuries olive (Olea europaea) leaf has been used for its putative health potential, nonetheless, to date, the gastroprotective effects of olive leaves have not been studied yet. Hence, in this study we investigated whether olive leaf extract (OLE) could protect gastric mucosa against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Hcl/ethanol administration caused significant damage to the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by gastric ulcer index and histological evaluation. However, this damage was largely prevented by pre-administering 20mg/kg omeprazole or 100mg/kg OLE. Interestingly, the damage was completely prevented by pre-administering 200 and 300mg/kg OLE. Moreover, OLE attenuated the inflammatory response by decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expressions, and down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective mechanism of OLE involved the promotion of enzymatic and nonenzymatic molecules (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione reduced form), promoting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression, halting lipid peroxidation and preventing the overproduction of nitric oxide. Together, our findings clearly demonstrated that OLE could prevent HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis by attenuating inflammation and oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. Indeed, OLE could potentially be useful as a natural therapy for gastritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  8. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density ... Keywords: Olea europaea, cholesterol, Hypercholesterolemia, Lipid metabolism, Peroxisome .... ethanol (EtOH) at 1:10 ratio (w/v) for 2 h in a.

  9. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level

  10. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. Strains from the Olive (Olea europaea L.) Rhizosphere as Effective Biocontrol Agents against Verticillium dahliae: From the Host Roots to the Bacterial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Legarda, Garikoitz; Ruano-Rosa, David; Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Niqui, José L.; Triviño, Juan C.; Roca, Amalia; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The use of biological control agents (BCA), alone or in combination with other management measures, has gained attention over the past decades, driven by the need to seek for sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to confront plant pathogens. The rhizosphere of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants is a source of bacteria with potential as biocontrol tools against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of bacterial isolates from healthy nursery-produced olive (cultivar Picual, susceptible to VWO) plants was generated based on morphological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, chemical sensitivities, and on their in vitro antagonistic activity against several olive pathogens. Three strains (PIC25, PIC105, and PICF141) showing high in vitro inhibition ability of pathogens' growth, particularly against V. dahliae, were eventually selected. Their effectiveness against VWO caused by the defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae was also demonstrated, strain PICF141 being the rhizobacteria showing the best performance as BCA. Genotypic and phenotypic traits traditionally associated with plant growth promotion and/or biocontrol abilities were evaluated as well (e.g., phytase, xylanase, catalase, cellulase, chitinase, glucanase activities, and siderophore and HCN production). Multi-locus sequence analyses of conserved genes enabled the identification of these strains as Pseudomonas spp. Strain PICF141 was affiliated to the “Pseudomonas mandelii subgroup,” within the “Pseudomonas fluorescens group,” Pseudomonas lini being the closest species. Strains PIC25 and PIC105 were affiliated to the “Pseudomonas aeruginosa group,” Pseudomonas indica being the closest relative. Moreover, we identified P. indica (PIC105) for the first time as a BCA. Genome sequencing and in silico analyses allowed the identification of traits commonly associated with plant-bacteria interactions. Finally, the root colonization ability of these olive

  12. Effect of water deficit on leaf phenolic composition, gas exchange, oxidative damage and antioxidant activity of four Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Antonios; Therios, Ioannis; Samouris, Georgios; Koundouras, Stefanos; Giannakoula, Anastasia

    2012-11-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is often exposed to severe water stress during the summer season. In this study, we determined the changes in total phenol content, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in the leaves of four olive cultivars ('Gaidourelia', 'Kalamon', 'Koroneiki' and 'Megaritiki') grown under water deficit conditions for two months. Furthermore, we investigated the photosynthetic performance in terms of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as malondialdehyde content and antioxidant activity. One-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments that received a water amount equivalent to 100% (Control, C), 66% (Field Capacity 66%, FC(66)) and 33% (Field Capacity 33%, FC(33)) of field capacity. Measurements were conducted 30 and 60 days after the initiation of the experiment. Net CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m) ratio decreased only in FC(33) plants. Photosynthetic rate was reduced mainly due to stomatal closure, but damage to PSII also contributed to this decrease. Water stress induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds, especially oleuropein, suggesting their role as antioxidants. Total phenol content increased in FC(33) treatment and oleuropein presented a slight increase in FC(66) and a sharper one in FC(33) treatment. Hydroxytyrosol showed a gradual decrease as water stress progressed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased due to water stress, mostly after 60 days, while antioxidant activity increased for all cultivars in the FC(33) treatment. 'Gaidourelia' could be considered as the most tolerant among the tested cultivars, showing higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity and lower lipid peroxidation and photochemical damage after two months of water stress. The results indicated that water stress affected olive tree physiological and biochemical parameters and magnitude of this effect depended on genotype, the degree of water limitation and duration of treatment

  13. The eastern part of the Fertile Crescent concealed an unexpected route of olive (Olea europaea L.) differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Soraya; Mariotti, Roberto; Bagnoli, Francesca; Costantini, Lorenzo; Cultrera, Nicolò G M; Arzani, Kazem; Pandolfi, Saverio; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Torkzaban, Bahareh; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Baldoni, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Olive is considered a native plant of the eastern side of the Mediterranean basin, from where it should have spread westward along the Mediterranean shores, while little is known about its diffusion in the eastern direction. Genetic diversity levels and population genetic structure of a wide set of olive ecotypes and varieties collected from several provinces of Iran, representing a high percentage of the entire olive resources present in the area, was screened with 49 chloroplast and ten nuclear simple sequence repeat markers, and coupled with archaeo-botanical and historical data on Mediterranean olive varieties. Approximate Bayesian Computation was applied to define the demographic history of olives including Iranian germplasm, and species distribution modelling was performed to understand the impact of the Late Quaternary on olive distribution. The results of the present study demonstrated that: (1) the climatic conditions of the last glacial maximum had an important role on the actual olive distribution, (2) all Iranian olive samples had the same maternal inheritance as Mediterranean cultivars, and (3) the nuclear gene flow from the Mediterranean basin to the Iranian plateau was almost absent, as well as the contribution of subspecies cuspidata to the diversity of Iranian olives. Based on this evidence, a new scenario for the origin and distribution of this important fruit crop has been traced. The evaluation of olive trees growing in the eastern part of the Levant highlighted a new perspective on the spread and distribution of olive, suggesting two routes of olive differentiation, one westward, spreading along the Mediterranean basin, and another moving towards the east and reaching the Iranian plateau before its domestication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Identification and Assessment of the Potential Allergenicity of 7S Vicilins in Olive (Olea europaea L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. Jimenez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive seeds, which are a raw material of interest, have been reported to contain 11S seed storage proteins (SSPs. However, the presence of SSPs such as 7S vicilins has not been studied. In this study, following a search in the olive seed transcriptome, 58 sequences corresponding to 7S vicilins were retrieved. A partial sequence was amplified by PCR from olive seed cDNA and subjected to phylogenetic analysis with other sequences. Structural analysis showed that olive 7S vicilin contains 9 α-helixes and 22 β-sheets. Additionally, 3D structural analysis displayed good superimposition with vicilin models generated from Pistacia and Sesamum. In order to assess potential allergenicity, T and B epitopes present in these proteins were identified by bioinformatic approaches. Different motifs were observed among the species, as well as some species-specific motifs. Finally, expression analysis of vicilins was carried out in protein extracts obtained from seeds of different species, including the olive. Noticeable bands were observed for all species in the 15–75 kDa MW interval, which were compatible with vicilins. The reactivity of the extracts to sera from patients allergic to nuts was also analysed. The findings with regard to the potential use of olive seed as food are discussed.

  15. Identification and gene expression analysis of AUX1 influencing adventitious root induction in olive cuttings (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Mazinani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive is one of the most important fruit crops throughout the Mediterranean Basin, mainly propagated by cuttings. The adventitious root development is a key stage in vegetative propagation however the low rooting capacity of some cultivars severely affects the efficiency of olive clonal propagation. Auxin Influx Carrier gene (AUX1, plays a key role in lateral root formation in many plant species promoting the export of IAA from newly developing leaves to lateral root primordia. Putative olive homologues were amplified by using degenerate primers designed on the conserved regions of AUX1 transcripts identified in other plants. Transcript and amino acid sequences in root (OeAUX1R and base of cutting (OeAUX1B were different causes of polymorphisms relating to possible distinct roles in these tissues. In order to investigate the gene expression patterns, Real-time PCR was performed on cuttings during the rooting stage collected from genotypes characterized by high and low rooting ability. Moreover, the gene expression was investigated on different olive tissues. Preliminary results showed that the expression of OeAUX1B and OeAUX1R in base of cuttings and roots of the high-rooting genotype were higher which suggests the hypothesis of the involvement of OeAUX1 in olive rooting. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AUX1 gene had 8 exons in olive and the sequence of this gene in plant was conserved during evolution.

  16. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis and Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

  17. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of three common olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars in Palestine, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Ramiz; Abu-Qaoud, Hassan; Arafeh, Rami

    2014-09-03

    Eight accessions of olive trees from three common varieties in Palestine, Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan and Surri, were genetically evaluated using five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 17 alleles from 5 loci were observed in which 15 (88.2%) were polymorphic and 2 (11.8%) were monomorphic. An average of 3.4 alleles per locus was found ranging from 2.0 alleles with the primers GAPU-103 and DCA-9 to 5.0 alleles with U9932 and DCA-16. The smallest amplicon size observed was 50 bp with the primer DCA-16, whereas the largest one (450 bp) with the primer U9932. Cluster analysis with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) showed three clusters: a cluster with four accessions from the 'Nabali Baladi' cultivar, another cluster with three accessions that represents the 'Nabali Mohassen' cultivar and finally the 'Surri' cultivar. The similarity coefficient for the eight olive tree samples ranged from a maximum of 100% between two accessions from Nabali Baladi and also in two other samples from Nabali Mohassan, to a minimum similarity coefficient (0.315) between the Surri and two Nabali Baladi accessions. The results in this investigation clearly highlight the genetic dissimilarity between the three main olive cultivars that have been misidentified and mixed up in the past, based on conventional morphological characters.

  19. Water relation response to soil chilling of six olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars with different frost resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, D.; Gijon, M. C.; Marino, J.; Moriana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between the water relations of six olive cultivars exposed to different soil temperatures (14 0.1, 9.9 0.1 and 5.8 0.2 degree centigrade) and their inherent frost resistance (as determined by two different methods) was investigated. Soil chilling was achieved by introducing pots of olive plants into water baths. The water relations of these plants were compared to those of plants kept under conditions of room temperature. The cultivars Frantoio, Picual and Changlot Real began to show significant dehydration below 14 degree centigrade, while Cornicabra, Arbequina and Ascolana Tenera showed this below 10 degree centigrade. This response is probably due to delayed stomatal closure. Only Cornicabra and Picual showed a significant reduction in leaf conductance (below 10 degree centigrade and 6 degree centigrade respectively). This absence of stomatal control led to a significantly greater dehydration in Ascolana Tenera. These variations in response to the soil chilling temperature suggest that different mechanisms may be at work, and indicate that would be necessary to study the influence of rootstock in the frost resistance of olive plants. The variations recorded grouped the cultivars as either resistant (Cornicabra), tolerant (Picual, Ascolana Tenera and Arbequina), or sensitive (Frantoio and Changlot Real). This classification is in line with the frost resistance reported for these cultivars in the literature, and with the results obtained in the present work using the stomatal density and ion leakage methods of determining such resistance. (Author) 40 refs.

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) water extract and increase in glucose tolerance pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf water extract and increase in glucose tolerance. The food that is the subject of the health claim, olive leaf water extract standardised by its content of oleuropein, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, an increase...... is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive leaf water extract and an increase in glucose tolerance....... in glucose tolerance, is a beneficial physiological effect as long as serum insulin concentrations are not disproportionately increased. One human intervention study showed an increase in glucose tolerance without disproportionate increase in insulin concentrations after daily consumption of the olive leaf...

  1. Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

    2012-01-01

    Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

  2. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil from Olea europaea L. by HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS. Identification of a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Parella, Teodor

    2010-08-25

    The phenolic fraction of a monovarietal extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Olea europaea L. var. Cornezuelo was studied by the hyphenated HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS techniques. This survey led to the identification of 25 main compounds. One was identified as a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (AOA) and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The relative configuration of this new AOA was determined as 5R*,8S*,9S* on the basis of the results obtained from the combination of NOE experiments and Monte Carlo conformational search calculations. Assuming, as for the described diastereoisomers, that the new AOA comes from the natural oleuropein aglycone (OA), the absolute configuration was proposed as 5S,8R,9R.

  3. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey

  5. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by the important food plant, Olea europaea L., in an ancient metalliferous polluted area of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B; Pyatt, F B

    2007-05-01

    Aspects of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals are reviewed and possible evidence of homeostasis is highlighted. Examination and analysis of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees growing in close proximity to a copper dominated spoil tip dating from at least 2000 years BP, on the island of Cyprus, revealed both bioaccumulation and partitioning of copper, lead and zinc in various parts of the tree. A factor to quantify the degree of accumulation is illustrated and a possible seed protective mechanism suggested.

  6. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by the important food plant, olea europaea L., in an ancient metalliferous polluted area of Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, B; Pyatt, FB

    2007-01-01

    Aspects of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals are reviewed and possible evidence of homeostasis is highlighted. Examination and analysis of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees growing in close proximity to a copper dominated spoil tip dating from at least 2000 years BP, on the island of Cyprus, revealed both bioaccumulation and partitioning of copper, lead and zinc in various parts of the tree. A factor to quantify the degree of accumulation is illustrated and a possible seed protective mechanism...

  7. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Lantero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L. trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control

  8. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantero, E.; Matallanas, B.; Ochando, M.D.; Pascual, S.; Callejas, C.

    2017-07-01

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control.

  9. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantero, E.; Matallanas, B.; Ochando, M.D.; Pascual, S.; Callejas, C.

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control.

  10. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  11. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  12. Environmental effects on proline accumulation and water potential in olive leaves (Olea europaea L. (cv Chemlali)) under saline water irrigated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ahmed, C.; Ben Rouina, B.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    In arid regions in Tunisia suffering from limited water resources, the olive extension to irrigated lands has led to the urgent use of saline water, the most readily available water in the these areas. Nevertheless, the effects of salt stress on olive tree seem to be reinforced by environmental conditions. The issue of this paper is to determine how does the olive tree respond to environmental stress in the Mediterranean climate under saline water irrigated field conditions with respect to leaf proline concentrations and water Status. (Author)

  13. Environmental effects on proline accumulation and water potential in olive leaves (Olea europaea L. CV Chemlali)) under saline water irrigated field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ahmed, C.; Ben Rouina, B.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions in Tunisia suffering from limited water resources, the olive extension to irrigated lands has led to the urgent use of saline water, the most readily available water in the these areas. Nevertheless, the effects of salt stress on olive tree seem to be reinforced by environmental conditions. The issue of this paper is to determine how does the olive tree respond to environmental stress in the Mediterranean climate under saline water irrigated field conditions with respect to leaf proline concentrations and water Status. (Author)

  14. Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L. 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz  Al-BACHIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.1570.80% followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89% and linoleic acid (10.3412.51%. Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05. Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01 gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01 saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.

  15. Influence of Soil Based Growing Media on Vegetative Propagation of Selected Cultivars of Olea Europaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. I.; Ashraf, M. I.; Malik, S. U.; Husaain, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Pothwar region of Pakistan is a natural habitat of Olea spp. There is a high demand of certified olive plants to establish olive orchids in the region, because native wild species are non-fruit bearing. Plants of certified fruit bearing olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars are rarely available. Vegetative propagation of olive is highly responsive to texture of soil based growing media. This study examined the effect of growing media composition (soil texture and nutrients) on vegetative propagation of five cultivars of olive. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors factorial having 25 repeats of each four treatments. Plant growth and survival data were collected and analyzed for the influence of soil attributes. In sandy loam soil, cv. Bari-1 had 82 percent plant survival, highest number of roots per plant (3.5), and longest root length (13.01 cm). Highest number of shoots per plant (4.25) and maximum shoot length (15.64 cm) were also recorded for Bari-1 with sandy loam growing media. Silt loam soil is least suitable growing media for vegetative propagation of olive. In the silt loam soil, plants survival rate was 59 percent for cv. Gemlik, number of roots per plant was 1.5 for cv. Ottobrattica, minimum root length 5.65 cm, minimum number of shoots per plant one, and minimum shoot length 7.42 cm were recorded for cv. Pendolino with silt loam soil. Results suggested that sandy loam growing media is better than the others for vegetative propagation of olive. Cultivar Bari-1 performed better than the others examined in this study by indicating highest (1) survival percentage, (2) root and shoot length, and (3) number of roots and shoots produced within a specific period of time. (author)

  16. From which soil metal fractions Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are taken up by olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis') in organic groves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Papaioannou, A; Gasparatos, D; Molassiotis, A

    2017-12-01

    Organic farming has been proposed as an alternative agricultural system to help solve environmental problems, like the sustainable management of soil micronutrients, without inputs of chemical fertilizers. The purposes of this study were: i) to assess Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu bioavailability through the determination of sequentially extracted chemical forms (fractions) and their correlation with foliar micronutrient concentrations in mature organic olive (cv. 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis') groves; ii) to determine the soil depth and the available forms (fractions) by which the 4 metals are taken up by olive trees. DTPA extractable (from the soil layers 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) and foliar micronutrient concentrations were determined in two organic olive groves. Using the Tessier fractionation, five fractions, for all the metals, were found: exchangeable, bound to carbonates (acid-soluble), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (reducible), organic (oxidizable), as well as residual form. Our results indicated that Fe was taken up by the olive trees as organic complex, mainly from the soil layer 40-60 cm. Manganese was taken up from the exchangeable fraction (0-20 cm); Zinc was taken up as organic complex from the layers 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as in the exchangeable form from the upper 20 cm. Copper was taken up from the soil layers 0-20 and 40-60 cm as soluble organic complex, and as exchangeable ion from the upper 20 cm. Our data reveal the crucial role of organic matter to sustain metal (Fe, Zn and Cu) uptake -as soluble complexes-by olive trees, in mature organic groves grown on calcareous soils; it is also expected that these data will constitute a thorough insight and useful tool towards a successful nutrient and organic C management for organic olive groves, since no serious nutritional deficiencies were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Predominant Phytochemical Compounds and Cytotoxic Activity of Wild Olive Leaves (Olea europaea L. ssp. sylvestris) Harvested in South Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska-Wąs, Justyna; Galanty, Agnieszka; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Tyszka-Czochara, Małgorzata; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Nunes, Ricardo; Carvalho, Isabel S; Michalik, Marta; Paśko, Paweł

    2017-03-01

    This study has been aimed at providing a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of selected phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, oleuropein, fatty acids profile, and volatile oil compounds, present in wild olive leaves harvested in Portugal, as well as at determining their antioxidant and cytotoxic potential against human melanoma HTB-140 and WM793, prostate cancer DU-145 and PC-3, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cell lines, as well as normal human skin fibroblasts BJ and prostate epithelial cells PNT2. Gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic acids, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and rutin were identified in olive leaves. The amount of oleuropein was equal to 22.64 g/kg dry weight. (E)-Anethole (32.35%), fenchone (11.89%), and (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol (8%) were found to be the main constituents of the oil volatile fraction, whereas palmitic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acid were determined to be dominating fatty acids. Olive leaves methanol extract was observed to exerted a significant, selective cytotoxic effect on DU-145 and PC-3 cell lines. Except the essential oil composition, evaluated wild olive leaves, with regard to their quantitative and qualitative composition, do not substantially differ from the leaves of other cultivars grown for industrial purposes and they reveal considerable antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Thus, the wild species may prove to be suitable for use in traditional medicine as cancer chemoprevention. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  19. Pollen-mediated gene flow and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghè, D; Piotti, A; Satovic, Z; de la Rosa, R; Belaj, A

    2017-03-01

    Wild olive ( Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris ) is important from an economic and ecological point of view. The effects of anthropogenic activities may lead to the genetic erosion of its genetic patrimony, which has high value for breeding programmes. In particular, the consequences of the introgression from cultivated stands are strongly dependent on the extent of gene flow and therefore this work aims at quantitatively describing contemporary gene flow patterns in wild olive natural populations. The studied wild population is located in an undisturbed forest, in southern Spain, considered one of the few extant hotspots of true oleaster diversity. A total of 225 potential father trees and seeds issued from five mother trees were genotyped by eight microsatellite markers. Levels of contemporary pollen flow, in terms of both pollen immigration rates and within-population dynamics, were measured through paternity analyses. Moreover, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was studied to assess the relative importance of seed and pollen dispersal in shaping the spatial distribution of genetic variation. The results showed that the population under study is characterized by a high genetic diversity, a relatively high pollen immigration rate (0·57), an average within-population pollen dispersal of about 107 m and weak but significant SGS up to 40 m. The population is a mosaic of several intermingled genetic clusters that is likely to be generated by spatially restricted seed dispersal. Moreover, wild oleasters were found to be self-incompatible and preferential mating between some genotypes was revealed. Knowledge of the within-population genetic structure and gene flow dynamics will lead to identifying possible strategies aimed at limiting the effect of anthropogenic activities and improving breeding programmes for the conservation of olive tree forest genetic resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  20. Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseaux, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico

  1. Sustainability, Innovation, and Green Chemistry in the Production and Valorization of Phenolic Extracts from Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Romani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a circular economy process based on environmentally and economically sustainable procedures which was applied to the sector of olive oil processing on an industrial scale. Olea europaea L. tissues and by-products represent a renewable and low-cost source of polyphenols, in particular hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, a naturally occurring compound well known for its biological properties. Specifically, green leaves (GL, dried leaves (DL, and pitted olive pulp were treated with water in a pneumatic extractor to obtain the corresponding polyphenolic extracts. Three standardized fractions, named Soft Extract Olea GL, Soft Extract Olea DL, and Soft Extract Olea HTyr resulted after the following two steps: a separation process carried out by membrane technology, and a concentration step performed under reduced pressure and low temperature. The polyphenolic fractions showed antiradical activity and have potential industrial applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, feed, and agronomic fields. Novel functionalized extracts containing hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTyr-MC were obtained from Soft Extract Olea HTyr through an innovative approach based on green chemistry procedures, which appear to be a promising tool to increase the applications of the polyphenolic extracts.

  2. Phenological behavior olive (olea europea l in the high ricaurte (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco García Molano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On High Ricaurte, olive growing has resume interest in the last ten years, whereby new crops are appearing in the fields, all this attracted scientific interest, economic, environ mental and cultural interests, on this region as a consequence, this research sought to examine the phenology of the olive tree (Olea europaea L. under the soil and climatic conditions in the High Ricaurte de Boyacá. Alto during a growing season. Phonological data were subjected to descriptive analysis, in this way it was possible to characterize the differentiation of reproductive growth, compared to the conditions of climate and vegetative growth showed no significant differences.

  3. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R. [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Arbonés, A.; Rufat, J. [Programa Ús Eficient de l’Aigua, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de Lleida (PCiTAL). Parc de Gardeny, Edifici Fruitcentre, E-2503 Lleida (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50 kg N ha{sup −1}), and 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2}, but not N{sub 2}O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O. The N{sub 2}O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from − 0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space > 60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH{sub 4} sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO{sub 2} emissions and significantly increased CH{sub 4} oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50 kg N ha{sup −1

  4. A Comprehensive Toxicological Safety Assessment of an Extract of Olea Europaea L. Leaves (Bonolive™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Amy E; Béres, Erzsébet; Vértesi, Adél; Glávits, Róbert; Hirka, Gábor; Endres, John R; Murbach, Timothy S; Szakonyiné, Ilona Pasics

    2016-01-01

    A battery of toxicological studies was conducted to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity of Bonolive™, a proprietary water-soluble extract of the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), in accordance with internationally accepted protocols. There was no evidence of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test and in an vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test nor was any genotoxic activity observed in an in vivo mouse micronucleus test at concentrations up to the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg bw/d. Bonolive™ did not cause mortality or toxic effects in Crl:(WI)BR Wistar rats in a 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study at doses of 360, 600, and 1000 mg/kg bw/d. The no observed adverse effect level in the 90-day study was 1000 mg/kg bw/d for both male and female rats, the highest dose tested. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  6. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

  7. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled substrates for the study of oleuropein biosynthesis in Olea europaea callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrilli, Anna Maria; Maggi, Agnese; Casagrande, Valentina; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    We propose the cell culture approach to investigate oleuropein (1) biogenesis in Olea europaea L. We suggest employing olive callus cultures to identify the iridoidic precursor of oleuropein. In fact, we confirmed that callus cells from olive shoot explants are able to produce key secoiridoid as 1. To enable this approach, we synthesised and characterised deuterium-labelled iridoidic precursors belonging both to the loganin and the 8-epiloganin series. These iridoids are [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-8-epi-loganin (2(D)), [8,10-(2)H2]-8-epi-loganin (4(D)) and [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-loganin (3(D)).

  8. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  9. Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-07-17

    Olea europaea L. leaves are an agricultural waste product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds; especially oleuropein. Oleuropein has been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative activity against a number of cancer types. However, they have not been tested against pancreatic cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer related death in Western countries. Therefore, water, 50% ethanol and 50% methanol extracts of Corregiola and Frantoio variety Olea europaea L. leaves were investigated for their total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and oleuropein content, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity against MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. The extracts only had slight differences in their phytochemical properties, and at 100 and 200 μg/mL, all decreased the viability of the pancreatic cancer cells relative to controls. At 50 μg/mL, the water extract from the Corregiola leaves exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity with the effect possibly due to early eluting HPLC peaks. For this reason, olive leaf extracts warrant further investigation into their potential anti-pancreatic cancer benefits.

  10. Chemical Composition and Water Permeability of Fruit and Leaf Cuticles of Olea europaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Burghardt, Markus; Schuster, Ann-Christin; Leide, Jana; Lara, Isabel; Riederer, Markus

    2017-10-11

    The plant cuticle, protecting against uncontrolled water loss, covers olive (Olea europaea) fruits and leaves. The present study describes the organ-specific chemical composition of the cuticular waxes and the cutin and compares three developmental stages of fruits (green, turning, and black) with the leaf surface. Numerous organ-specific differences, such as the total coverage of cutin monomeric components (1034.4 μg cm -2 and 630.5 μg cm -2 ) and the cuticular waxes (201.6 μg cm -2 and 320.4 μg cm -2 ) among all three fruit stages and leaves, respectively, were detected. Water permeability as the main cuticular function was 5-fold lower in adaxial leaf cuticles (2.1 × 10 -5 m s -1 ) in comparison to all three fruit stages (9.5 × 10 -5 m s -1 ). The three fruit developmental stages have the same cuticular water permeability. It is hypothesized that a higher weighted average chain length of the acyclic cuticular components leads to a considerably lower permeability of the leaf as compared to the fruit cuticle.

  11. Assessment of Olea europaea L. fruit extracts: Phytochemical characterization and anticancer pathway investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Amina; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Hadrich, Fatma; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-06-01

    Olea europaea L. has been widely used as an advantageous rich source of bioactive compounds of high economic value leading to its use in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and agriculture industries. Ethanolic extracts of olive fruits from three different cultivars (OFE) were studied for their phytochemical contents and were investigated for antioxidant activities and anticancer potential. Major polyphenols detected in these extracts were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin and glucoside forms of luteolin and apigenin. All these compounds have shown to significantly contribute to the antioxidant activity of OFE, which was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. Proliferation of hepatic and colon cancer cells, HepG2 and Caco-2, were shown to be sensitive to OFE with IC 50 less than 1.6mg/ml for all tested extracts. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed that OFE induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase within both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. This has triggered a cell death mechanism as shown by DNA fragmentation, expression of p53 and phosphorylation level of Akt and Erk proteins. Interestingly, these extracts could be further used as a potential source of natural compounds with both antioxidant and anticancer effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of Olea europaea leaves against Diclofenac-induced liver damages in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussi, Rawya; Hfaiedh, Najla; Guesmi, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2018-04-20

    Historically, olive tree "Olea europaea" is one of the most important fruit trees in Mediterranean countries. Several studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds compared to olive oil and fruits. This study was undertaken to investigate, the protective effect of the aqueous extract of « Chemlali » olive leaves against diclofenac-induced damages in liver and haematological alterations in swiss albinos mice. For this, twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a diclofenac-treated group (2.37 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, a group orally gavaged with aqueous extract of olive leaves, (3.3g/kg) during 28 days, and a group pre-treated with aqueous extract of olive leaves during 23 days then injected with diclofenac for 5 days. Results obtained from this study revealed that administration of diclofenac alone led to disturbance of some haematological parameters including red and white blood cells (RBC), (WBC) haemoglobin (Hb) and platelets content (PLT). However, diclofenac-treated mice group showed a increasing in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, creatinine, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Additionally we noted a state of oxidative stress in hepatic tissue indicated by the increasing of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interstingly, pre-treatment with olive leaves extract improved the haematological parameters and minimised the adverse effect on the hepatic function markers induced by diclofenac. The beneficial effect of olive leaves could be attributed to its antioxidant components as confirmed by phytochemical analysis.

  13. Mannitol transport and mannitol dehydrogenase activities are coordinated in Olea europaea under salt and osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Artur; Silva, Paulo; Agasse, Alice; Conde, Carlos; Gerós, Hernâni

    2011-10-01

    The intracellular accumulation of organic compatible solutes functioning as osmoprotectants, such as polyols, is an important response mechanism of several plants to drought and salinity. In Olea europaea a mannitol transport system (OeMaT1) was previously characterized as a key player in plant response to salinity. In the present study, heterotrophic sink models, such as olive cell suspensions and fruit tissues, and source leaves were used for analytical, biochemical and molecular studies. The kinetic parameters of mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) determined in cells growing in mannitol, at 25°C and pH 9.0, were as follows: K(m), 54.5 mM mannitol; and V(max), 0.47 μmol h⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein. The corresponding cDNA was cloned and named OeMTD1. OeMTD1 expression was correlated with MTD activity, OeMaT1 expression and carrier-mediated mannitol transport in mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. Furthermore, sucrose-grown cells displayed only residual OeMTD activity, even though high levels of OeMTD1 transcription were observed. There is evidence that OeMTD is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MTD activity and OeMTD1 expression were repressed after Na+, K+ and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments, in both mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. In contrast, salt and drought significantly increased mannitol transport activity and OeMaT1 expression. Taken together, these studies support that olive trees cope with salinity and drought by coordinating mannitol transport with intracellular metabolism.

  14. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  15. Human Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Respond to Antigen-Presenting Cells Exposed to Lipids from Olea europaea Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abos Gracia, Beatriz; López Relaño, Juan; Revilla, Ana; Castro, Lourdes; Villalba, Mayte; Martín Adrados, Beatriz; Regueiro, Jose Ramon; Fernández-Malavé, Edgar; Martínez Naves, Eduardo; Gómez Del Moral, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Allergic sensitization might be influenced by the lipids present in allergens, which can be recognized by natural killer T (NKT) cells on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of olive pollen lipids in human APCs, including monocytes as well as monocyte-derived macrophages (Mϕ) and dendritic cells (DCs). Lipids were extracted from olive (Olea europaea) pollen grains. Invariant (i)NKT cells, monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs were obtained from buffy coats of healthy blood donors, and their cell phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. iNKT cytotoxicity was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. Gene expression of CD1A and CD1D was performed by RT-PCR, and the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α cytokines by monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that monocytes and monocyte-derived Mϕ treated with olive pollen lipids strongly activate iNKT cells. We observed several phenotypic modifications in the APCs upon exposure to pollen-derived lipids. Both Mϕ and monocytes treated with olive pollen lipids showed an increase in CD1D gene expression, whereas upregulation of cell surface CD1d protein occurred only in Mϕ. Furthermore, DCs differentiated in the presence of human serum enhance their surface CD1d expression when exposed to olive pollen lipids. Finally, olive pollen lipids were able to stimulate the production of IL-6 but downregulated the production of lipopolysaccharide- induced IL-10 by Mϕ. Olive pollen lipids alter the phenotype of monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs, resulting in the activation of NKT cells, which have the potential to influence allergic immune responses. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Olea europaea L. to Identify Genes Involved in the Development of the Pollen Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, Domenico; Chiappetta, Adriana; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.), the processes controlling self-incompatibility are still unclear and the molecular basis underlying this process are still not fully characterized. In order to determine compatibility relationships, using next-generation sequencing techniques and a de novo transcriptome assembly strategy, we show that pollen tubes from different olive plants, grown in vitro in a medium containing its own pistil and in combination pollen/pistil from self-sterile and self-fertile cultivars, have a distinct gene expression profile and many of the differentially expressed sequences between the samples fall within gene families involved in the development of the pollen tube, such as lipase, carboxylesterase, pectinesterase, pectin methylesterase, and callose synthase. Moreover, different genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, and growth are overrepresented. The analysis also allowed us to identify members in actin and actin depolymerization factor and fibrin gene family and member of the Ca(2+) binding gene family related to the development and polarization of pollen apical tip. The whole transcriptomic analysis, through the identification of the differentially expressed transcripts set and an extended functional annotation analysis, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the olive.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  20. Experimental measurement of the biomass of Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The C stock evaluation methodology made in this research and the calculation of biomass expansion factor can be considered as the first scientific contribution in estimating productivity, CO2 sequestration, carbon stocks and yield of olive groves. Key words: Biomass, biomass expansion factor, Intergovernmental Panel on ...

  1. Investigation on the anti- inflammatory and analgesic effects of Olea europaea L. metanolic extract on male NMRI mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Tekye

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different mediators are involved in pain and edema induction during different stages of inflammation. Then, treatment of them encounters some difficulties. Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce anti-inflammatory effects. This study was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Olea europaea L.methanolic extract on male NMRI mouse. Methods: Methanolic extraction was done for leaf of Olea europaea L. and different doses (200, 300 and 400 mg/kg were intraperitoneally (i.p. adminstered to male NMRI mice. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of extract was measured during both phases of Formalin test, Acetic acid induced visceral pain and xylene inflammation tests. A standard analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug such as indomethacin, dexamethasone and morphine were administered in positive control groups where appropriates. Results: Results indicated significant dose-dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of Olea europaea L. leaf on pain which induced by formalin (both phase and acetic acid, and inflammation caused by xylene. Conclusion: Our findings Showed that administration of methanolic extract of Olea europaea L.leaf can suppress pain and inflammation dose dependently which, may mediate via different components of extract. However, more investigations need to be done.

  2. Parasitoids associated with the black scale Saissetia oleae(Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae in olive trees in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae is an important pest of olive trees (Olea europaea L. that requires the use insecticides for its control. Parasitoids are important regulating agents of this pest, but currently, no information on its complex of natural enemies and their impact on black scale in Brazilian conditions exists. This study focused on identifying parasitoid wasps that were associated with the black scale on olive trees to establish their relative abundance and rate of parasitism. Samplings were maintained in an olive orchard located in Maria da Fe, south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and infested branches were stored in emergence containers to recover parasitoids. Another group was kept in Flanders batteries to evaluate the rate of parasitism in approximately 100 scales. Sixteen parasitoid species were collected during the sampling period, and the most common species were Coccophagus caridei (Brèthes (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, and Mesopeltita truncatipennis (Waterston (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, the latter of which was most abundant and frequent. Parasitism ranged from 3 to 31% with peaks in summer and autumn. This level could be considered insufficient to hold the black scale under the economic injury level; however, these parasitoids should be preserved for contributions to population regulation.

  3. Olea europaea leaf extract and bevacizumab synergistically exhibit beneficial efficacy upon human glioblastoma cancer stem cells through reducing angiogenesis and invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Demirci, Hilal; Kocaeli, Hasan; Aksoy, Secil Ak; Egeli, Unal; Cecener, Gulsah; Tolunay, Sahsine

    2017-06-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) that are cancer stem-cell-positive (GSC [+]) essentially cannot benefit from anti-angiogenic or anti-invasive therapy. In the present study, the potential anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive effects of Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract (OLE) were tested using GSC (+) tumours. OLE (2mg/mL) caused a significant reduction in tumour weight, vascularisation, invasiveness and migration (p=0.0001, p<0.001, p=0.004; respectively) that was associated with reducing the expression of VEGFA, MMP-2 and MMP-9. This effect was synergistically increased in combination with bevacizumab. Therefore, our current findings may contribute to research on drugs that inhibit the invasiveness of GBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

  5. Cold perception and gene expression differ in Olea europaea seed coat and embryo during drupe cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Matteucci, M; Altamura, M M

    2013-01-01

    FAD2 and FAD7 desaturases are involved in cold acclimation of olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp. There is no research information available on cold acclimation of seeds during mesocarp cold acclimation or on differences in the cold response of the seed coat and embryo. How FAD2 and FAD7 affect seed coat and embryo cold responses is unknown. Osmotin positively affects cold acclimation in olive tree vegetative organs, but its role in the seeds requires investigation. OeFAD2.1, OeFAD2.2, OeFAD7 and Oeosmotin were investigated before and after mesocarp acclimation by transcriptomic, lipidomic and immunolabelling analyses, and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) signalling, F-actin changes and seed development were investigated by epifluorescence/histological analyses. Transient [Ca(2+)](cyt) rises and F-actin disassembly were found in cold-shocked protoplasts from the seed coat, but not from the embryo. The thickness of the outer endosperm cuticle increased during drupe exposure to lowering of temperature, whereas the embryo protoderm always lacked cuticle. OeFAD2 transcription increased in both the embryo and seed coat in the cold-acclimated drupe, but linoleic acid (i.e. the product of FAD2 activity) increased solely in the seed coat. Osmotin was immunodetected in the seed coat and endosperm of the cold-acclimated drupe, and not in the embryo. The results show cold responsiveness in the seed coat and cold tolerance in the embryo. We propose a role for the seed coat in maintaining embryo cold tolerance by increasing endosperm cutinization through FAD2 and osmotin activities. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20 mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early performance of Olea europaea cv. Arbequina, Picual and Frantoio in the southern Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivars Arbequina, Picual and Frantoio of Olea europaea are cultivated in severalMediterranean countries. In 1999, these cultivars were planted at three locations in the region of Coquimbo,an arid, Mediterranean-like area in Chile. A generalized linear modeling approach was used in view of thenon-normal distribution of the agronomic data sets. Fruit yield (harvests of 2002-2003, precocity (2002 andtree survival (after four growing seasons differed significantly between the cultivars. Arbequina and Picualhad a positive effect on the yield. Picual was the earliest cultivar at two sites. The survival rate of Frantoio washigh at the three sites (90-100%, as opposed to Picual (56-83%. The approach of Generalized Linear Modelswas particularly useful where the assumption of normality was not satisfied. The selection of cultivars ispromising in this arid region of Chile, while the success will depend on the selection of well-adapted genotypesto a particular location.

  8. RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS based metabolic profiling of the potential Olea europaea by-product "wood" and its comparison with leaf counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sonda; Contreras, Maria Del Mar; Gargouri, Boutheina; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Olea europaea L. organs such as leaves, stems and roots have been associated with numerous in vivo and in vitro biological activities and used for traditional medicinal purposes. However, tree wood is an untapped resource with little information about their chemical composition. That is why, the objective of this study is to increase the knowledge about phytochemicals from 'Chemlali' olive wood by means of mass spectrometry-based analyses. Its comparison with by-products derived from leaves was also studied. Hydromethanol extracts from wood and leaves with stems of 'Chemlali' olive cultivar were analysed using reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to two detection systems: diode-array detection (DAD) and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) in negative ion mode. Tandem MS experiments were performed to establish the chemical structure of olive phytochemicals. A total of 85 compounds were characterised in the studied olive parts and classified as: sugars (3), organic acids (5), one phenolic aldehyde, simple phenolic acids (6), simple phenylethanoids (5), flavonoids (14), coumarins (3), caffeoyl phenylethanoid derivatives (6), iridoids (5), secoiridoids (32), and lignans (5). To our knowledge, the major part of these metabolites was not previously reported in olive tree wood, and 10 olive chemical constituents were identified for the first time in the Oleaceae family. The results presented here demonstrated the usefulness of the methodology proposed, based on RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS and MS/MS, to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling and to recover new biologically active compounds in olive wood with pharmacologic and cosmetic potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Nazar, Mudassar; Naz, Sania; Hussain, Talib; Jabeen, Nyla; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Abbas, Fazal; Jan, Tariq

    This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO 2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO 2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm -1 , showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO 2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  10. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets via Olea europaea leaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  11. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. "Galega Vulgar"-Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Lousa, Diana; M Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Peixe, Augusto; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; G Cardoso, Hélia

    2018-02-17

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars.

  12. Pentacyclic triterpene in Olea europaea L: A simultaneous determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Juan, M Emília; Calvo-Melià, Sara; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria; Planas, Joana M

    2015-09-04

    Pentacyclic triterpenes are gaining interest due to their beneficial health effects, as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumoral, among others. In this study, an analytical LC-MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids along with erythrodiol and uvaol, which are the main triterpenic compounds present in the fruits and leaves of Olea europaea L. A Zorbax Eclipse PAH column at 30°C with mobile phase of water (17%) and methanol (83%) at 0.8mL/min conformed the optimal chromatographic conditions that allowed the separation of the compounds of interest, two pairs of which are isomers differing only in the position of one methyl group (oleanolic-ursolic and erythrodiol-uvaol). The ionization was performed in an APCI source at 450°C programmed in negative mode for the triterpenic acids, and in positive for the alcohols. An ion trap (LC-IT-MS) and a triple quadrupole (LC-QqQ-MS) were assessed for maximal sensitivity that was achieved with LC-QqQ-MS. The LODs of triterpenic acids were lower than 1nM, whereas for erythrodiol and uvaol were 4.5 and 7.5nM, respectively. The method was linear for the five analytes in the range of concentrations from 0.005 to 15μM with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. The precision and accuracy were ≤9.90% and ≤9.57%, respectively. The applicability of the validated method was assessed in the analysis of the pentacyclic triterpenes in Marfil table olives, after the optimization of the extraction procedure. The developed method constitutes the first step for future studies of triterpenic compounds present in foods that would allow establishing their effects on human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Olea europaea L. in the North Mediterranean Basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Yolanda; Ntinou, Maria; Badal, Ernestina

    2010-04-01

    The paper aims to define the natural distribution of Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Miller) Lehr. in the North Mediterranean basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene by means of the identification of its wood-charcoal and/or wood at prehistoric sites. For this purpose we have reviewed the previously available information and we have combined it with new wood-charcoal analyses data. We have taken under consideration the presence and frequency of O. europaea L. in the available wood-charcoal sequences, the characteristics of the accompanying flora, the associated chrono-cultural contexts, the broader biogeographical context and the AMS dates provided by Olea wood-charcoal or endocarps. According to the available evidence, during the Middle and Late Pleniglacial (ca 59-11.5 ka cal. BP), Olea would have persisted in thermophilous refugia located in the southern areas of the North Mediterranean basin, the southern Levant and the north of Africa. The Last Glacial Maximum (ca 22-18 ka cal. BP) probably reduced the distribution area of Olea. During the Preboreal and the Boreal (ca 11 500-8800 cal. BP) the species started to expand in the thermomediterranean bioclimatic level. In the western Mediterranean, during the Atlantic period (ca 8800-5600 cal. BP), the species became very abundant or dominant in the thermophilous plant formations and expanded to favorable enclaves outside the limits of the thermomediterranean level.

  14. Involvement of alternative oxidase (AOX) in adventitious rooting of Olea europaea L. microshoots is linked to adaptive phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Macedo, E; Sircar, D; Cardoso, H G; Peixe, A; Arnholdt-Schmitt, B

    2012-09-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed as a functional marker candidate in a number of events involving cell differentiation, including rooting efficiency in semi-hardwood shoot cuttings of olive (Olea europaea L.). To ascertain the general importance of AOX in olive rooting, the auxin-induced rooting process was studied in an in vitro system for microshoot propagation. Inhibition of AOX by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) significantly reduced rooting efficiency. However, the inhibitor failed to exhibit any effect on the preceding calli stage. This makes the system appropriate for distinguishing dedifferentiation and de novo differentiation during root induction. Metabolite analyses of microshoots showed that total phenolics, total flavonoids and lignin contents were significantly reduced upon SHAM treatment. It was concluded that the influence of alternative respiration on root formation was associated to adaptive phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism. Transcript profiles of two olive AOX genes (OeAOX1a and OeAOX2) were examined during the process of auxin-induced root induction. Both genes displayed stable transcript accumulation in semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis during all experimental stages. In contrary, when the reverse primer for OeAOX2 was designed from the 3'-UTR instead of the ORF, differential transcript accumulation was observed suggesting posttranscriptional regulation of OeAOX2 during metabolic acclimation. This result confirms former observations in olive semi-hardwood shoot cuttings on differential OeAOX2 expression during root induction. It further points to the importance of future studies on the functional role of sequence and length polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR of this gene. The manuscript reports the general importance of AOX in olive adventitious rooting and the association of alternative respiration to adaptive phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism.

  15. Antimicrobial potential of green synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles from Olea europaea leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqbool Q

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qaisar Maqbool,1 Mudassar Nazar,1 Sania Naz,2 Talib Hussain,3 Nyla Jabeen,4 Rizwan Kausar,5 Sadaf Anwaar,4 Fazal Abbas,6,7 Tariq Jan6 1Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology (NINVAST, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Lab., International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 5Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 6Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 7Interdisciplinary Research Organization, University of Chakwal (UOC, Chakwal, Pakistan Abstract: This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm-1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over

  16. A sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination in plasma of pentacyclic triterpenes of Olea europaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Juan, M Emília; Calvo-Melià, Sara; Planas, Joana M

    2017-08-15

    Table olives are especially rich in pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, which exert several biological activities. A crucial step in order to know if these compounds could contribute to the beneficial and healthy properties of this food is their measurement in blood. Therefore, the present study describes a simple and accurate liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-QqQ-MS analysis for the simultaneous determination of the main pentacyclic triterpenes from Olea europaea L. in rat plasma. The method was validated by the analysis of blank plasma samples spiked with pure compounds, obtaining a linear correlation, adequate sensitivity with a limit of quantification ranging from 1nM for maslinic acid to 10nM for uvaol. Precision and accuracy were lower than 10% in all cases and recoveries were between 95 and 104%. The oral administration of olives to rats and its determination in plasma verified that the established methodology is appropriate for bioavailability studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  18. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De-Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey tolerance and sensitivity remain largely unknown. To investigate this issue, potted olive plants of Leccino (salt-sensitive) and Frantoio (salt-tolerant) cultivars were grown in a phytotron chamber and treated with 0, 60 and 120mM NaCl. After forty days of treatment, growth analysis was performed and the concentration of sodium in root, stem and leaves was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Phenolic compounds were extracted using methanol, hydrolyzed with butanol-HCl, and quercetin and kaempferol quantified via high performance liquid-chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and HPLC-q-Time of Flight-MS analyses. In addition, the transcripts levels of five key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. The results of this study corroborate the previous observations, which showed that Frantoio and Leccino differ in allocating sodium in root and leaves. This study also revealed that phenolic compounds remain stable or are strongly depleted under long-time treatment with sodium in Leccino, despite a strong up-regulation of key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway was observed. Frantoio instead, showed a less intense up-regulation of the phenylpropanoid genes but overall higher content of phenolic compounds. These data suggest that Frantoio copes with the toxicity imposed by elevated sodium not only with mechanisms of Na + exclusion, but also promptly allocating effective and adequate antioxidant compounds to more sensitive organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae transcriptome and phylogenetic classification of the major detoxification gene families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Chrisargiris, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved.

  20. Vulnerability to cavitation in Olea europaea current-year shoots: further evidence of an open-vessel artifact associated with centrifuge and air-injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ruiz, José M; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Beikircher, Barbara; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Badel, Eric; Fernández, José Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Different methods have been devised to analyze vulnerability to cavitation of plants. Although a good agreement between them is usually found, some discrepancies have been reported when measuring samples from long-vesseled species. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible artifacts derived from different methods and sample sizes. Current-year shoot segments of mature olive trees (Olea europaea), a long-vesseled species, were used to generate vulnerability curves (VCs) by bench dehydration, pressure collar and both static- and flow-centrifuge methods. For the latter, two different rotors were used to test possible effects of the rotor design on the curves. Indeed, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images were used to evaluate the functional status of xylem at different water potentials. Measurements of native embolism were used to validate the methods used. The pressure collar and the two centrifugal methods showed greater vulnerability to cavitation than the dehydration method. The shift in vulnerability thresholds in centrifuge methods was more pronounced in shorter samples, supporting the open-vessel artifact hypothesis as a higher proportion of vessels were open in short samples. The two different rotor designs used for the flow-centrifuge method revealed similar vulnerability to cavitation. Only the bench dehydration or HRCT methods produced VCs that agreed with native levels of embolism and water potential values measured in the field. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-12-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  2. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  3. On the use of leaf spectral indices to assess water status and photosynthetic limitations in Olea europaea L. during water-stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress.

  4. Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...

  5. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  6. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Giandomenico

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction.

  7. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. “Galega Vulgar”—Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousa, Diana; M. Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar ”Galega vulgar”. The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars. PMID:29462998

  8. Evaluation of the effects of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green (Oleaceae) leaf methanol extract against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabeoku, George J; Bamuamba, Kapinga

    2010-03-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green is widely used in South Africa by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, little is known scientifically about this South African species in the treatment of diarrhoea. The main aim of the study therefore was to investigate the antidiarrhoeal effect of the leaf methanol extract of the plant species in mice. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana was studied using a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test. The antipropulsive activity of the plant extract was also investigated using the charcoal meal transit test. Standard methods were used to investigate the acute toxicity and effect of O. europaea subsp. africana on castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation. Leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil, significantly decreased the stool mass, significantly delayed the onset of the diarrhoea and protected the animals against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation in mice. The LD50 value was found to be 3475 mg/kg (p.o.). The results obtained suggest that the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana has an antidiarrhoeal property and that, given orally, it may be non-toxic and/or safe in mice.

  9. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavragani-Tsipidou, P

    2002-09-01

    The genetic and cytogenetic characteristics of one of the major agricultural pests, the olive fruit fly Bactmcera oleae, are presented here. The mitotic metaphase complement of this insect consists of six pairs of chromosomes including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the polytene complements of three larval tissues, the fat body, the salivary glands and the Malpighian tubules of this pest has shown (a) a total number of five long chromosomes (10 polytene arms) that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic nuclei and a heterochromatic mass corresponding to the sex chromosomes, (b) the constancy of the banding pattern of the three somatic tissues, (c) the absence of a typical chromocenter as an accumulation of heterochromatin, (d) the existence of reverse tandem duplications, and (e) the presence of toroid tips of the chromosome arms. The in situ hybridization of genes or DNA sequences to the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of B. oleae provided molecular markers for all five autosomes and permitted the establishment of chromosomal homologies among B. olea, B. tryoni and Ceratitis capitata. The heat shock response of B. oleae, as revealed by heat-inducible puffing and protein pattern, shows a higher thermotolerance than Drosophila melanogaster.

  10. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  12. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  13. The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males. (author)

  14. Dispersal of normal and irradiated laboratory strains and wild strains of the olive fly Dacus oleae in an olive grove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, B.S.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the dispersal rates of normal and γ-irradiated laboratory-reared as well as wild Dacus oleae (Gmelin) were carried out in an olive grove using protein-baited McPhail traps. No differences were found in the dispersal rates of normal and irradiated laboratory-cultured flies or between males and females. The mean distance travelled by the surviving flies up to 2 weeks after release was 180-190 m, and by that time only ca. 13% of the flies remained alive in the grove. No laboratory-reared flies were trapped outside the olive grove. The limited amount of data obtained with wild flies suggested that they may disperse over greater distances than laboratory-reared flies

  15. Short communication: Promotion of glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion in dairy calves with a bioactive extract from Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S Y; Pastor, J J; Quintela, J C; Holst, J J; Hartmann, B; Drackley, J K; Ipharraguerre, I R

    2017-03-01

    Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation during the neonatal phase is the nutrient-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and associated effects on mucosal cell proliferation, barrier function, and inflammatory response. Bioactive molecules found in Olea europaea have been shown to induce the release of regulatory peptides from model enteroendocrine cells. The ability to enhance GLP-2 secretion via the feeding of putative GLP-2 secretagogues is untested in newborn calves. The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding a bioactive extract from Olea europaea (OBE) mixed in the milk replacer (1) can stimulate GLP-2 secretion beyond the response elicited by enteral nutrients and, thereby, (2) improve intestinal permeability and animal growth as well as (3) reduce the incidence of diarrhea in preweaning dairy calves. Holstein heifer calves (n = 60) were purchased, transported to the research facility, and blocked by body weight and total serum protein and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Treatments were control (CON), standard milk replacer (MR) and ad libitum starter; CON plus OBE added into MR at 30 mg/kg of body weight (OBE30); and CON plus OBE added into MR at 60 mg/kg of body weight (OBE60). The concentration of GLP-2 was measured at the end of wk 2. Intestinal permeability was measured at the onset of the study and the end of wk 2 and 6, with lactulose and d-mannitol as markers. Treatments did not affect calf growth and starter intake. Compared with CON, administration of OBE60 increased the nutrient-induced response in GLP-2 by about 1 fold and reduced MR intake during the second week of study. Throughout the study, however, all calves had compromised intestinal permeability and a high

  16. The role of temperature in the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C.; García-Mozo, H.; Cariñanos, P.; Alcázar, P.; Domínguez-Vilches, E.

    Temperature is one of the main factors affecting the flowering of Mediterranean trees. In the case of Olea europaea L., a low-temperature period prior to bud development is essential to interrupt dormancy. After that, and once a base temperature is reached, the plant accumulates heat until flowering starts. Different methods of obtaining the best-forecast model for the onset date of the O. europaea pollen season, using temperature as the predictive parameter, are proposed in this paper. An 18-year pollen and climatic data series (1982-1999) from Cordoba (Spain) was used to perform the study. First a multiple-regression analysis using 15-day average temperatures from the period prior to flowering time was tested. Second, three heat-summation methods were used, determining the the quantities heat units (HU): accumulated daily mean temperature after deducting a threshold, growing degree-days (GDD): proposed by Snyder [J Agric Meteorol 35:353-358 (1985)] as a measure of physiological time, and accumulated maximum temperature. In the first two, the optimum base temperature selected for heat accumulation was 12.5°C. The multiple-regression equation for 1999 gives a 7-day delay from the observed date. The most accurate results were obtained with the GDD method, with a difference of only 4.7 days between predicted and observed dates. The average heat accumulation expressed as GDD was 209.9°C days. The HU method also gives good results, with no significant statistical differences between predictions and observations.

  17. Essais de prolifération et d'enracinement de matériel issu de rajeunissement par bouturage d'oliviers adultes (Olea europaea L. et de germination in vitro : effets de cytokinine et d'auxines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walali Loudiyi D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation and rooting of juvenile and adult olive explants (Olea europaea L.: effects of cytokinin and auxins. The micropropagation trials conducted concerned juvenile and adult material from the ‘Moroccan Picholine’ olive cultivar. Zeatin, added to the proliferation medium, was tested at 0, 1, 5, 10 et 20 mg/l. Root induction was performed on media contaning IAA, IBA or NAA tested at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 et 4 mg/l. A significant (P<0.001 interaction exists between the explant type and the cytokinine concentration on one hand and the type and concentration of auxin on the other hand. The highest bud sprouting and shoot development were obtained on medium supplemented with 5 mg/l zeatin. For economical reasons, satisfying results can be obtained with only 1 mg/l. Rooting of microcuttings reached 100% when NAA, which proved to be the best auxin for root induction, was used at 1 mg/l. No rooting was observed in the case of adult plant material. Further investigations are being undertaken to improve the reactivity of this recalcitrant type of material.

  18. Characteristics, Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Extracts from Tunisian Chetoui Olea europaea Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Khlif; Karim Jellali; Thomas Michel; Maria Halabalaki; Alexios Leandros Skaltsounis; Noureddine Allouche

    2015-01-01

    This study selected 10 extracts from Tunisian chetoui O. europaea variety for their total phenolics, flavonoids, and phytochemical analyses as well as for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities determination. The in vitro antioxidant property was investigated using DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP), oxygen reducing antioxidant capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays while antimicrobial activity was evaluated using macrodilutions method. For all o...

  19. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two native Algerian mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices) were tested for their effect on the growth of micropropagated olive tree (Olea europaea L.). The effect of inoculation of plantlets with G. mosseae was also compared with chemical fertilization using osmocote. Specific molecular techniques ...

  1. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  2. Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Budak, Ferah; Sahin, Saliha; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Taskapılıoglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kocaeli, Hasan; Tolunay, Sahsine; Malyer, Hulusi; Demir, Cevdet; Tumen, Gulendam

    2014-01-01

    The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM.

  3. Bioactivity Improvement of Olea europaea Leaf Extract Biotransformed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Rosa; Restuccia, Cristina; Monteleone, Julieta Ines; Sperlinga, Elisa; Siracusa, Laura; Serafini, Mauro; Finamore, Alberto; Spagna, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of agroindustry. They are rich in phenols, mainly oleuropein, which can be hydrolyzed into several bioactive compounds, including hydroxytyrosol. In this study, water extract from olive leaves 'Biancolilla' was analyzed for polyphenol profile, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and protective effect on differentiated Caco-2 cells. The efficacy of two enzymatic treatments in promoting the release of bioactive phenols was investigated: a) enzymatic extract from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, characterized by β-glucosidase and esterase activities; b) commercial β-glucosidase. Composition and bioactivity of the resulting extracts were compared. The results showed that the yeast-treated extract presented hydroxytyrosol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity comparable to those obtained using commercial β-glucosidase; however, it was showed the additional presence of hydroxycinnamic acids. In experiments on Caco-2 cells, the leaf extracts promoted the recovery of cell membrane barrier at different minimum effective concentrations. The high specificity of W. anomalus enzymatic extract may represent an effective tool for the release of bioactive phenols from olive by-products.

  4. The Representativeness of Olea Pollen from Olive Groves and the Late Holocene Landscape Reconstruction in Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Florenzano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern pollen spectra are an invaluable reference tool for paleoenvironmental and cultural landscape reconstructions, but the importance of knowing the pollen rain released from orchards remains underexplored. In particular, the role of cultivated trees is in past and current agrarian landscapes has not been fully investigated. Here, we present a pollen analysis of 70 surface soil samples taken from 12 olive groves in Basilicata and Tuscany, two regions of Italy that exemplify this cultivation in the Mediterranean basin. This study was carried out to assess the representativeness of Olea pollen in modern cultivations. Although many variables can influence the amount of pollen observed in soils, it was clear that most of the pollen was deposited below the trees in the olive groves. A rapid decline in the olive pollen percentages (c. 85% on average was found when comparing samples taken from IN vs. OUT of each grove. The mean percentages of Olea pollen obtained from the archeological sites close to the studied orchards suggest that olive groves were established far from the Roman farmhouses of Tuscany. Further south, in the core of the Mediterranean basin, the cultivation of Olea trees was likely situated ~500–1,000 m from the rural sites in Basilicata, and dated from the Hellenistic to the Medieval period.

  5. The representativeness of Olea pollen from olive groves and the late Holocene landscape reconstruction in central Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenzano, Assunta; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Rinaldi, Rossella; Rattighieri, Eleonora; Fornaciari, Rita; Messora, Rita; Arru, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Modern pollen spectra are an invaluable reference tool for paleoenvironmental and cultural landscape reconstructions, but the importance of knowing the pollen rain released from orchards remains underexplored. In particular, the role of cultivated trees is in past and current agrarian landscapes has not been fully investigated. Here, we present a pollen analysis of 70 surface soil samples taken from 12 olive groves in Basilicata and Tuscany, two regions of Italy that exemplify this cultivation in the Mediterranean basin. This study was carried out to assess the representativeness of Olea pollen in modern cultivations. Although many variables can influence the amount of pollen observed in soils, it was clear that most of the pollen was deposited below the trees in the olive groves. A rapid decline in the olive pollen percentages (c. 85% on average) was found when comparing samples taken from IN vs. OUT of each grove. The mean percentages of Olea pollen obtained from the archaeological sites close to the studied orchards suggest that olive groves were established far from the Roman farmhouses of Tuscany. Further south, in the core of the Mediterranean basin, the cultivation of Olea trees was likely situated approximately 500–1000 m from the rural sites in Basilicata, and dated from the Hellenistic to the Medieval period.

  6. Detection of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera in the dry Afromontane forest of northern Ethiopia using subpixel analysis of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishe, Hadgu; Giday, Kidane; Neka, Mulugeta; Soromessa, Teshome; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and less costly forest inventory approaches are required to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of key species in forest ecosystems. Subpixel analysis using the earth resources data analysis system imagine subpixel classification procedure was tested to extract Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera canopies from Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus imagery. Control points with various canopy area fractions of the target species were collected to develop signatures for each of the species. With these signatures, the imagine subpixel classification procedure was run for each species independently. The subpixel process enabled the detection of O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and J. procera trees in pure and mixed pixels. Total of 100 pixels each were field verified for both species. An overall accuracy of 85% was achieved for O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and 89% for J. procera. A high overall accuracy level of detecting species at a natural forest was achieved, which encourages using the algorithm for future species monitoring activities. We recommend that the algorithm has to be validated in similar environment to enrich the knowledge on its capability to ensure its wider usage.

  7. Leaf hairs of Olea europaea protect underlying tissues against ultraviolet-B radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, G.; Kyparissis, A.; Manetas, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence induction, was not affected in de-haired olive leaves kept in the dark or intact leaves irradiated with a moderate (3.75 W m-2) ultraviolet-B (UV-B) intensity. In de-haired, UV-B-irradiated leaves, however, the ratio of variable to maximum (F(v)/F(m)) chlorophyll fluorescence declined significantly and irreversibly. Reduction in F(v)/V(m) was associated with an increase in instantaneous and a decrease in maximum (F(m)) fluorescence, indicating perturbation by the UV-B exposure of more than one photosynthetic site. Extensive epidermal browning in de-haired, UV-B irradiated leaves was also observed, indicating possible damage to cell membranes. The results strengthen the hypothesis that leaf hairs protect the underlying tissues against UV-B radiation damage

  8. Enzymatic tailoring of oleuropein from Olea europaea leaves and product identification by HRMS/MS spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-07-10

    Oleuropein, a bioactive compound found in all parts of olive tree, especially in leaves and branches, presents numerous health promoting properties that increase research and market interest the last few years. In addition, oleuropein degradation products, such as hydroxytyrosol, elenolic acid, and the aglycones also exhibit biological activities with different properties compared to the starting compound. Under this view, a commercial lipase preparation Lipolase 100L and a thermophilic β-glucosidase from Myceliophthora thermophila were used for the regioselective hydrolysis of oleuropein towards the production of the corresponding biologically active compounds. The enzymatic degradation products of oleuropein, such as hydroxytyrosol, elenolic acid and its glucoside, and oleuropein aglycones were identified by LC-HRMS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The latter, was found as a mix of diastereomers of the monoaldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone, identified as (5S, 8R, 9S)-, (5S, 8S, 9S)- and (5S, 8R, 9R). The high substrate specificity exhibited by both lipase and β-glucosidase allows the successful tailoring of oleuropein towards the production of different biologically active compounds with significant potential in the cosmeceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental impact from mountainous olive orchards under different soil-management systems (SE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francia-Martinez, J.R.; Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Martinez-Raya, A.

    2006-01-01

    Soil erosion, runoff and nutrient-loss patterns over a two-year period (1999¿2000) were monitored in erosion plots on a mountainside with olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) trees under three different types of soil management: (1) non-tillage with barley (Hordeum vulgare) strips of 4 m width (BS); (2)

  10. Preliminary assay on the radical scavenging activity of olive wood extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altarejos, J.; Salido, S.; Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Linares-Palomino, P.J.; Beek, van T.A.; Nogueras, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2005-01-01

    The dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Olea europaea wood (picual olive cultivar) were screened for antioxidant activity, determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The ethanol extract displayed potent antioxidant activity. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salt acclimation process: a comparison between a sensitive and a tolerant Olea europaea cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Bazihizina, Nadia; Giordano, Cristiana; Mancuso, Stefano; Azzarello, Elisa

    2017-03-01

    Saline soils are highly heterogeneous in time and space, and this is a critical factor influencing plant physiology and productivity. Temporal changes in soil salinity can alter plant responses to salinity, and pre-treating plants with low NaCl concentrations has been found to substantially increase salt tolerance in different species in a process called acclimation. However, it still remains unclear whether this process is common to all plants or is only expressed in certain genotypes. We addressed this question by assessing the physiological changes to 100 mM NaCl in two contrasting olive cultivars (the salt-sensitive Leccino and the salt-tolerant Frantoio), following a 1-month acclimation period with 5 or 25 mM NaCl. The acclimation improved salt tolerance in both cultivars, but activated substantially different physiological adjustments in the tolerant and the sensitive cultivars. In the tolerant Frantoio the acclimation with 5 mM NaCl was more effective in increasing plant salt tolerance, with a 47% increase in total plant dry mass compared with non-acclimated saline plants. This enhanced biomass accumulation was associated with a 50% increase in K+ retention ability in roots. On the other hand, in the sensitive Leccino, although the acclimation process did not improve performance in terms of plant growth, pre-treatment with 5 and 25 mM NaCl substantially decreased salt-induced leaf cell ultrastructural changes, with leaf cell relatively similar to those of control plants. Taken together these results suggest that in the tolerant cultivar the acclimation took place primarily in the root tissues, while in the sensitive they occurred mainly at the shoot level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  13. Influence of inorganic and organic amendments in the soil properties and the growth and survival of Olea Europaea var. Sylvestris in the semiarid Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Raúl; Miralles, Isabel; Anguita-Maeso, Manuel; Domene, Miguel; Soriano, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Selecting the most appropriate types of plants adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of restoring drylands is essential to success in landscape restoration. Besides improving soil quality is a key factor to consider when designing the restoration procedures. The use of organic and inorganic amendments can help with this task. On this study, we evaluated the influence of different mineral (clays) and organic (compost and poultry) amendments on the properties of a bare soil and how this influenced on the growth and survival of the Olea europaea var. sylvestrys, a perennial bush plant adapted to the Mediterranean semi-arid zone. Tests were designed and carried out in a greenhouse at the "Experimental Station of Cajamar foundation "Las Palmerillas" in El Ejido (Almería, Spain). Plants were grown in 250L pots and their substrate was bare soil and mineral and/or organic amendments. The experimental design consisted of three replicas for five treatments: 1. compost, 2. "ZeoPro", a cliptonolite commercial clay, 3. mordenite clay from local quarries plus compost, 4. cliptonolite clay from Turkey plus compost, 5. cliptonolite from Turquey plus poultry; with four levels each one: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% volume of amendment. Including three control samples without amendment total plants accounted for 63. Climatic sensors inside and outside the greenhouse permitted to establish the same meteorological conditions for the plants and only emergency watering was supplied when necessary for the survival of the plants when arid conditions were extreme. The physico-chemical soil properties of each treatment and level were analyzed before planting and the biovolume and the survival rates of the plants were measured regularly along eleven months. Statistically the best treatment for the growing of the plants was number 3 (mordenite and compost) with no deaths recorded. According to the growing rates the best level was soil with 20% of amendment. Besides we analyzed the evolution of the

  14. The expression of light-related leaf functional traits depends on the location of individual leaves within the crown of isolated Olea europaea trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Rocafort, Adrián G; Ventre-Lespiaucq, Agustina B; Granado-Yela, Carlos; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Delgado, Juan A; Balaguer, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The spatial arrangement and expression of foliar syndromes within tree crowns can reflect the coupling between crown form and function in a given environment. Isolated trees subjected to high irradiance and concomitant stress may adjust leaf phenotypes to cope with environmental gradients that are heterogeneous in space and time within the tree crown. The distinct expression of leaf phenotypes among crown positions could lead to complementary patterns in light interception at the crown scale. We quantified eight light-related leaf traits across 12 crown positions of ten isolated Olea europaea trees in the field. Specifically, we investigated whether the phenotypic expression of foliar traits differed among crown sectors and layers and five periods of the day from sunrise to sunset. We investigated the consequences in terms of the exposed area of the leaves at the tree scale during a single day. All traits differed among crown positions except the length-to-width ratio of the leaves. We found a strong complementarity in the patterns of the potential exposed area of the leaves among day periods as a result of a non-random distribution of leaf angles across the crown. Leaf exposure at the outer layer was below 60 % of the displayed surface, reaching maximum interception during morning periods. Daily interception increased towards the inner layer, achieving consecutive maximization from east to west positions within the crown, matching the sun's trajectory. The expression of leaf traits within isolated trees of O. europaea varies continuously through the crown in a gradient of leaf morphotypes and leaf angles depending on the exposure and location of individual leaves. The distribution of light-related traits within the crown and the complementarity in the potential exposure patterns of the leaves during the day challenges the assumption of low trait variability within individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of the Olea europaea L. roots during the Verticillium dahliae early infection process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Pérez, Maria De la O Leyva; Schilirò, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Olive cultivation is affected by a wide range of biotic constraints. Verticillium wilt of olive is one of the most devastating diseases affecting this woody crop, inflicting major economic losses in many areas, particularly within the Mediterranean Basin. Little is known about gene-expression cha...

  16. Lipophilization of Hydroxytyrosol-Enriched Fractions from Olea europaea L. Byproducts and Evaluation of the in Vitro Effects on a Model of Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Roberta; Carastro, Isabella; Palmini, Gaia; Tanini, Annalisa; Zonefrati, Roberto; Pinelli, Patrizia; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Romani, Annalisa

    2017-08-09

    A hydroxytyrosol (HTyr)-enriched fraction containing HTyr 6% w/w, derived from Olea europaea L. byproducts and obtained using an environmentally and economically sustainable technology, was lipophilized under green chemistry conditions. The effects of three fractions containing hydroxytyrosyl butanoate, octanoate, and oleate, named, respectively, lipophilic fractions 5, 6, and 7, and unreacted HTyr on the human colon cancer cell line HCT8-β8 engineered to overexpress estrogen receptor β (ERβ) were evaluated and compared to those of pure HTyr. The experimental data demonstrated that HTyr and all fractions showed an antiproliferative effect, as had been observed by the evaluation of the cellular doubling time under these different conditions (mean control, 32 ± 4 h; HTyr 1, 65 ± 9 h; fraction 5, 64 ± 11 h; fraction 6, 62 ± 14 h; fraction 7, 133 ± 30 h). As evidenced, fraction 7 containing hydroxytyrosyl oleate showed the highest activity. These results were related to the link with ER-β, which was assessed through simultaneous treatment with an inhibitor of ERβ.

  17. Transformación genética de olivo (Olea europaea L.) con un gen de Medicago truncatula que codifica para un proteína tipo FT

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Medina, Sergio; Barceló-Muñoz, Araceli; Samach, Alon; Mercado Carmona, José A.; Pliego Alfaro, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    En el olivo (Olea europaea L.), la modificación de la arquitectura de la planta y la reducción del periodo juvenil son caracteres de interés en la mejora. Las proteínas codificadas por genes tipo FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T), además de actuar como componente principal de la señal sistémica inductora de floración conocida como florígeno, participan en la regulación de otros procesos del desarrollo en plantas, entre ellos, la determinación de la arquitectura o la dormancia. El objetivo de este trabaj...

  18. Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) activity, fruit infestation and temperature in an organic table olive orchard in southern Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Volakakis, Mr N.; Eyre, Dr M.D.; Kabourakis, Dr E.; Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    Olive fly activity and olive fruit infestation was monitored in a table olive orchard in southern Crete throughout most of 2006 using McPhail traps. Flies were trapped weekly for 40 weeks, starting at the beginning of February. The fly data was split into 10 four-week periods. Male, female and total fly activity was significantly related to sampling period, maximum temperature and relative humidity but the pattern of catches was not consistent. Activity increased from February until July but ...

  19. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea Europea. 1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater 9 daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine. (author)

  20. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea europea. L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater (daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine [es

  1. Investigation of cytochrome P450 inhibitory properties of maslinic acid, a bioactive compound from Olea europaea L., and its structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Tang, Yu; Ding, Tonggui; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-15

    Maslinic acid (MA), the main pentacyclic triterpene of Olea europaea L. fruit, possesses a variety of pharmacological actions, including hypoglycemic, antioxidant, cardioprotective and antitumoral activities. Despite its importance, little is known about its effects on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in both humans and animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MA on the CYP 1A2, 2C9/11, 2D1/6, 2E1 and 3A2/4 activities by human and rat liver microsomes and specific CYP isoforms. In humans, MA only weakly inhibited CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes and specific CYP3A4 isoform with IC50 value at 46.1 and 62.3µM, respectively. In rats, MA also exhibited weak inhibition on CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 activities with IC50 values more than 100µM. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that the MA was not only a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A4 in humans, but also a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C11 and 3A2 in rats, with Ki of 18.4, 98.7 and 66.3µM, respectively. Moreover, the presence of hydroxyl group at C-2 position of triterpenic acid in MA compared with oleanolic acid could magnify its competitive inhibition on human CYP3A4 activity. The relatively high Ki values of MA would have a low potential to cause the possible toxicity and drug interactions involving CYP enzymes, thus suggesting a sufficient safety for its putative use as a nutraceutical taken together with drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  3. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yisong; Tang, Xuzhen; Guan, Teng; Li, Yunman; Sun, Hongbin

    2016-08-19

    Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E) staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  4. Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

    1994-01-01

    Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3...

  5. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  6. Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation.

  7. Influence of process parameters and biomass characteristics on the durability of pellets from the pruning residues of Olea europaea L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carone, Maria Teresa; Pantaleo, Antonio; Pellerano, Achille [Department of Engineering and Management of the Agricultural, Livestock and Forest Systems, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bari, Via Amendola, 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The present work aims to investigate the influence of the main process parameters (pressure and temperature) and biomass characteristics (moisture content and particle size) on some mechanical properties (density and durability) of olive tree pruning residues pellets. By means of a lab scale pellet press, able to control process parameters, the biomass, ground with three different hammer mill screen sizes (1, 2 and 4 mm) and conditioned at different moisture contents (5, 10, 15 and 20% w.b.), was pelletized at various process temperatures (60, 90, 120 and 150 C) and pressures (71, 106, 141 and 176 MPa). Compressed sample dimensions and mass were measured in order to calculate pellet density, while compressive strength tests were carried out to estimate the durability of the final biofuel. The relationships between the factor settings and the responses (density, compression strength and modulus of elasticity) were examined by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Temperature resulted the most important variable influencing pellet mechanical properties, followed by the initial moisture content and the particle size of the raw material. In particular, high process temperature, low moisture contents and reduced particle sizes allowed obtaining good quality pellets. The effect of compression force resulted scarcely relevant. (author)

  8. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  9. Trocas gasosas influenciam na morfogênese in vitro de duas cultivares de oliveira (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer in vitro as cultivares de oliveira 'Arbequina' e 'Maria da Fé' e avaliar a influência das tampas com membranas permeáveis a gases na morfogênese in vitro dessas cultivares. Inocularam-se segmentos nodais com gemas previamente descontaminadas pelo protocolo aqui desenvolvido. Utilizaram-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial 2³, duas cultivares; dois meios de cultura OM (Olive medium (OM + 20 µM de zeatina [1]; e OM + 20 µM de zeatina + 10 µM de GA3 [2]; dois tipos de vedação (tampa rígida sem orifício e com membrana porosa com cinco repetições/ tratamento; e a unidade experimental constituída por quatro tubos de ensaio. Avaliaram-se: a porcentagem de contaminação total; a porcentagem de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana; o número de gemas intumescidas; o número de brotos; e a porcentagem de oxidação. Aos 30 dias de cultivo, constatou-se a contaminação de 15% e 8,8% dos explantes de 'Arbequina' e 'Maria da Fé', respectivamente. Em 'Arbequina', 33,3% e 66,7% ocorreram por contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, respectivamente. Em 'Maria da Fé', 28,6% e 71,4% decorreram de contaminação fúngica e bacteriana, respectivamente. O número de gemas foi superior (p<0,05 em 'Arbequina', comparativamente à 'Maria da Fé', quando se utilizou tampa com membrana porosa para vedar os frascos. Em tampa rígida não houve diferença entre cultivares. O número de brotos no meio 1 foi superior estatisticamente (p<0,05 ao no meio 2. Não houve diferença estatística em porcentagem de oxidação. Sugere-se a utilização do protocolo de desinfestação aqui desenvolvido, como também do meio 1 e tampas com membranas porosas, pois isso favorecerá o desenvolvimento das gemas e a posterior formação de plantas.

  10. A Technique of Culturing the Olive Fly, Dacus Oleae Gmel., on Synthetic Media Under Xenic Conditions; Methode d'elevage de la mouche de l'olive Dacus Oleae Gmel., en xenie sur milieux synthetiques; Metodika ksenicheskoj kul'tivatsii maslinnoj mukhi Dacus Oleae na sinteticheskoj srede; Una tecnica de cria de la mosca del olivo (Dacus Oleae Gmel.) en un medio sintetico en condiciones xenicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, K. S.; Santas, L.; Tsecouras, A. [Agricultural College of Athens. Athens (Greece)

    1963-09-15

    Five generations of Dacus oleae have been cultured on an agar-dehydrated carrot base medium that contains an enzymatic protein hydrolysate of soya or casein, brewer's yeast, choline chloride and olive oil. Although the culture technique is xenic, an attempt is made to control microorganisms by chemical means. A bacterial species replaced the normal symbiote within D. oleae and was believed to be essential to maintaining the stock, but two generations of D. oleae have been cultured without any bacteria being present in the sites normally occupied within the larva or adult by its typical symbiote. Streptomycin is now being incorporated into the adult food to control bacterial infection of the eggs. Normal larval development, size and reproduction of D. oleae is obtained. Mass culture is possible using the larval medium developed, but further research is necessary to find a faster method of placing the eggs on the medium. Further screening of mould inhibitors is desirable, as well as seeking cheaper substitutes for the medium. (author) [French] On a eleve cinq generations de Dacus oleae sur un milieu a base de gelose et de carotte deshydratee contenant un hydrolysat enzimatique de proteines de soja ou de caseine, de levure de biere, de chlorure de choline et d'huile d'olive. Bien que l'elevage se fasse en xenie, on s'efforce d'enrayer le developpement des microorganismes a l'aide de moyens chimiques. Une espece bacterienne a remplace le symbiote normal chez D. oleae et sa presence semblait indispensable dans le lot d'elevage, mais on a eleve deux generations de D. oleae sans qu'aucune bacterie soit presente aux ejnplacements normalement occupes chez la larve ou l'adulte par le symbiote caracteristique. Pour eviter la contamination des oeufs par les bacteries, on incorpore maintenant de la streptomycine au regime alimentaire des adultes. On a obtenu un developpement larvaire normal et des insectes de taille normale, qui se reproduisent normalement. Le milieu larvaire

  11. Efecto vasodilatador e inhibidor de vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europaea (olivo sobre anillos aórticos de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Nexar-QH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto vasodilatador, la inhibición de la vasoconstricción, así como el mecanismo responsable, del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europaea (olivo, sobre anillos aórticos en ratas. Diseño: Experimental. Lugar: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Científico, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, Arequipa, Perú. Material biológico: Hojas de Olea europea y anillos aórticos de Rattus norvegicus, variedad albina swiss. Intervenciones: Se obtuvo un extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Olea europaea. Se usó anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados y se registró la actividad vasomotora con un transductor de tensión isométrica. Se produjo contracción basal máxima con CaCl2 6 mM y se determinó el efecto vasodilatador con dosis de 25, 50 y 100 mg/mL de extracto hidroalcohólico de las hojas de Olea europaea. Se usó 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3 alquinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ y nifedipino para determinar el mecanismo de acción. Se comparó la inhibición de la vasoconstricción tras la incubación durante 30 minutos con extracto 100 mg/mL y con captopril 10 µM. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de vasodilatación y de vasoconstricción. Resultados: Se obtuvo una vasodilatación de 7,20 ± 1,49%, 9,84 ± 1,42% y 12,31 ± 1,16% para las dosis de 25, 50 y 100 mg/mL, respectivamente, siendo significativa con la dosis de 100 mg/mL. La vasodilatación se incrementó tras la administración de ODQ 100 mM. La vasodilatación se inhibió tras la incubación con ODQ 100 mM más nifedipino 5 µM. No se encontró diferencia significativa entre la inhibición de la vasoconstricción con captopril 10µM y extracto a 100 mg/mL. Conclusiones: El extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Olea europea, a una dosis de 100 mg/mL, tiene efecto vasodilatador sobre anillos aórticos de ratas, mediado por el bloqueo de canales de calcio; además, posee efecto inhibidor de la

  12. Physical and chemical characteristics of five Turkish olive (Olea europea L. varieties and their oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünverb, Ahmet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive varieties from different locations in Turkey and their natural oils which were obtained using traditional methods were used. Five olive samples were considered for their moisture, crude oil, crude protein, crude ash, crude energy, crude fiber, pH and alcohol-soluble extract. Olives contained approximately 17.7 %-43.5 % olive oil. The crude fiber contents of olive fruits were found to be 5.5 % (Gemlik, 7.0 % (Kilis, 3.6 % (Uslu, 4.2 % (Tirilye and 5.6 % (Ayval?k. The mineral contents of several olive varieties were determined by ICP-AES and found to be excellent. Olives were found to be rich in Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and P minerals. Also, K, Na and P contents of the Gemlik variety were found higher than those of other varieties. The refractive index and density values of the Uslu variety were found to be high and the other varieties had similar values. Oleic acid (65.7 %- 83.6 % was present in the highest concentration, followed by palmitic (8.1-15.2 %, linoleic (3.5-15.5 %, stearic (2.0- 5.6 % and linolenic (0.1-3.0 %. The total amount of phenols among olive varieties was different. The total phenol content as gallic and catechic acid equivalent in all oil samples ranged from 22.5 to 97.1 mg/kg and 12.3 to 98.7 mg/kg, respectively. The Kilis variety of olives had the lowest total phenol value when compared to the other varieties.Aceitunas de Turquía de cinco variedades (Gemlik, Kilis, Uslu, Tirilye y Ayvalik así como sus correspondientes aceites obtenidos por métodos clásicos fueron usados en este estudio. En las aceitunas se determinó la composición proximal (humedad, contenido graso, proteína, cenizas, fibra, y extracto soluble en alcohol, el contenido en minerales y en fenoles. En el caso de los aceites se determinó la composición en ácidos grasos, acidez, insaponificable, índices de Yodo y de saponificación, densidad e índice de refracción. El contenido en aceite de las muestras fue muy variable oscilando entre 17.7 y 43.5% y

  13. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oleuropein from Olea europea (Olive Leaf Extract and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oleuropein (OE, the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 μg/mL was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods.

  14. Population Dynamics of Pre-Imaginal Stages of Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Region of Bar (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit fly is the most harmful pest of olive fruits and important for oil production.Damage involves yield reduction as a consequence of premature fruit drop, but also areduced quality of olive oil and olive products. There is little available data regarding thebiology of Bactrocera oleae in Montenegro. Knowledge of the pest life cycle and developmentwould improve optimization of insecticide application timing and protection offruits, and reduce adverse effects on the environment.Investigation was conducted on the Žutica variety in an olive grove located in Bar duringa three-year period. Population dynamics of the pre-imaginal stages and level of fruitinfestation were monitored from mid-July until the end of October.The results of this three-year investigation showed that the beginning of infestationwas always at the end of July. It was also found that, depending on environmental conditions,the level of infestation was low until the end of August. In September and October itmultiplied, and reached maximum by the end of October.Regarding infestation structure, eggs and first instar larvae were the dominant developmentalstages of the pest until the middle of September. From mid-September until mid-October all developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae were equally present in infestedfruits. Pupae, cocoons and abandoned galleries prevailed until the harvest.

  15. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  16. Effect of the delay in olive processing after harvesting on some physicochemical and nutritional parameters of olive oil from the Racimilla variety; Influencia del retraso en el procesado de las aceitunas tras la recoleccion, en parametros fisico-quimicos y nutricionales de aceite de oliva de la variedad Ramicilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study how the delay time between harvesting and processing affects the physicochemical and nutritional parameters of Racimilla olive (Olea europaea L.) oil. The physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, peroxide value, coefficients of specific extinction and pigments content) changed remarkably. The nutritional parameters such as fatty acids profile, total phenols and vitamin E also suffered a change with the delay in processing. Physicochemical and nutritional parameter modifications were detrimental to olive oil quality. In conclusion, a delay in processing after harvesting is not efficient to preserve the physicochemical and nutritional quality of the olive oil from the Racimilla variety. (Author) 21 refs.

  17. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  18. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  19. Mass rearing of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin), at ''Democritos''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsipis, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Production of more than 4.5 million olive fruit fly pupae within a 4-month period during the summer and autumn of 1973, at an approximate cost of US $ 1 per 1000 pupae, was made possible by introducing certain improvements in the formerly used rearing system. Replacement of the adult liquid diet by a solid one and less frequent changing of the water supply saved labour; better timing in the egg collection improved hatchability. Incubation of the eggs in 0.3% propionic acid followed by their surface sterilization drastically cut down or eliminated previous sporadically appearing microbial contaminations. Most important, a new larval diet (T), which is much easier to prepare and handle, has doubled pupal yield. A new caging and egging system under development provides a higher egg production and requires far less labour. Preliminary promising results on new larval diets and modifications in the various steps of the rearing procedure will hopefully contribute to achieving the much lower costs needed even in a moderate-scale mass-release programme. (author)

  20. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... crown Olea europaea L forest irrigated with wastewater. S. Seif Amiri1, H. ... mainly because they are non-biodegradable, non-thermo- ... Soils, as filters of ... transportation to the laboratory, soil samples were air dried, crush-.

  2. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Hessin, Alyaa F; Abdelbaset, Marwan; Ogaly, Hanan A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Hassan, Salah M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  3. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. A review of plant protection against the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin and molecular methods to monitor the insecticide resistance alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Hladnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin is one of the most important olive pests worldwide. Most plant protection measures are based on insecticides, especially organophosphates, pyrethroids, and recently a spinosad. Insecticides are used as cover sprays or in more environmentally friendly methods in which insecticides are used in combination with attractants and pheromones as bait sprays or for mass trapping. However, due to negative impacts of insecticides to environment, new plant protection methods are constantly developing with the aim to lower the consumption of insecticides or even to eliminate them by biological control with entomopathogenic organisms, sterile insect technique (SIT, or transgenic method RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal. However, these methods need to be improved in order to guarantee adequate protection. Alternative methods than those traditionally used are required due to long term usage causing the development of resistance to the insecticides, ultimately lowering their effectiveness. Molecular methods for monitoring the frequencies of resistant alleles and the current status of resistance alleles in olive growing countries are reviewed here.

  5. Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97% of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages.

  6. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  9. OeFAD8, OeLIP and OeOSM expression and activity in cold-acclimation of Olea europaea, a perennial dicot without winter-dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Simone; Matteucci, Maya; Fattorini, Laura; Gismondi, Angelo; Ludovici, Matteo; Canini, Antonella; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-05-01

    Cold-acclimation genes in woody dicots without winter-dormancy, e.g., olive-tree, need investigation. Positive relationships between OeFAD8, OeOSM , and OeLIP19 and olive-tree cold-acclimation exist, and couple with increased lipid unsaturation and cutinisation. Olive-tree is a woody species with no winter-dormancy and low frost-tolerance. However, cold-tolerant genotypes were empirically selected, highlighting that cold-acclimation might be acquired. Proteins needed for olive-tree cold-acclimation are unknown, even if roles for osmotin (OeOSM) as leaf cryoprotectant, and seed lipid-transfer protein for endosperm cutinisation under cold, were demonstrated. In other species, FAD8, coding a desaturase producing α-linolenic acid, is activated by temperature-lowering, concomitantly with bZIP-LIP19 genes. The research was focussed on finding OeLIP19 gene(s) in olive-tree genome, and analyze it/their expression, and that of OeFAD8 and OeOSM, in drupes and leaves under different cold-conditions/developmental stages/genotypes, in comparison with changes in unsaturated lipids and cell wall cutinisation. Cold-induced cytosolic calcium transients always occurred in leaves/drupes of some genotypes, e.g., Moraiolo, but ceased in others, e.g., Canino, at specific drupe stages/cold-treatments, suggesting cold-acclimation acquisition only in the latter genotypes. Canino and Moraiolo were selected for further analyses. Cold-acclimation in Canino was confirmed by an electrolyte leakage from leaf/drupe membranes highly reduced in comparison with Moraiolo. Strong increases in fruit-epicarp/leaf-epidermis cutinisation characterized cold-acclimated Canino, and positively coupled with OeOSM expression, and immunolocalization of the coded protein. OeFAD8 expression increased with cold-acclimation, as the production of α-linolenic acid, and related compounds. An OeLIP19 gene was isolated. Its levels changed with a trend similar to OeFAD8. All together, results sustain a positive

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject...... was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive...

  11. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

    OpenAIRE

    E. Khaleghi; K. Arzani; N. Moallemi; M. Barzegar

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatmen...

  12. A defence-related Olea europaea β-glucosidase hydrolyses and activates oleuropein into a potent protein cross-linking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudounas, Konstantinos; Banilas, Georgios; Michaelidis, Christos; Demoliou, Catherine; Rigas, Stamatis; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2015-04-01

    Oleuropein, the major secoiridoid compound in olive, is involved in a sophisticated two-component defence system comprising a β-glucosidase enzyme that activates oleuropein into a toxic glutaraldehyde-like structure. Although oleuropein deglycosylation studies have been monitored extensively, an oleuropein β-glucosidase gene has not been characterized as yet. Here, we report the isolation of OeGLU cDNA from olive encoding a β-glucosidase belonging to the defence-related group of terpenoid-specific glucosidases. In planta recombinant protein expression assays showed that OeGLU deglycosylated and activated oleuropein into a strong protein cross-linker. Homology and docking modelling predicted that OeGLU has a characteristic (β/α)8 TIM barrel conformation and a typical construction of a pocket-shaped substrate recognition domain composed of conserved amino acids supporting the β-glucosidase activity and non-conserved residues associated with aglycon specificity. Transcriptional analysis in various olive organs revealed that the gene was developmentally regulated, with its transcript levels coinciding well with the spatiotemporal patterns of oleuropein degradation and aglycon accumulation in drupes. OeGLU upregulation in young organs reflects its prominent role in oleuropein-mediated defence system. High gene expression during drupe maturation implies an additional role in olive secondary metabolism, through the degradation of oleuropein and reutilization of hydrolysis products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C.; García-Mozo, H.; Vázquez, L.; Ruiz, L.; Guardia, C. Díaz; Trigo, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5°C and 12.5°C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model’s accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive’s flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.

  14. Whole-tree water balance and indicators for short-term drought stress in non-bearing 'Barnea' olives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Gal, A.; Kool, D.; Agam, N.; Halsema, van G.E.; Yermiyahu, U.; Yafe, A.; Presnov, E.; Erel, R.; Majdop, A.; Zipori, I.; Segal, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Cohen, Y.; Alchanatis, V.; Dag, A.

    2010-01-01

    Drainage-weighing lysimetersallowedmonitoringofwaterbalancecomponentsofnon-bearingolive (Olea europaea cv Barnea)treesovera3-monthperiodincludingshort-termeventsofcontrolledbut severe waterstress.Theobjectiveofthestudywastoevaluateavarietyofsoilandplant-basedwater status

  15. The Role of Polyphenoloxidase, Peroxidase, and β-Glucosidase in Phenolics Accumulation in Olea europaea L. Fruits under Different Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cirilli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruits and oils contain an array of compounds that contribute to their sensory and nutritional properties. Phenolic compounds in virgin oil and olive-derived products have been proven to be highly beneficial for human health, eliciting increasing attention from the food industry and consumers. Although phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oil have been extensively investigated, allowing the identification of the main classes of metabolites and their accumulation patterns, knowledge of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating phenolic metabolism remains scarce. We focused on the role of polyphenoloxidase (PPO, peroxidase (PRX and β-glucosidase (β-GLU gene families and their enzyme activities in the accumulation of phenolic compounds during olive fruit development (35–146 days after full bloom, under either full irrigation (FI or rain-fed (RF conditions. The irrigation regime affected yield, maturation index, mesocarp oil content, fruit size, and pulp-to-pit ratio. Accumulation of fruit phenolics was higher in RF drupes than in FI ones. Members of each gene family were developmentally regulated, affected by water regime, and their transcript levels were correlated with the respective enzyme activities. During the early phase of drupe growth (35–43 days after full bloom, phenolic composition appeared to be linked to β-GLU and PRX activities, probably through their effects on oleuropein catabolism. Interestingly, a higher β-GLU activity was measured in immature RF drupes, as well as a higher content of the oleuropein derivate 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and verbascoside. Activity of PPO enzymes was slightly affected by the water status of trees during ripening (from 120 days after full bloom, but was not correlated with phenolics content. Overall, the main changes in phenolics content appeared soon after the supply of irrigation water and remained thereafter almost unchanged until maturity, despite fruit growth and the progressive

  16. Oil accumulation kinetic along ripening in four olive cultivars varying for fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether oil accumulation pattern is parallel to drupe olive (Olea europaea L growth and if common climatic parameters may influence oil content we conducted an experiment in rainfed orchards with four olive cultivars, Amygdalolia, Arbequina, Lucques, and Olivière, differing by fruit size at maturity. Fruits were harvested weekly from July to November. They were counted and weighted before being crushed. Fat content was determined on dry matter using a Minispec RMN. Common climatic parameters were recorded. Variance analyses showed stage effects highly significant. Results showed three different patterns for fruit growth. Dry matter accumulated broadly similarly and the weekly rates were positively correlated with fruit size. Oil accumulation is mostly independent of climatic variation and probably depends on genetic programmes for each cultivar. We defined the main steps and events for olive fruit ripening according to recent knowledge on fruit development.

  17. BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS NÃO SIMBIÓTICAS E ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS SEMILENHOSAS DE OLIVEIRA (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Filomena Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria (NSDB influence plant growth mainly through biological nitrogenfixation and production and release of plant growth-regulating substances. The effect of these bacteria on rooting of olive is not described in the international literature, which has been provided by the use of hormonal treatment based on indole butyric acid (IBA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological diversity of isolates obtained from soil samples of the Biological Reserve Serra dos Toledos, Itajubá, MG state, and of reference strains of NSDB, and their potential of substitution of IBA on rooting of olive semi-hardwood cuttings from the experimental farm ‘Maria da Fé’ (FEMF-EPAMIG. The isolates were divided into five groups (G1 to G5 according with cultural phenotypic characteristics based on color, diameter and consistence of colonies, and reference strains used were Azospirillum brasilense (BR11001 t , Azospirillum amazonense (BR11040 t , Herbaspirillum seropedicae (BR11175 t and Burkholderia brasilensis (BR11340 t . The diversity of physiological was performed using phosphate solubilization, tolerance to different conditions of temperature and pH and production of indole acetic acid (IAA. To evaluate the potential of semi-hardwood cuttings rooting in olive cultivars were used the cultivars Ascolano 315, Arbequina and Grappolo 541, from the germoplasm blank of the FEMF-EPAMIG. There were 33 treatments, and the cuttings were inoculated with the bacterial isolate groups, with the reference strains, without inoculation (control and only IBA, commercially used in rooting. Only two isolates showed ability to solubilize phosphate. Groups of isolates and of reference strains showed very similar environmental requirements, with wide ranges of optimum conditions of pH (5,0-9,0 and temperature (15-35ºC for maximum growth. The isolates and reference strains showed a production IAA ranging from 110.53 to 383.58 μg mL -1 , and

  18. Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Qurshi, I.A.; Liaqat, R.; Akhtar, S.; Aziz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. (author)

  19. Combined effect of diuron and simazine on photosystem II photochemistry in a sandy soil and soil amended with solid olive-mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea) and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of these herbicides on Photosystem II photochemistry of Olea europaea L., and whether the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from olive oil production industry modifies this effect. For this purpose, herbicide soil adsorption studies, with unamended and OW-amended soil, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in adult olive leaves, after one, two and three weeks of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment, were performed. Soil application of these herbicides reduced the efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry of olive trees due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect is counterbalanced by the addition of OW to the soil. OW reduces herbicide uptake by the plant due to an increase in herbicide adsorption.

  20. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  1. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y.; Rendon, Pedro A.; Sivinski, John

    2006-01-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  2. Gas Exchanges and Stem Water Potential Define Stress Thresholds for Efficient Irrigation Management in Olive (Olea europea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Marino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With climate change and decreased water supplies, interest in irrigation scheduling based on plant water status is increasing. Stem water potential (ΨSWP thresholds for irrigation scheduling in olive have been proposed, however, a physiologically-based evaluation of their reliability is needed. A large dataset collected at variable environmental conditions, growing systems, and genotypes was used to characterize the relation between ΨSWP and gas exchanges for olive. Based on the effect of drought stress on the ecophysiological parameters monitored, we described three levels of stress: no stress (ΨSWP above about −2 MPa, where the high variability of stomatal conductance (gs suggests a tight stomatal control of water loss that limit ΨSWP drop, irrigation volumes applied to overcome this threshold had no effect on assimilation but reduced intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE; moderate-stress (ΨSWP between about −2.0 and −3.5 MPa, where iWUE can be increased without damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves; and high-stress (ΨSWP below about −3.5 MPa, where gs dropped below 150 mmol m−2 s−1 and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased proportionally, suggesting non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was operative. This study confirmed that olive ΨSWP should be maintained between −2 and −3.5 MPa for optimal irrigation efficiency and to avoid harmful water stress levels.

  3. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot caused by Spilocaea oleaginain different olive cultivars in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba Abuamsha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars including Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Santa Augustino, Nasohi Jaba`a 1, Nasohi Jaba`a 2, Yunani, Talmasani, Chemlali, Arbequino, Frantoio, Coca and Barouni, were sampled for their susceptibility to Spilocaea oleagina the causal agent for Olive leaf spot (OLS disease on olive trees in Palestine. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivars grown commercially in Palestine include Arbequino, Frantoio and ?Barouni’.The “Nabali” is the most dominant and highly susceptible olive cultivar grown in Palestine. Disease incidence varied greatly among the cultivars F=59.4, df=11, 251, p?0.0001 and was correlated with the severity (y = 0.42x + 9.3, P ? 0.0001, R² = 0.84, y = disease severity and x = disease incidence. Disease severity also varied among different cultivars F=13.9, df=11, 251, p?0.0001. Nabali Mohassan was the most affected susceptible while Barouni was most resistant. Progress of disease severity over time fit the logistic function for all cultivars except for highly susceptible cultivars F=1.56, df=6, 83, p?0.169. The assessment method may be useful to screen olive cultivars for OLS resistance in Palestine.

  4. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  5. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive, using N(G-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME- induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO, and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  6. PRESENCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY(Ceratitis capitata Wied. IN SELECTED OLIVE ORCHARDS OF CENTRAL DALMATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bjeliš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann is a regular pest of large number of cultivated and wild host plants in Dalmatia. However, this pest does not develop either inside fruits of cultivated olive - Olea europaea sativa or wild olive „ mastrinka“ - Olea europaea oleaster. The main objective of this research was to prove regular presence, time of appearance and flight duration of the Mediterranean fruit fly inside selected orchards of central Dalmatia. During the four years of research, from 2001 to 2004 by using of traps and parapheromone trimedlure, the regular presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly was proved inside four selected orchards on the area of cities of Split and Kaštela, with differences in adult caught between localities and years. During the 2001 year, on the three locations in the area of city of Kaštela, the highest capture during the total research period was recorded, while on the locations in Split, the highest capture was recorded during 2003 year, but also significant during 2001 year. The lowest number of adult, less than 5 flies/trap was captured on all four locations during 2002 year.

  7. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some people. Metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, excess ... Up to 1 liter per week of extra-virgin olive oil has been used safely as part ...

  8. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Exhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet, a high-cholesterol diet or high- .... HPLC finger print analysis of OFP-EA extract ... protein levels were quantified using western ..... Cook NC, Samman S. Flavonoids-chemistry,.

  9. Leaf biochemical responses and fruit oil quality parameters in olive plants subjected to airborne metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rigacci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.

  11. Preliminary Studies of the Field Movement of the Olive Fruit Fly (Dacus Oleae Gmel,) by Labelling a Natural Population with Radioactive Phosphorus (P{sup 32}); Etudes preijminaires sur les deplacements de la mouche de l'olive (Dacus Oleae Gmel. ) par marquage d'une population naturelle au radiophosphore ({sup 32}P); Predvaritel'noe issledovanie polevogo peremeshcheniya olivkovoj fruktovoj mukhi (Dacus Oleae Gmel.) posredstvom mecheniya estestvennoj populyatsii radioaktivnym fosforom (P{sup 32}).; Estudio preliminar de la dispersion de moscas del ouvo (Dacus Oleae Gmel. ) mediante la marcacion de poblaciones naturales con {sup 32}p.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekassis, Constantine E.D.; Mourikos, P. A.; Bantzios, D. N. [Economic Entomology Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Athens (Greece)

    1963-09-15

    Preliminary trials were conducted to obtain the first data on the field movement of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. These studies were carried out in the olive-growing area at Rovies, Evvia, Greece, during the autumn of 1961, when the maximum adult fly activity usually occurs. A mixture of radioactive P{sup 32} of H{sub 3}P{sup 32}O{sub 4} in HCl and hydrolysate protein, Staley No. 7, was prepared for labelling the naturally occurring adult fly population. Twigs of 30 olive trees which were selected in a semi-mountainous olive orchard at Rovies were treated with the P{sup 32} bait solution on 14 October 1961. Five hundred McPhail traps, containing 3% of diammonium phosphate as a lure, were used for the collection of flies. Traps were distributed in the olive groves of the entire area at Rovies and also in the adjacent areas (fewest or olive groves) up to a distance of 10 km from the treated trees. A total of 350 tagged flies of both sexes were collected in 48 traps during 15 counts of traps made between 15 October and 18 November. Labelled flies which were caught from 1 to 35 days after treatment represented 2.8% of the total number of flies collected in 48 traps, or 0.15% of the total number of flies caught in 298 traps in the entire area at Rovies. A proportion of 73% of the tagged flies were trapped within the first ten-day period following treatment. Labelled flies were found as far as 4300 m (maximum of dispersal) from the labelling station. Radioactivity of tagged flies ranged between 258 and 9549 counts/min per fly (background radiation 8-21 counts/min). These preliminary trials have confirmed a more or less continuous local movement (dispersal) o f flies from the semi-mountainous grove to the adjacent plains or to the coastal olive groves at Rovies from the north to south. Long-distance movement (migration) of Dacus flies to other areas has not been observed. Pine woods appear to act as a barrier to die movement of Dacus oleae adults. (author

  12. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with olive trees dieback in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Rahma; Sellami, Hanen; Gharbi, Yâakoub; Krid, Samira; Cheffi, Manel; Kammoun, Sonia; Dammak, Mariem; Mseddi, Aymen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2017-05-01

    Dieback and wilting symptoms caused by complex soilborne fungi are nowadays the most serious threatening disease affecting olive trees (Olea europaea) in Tunisia and presumably in many Mediterranean basin countries. Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera associated with dieback symptoms of olive trees. The objective of the present study was to confirm the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from several olive-growing areas in Tunisia. According to the pathogenic test done on young olive trees (cv. Chemlali), 23 out of 104 isolates of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic and the others were weakly or not pathogenic. The pathogenic Fusarium spp. isolates were characterized using molecular methods based on ITS PCR. Isolation results revealed the predominance of Fusarium solani (56.5%) and F. oxysporum species (21.7%) compared to F. chalmydosporum (8.7%), F. brachygibbosum (8.7%) and F. acuminatum (4.34%). Based on pathogenicity test, disease severity was highly variable among the 23 pathogenic isolates tested (P Fusarium spp. might be a major agent causing dieback disease of olive trees in Tunisia.

  14. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

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    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  15. A dehydrin gene isolated from feral olive enhances drought tolelance

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    Adriana eChiappetta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins belong to a protein family whose expression may be induced or enhanced by developmental process and environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydratation. A dehydrin gene named OesDHN was isolated and characterized from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, var. sylvestris, the wild form of olive.To elucidate the contribution of OesDHN in the development of drought tolerance, its expression levels were investigated in oleaster plants during development and under drought stress condition. The involvement of OesDHN in plant stress response was also evaluated in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, engineered to overexpress this gene, and exposed to a controlled mild osmotic stress. OesDHN expression was found to be modulated during development and induced under mild drought stress in oleaster plants. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants showed a better tolerance to osmotic stress than wild-type plants. The results demonstrated that OesDHN expression is induced by drought stress and is able to confer osmotic stress tolerance. We suggest a role for OesDHN, as a putative functional marker of plant stress tolerance.

  16. Comparison between several techniques of olive tree bark extraction (Tunisian Chemlali variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Aimen; Ksibi, Hatem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of the olive tree bark of Tunisian chemlali variety (Olea europaea cv. 'Chemlali'), this material was extracted by different ways. Compositions of extracts were used at best-selected conditions for each technique, and characterised using HPLC, LC/MS and GC-MS techniques. Analyses are conducted to an important variety of high carbon number compounds such as aliphatic compounds as nanocosane and heptacosane, and molecules with high value added tax (VAT) which can be classified as follows: diterpenes as phytol, triterpenes as squalene and also esters as Benzyl cinnamate. Hydrodistillation at high pressure seems to be a very common method to get a wide variety of compounds, the results are better than the ones obtained using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

  17. Fauna Europaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles

    2015-01-01

    density, and the more fertile habitats are extensively cultivated. This has undoubtedly increased the extinction risk for numerous species of brachyceran flies, yet with the recent re-discovery of Thyreophoracynophila (Panzer), there are no known cases of extinction at a European level. However, few......Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding...

  18. Water deficit during pit hardening enhances phytoprostanes content, a plant biomarker of oxidative stress, in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-04-15

    No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree.

  19. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

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    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  20. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  1. Bayesian and Phylogenic Approaches for Studying Relationships among Table Olive Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Amar, Fathi; Moreau, Fabienne; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Rebai, Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    To enhance table olive tree authentication, relationship, and productivity, we consider the analysis of 18 worldwide table olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) based on morphological, biological, and physicochemical markers analyzed by bioinformatic and biostatistic tools. Accordingly, we assess the relationships between the studied varieties, on the one hand, and the potential productivity-quantitative parameter links on the other hand. The bioinformatic analysis based on the graphical representation of the matrix of Euclidean distances, the principal components analysis, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed three major clusters which were not correlated with the geographic origin. The statistical analysis based on Kendall's and Spearman correlation coefficients suggests two highly significant associations with both fruit color and pollinization and the productivity character. These results are confirmed by the multiple linear regression prediction models. In fact, based on the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value, the best model demonstrated the power of the pollinization on the tree productivity (R 2  = 0.846). Moreover, the derived directed acyclic graph showed that only two direct influences are detected: effect of tolerance on fruit and stone symmetry on side and effect of tolerance on stone form and oil content on the other side. This work provides better understanding of the diversity available in worldwide table olive cultivars and supplies an important contribution for olive breeding and authenticity.

  2. Evaluation of the effects, on canopy arthropods, of two agricultural management systems to control pests in olive groves from north-east of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sónia A P; Pereira, José A; Torres, Laura M; Nogueira, António J A

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of management regime on canopy arthropod community of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2002 and 2003, in two olive groves, one under organic farming and the other under integrated protection. The integrated protection grove was sprayed once a year in June, with dimethoate, to control the anthophagous generation of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.). From April to November of each year, the canopy arthropods were sampled weekly. PRC method was used to analyse the effect of management regime at the community level and results showed that taxa responded differently to insecticide application suggesting that the organic grove was a more suitable habitat for the arthropods than the integrated protection grove. Abundance of arthropods peaked in May and June for both years but, after spraying with dimethoate, decreased significantly in integrated protection grove, recovering very slowly thereafter. Psocoptera, Miridae, Formicidae and Coccinellidae were the most sensitive taxa to insecticide application. Their decreasing in abundance was more evident in the second year of the trial. On the other hand chrysopids showed some tolerance to insecticide applications. These results suggest that the timing of spray is of utmost importance in reducing the side effects of spraying on beneficial arthropods. Moreover, differences in population susceptibility as well as in life cycle patterns must be considered.

  3. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this

  4. Methodological considerations in discriminating olive-orchard management type using olive-canopy arthropod fauna at the level of order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez-Valle, C.; García-López, P.A.; Campos, M.; Pascual, F.

    2015-07-01

    The cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has great importance in the entire Mediterranean basin, so that the implementation of organic practices in their management directly affects the sustainability of the agricultural system. Bioindication with arthropods can help to detect the different agricultural practices. In this work, we analyse the most appropriate methodology for discriminating between management using arthropods at the taxonomic level of order, with the novelty of taking into account the weather conditions to select the sampling dates. Between 12 and 15 sampling stations (depending on the year) were selected from olive orchards belonging to organic, conventional non-tillage, and strict conventional management, being sampled by beating the canopy fortnightly in the spring-summer period of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Organic management was more abundant and richer than the rest for the three years. Most groups with significant differences in terms of relative abundance were more abundant in organic orchard, except Neuroptera. Finally, different discriminant methods were evaluated (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Multiple Discriminant Analysis, and Support Vector Machine) with several different data sets. The discriminant analysis with interannual variability reached 97.9% accuracy in differentiating between organic and non-organic management using the LDA method, considering the taxa with significant differences from the abundance, excluding pests, and using samples with more uniform and stable weather patterns (late summer. (Author)

  5. Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, A; Salta, F N; Kalogeropoulos, N; Mylona, A; Ntalla, I; Andrikopoulos, N K

    2007-10-01

    Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated (1.25 g/kg olive leaves). All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

  6. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  7. Outbreak, Intensity of Infestation and Control of Two New Eriophyids, Aceria oleae and Shevtchenkella barensis, on Olive Nursery Plants in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Hrnčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two species of eriophyoid mites, Ditrimacus athiasella Keifer and Oxycenus maxwelli (Keifer, have been registered in Montenegro until recently. Late in April 2007, chlorotic spots and deformations were found on apical leaves of one-year old seedlings of the žuticavariety in a greenhouse in the town of Bar. Two species of eriophyoid mites were identified from the collected material, Aceria oleae, a widely distributed species in Mediterranean countries, and Shevtchenkela barensis, described as a new species in the world acarofauna. The intensity of infestation was calculated from all visually examined seedlings (2,560, as well as the percentage of seedlings with observed symptoms. Applying the method of periodic sampling, 50 seedlings (2 % of the total number were choosen. The intensity of injury was estimated on the new growth. Of the total number of examined seedlings, obvious symptoms were detected on 61.45% of the plants. Of the 50 chosen seedlings, 56 % had all of their young leaflets injuried. Mite control was applied three times. After the third treatment, new leaves without symptoms emerged, whileuntreated seedlings stopped to grow, their injuried leaves fell off and the seedlings ultimately dried out completely.

  8. Effect of different oviposition media and number of matings on the mass rearing of the olive Fruit Fly Dacus Oleae Gmel. (Diptera Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Moursy, A.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Rahman, A.M.; Ali, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The highest average egg of female dacus oleae was obtained when the texwax domes m.p. 121 degree C were used together with G.G.M. as oviposition medium, whereas the lowest mean was obtained when the paraffin mixture domes used. Using the texwax domes as a new oviposition medium was superior to either the G.G.M.or the paraffin mixture. The optimum percent hatchability was recorded when the G.G.M., texwax and paraffin mixture were used together as oviposition media, where the lowest percent hatchability was recorded when the G.G.M. was used only as oviposition medium. The longest oviposition duration was recorded when using the G.G.M. whereas the shortest duration occurred when the paraffin mixture was used. The highest rate of egg production was obtained by the twice mated females, whereas the lowest rate was obtained by the virgin ones. Also the percent hatchability recorded was higher in case of the twice-mated females than in females mated once

  9. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California

  10. Genetic Diversity of Verticillium dahliae Isolates from Olive Trees in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bellahcene

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt of olive trees (Olea europaea L., a wilt caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae (Kleb, is one of the most serious diseases in Algerian olive groves. To assess the pathogenic and genetic diversity of olive-infecting V. dahliae populations in Algeria, orchards from the two main olive-producing regions (north-western Algeria and Kabylia were sampled and 27 V. dahliae isolates were recovered. For purposes of comparison, V. dahliae strains from France and Syria were added to the analysis. By means of PCR primers that specifically discriminate between defoliating (D and non-defoliating (ND V. dahliae pathotypes it was shown that all V. dahliae isolates belonged to the ND pathotype. The amount of genetic variation between the 43 isolates was assessed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD. A total of 16 RAPD haplotypes were found on the basis of the presence or absence of 25 polymorphic DNA fragments. Genotypic diversity between the 27 Algerian isolates was low, with two RAPD haplotypes accounting for 70% of all isolates. Genotypic diversity was however greater between isolates from Kabylia than between isolates from north-western Algeria. Cluster analysis showed that most of the Algerian V. dahliae isolates grouped together with the French and Syrian isolates. On the basis of their ability to form heterokaryons with each other, a subset of 25 olive-pathogenic isolates was grouped into a single vegetative compatibility group (VCG. These results suggest that the olive-infecting V. dahliae populations in Algeria show limited diversity and that caution should be taken to prevent introduction of the D pathotype.

  11. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry eMueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in Eastern and Western areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated.

  12. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE WOUNDS OF GOATS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL AND OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Anand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally created forty eight wounds of similar size and shape were randomly divided in to three groups, of 16 wounds in each group. Sunflower seed oil impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats belonging to group I, while Olive oil (Olea europaea impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats of group II and normal saline solution (control soaked gauze to the wounds of goats of group III. Healing tissues were collected from the junction of wound and intact skin from all the experimental wounds in each of the three groups on 3, 10, 15 and 25 days. Biochemical examinations of healing tissue were done for collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline. The level of collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline were significantly higher in group I followed by group II and then group III. It can be concluded that both sunflower oil and olive oil are effective for acceleration of wound healing and sunflower oil is more effective than olive oil.

  13. Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Marsilio, V; Lanza, B; Pozzi, N

    1994-11-01

    Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3.5 limit, and tolerated 1% oleuropein and 8% NaCl in the growth medium. The beta-glucosidase produced hydrolyzed 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-glucopy-ranoside as well as oleuropein. The presence of 2% glucose in the medium inhibited activity by 40 to 50%, depending on the bacterial strain. Chromatographic analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the products obtained after 7 days of incubation at 30 degrees C of strain B21 showed all the hydrolysis products of oleuropein, i.e., aglycone, iridoid monoterpen, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and its aglycone after 21 days of incubation decreased to trace levels with the simultaneous increase in concentration of beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol.

  14. Polymorphisms in the AOX2 gene are associated with the rooting ability of olive cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Vahideh; Mousavi, Amir; Razavi, Khadijeh; Cultrera, Nicolò; Alagna, Fiammetta; Mariotti, Roberto; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Baldoni, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    Different rooting ability candidate genes were tested on an olive cross progeny. Our results demonstrated that only the AOX2 gene was strongly induced. OeAOX2 was fully characterised and correlated to phenotypical traits. The formation of adventitious roots is a key step in the vegetative propagation of trees crop species, and this ability is under strict genetic control. While numerous studies have been carried out to identify genes controlling adventitious root formation, only a few loci have been characterised. In this work, candidate genes that were putatively involved in rooting ability were identified in olive (Olea europaea L.) by similarity with orthologs identified in other plant species. The mRNA levels of these genes were analysed by real-time PCR during root induction in high- (HR) and low-rooting (LR) individuals. Interestingly, alternative oxidase 2 (AOX2), which was previously reported to be a functional marker for rooting in olive cuttings, showed a strong induction in HR individuals. From the OeAOX2 full-length gene, alleles and effective polymorphisms were distinguished and analysed in the cross progeny, which were segregated based on rooting. The results revealed a possible correlation between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of OeAOX2 gene and rooting ability.

  15. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

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    Carla Marchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L., is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i. Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.

  16. Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L

    2009-09-01

    The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development.

  17. Variability in Susceptibility to Anthracnose in the World Collection of Olive Cultivars of Cordoba (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Xaviér, Carlos J; Viruega, José R; Roca, Luis F; Caballero, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose of olive ( Olea europaea ssp. europaea L.), caused by Colletotrichum species, is a serious disease causing fruit rot and branch dieback, whose epidemics are highly dependent on cultivar susceptibility and environmental conditions. Over a period of 10 years, there have been three severe epidemics in Andalusia (southern Spain) that allowed us to complete the assessment of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Córdoba, one of the most important cultivar collections worldwide.A total of 308 cultivars from 21 countries were evaluated, mainly Spain (174 cvs.), Syria (29 cvs.), Italy (20 cvs.), Turkey (15 cvs.), and Greece (16 cvs.). Disease assessments were performed using a 0-10 rating scale, specifically developed to estimate the incidence of symptomatic fruit in the tree canopy. Also, the susceptibility of five reference cultivars was confirmed by artificial inoculation. Because of the direct relationship between the maturity of the fruit and their susceptibility to the pathogen, evaluations were performed at the end of fruit ripening, which forced coupling assessments according to the maturity state of the trees. By applying the cluster analysis to the 308 cultivars, these were classified as follows: 66 cvs. highly susceptible (21.4%), 83 cvs. susceptible (26.9%), 66 cvs. moderately susceptible (21.4%), 61 cvs. resistant (19.8%), and 32 cvs. highly resistant (10.4%). Representative cultivars of these five categories are "Ocal," "Lechín de Sevilla," "Arbequina," "Picual," and "Frantoio," respectively. With some exceptions, such as cvs. Arbosana, Empeltre and Picual, most of the Spanish cultivars, such as "Arbequina," "Cornicabra," "Hojiblanca," "Manzanilla de Sevilla," "Morisca," "Picudo," "Farga," and "Verdial de Huévar" are included in the categories of moderately susceptible, susceptible or highly susceptible. The phenotypic evaluation of anthracnose reaction is a limiting factor for the selection of olive cultivars by farmers, technicians, and breeders.

  18. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iconomou, D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and β-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L. of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N2 flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall ogranoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield.

    La evolución de los compuestos fenólicos y su contribución a las caracterísiticas de calidad de aceite de oliva virgen durante el procesado del fruto fue estudiado mediante la adición de una combinación de varias enzimas comerciales conteniendo pectinasas, poligalacturonasa, celulasa y β-glucanasa con y sin flujo de nitrógeno. Las aceitunas (Olea europaea, L. de la variedad Megaritiki, con un estado de madurez correspondiente a una pigmentación semi-negra, fueron usadas en un experimento a escala industrial mediante un sistema de extracción de 3-fase. La

  20. Measurement of kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives by microstructure of fracture surface, sensory evaluation and texture profile analysis (TPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Barbara; Amoruso, Filomena

    2018-02-02

    A series of transformations occur in olive fruit both during ripening and processing. In particular, significant changes in the microstructural composition affect the flavour, texture, nutrients and overall quality of the end product. Texture is one of the sensory quality attributes of greatest importance to consumer acceptance. In the present work, kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives of three cultivars of Olea europaea L. (Bella di Cerignola, Peranzana and Taggiasca cvs) were provided by several measurements of olive tissue texture by sensory, rheological and microstructural approaches. Olives at the same stage of ripening and processed with the same technology, but belonging to different cultivars, showed significant differences at microstructural, sensorial and rheological levels. To describe the relationship between the three variables, multiple regression analysis and principal component analysis were chosen. Differences in microstructure were closely related both in terms of hardness measured by texture profile analysis and hardness measured by sensory analysis. The information provided could be an aid for screening and training of a sensory panel. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Complex interactive effects of ripening degree, malaxation duration and temperature on Oblica cv. virgin olive oil phenols, volatiles and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Žanetić, Mirella; Jukić Špika, Maja; Lukić, Marina; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Brkić Bubola, Karolina

    2017-10-01

    The interactive effects of ripening degree, malaxation duration and temperature on Oblica cv. (Olea europaea L.) virgin olive oil phenols, volatiles, and sensory quality were investigated. Olives were picked at three ripening degrees with International Olive Council indices of 0.68, 2.48 and 4.10, and processed by malaxation at 22 and 30°C, and at both temperatures for 30 and 60min. Ripening exhibited the strongest effect, and malaxation duration the weakest. Phenols were generally found to decrease during ripening; however 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA increased. Similar behaviour was observed for (E)-2-hexenal. Higher malaxation temperature induced an increase in particular important phenols and C6 alcohols, while C6 aldehydes mostly decreased. Interactions between the factors were established, mostly between ripening degree and malaxation temperature: the effect of the latter was most pronounced for ripe olives, especially for 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and C6 volatiles. Sensory attributes were generally in agreement with the chemical composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of sustainable irrigation regimes and agricultural practices on the soil CO2 fluxes from olive groves in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Serrano-Ortíz, Penelope; Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; Chamizo, Sonia; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2017-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is the dominant agriculture plantation in Spain and its main product, olive oil, is vital to the economy of Mediterranean countries. Given the extensive surface dedicated to olive plantations, olive groves can potentially sequester large amounts of carbon and contribute to mitigate climate change. Their potential for carbon sequestration will, however, largely depend on the management and irrigation practices in the olive grove. Although soil respiration is the main path of C release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and a suitable indicator of soil health and fertility, the interaction of agricultural management practices with irrigation regimes on soil CO2 fluxes have not been assessed yet. Here we investigate the influence of the presence of herbaceous cover, use of artificial fertilizers and their interaction with the irrigation regime on the CO2 emission from the soil to the atmosphere. For this, the three agricultural management treatments were established in replicated plots in an olive grove in the SE of Spain: presence of herbaceous cover ("H"), exclusion of herbaceous cover by using herbicides ("NH"), and exclusion of herbaceous cover along with addition of artificial fertilizers (0.55 kg m-2 year-1 of N, P, K solid fertilizer in the proportion 20:10:10, "NHF"). Within each management treatment, three irrigation regimes were also implemented in a randomized design: no-irrigation ("NO") or rain fed, full irrigation (224 l week-1 per olive tree, "MAX"), and a 50% restriction (112 l week-1 per olive tree, "MED"). Soil respiration was measured every 2-3 weeks at 1, 3, and 5 meters from each olive tree together with soil temperature and soil moisture in order to account for the spatial and seasonal variability over the year. Soil respiration was higher when herbaceous cover was present compared to the herbaceous exclusion, whereas the addition of fertilizer did not exert any significant effect. Although the different

  4. Assessment of the antioxidant activity of an olive oil total polyphenolic fraction and hydroxytyrosol from a Greek Olea europea variety in endothelial cells and myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouka, Paraskevi; Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Angelis, Apostolis; Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Xinos, Nikos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Léandros; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-09-01

    Olive oil (OO) constitutes the basis of the Mediterranean diet, and it seems that its biophenols, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT) may scavenge free radicals, attracting distinct attention due to their beneficial effects in many pathological conditions, such as cancer. To the best of our knowedge, this is the first study in which the functional properties of an OO total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) and pure HT were examined in order to determine their antioxidant effects at a cellular level in endothelial cells and myoblasts. The test compounds were isolated using a green gradient‑elution centrifugal partition chromatography‑based method that allows the isolation of large volumes of OO in a continuous extraction procedure and with extremely low solvent consumption. For the isolation of HT, a combination of two chromatographic techniques was used, which is effective for the recovery of pure compounds from complex natural extracts. Moreover, TPF and HT exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro. The cells were treated with non‑cytotoxic concentrations and their redox status [in terms of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels] was assessed. TPF extract was less cytotoxic than HT, and the observed differences between the two cell lines used suggest a tissue‑specific activity. Finally, flow cytometric analysis revealed that both TPF and HT improved the redox status by increasing the levels of GSH, one of the most important antioxidant molecules, in both endothelial cells and myoblasts, while the ROS levels were not significantly affected.

  5. Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Lanza, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2013-05-01

    Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the β-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the β-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solvent-Free Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Olive Tree Leaves: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Samli, Ruya; Tan, Ayşe Seher Birteksöz; Barba, Francisco J; Chemat, Farid; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-06-24

    Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC) and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf ( Olea europaea ) extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE). The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250-350 W, extraction time 2-3 min, and the amount of sample 5-10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. ANN had better prediction performance for TPC and oleuropein yields compared to RSM. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: irradiation power 250 W, extraction time 2 min, and amount of sample 5 g, independent of the method used for prediction. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein (0.060 ± 0.012 ppm) was obtained and the amount of TPC was 2.480 ± 0.060 ppm. Moreover, olive leaf extracts obtained under optimum SFMAE conditions showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis , with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.25 mg/mL.

  7. Solvent-Free Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Olive Tree Leaves: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Şahin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural networks (ANN were evaluated and compared in order to decide which method was the most appropriate to predict and optimize total phenolic content (TPC and oleuropein yields in olive tree leaf (Olea europaea extracts, obtained after solvent-free microwave-assisted extraction (SFMAE. The SFMAE processing conditions were: microwave irradiation power 250–350 W, extraction time 2–3 min, and the amount of sample 5–10 g. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the olive leaf extracts, obtained under optimal extraction conditions, were assessed by several in vitro assays. ANN had better prediction performance for TPC and oleuropein yields compared to RSM. The optimum extraction conditions to recover both TPC and oleuropein were: irradiation power 250 W, extraction time 2 min, and amount of sample 5 g, independent of the method used for prediction. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of oleuropein (0.060 ± 0.012 ppm was obtained and the amount of TPC was 2.480 ± 0.060 ppm. Moreover, olive leaf extracts obtained under optimum SFMAE conditions showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL.

  8. Characterization of olive oil obtained from whole fruit and fruit flesh of cultivar: Kaissy grown in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO from whole fruits and fruit flesh of Kaissy olive (Olea europaea cultivar was investigated in this study. Acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, specification number (SV, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value, phenol content, refractive index (RI and viscosity were measured after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. The physicochemical properties of oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh samples of olive were: AV (0.32 and 0.40%, PV (4.79 and 6.13%, TBA (0.056 and 0.052 mg MDA kg-1 oil, IV (84.41 and 83.87 g-1 oil, SV (195.48 and 187.56 mg KOH g-1 oil, total phenolic (339.52 and 226.68 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil, RI (1.4669 and 1.4668 and viscosity (129.33 and 130.00 mPa s-1 respectively. The results demonstrated that the AV, PV, RI and viscosity values significantly (p<0.05 increased, while TBA value and total phenolic content significantly (p<0.05 decreased during storage.

  9. Determination of sugar compounds in olive plant extracts by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, T R; Margiotta, G; Iasi, L; Di Chio, B; Xiloyannis, C; Bufo, S A

    2000-08-15

    We describe a chromatographic method that uses isocratic elution and pulsed amperometric detection to determine soluble carbohydrates in plant tissues. Such a method provides a rapid and convenient means to obtain a complete profile of the sugar components of leaves and roots from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina) plants. A simple purification of plant extracts using pure water was developed, which is far less time-consuming and retains a high level of accuracy. Excellent separation of myo-inositol, galactinol, mannitol, galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose was achieved with an anion-exchange column and 12 mM NaOH spiked with 1 mM barium acetate as an eluent. At a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the time of analysis was less than 25 min, and repeatability of the method on the order of 2.2% as RSD or better for retention times and lower than 5.2% for peak areas. Recoveries approximated 100% (range 97.2-104.5%), and the method provided good precision with a coefficient of variation which ranged between 0.9 and 3.3%. Among identified carbohydrates extracted from leaves and roots of olive plants, glucose and mannitol were major compounds. Their molar ratio was estimated to be 1.2+/-0.1 and 2.2+/-0.3 for olive leaves and roots, respectively. The occurrence of soluble galactinol in plant tissues was also validated.

  10. Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

  11. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  12. Geographical Characterization of Tunisian Olive Tree Leaves (cv. Chemlali) Using HPLC-ESI-TOF and IT/MS Fingerprinting with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez Román, David; Gómez Caravaca, Ana María; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2018-01-01

    The olive plant has been extensively studied for its nutritional value, whereas its leaves have been specifically recognized as a processing by-product. Leaves are considered by-products of olive farming, representing a significant material arriving to the olive mill. They have been considered for centuries as an important herbal remedy in Mediterranean countries. Their beneficial properties are generally attributed to the presence of a range of phytochemicals such as secoiridoids, triterpenes, lignans, and flavonoids. With the aim to study the impact of geographical location on the phenolic compounds, Olea europaea leaves were handpicked from the Tunisian cultivar “Chemlali” from nine regions in the north, center, and south of Tunisia. The ground leaves were then extracted with methanol : water 80% (v/v) and analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time of flight and ion trap mass spectrometry analyzers. A total of 38 compounds could be identified. Their contents showed significant variation among samples from different regions. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to highlight similarities in the phytochemical composition observed between the samples of different regions. PMID:29725553

  13. Inorganic nutrients in natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Grimanis, A.; Mazomenos, B.

    1978-01-01

    Certain inorganic nutrients contained in the natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae were determined by neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry. The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and phosporus was reported for the olive fruit mesocarp at three stages of maturity, brewer's yeast, soybean hydrolysate and roasted peanuts. Several differences were found between the inorganic nutrient content of the natural food (olive fruit) and artificial diet of D. oleae larvae. The differences which may be important in the nutrition and metabolism of this insect were estimated and discussed

  14. Preliminary Study with P{sup 32} on the Dispersion of Adults of the Olive Fly (Dacus Oleae Gmel); Essai preliminaire avec {sup 32}P sur la dispersion des adultes du Dacus Oleae Gmel; Predvaritel'nye opyty s P{sup 32} dlya izucheniya rasseyaniya vzroslykh osobej (Dacus Oleae Gmel).; Estudio preliminar con {sup 32}P de la dispersion de los adultos del Dcus Oleae Gmel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidis, P. S.; Soultanopoulos, C. D.; Karandeinos, M. G. [Laboratoire Biologique, Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, Athens (Greece)

    1963-09-15

    The lack of numerical data on the movement of the olive fly led to a preliminary trial with adults reared in cages and labelled before release with a sugar solution containing {mu}c P32/cm{sup 3}. Subsequent measurements showed dispersion of the labelled adults up to a distance of 2 km from the point of release during a calm sunny period in winter. (author) [French] Le manque de donnees numeriques sur la dispersion de la mouche de l'olive a amene a faire un essai preliminaire avec 2500 adultes eleves dans des cages et marques, avant leur lacher, au moyen d'une solution sucree contenant 20 {mu}c de {sup 32}P par centimetre cube Les mesures ulterieures ont montre une dispersion des adultes marques jusqu'a une distance de 2 km du point de lacher pendant les jours ensoleilles d'hiver, dits alcyoniens. (author) [Spanish] La falta de datos numericos sobre la dispersion de la mosca del olivo ha inducido a efectuar un estudio preliminar con 2 500 adultos criados en cajas y marcados antes de susuelta con una solucion azucarada que contenia 20 {mu}c de {sup 32}P/cm{sup 3}. Las mediciones han puesto de manifiesto una dispersion de los adultos marcados hasta una distancia de dos kilometros del punto en que fueron soltados durante loe dias soleados de invierno llamados alcioneos. (author) [Russian] Otsutst'ie kolichestvennykh dannykh otnositel'no rasseyaniya olivkovykh mukh obuslovilo provedenie predvaritel'nogo opyta s 2500 vzroslymi osobyami, vyrashchennymi v yashchikakh i pomechennymi pered vypuskom s pomoshch'yu sladkogo rastvora, soderzhashchego 20 {mu}c na 1 cm{sup 3} P{sup 32}. Otnositel'nye izmereniya pokazali udalenie mechenykh vzroslykh osobej do 2 km ot mesta vypuska v period solnechnykh zimnikh dnej, nazyvaemykh alkionidnymi. (author)

  15. Mycorrhizal status of Olea europaea spp. oleaster in Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-01-31

    Jan 31, 2013 ... decline of forests, accelerated soil degradation and the developed ... in terrestrial ecosystems of the arid areas. (Brundett, 1991 ... restoration of the degraded soils and in the plants prophylaxis ... Moroccan forest ecosystems. This species of ..... attributed to the method used in estimating the mycorrhization ...

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in under crown Olea europaea L forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal concentration in plants increased in site irrigation with wastewater. Zn, Pb and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in soils and Pb, Cr and Ni exceeded their permitted limits in roots of plants irrigated with wastewater. It was concluded that the use of wastewater in urban forest enriched the soils with heavy metals ...

  17. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Suppresses Sterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic). © Pharmacotherapy ... increasing fatty acid oxidation and constitutive lipoprotein ... The ethanol extract obtained (180 g) was re- suspended in ... 10 % heat-inactivated foetal bovine serum (FBS;.

  18. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  19. Effect of complementary irrigation on yield components and alternate bearing of a traditional olive orchard in semi-arid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodolini, E.M.; Polverigiani, S.; Ali, S.; Mutawea, M.; Qutub, M.; Pierini, F.; Neri, D.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards are usually not irrigated in the Mediterranean basin, but at those latitudes, the yearly rainfall is frequently insufficient to support equilibrated vegetative growth and high fruit and oil production. This three-year field study investigated the effect of complementary irrigation on olive tree vegetative growth, fruit and oil yield during a biennial alternate bearing cycle in a traditional grove under semi-arid conditions. Adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Nabali Baladi) were subjected to complementary irrigation in 2011 and 2012 ('on' and 'off' years, respectively) with 6, 10, 15 or 20 m3 of water per tree per season, which corresponded to 14.2%, 23.8%, 35.7% and 47.6% of the whole seasonal evapotranspiration (42 m3 of water per year), respectively. Rain-fed trees were used as control. In 2013, no complementary irrigation was supplied, and any residual effects on the yield components were determined. Results showed that none of the irrigation regimes affected vegetative growth, or olive fruit size (mesocarp and endocarp), as fresh and dry weights. The fruit and oil yield per tree increased compared to the rain-fed conditions only when the threshold of 15 m3 was exceeded, thus inducing a higher crop load compared to the rain-fed control during the 'off' and even further during the 'on' year. No residual effects were registered in 2013. The study showed that complementary irrigation of at least 35% of the seasonal water requirement can produce remarkable positive effects on fruit yield especially during 'on' bearing years. (Author)

  20. Effect of complementary irrigation on yield components and alternate bearing of a traditional olive orchard in semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M. Lodolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional olive orchards are usually not irrigated in the Mediterranean basin, but at those latitudes, the yearly rainfall is frequently insufficient to support equilibrated vegetative growth and high fruit and oil production. This three-year field study investigated the effect of complementary irrigation on olive tree vegetative growth, fruit and oil yield during a biennial alternate bearing cycle in a traditional grove under semi-arid conditions. Adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Nabali Baladi were subjected to complementary irrigation in 2011 and 2012 ('on' and 'off' years, respectively with 6, 10, 15 or 20 m3 of water per tree per season, which corresponded to 14.2%, 23.8%, 35.7% and 47.6% of the whole seasonal evapotranspiration (42 m3 of water per year, respectively. Rain-fed trees were used as control. In 2013, no complementary irrigation was supplied, and any residual effects on the yield components were determined. Results showed that none of the irrigation regimes affected vegetative growth, or olive fruit size (mesocarp and endocarp, as fresh and dry weights. The fruit and oil yield per tree increased compared to the rain-fed conditions only when the threshold of 15 m3 was exceeded, thus inducing a higher crop load compared to the rain-fed control during the 'off' and even further during the 'on' year. No residual effects were registered in 2013. The study showed that complementary irrigation of at least 35% of the seasonal water requirement can produce remarkable positive effects on fruit yield especially during 'on' bearing years.

  1. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K 232 , K 270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sofo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive trees (Olea europaea L. are commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plants of the Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose, proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.

  3. Olive Cultivation in the Southern Hemisphere: Flowering, Water Requirements and Oil Quality Responses to New Crop Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mariela; Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Searles, Peter; Rousseaux, M. Cecilia; García-Inza, Georgina; Miserere, Andrea; Bodoira, Romina; Contreras, Cibeles; Maestri, Damián

    2017-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a crop well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Basin. Nevertheless, the increasing international demand for olive oil and table olives in the last two decades has led to expansion of olive cultivation in some countries of the southern hemisphere, notably in Argentina, Chile, Perú and Australia. While the percentage of world production represented by these countries is still low, many of the new production regions do not have typical Mediterranean climates, and some are located at subtropical latitudes where there is relatively little information about crop function. Thus, the primary objective of this review was to assess recently published scientific literature on olive cultivation in these new crop environments. The review focuses on three main aspects: (a) chilling requirements for flowering, (b) water requirements and irrigation management, and (c) environmental effects on fruit oil concentration and quality. In many arid and semiarid regions of South America, temperatures are high and rainfall is low in the winter and early spring months compared to conditions in much of the Mediterranean Basin. High temperatures have often been found to have detrimental effects on olive flowering in many olive cultivars that have been introduced to South America, and a better understanding of chilling requirements is needed. Lack of rainfall in the winter and spring also has resulted in an urgent need to evaluate water requirements from the flower differentiation period in the winter to early fruit bearing. Additionally, in some olive growing areas of South America and Australia, high early season temperatures affect the timing of phenological events such that the onset of oil synthesis occurs sooner than in the Mediterranean Basin with most oil accumulation taking place in the summer when temperatures are very high. Increasing mean daily temperatures have been demonstrated to decrease fruit oil concentration

  4. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.-G.; Bohn, H.; Haas, F.; Willemse, F.; de Jong, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region),

  5. Glucósidos fenólicos amargos de las semillas del olivo (Olea europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestro-Durán, R.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available From the seeds of Olea europaea, three known glucosides, salidroside (tyrosol-glucose, nüzhenide (glucose-elenolic acid-glucosetyrosol and nüzhenide-oleoside have been isolated as well as two new secoiridoid glucosides with tyrosol, elenolic acid and glucose moieties in unknown sequence.

    Se han aislado de semillas de aceituna (Olea europaea tres glucósidos secoiridoides ya conocidos: salidrósido (tirosol-glucosa, nuzhenida (glucosa-ácido elenólico-glucosa-tirosol y nuzhenida-oleósido, así como otros dos glucósidos secoiridoides que también tienen en su molécula tirosol, ácido elenólico y glucosa cuyas secuencias no se han podido establecer.

  6. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C

    2014-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by the Griess method and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence analysis. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), as well as the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, were analyzed by Western blot. PE from EVOO reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through decreasing NO and ROS generation. In addition, PE induced a significant down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and mPGES-1 protein expressions, reduced MAPK phosphorylation and prevented the nuclear NFκB translocation. This study establishes that PE from EVOO possesses anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages.

  8. Trace-element measurements in atmospheric biomonitors--A look at the relative performance of INAA and PIXE on olive-tree bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Adriano M.G.; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    As part of an ongoing evaluation of its suitability for atmospheric biomonitoring, bark from olive trees (Olea europaea Linn.) has been collected and searched for trace elements by means of two nuclear-analytical techniques--instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The sampling for the present study was carried out across two separate sections of an established grid for air-quality surveys in mainland Portugal. The dual location comprises 58 collection sites--littoral-north (29 sites) and littoral-centre (29 sites). Both techniques are intrinsically accurate and may be seen to complement each other in the way that, as a whole, they yield 46 elements, with an overlap of 16 elements. Among the latter, this paper focuses on four of them and looks into their joint determination. Descriptive statistics for soil-related Al and Ti, and for sea-related Cl and Br, show results for each element to be fairly comparable. The degree of association between elemental patterns by either technique, as seen through nonparametric tests (Kendall's R K ), is outstanding. No statistical evidence (Wilcoxon's T) for relative bias in correlated samples--consistently higher or lower results by one technique--could be found as well. As far as this study goes, INAA and PIXE may be used interchangeably for determining the present elements in olive-tree bark

  9. Cell and tissue dynamics of olive endocarp sclerification vary according to water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Sofiene B M; Costagli, Giacomo; Rapoport, Hava F

    2013-12-01

    Endocarp developmental timing in drupe-type fruits, involving tissue expansion and sclerification processes, is increasingly used as marker for biological studies and crop management. In spite of its wide application, however, little is known regarding how these morphogenetic processes unfold or the factors that modify it. This study evaluates endocarp expansion and sclerification of olive (Olea europaea) fruits, used as an example of drupe-type fruits, from trees growing under different water regimes: full irrigated, deficit irrigated (moderate reduction of water availability) and rainfed (severe reduction of water availability). Fruits were sampled weekly until pit hardening, and fruit and endocarp areas were evaluated in histological preparations. An image analysis process was tested and adjusted to quantify sclerified area and distribution within the endocarp. Individual stone cells differentiated independently but distribution and timing indicated the overall coordination of endocarp tissue sclerification. Increase in sclerified area was initially gradual, accelerated abruptly the week prior to the end of endocarp expansion and then continued at an intermediate rate. These results suggest that the end of the expansion period is driven by sclerification and the morphogenetic signals involved act first on sclerification rather than endocarp size. Intensification of sclerification and the end of expansive growth occurred first with lowest water supply. Moderate and severe reductions in water availability proportionately decreased endocarp expansion and prolonged the sclerification, delaying the date of physically perceived hardening but not affecting the final degree of endocarp sclerification. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of two olive cultivars in response to infection by the CoDiRO strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Chiumenti, Michela; Boscia, Donato; Savino, Vito N; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2016-06-27

    The recent Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp) outbreak in olive (Olea europaea) groves in southern Italy is causing a destructive disease denoted Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS). Field observations disclosed that Xfp-infected plants of cv. Leccino show much milder symptoms, than the more widely grown and highly susceptible cv. Ogliarola salentina. To determine whether these field observations underlie a tolerant condition of cv. Leccino, which could be exploited for lessening the economic impact of the disease on the local olive industry, transcriptional changes occurring in plants of the two cultivars affected by Xfp were investigated. A global quantitative transcriptome profiling comparing susceptible (Ogliarola salentina) and tolerant (Leccino) olive cultivars, infected or not by Xfp, was done on messenger RNA (mRNAs) extracted from xylem tissues. The study revealed that 659 and 447 genes were differentially regulated in cvs Leccino and Ogliarola upon Xfp infection, respectively, whereas 512 genes were altered when the transcriptome of both infected cultivars was compared. Analysis of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) shows that the presence of Xfp is perceived by the plants of both cultivars, in which it triggers a differential response strongly involving the cell wall. Up-regulation of genes encoding receptor-like kinases (RLK) and receptor-like proteins (RLP) is the predominant response of cv. Leccino, which is missing in cv. Ogliarola salentina. Moreover, both cultivars react with a strong re-modelling of cell wall proteins. These data suggest that Xfp elicits a different transcriptome response in the two cultivars, which determines a lower pathogen concentration in cv. Leccino and indicates that this cultivar may harbor genetic constituents and/or regulatory elements which counteract Xfp infection. Collectively these findings suggest that cv. Leccino is endowed with an intrinsic tolerance to Xfp, which makes it eligible for further studies

  11. Comparação de azeites obtidos da cultivar portuguesa Galega Vulgar utilizando dois métodos de extracção Comparison of olive oil from Portuguese cultivar Galega Vulgar with two different methods of oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Torres Vaz-Freire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção do azeite é uma das actividades agrícolas mais características da região mediterrânea e de importância relevante para a sua economia. O objectivo do trabalho foi o estudo da influência dos métodos da extracção na qualidade do azeite obtido. Incidiu principalmente sobre uma das cultivares recomendadas para os azeites de denominação origem protegida (DOP no Alentejo. Foi extraída azeite da variedade portuguesa, Galega Vulgar (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, colhida na região de Elvas nas campanhas de 2001 a 2004. Utilizou-se uma prensa hidráulica (extracção descontínua, Vieirinox, Portugal; e um “decanter” centrífugo de duas fases (extracção contínua, Oliomio, Itália. Nas azeitonas determinou-se o índice de maturação, fez-se o controle de pragas e avaliou-se o Índice de gordura (RMN. No azeite para além das análises químicas de controlo foi realizada a análise Sensorial com painel treinado e uma detecção electrónica de aromas (Alpha Mos Fox 3000. Os resultados preliminares mostram haver diferenças significativas para alguns dos parâmetros analisados no caso dos azeites. De todos os parâmetros em que se detectaram diferenças significativas apenas a acidez demonstrou alterações suficientes para classificar o azeite em outra categoria considerando a classificação estabelecida pelo Regulamento (CE N.º 1989/2003 de 6 de Novembro. Estudos como este são importantes na adaptação da tecnologia à variedade com o intuito de aumentar a eficiência de determinado processo tecnológico.Olive oil production is one of the important agricultural activities on the Mediterranean region and has a real impact on local economies. The objective of this work was the study of extraction methods impact on olive oil final quality. The variety studied is one of the varieties allowed for olive oil with Protected Origin Denomination (DOP production in Alentejo. The Portuguese variety extracted was Galega Vulgar

  12. Effect of drought stress on qualitative characteristics of olive oil of cv Koroneiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsifaki, Fani

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, K232, K270, oxidative stability and chemical compositional data (fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerols were studied in virgin olive oil samples from olive trees, cv Koroneiki, subjected to different water regimes. Experimental trials were carried out using three-year old own-rooted olive trees (Olea europaea L variety Koroneiki. Plants were subjected to two irrigation treatments to maintain soil water potential to -0.03 MPa and -1.5 MPa. Results showed that irrigation significantly increased the fruit oil content and the oxidative stability and peroxide value of the resulting oil. Olive oil from fruits of irrigated trees showed significant higher values in total saturated fatty acids. Total sterols were also significantly influenced by irrigation. Acidity and specific absorption coefficients K232, K270, of olive oils were not significantly affected.Se han estudiado los valores de calidad reglamentada (acidez, índice de peróxido, los valores de absorbancia en UV (K270, K232, estabilidad oxidativa media en Rancimat 120ºC y características químicas (ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos en aceite de oliva virgen variedad Koroneiki sometidos a diferentes regímenes hídricos. El estudio se ha realizado en árboles adultos de 3 años cultivados en contenedor al aire libre. Los árboles se riegan con dos dosis tratando de mantener un potencial de agua en el suelo de unos -0,03 Mpa y -1,5 Mpa. Los resultados muestran en los olivos de riego un aumento significativo de la riqueza grasa y de la estabilidad del aceite. Los aceites producidos en olivos de riego presentan una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos saturados (palmítico-esteárico. Los esteroles totales se ven significativamente influenciados por el riego. Acidez y absorbancia K270, K232 no se han visto afectados por el riego.

  13. X-FIDO: An Effective Application for Detecting Olive Quick Decline Syndrome with Deep Learning and Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Albert C.; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Ampatzidis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a vision-based program to detect symptoms of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) on leaves of Olea europaea L. infected by Xylella fastidiosa, named X-FIDO (Xylella FastIdiosa Detector for O. europaea L.). Previous work predicted disease from leaf images with deep learning but required a vast amount of data which was obtained via crowd sourcing such as the PlantVillage project. This approach has limited applicability when samples need to be tested with traditional methods (i.e., PCR) to avoid incorrect training input or for quarantine pests which manipulation is restricted. In this paper, we demonstrate that transfer learning can be leveraged when it is not possible to collect thousands of new leaf images. Transfer learning is the re-application of an already trained deep learner to a new problem. We present a novel algorithm for fusing data at different levels of abstraction to improve performance of the system. The algorithm discovers low-level features from raw data to automatically detect veins and colors that lead to symptomatic leaves. The experiment included images of 100 healthy leaves, 99 X. fastidiosa-positive leaves and 100 X. fastidiosa-negative leaves with symptoms related to other stress factors (i.e., abiotic factors such as water stress or others diseases). The program detects OQDS with a true positive rate of 98.60 ± 1.47% in testing, showing great potential for image analysis for this disease. Results were obtained with a convolutional neural network trained with the stochastic gradient descent method, and ten trials with a 75/25 split of training and testing data. This work shows potential for massive screening of plants with reduced diagnosis time and cost. PMID:29067037

  14. X-FIDO: An Effective Application for Detecting Olive Quick Decline Syndrome with Deep Learning and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C. Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a vision-based program to detect symptoms of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS on leaves of Olea europaea L. infected by Xylella fastidiosa, named X-FIDO (Xylella FastIdiosa Detector for O. europaea L.. Previous work predicted disease from leaf images with deep learning but required a vast amount of data which was obtained via crowd sourcing such as the PlantVillage project. This approach has limited applicability when samples need to be tested with traditional methods (i.e., PCR to avoid incorrect training input or for quarantine pests which manipulation is restricted. In this paper, we demonstrate that transfer learning can be leveraged when it is not possible to collect thousands of new leaf images. Transfer learning is the re-application of an already trained deep learner to a new problem. We present a novel algorithm for fusing data at different levels of abstraction to improve performance of the system. The algorithm discovers low-level features from raw data to automatically detect veins and colors that lead to symptomatic leaves. The experiment included images of 100 healthy leaves, 99 X. fastidiosa-positive leaves and 100 X. fastidiosa-negative leaves with symptoms related to other stress factors (i.e., abiotic factors such as water stress or others diseases. The program detects OQDS with a true positive rate of 98.60 ± 1.47% in testing, showing great potential for image analysis for this disease. Results were obtained with a convolutional neural network trained with the stochastic gradient descent method, and ten trials with a 75/25 split of training and testing data. This work shows potential for massive screening of plants with reduced diagnosis time and cost.

  15. X-FIDO: An Effective Application for Detecting Olive Quick Decline Syndrome with Deep Learning and Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Albert C; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Ampatzidis, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a vision-based program to detect symptoms of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) on leaves of Olea europaea L. infected by Xylella fastidiosa , named X-FIDO ( Xylella FastIdiosa Detector for O. europaea L.). Previous work predicted disease from leaf images with deep learning but required a vast amount of data which was obtained via crowd sourcing such as the PlantVillage project. This approach has limited applicability when samples need to be tested with traditional methods (i.e., PCR) to avoid incorrect training input or for quarantine pests which manipulation is restricted. In this paper, we demonstrate that transfer learning can be leveraged when it is not possible to collect thousands of new leaf images. Transfer learning is the re-application of an already trained deep learner to a new problem. We present a novel algorithm for fusing data at different levels of abstraction to improve performance of the system. The algorithm discovers low-level features from raw data to automatically detect veins and colors that lead to symptomatic leaves. The experiment included images of 100 healthy leaves, 99 X. fastidiosa -positive leaves and 100 X. fastidiosa -negative leaves with symptoms related to other stress factors (i.e., abiotic factors such as water stress or others diseases). The program detects OQDS with a true positive rate of 98.60 ± 1.47% in testing, showing great potential for image analysis for this disease. Results were obtained with a convolutional neural network trained with the stochastic gradient descent method, and ten trials with a 75/25 split of training and testing data. This work shows potential for massive screening of plants with reduced diagnosis time and cost.

  16. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Evaluation of three semi-empirical approaches to estimate the net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Olivari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of actual evapotranspiration (ETα models requires an appropriate parameterization of the available energy, where the net radiation (Rn is the most important component. Thus, a study was carried out to calibrate and evaluate three semi-empirical approaches to estimate net radiation (Rn over a drip-irrigated olive (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina' orchard during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. The orchard was planted in 2005 at high density in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The evaluated models were calculated using the balance between long and short wave radiation. To achieve this objective it was assumed that Ts = Tα for Model 1, Ts = Tv for Model 2 and Ts = Tr for Model 3 (Ts is surface temperature; Tα is air temperature; and Tv is temperature inside of the tree canopy; Tr is radiometric temperature. For the three models, the Brutsaert's empirical coefficient (Φ was calibrated using incoming long wave radiation equation with the database of 2009/2010 season. Thus, the calibration indicated that Φ was equal to 1.75. Using the database from 2010/2011 season, the validation indicated that the three models were able to predict the Rn at a 30-min interval with errors lower than 6%, root mean square error (RMSE between 26 and 39 W m-2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 20 and 31 W m-2. On daily time intervals, validation indicated that models presented errors, RMSE and MAE between 2% and 3%, 1.22-1.54 and 1.04-1.35 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. The three R„-Models would be evaluated and used in others Mediterranean conditions according to the availability of data to estimate net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard planted at high density.

  18. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis in determining the mineral contents of the olive fruit fly and its food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Grimanis, A.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of the olive fruit mesocarp and of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, pupae in Na, K, Ca, Mg and Mn determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is reported. The AAS was used as a standard method to evaluate the results obtained by NAA because of problems encountered with this method. (Auth.)

  20. Effect of the season on the free phytoprostane content in Cornicabra extra virgin olive oil from deficit-irrigated olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Fernández, Diego José; Carro, Fernando; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2016-03-30

    The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the phytoprostane (PhytoP) content in extra virgin olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Cornicabra) oil (EVOO) was studied. During the 2012 and 2013 seasons, T0 plants were irrigated at 100% ETc, while T1 and T2 plants were irrigated avoiding water deficit during phases I and III of fruit growth and saving water during the non-critical phenological period of pit hardening (phase II), developing a more severe water deficit in T2 plants. In 2013, a fourth treatment (T3) was also performed, which was similar to T2 except that water saving was from the beginning of phase II to 15 days after the end of phase II. 9-F1t -PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t -PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t -PhytoP, 9-D1t -PhytoP, 16-B1 -PhytoP and 9-L1 -PhytoP were present in Cornicabra EVOO, and their contents increased in the EVOO from RDI plants. Deficit irrigation during pit hardening or for a further period of 2 weeks thereafter to increase irrigation water saving is clearly critical for EVOO composition because of the enhancement of free PhytoPs, which have potential beneficial effects on human health. The response of individual free PhytoPs to changes in plant water status was not as perceptible as expected, preventing their use as biomarkers of water stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of olive production using Life Cycle Assessment: A case study, Tarom county, Zanjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ehsan khodarezaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Horticulture industry consumes a significant part of the energy and materials and release pollutants into the environment. Olive (Olea europaea L. is one of the most cultivated plants in Iran, so the environmental impact assessment of these production systems is important. However, the consequences and environmental impacts of olive production systems have not been studied in Iran. Tarom County is one of the most important olive production centers in Iran. So, this study is performed to evaluate environmental impacts of olive production in Tarom region. Materials and Methods In this study, the LCA approach is used to assessment of environmental impacts of olive production. This study is conducted in Tarom County in 2012-2013. The aim of this study was to determine hot spots of olive life cycle and offering appropriate Solutions to reduce the related environmental impact in Tarom region. In this research, one ton of Olives was considered as functional unit. System boundary is defined as “from cradle to farm gate”. Primary data were collected through observation, sampling and questionnaires completing method. The climate and soil data were collected from the "Olive Research Center" located in the Tarom County. Data for the production of used inputs (Secondary data were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database, and SimaPro software was employed to analyze primary data. Impact categories were analyzed based on CML 2 baseline 2000 V2.04/ world, 1995/ characterization and SimaPro 7.2 software. CML 2 baseline 2000. Results and Discussion The obtained data from inventory are presented in the table 1. These data includes Inputs and outputs of olive production system in Tarom olive systems. Table 1- Inputs and outputs of olive production system (per 1 ton olive. Amount\tUnit\tInputs 48.04\tkg\tDiesel fuel Chemical fertilizer 62.8\tkg\tUrea 53.9\tkg\tTriple Super Phosphate 46.4\tkg\tPotassium sulphate 5.6\tkg\tPesticides 1222\tkg

  2. Anti-adhesion activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) extract, thyme post-distillation waste, and olive (Olea europea L.) leaf extract against Campylobacter jejuni on polystyrene and intestine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šikić Pogačar, Maja; Klančnik, Anja; Bucar, Franz; Langerholc, Tomaž; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-06-01

    In order to survive in food-processing environments and cause disease, Campylobacter jejuni requires specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms, which contribute to its transmission through the food chain to the human host and present a critical form of resistance to a wide variety of antimicrobials. Phytochemical analysis of thyme ethanolic extract (TE), thyme post-hydrodistillation residue (TE-R), and olive leaf extract (OE) using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array indicates that the major compounds in TE and TE-R are flavone glucuronides and rosmarinic acid derivatives, and in OE verbascoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside and oleuroside. TE and TE-R reduced C. jejuni adhesion to abiotic surfaces by up to 30% at 0.2-12.5 µg mL(-1) , with TE-R showing a greater effect. OE from 3.125 to 200 µg mL(-1) reduced C. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene by 10-23%. On the other hand, C. jejuni adhesion to PSI cl1 cells was inhibited by almost 30% over a large concentration range of these extracts. Our findings suggest that TE, the agro-food waste material TE-R, and the by-product OE represent sources of bioactive phytochemicals that are effective at low concentrations and can be used as therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial adhesion. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, D.I.; Bray, R.A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B.B.; Scholz, T.; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pojmanska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, A.; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, F.; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E.T.; de Jong, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  4. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera: Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van K.; Taeger, A.; Blank, S.M.; Zwakhals, K.; Viitasaari, M.; Sick Ki Yu, D.; Jong, de Y.

    2017-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region),

  5. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Angela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  6. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  7. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 4 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative molecular analysis of old olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes from Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Durgac, Y Kiyga, M Ulas ...

  8. Assessment of the Olea pollen and its major allergen Ole e 1 concentrations in the bioearosol of two biogeographical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Aira, M. J.; Elvira-Rendueles, B.; Fernández-González, M.; Fernández-González, D.; García-Sánchez, A.; Martínez-García, M. J.; Moreno, J. M.; Negral, L.; Vara, A.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Olea pollen is currently an important allergy source. In some regions of Southern Spain, olive pollen is the main cause of allergic sensitization exceeding 40% of the sensitized individuals. Due to the scarce presence of olive trees in Northern Spain, limited to some cultivated fields in the South of the Galicia region where they also grow wild, only 8% of the sensitized individuals showed positive results for Olea pollen. The aim of the paper was to assess the behaviour pattern of the Olea pollen and its aeroallergens in the atmosphere, as this information could help us to improve the understanding and prevention of clinical symptoms. Airborne Olea pollen and Ole e 1 allergens were quantified in Cartagena (South-eastern Spain) and Ourense (North-western Spain). A volumetric pollen trap and a Burkard Cyclone sampler were used for pollen and allergen quantification. The Olea flowering took place in April or May in both biometeorological sampling areas. The higher concentrations were registered in the Southern area of Spain, for both pollen and Ole e 1, with values 8 times higher for pollen concentrations and 40 times higher for allergens. An alternate bearing pattern could be observed, characterized by years with high pollen values and low allergen concentrations and vice versa. Moreover, during some flowering seasons the allergen concentrations did not correspond to the atmospheric pollen values. Variations in weather conditions or Long Distance Transport (LDT) processes could explain the discordance. The back trajectory analysis shows that the most important contributions of pollen and allergens in the atmosphere are coincident with air masses passing through potential source areas. The exposure to olive pollen may not be synonym of antigen exposure.

  9. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits. Abdallah M. ... olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study .... thrombus was carefully removed, blotted on filter paper, and weighed ...

  10. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales) Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Meelad; Alba-Ramírez, Carmen; Garrido Jurado, Inmaculada; Mateu, Jordi; Raya Díaz, Silvia; Valverde-García, Pablo; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae ) population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%. Furthermore, the possible effect of UV-B exposure time on the pathogenicity of this strain against B. oleae adults coming from surviving preimaginals and carrying conidia from the soil at adult emergence was also evaluated. The UV-B irradiance has no significant effect on M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su pathogenicity with B. oleae adult mortalities of 93, 90, 79, and 77% after 0, 2, 4, and 6 of UV-B irradiance exposure, respectively. In a next step for the use of these M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Sun soil treatments within a B. oleae IPM strategy, its possible effect of on the B. oleae cosmopolitan parasitoid Psyttalia concolor , its compatibility with the herbicide oxyfluorfen 24% commonly used in olive orchards and the possible presence of the fungus in the olive oil resulting from olives previously placed in contact with the fungus were investigated. Only the highest conidial concentration (1 × 10 8 conidia ml - ) caused significant P. concolor adult mortality (22%) with enduing mycosis in 13% of the cadavers. There were no fungal propagules in olive oil samples resulting from olives previously contaminated by EAMa 01/58-Su conidia. Finally, the strain was demonstrated to be compatible with herbicide since the soil application of the fungus reduced the B. oleae population density up to 50% even when it was mixed with the herbicide in the same tank. The fungal inoculum reached basal levels 4 months after treatments (1.6 × 10 3 conidia g soil -1 ). These results

  11. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meelad Yousef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%. Furthermore, the possible effect of UV-B exposure time on the pathogenicity of this strain against B. oleae adults coming from surviving preimaginals and carrying conidia from the soil at adult emergence was also evaluated. The UV-B irradiance has no significant effect on M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su pathogenicity with B. oleae adult mortalities of 93, 90, 79, and 77% after 0, 2, 4, and 6 of UV-B irradiance exposure, respectively. In a next step for the use of these M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Sun soil treatments within a B. oleae IPM strategy, its possible effect of on the B. oleae cosmopolitan parasitoid Psyttalia concolor, its compatibility with the herbicide oxyfluorfen 24% commonly used in olive orchards and the possible presence of the fungus in the olive oil resulting from olives previously placed in contact with the fungus were investigated. Only the highest conidial concentration (1 × 108 conidia ml− caused significant P. concolor adult mortality (22% with enduing mycosis in 13% of the cadavers. There were no fungal propagules in olive oil samples resulting from olives previously contaminated by EAMa 01/58-Su conidia. Finally, the strain was demonstrated to be compatible with herbicide since the soil application of the fungus reduced the B. oleae population density up to 50% even when it was mixed with the herbicide in the same tank. The fungal inoculum reached basal levels 4 months after treatments (1.6 × 103 conidia g soil−1

  12. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  13. In vivo and in vitro addition of dried olive extract in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Annie J; Griffin, Johanna K; Roslan, Fahkirah

    2014-08-06

    A freeze-dried powder from organic olive (Olea europaea) juice extract, contains 8.82% polyphenols and a minimum of 2.5% hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), an effective free radical scavenger and the major antioxidant in the byproduct (dried olive extract, DOE). Myricetin, a bioflavonoid extract from the bark powder of the bayberry tree (Myrica cerifera), also has many beneficial biological properties and antioxidative capacity. While well-known as antioxidants, the capacity of these compounds to retard lipid oxidation in foods containing unsaturated fatty acids has not been widely evaluated. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the capacity of DOE to (1) enhance the growth of poultry, (2) determine the effectiveness of DOE (administered in vivo) as an antioxidant in post-mortem tissue and further processed meat, and (3) compare the in vitro antioxidative capacity of hydroxytyrosol and myricetin. DOE was administered ad libitum in water at 6 and 12 mg per bird per day for 6 weeks in a factorial design: 3 diets (control plus two treatment levels) × 2 blocks × 2 replications. There was no enhancement of feed consumption, body weight (BW), or feed conversion by DOE; overall means for these measurements were 5.49 kg per bird, 3.32 kg per bird, and 1.65 g feed per g live BW, respectively. Diagnostic examinations of two birds per pen at the end of the study revealed no adverse effects due to consumption of DOE, a generally recognized as safe substance. The byproduct, administered in vivo, did not retard lipid oxidation in fresh, heated, or NaCl (1.0% w/w)/heated/stored meat as assessed by absorbance values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at 532 nm and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl at 517 nm. Both the byproduct and hydroxytyrosol are highly water-soluble and may have been unavailable as an antioxidant in the tissue of broilers that did not consume water for 4-6 h prior to processing. As an additive in processed thigh meat, 6 and 12 mg of DOE (2

  14. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  15. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  16. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from Olea europea and Olea lancea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K; Adsersen, A.; Brøgger Christensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aqueous extract of the leaves of Olea europea and Olea lancea both inhibited Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in vitro. A bioassay-directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of a strong ACE-inhibitor namely the secoiridoid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl 4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)-4E...

  17. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits. ... The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, ...

  18. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260...

  19. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California - release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic strains of the African endoparasitoids Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were released to suppress the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California from 2006 – 2016. Both parasitoid species were recovered post-release within the same fruit season; ho...

  20. Estabilidade de azeite de oliva extra virgem (Olea europaea) em diferentes sistemas de embalagem

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Faria Silva

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O consumo de azeite de oliva no Brasil apresentou um crescimento de 70% na última década. As gôndolas dos supermercados foram tomadas por uma diversidade de azeites de oliva acondicionados em vários tipos de embalagens. Esses produtos são todos importados, sendo que uma parte é fracionada e envasada no Brasil, visto que não existe produção em escala comercial no país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade do azeite de oliva extra virgem em diferentes sistemas de embalag...

  1. Copa y concierto: variabilidad de caracteres funcionales foliares en "Olea europaea"

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Rocafort, Adrián Gaspar

    2015-01-01

    Una de las premisas adoptadas en la teoría ecológica implica que la variabilidad en la expresión de caracteres funcionales es despreciable entre individuos conespecíficos comparada con la variabilidad existente entre especies. Sin embargo, la evidencia acumulada destaca la variabilidad intraespecífica en el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas y en los procesos de ensamblaje y dinámica de comunidades, especialmente en aquellas dominadas por una o pocas especies. La variabilidad funcional intraes...

  2. Model for forecasting Olea europaea L. airborne pollen in South-West Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C.; Cariñanos, Paloma; García-Mozo, Herminia; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    Data on predicted average and maximum airborne pollen concentrations and the dates on which these maximum values are expected are of undoubted value to allergists and allergy sufferers, as well as to agronomists. This paper reports on the development of predictive models for calculating total annual pollen output, on the basis of pollen and weather data compiled over the last 19 years (1982-2000) for Córdoba (Spain). Models were tested in order to predict the 2000 pollen season; in addition, and in view of the heavy rainfall recorded in spring 2000, the 1982-1998 data set was used to test the model for 1999. The results of the multiple regression analysis show that the variables exerting the greatest influence on the pollen index were rainfall in March and temperatures over the months prior to the flowering period. For prediction of maximum values and dates on which these values might be expected, the start of the pollen season was used as an additional independent variable. Temperature proved the best variable for this prediction. Results improved when the 5-day moving average was taken into account. Testing of the predictive model for 1999 and 2000 yielded fairly similar results. In both cases, the difference between expected and observed pollen data was no greater than 10%. However, significant differences were recorded between forecast and expected maximum and minimum values, owing to the influence of rainfall during the flowering period.

  3. Identification of gut-derived metabolites of maslinic acid, a bioactive compound from Olea europaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Mena, Glòria; Sánchez-González, Marta; Parra, Andrés; Juan, M Emília; Planas, Joana M

    2016-09-01

    Maslinic acid has been described to exert a chemopreventive activity in colon cancer. Hereby, we determined maslinic acid and its metabolites in the rat intestine previous oral administration as a first step in elucidating whether this triterpene might be used as a nutraceutical. Maslinic acid was orally administered at 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley for 2 days. At 24 h after the last administration, the content of the duodenum and jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon was collected and extracted with methanol 80% prior to LC-APCI-MS analysis. The developed method was validated providing suitable sensitivity (LOQ of 5 nM), good recovery (97.8 ± 3.6%), linear correlation, and appropriate precision (< 9%). Maslinic acid was detected in all the segments with higher concentrations in the distal part of the intestine. LC-APCI-LTQ-ORBITRAP-MS allowed the identification of 11 gut-derived metabolites that were formed by mono-, dihydroxylation, and dehydrogenation reactions. Maslinic acid undergoes phase I reactions resulting in a majority of monohydroxylated metabolites without the presence of phase II derivatives. The high concentration of maslinic acid achieved in the intestine suggests that it could exert a beneficial effect in the prevention of colon cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The use of treated wastewater for chemlali olive tree irrigation: effects on soil properties, growth and oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rouina, B.; Bedbabis, S.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    Olive tree (Olea european L.) cultivation, the major tree crops in Mediterranean countries is being extended to irrigated lands. However, the limited water availability, the severe climatic conditions and the increased need for good water quality for urban and industrial sector uses are leading to the urgent use of less water qualities (brackish water and recycled wastewater) for olive tree irrigation. The aim of this work was to asses the effects of long term irrigation with treated waste water (TWW) on the soil chemical properties, on olive tree growth and on oil quality characteristics. (Author)

  5. The use of treated wastewater for chemlali olive tree irrigation: effects on soil properties, growth and oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rouina, B.; Bedbabis, S.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea european L.) cultivation, the major tree crops in Mediterranean countries is being extended to irrigated lands. However, the limited water availability, the severe climatic conditions and the increased need for good water quality for urban and industrial sector uses are leading to the urgent use of less water qualities (brackish water and recycled wastewater) for olive tree irrigation. The aim of this work was to asses the effects of long term irrigation with treated waste water (TWW) on the soil chemical properties, on olive tree growth and on oil quality characteristics. (Author)

  6. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  7. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  8. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Symphyta & Ichneumonoidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Achterberg, K.; Taeger, A.; Blank, S.M.; Zwakhals, K.; Viitasaari, M.; Yu, D.S.K.; de Jong, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region),

  9. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  10. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  11. Olea palawanensis (Oleaceae), a new species from the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1993-01-01

    Since the revision of Olea for the Malesian region (Kiew, 1979), specimens of an interesting new species have been collected from Palawan Island, Philippines. It is interesting, not only because it is distinctive, but because it is the only Malesian Olea which grows on ultrabasic soil and, as it has

  12. Efecto de la aireación y la concentración de cloruro sódico en el desarrollo de la flora microbiológica y en los parámetros fisicoquímicos en la fermentación de Olea europaea L. c.v. Sevillana al estilo negras naturales en la zona de La Yarada-Tacna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Koc, C.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic fermentation of the table olive variety, Sevillana a black style, was carried out, taking into account the parameters of fermentation of fixed acidity between 1.2 to 1.5% and depended on the chloride concentration in the brine. This concentration was under 6.5% in the 9 treatments assayed, allowing for the lactic bacteria to develop. In the aerobic fermentation there were no differences in the decline of pH in relation to the anaerobic fermentation, which reached values below 3.5. The air effect is of great significance in the purge of the carbon dioxide in the brine. At the same time, the effect of air significantly affects the increase in aerobic yeast. The facultative anaerobic yeasts developed in the treatments with an initial salt level of 12% at the beginning of fermentation. The reduction of sugar concentration into the fruit decreased significantly in the treatment with air. Aerobic fermentation is more rapid than anaerobic fermentation.La fermentación aerobia de aceituna variedad Sevillana estilo negra se desarrolló en los parámetros de acidez fija entre de 1.2 a 1.5%, debido a la concentración de cloruros en la salmuera los cuales se mantuvieron por debajo de 6.5% durante el periodo de fermentación en los 9 tratamientos ensayados lo que permitió el desarrollo de bacterias lácticas. No hubo diferencia en la evolución del pH entre la fermentación con aireación o en condiciones anaeróbicas alcanzándose valores menores a 3.5. La aireación tiene un efecto significativo en la purga del CO2 en la salmuera e incrementó la población de levaduras aerobias; así mismo en los tratamientos con 12% de sal se favoreció el desarrollo de levaduras fermentativas al inicio de la fermentación. La concentración de azúcares reductores en el fruto disminuyó significativamente en los tratamientos con aireación, acelerando el proceso de fermentación con respecto a la fermentación anaerobia.

  13. Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematode communities infesting olive orchards soils in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  14. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  15. Transformations of Aromatic Compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Keener, William K.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Benzene and a variety of substituted benzenes inhibited ammonia oxidation by intact cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. In most cases, the inhibition was accompanied by transformation of the aromatic compound to a more oxidized product or products. All products detected were aromatic, and substituents were often oxidized but were not separated from the benzene ring. Most transformations were enhanced by (NH4)2SO4 (12.5 mM) and were prevented by C2H2, a mechanism-based inactivator of ammonia monoo...

  16. Farmers’ Technical Knowledge about Integrated Pest Management (IPM in Olive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a sustainable approach of pest control, contributing to reduced use of pesticides and risks on human health and the environment, farmers have shown limited interest in practicing this method. The present study explored the levels of technical knowledge about integrated management of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae among olive growers in Roudbar County of Iran and factors underpinning olive farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated management. Data were collected in a survey of olive farmers, on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Almost half of the farmers (48.4% had good to excellent levels of technical knowledge of integrated management, while almost a third of the farmers (35.4% had a moderate knowledge level. However, a noticeable portion of the farmers (15.9% had poor knowledge of integrated management. Moreover, most farmers showed average knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health. While most farmers showed good levels of social participation, cooperation with institutes, and participation in extension activities, they showed low levels of community involvement (involvement in a group of people that have and share common interests with each other. Olive imports and the lack of a common action for olive fly control were perceived as the main barriers of IPM adoption among most farmers. Regression analysis revealed that increased community involvement, large area under olive farming, participation in education activities, and high farming experience promoted farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated olive fly control. Strengthening growers’ technical knowledge of IPM through community involvement and extension services among inexperienced small-scale olive farmers is recommended for reducing possible unnecessary insecticide sprays in olive production.

  17. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Giunti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs, which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques.

  18. A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, Antonino; Schena, Leonardo; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Mosca, Saveria; Giunti, Giulia; Strano, Cinzia Patricia; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the "core" associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal community was mainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  19. Cuscuta europaea plastid apparatus in various developmental stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švubová, Renáta; Ovečka, Miroslav; Pavlovič, Andrej; Slováková, Ľudmila; Blehová, Alžbeta

    2013-01-01

    It was generally accepted that Cuscuta europaea is mostly adapted to a parasitic lifestyle with no detectable levels of chlorophylls. We found out relatively high level of chlorophylls (Chls a+b) in young developmental stages of dodder. Significant lowering of Chls (a+b) content and increase of carotenoid concentration was typical only for ontogenetically more developed stages. Lower content of photosynthesis-related proteins involved in Chls biosynthesis and in photosystem formation as well as low photochemical activity of PSII indicate that photosynthesis is not the main activity of C. europaea plastids. Previously, it has been shown in other species that the Thylakoid Formation Protein 1 (THF1) is involved in thylakoid membrane differentiation, plant-fungal and plant-bacterial interactions and in sugar signaling with its preferential localization to plastids. Our immunofluorescence localization studies and analyses of haustorial plasma membrane fractions revealed that in addition to plastids, the THF1 protein localizes also to the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata in developing C. europaea haustorium, most abundantly in the digitate cells of the endophyte primordium. These results are supported by western blot analysis, documenting the highest levels of the THF1 protein in “get together” tissues of dodder and tobacco. Based on the fact that photosynthesis is not a typical process in the C. europaea haustorium and on the extra-plastidial localization pattern of the THF1, our data support rather other functions of this protein in the complex relationship between C. europaea and its host. PMID:23438585

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herb yield and chemical composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L) essential oil in relation to the different harvest period and cultivation conditions. Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 2 (2016) - Articles Relationship between total phenolic, total flavonoid and oleuropein in different aged olive (Olea europaea l.) Cultivar leaves

  1. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollars, Elizabeth S A; Harper, Andrea L; Kelly, Laura J

    2017-01-01

    -heterozygosity Fraxinus excelsior tree from Gloucestershire, UK, annotating 38,852 protein-coding genes of which 25% appear ash specific when compared with the genomes of ten other plant species. Analyses of paralogous genes suggest a whole-genome duplication shared with olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae). We also re...

  2. Effet du milieu de culture sur le microbouturage de l'olivier (Olea europeae L. cv. Picholine Marocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abousalim A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of culture medium on micropropagation of olive (Olea europeae L. cv. Moroccan Picholine. The effect of the basal media OM (Olive Medium, 1/2 MS (Murashige et Skoog with half strength macronutrients, WPM (Lloyd and McCown, 1/2 Miller (Miller with half strength macronutrients, and K&H (medium with Knop macronutrients and Heller micronutrients, supplemented with 5 mg/l Zeatine, on shoot proliferation of mature ‘Moroccan Picholine'cultivar (30 years old was investigated. OM and 1/2 MS media were the most effective at the early stages of proliferation. A microcutting percentage of up to 91,6 and 90,9 % were achieved in OM and 1/2 MS media respectively but OM was distinguished later by permitting a better shoot growth with no vitrification symptoms The highest percentages of new shoots per explant were obtained with 1/2 MS and OM media (67 and 65 % respectively. OM was the most effective for shoot height (12,42 mm followed by 1/2 MS (8,92 mm. The other tested media induced an important callus development and leaf chlorosis, and the reduction of shoot growth was noticeable.

  3. Biomass expansion factors of Olea ferruginea (Royle) in sub tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood biomass gives information about total productivity of the forest as well as individual tree. Olea ferruginea (Royle) which is small and evergreen is widely distributed in native sub tropical forests of Pakistan and extensively used as fuelwood domestically. This study was carried out in the sub tropical forests of Pakistan at ...

  4. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  5. Nitrite as a stimulus for ammonia-starved Nitrosomonas europaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laanbroek, H.J.; Bär-Gilissen, M.J.; Hoogveld, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia-starved cells of Nitrosomonas europaea are able to preserve a high level of ammonia-oxidizing activity in the absence of ammonium. However, when the nitrite-oxidizing cells that form part of the natural nitrifying community do not keep pace with the ammonia-oxidizing cells, nitrite

  6. The First Molecular Identification of an Olive Collection Applying Standard Simple Sequence Repeats and Novel Expressed Sequence Tag Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Soraya; Mariotti, Roberto; Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Bufacchi, Marina; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana; Proietti, Primo

    2017-01-01

    Germplasm collections of tree crop species represent fundamental tools for conservation of diversity and key steps for its characterization and evaluation. For the olive tree, several collections were created all over the world, but only few of them have been fully characterized and molecularly identified. The olive collection of Perugia University (UNIPG), established in the years' 60, represents one of the first attempts to gather and safeguard olive diversity, keeping together cultivars from different countries. In the present study, a set of 370 olive trees previously uncharacterized was screened with 10 standard simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and nine new EST-SSR markers, to correctly and thoroughly identify all genotypes, verify their representativeness of the entire cultivated olive variation, and validate the effectiveness of new markers in comparison to standard genotyping tools. The SSR analysis revealed the presence of 59 genotypes, corresponding to 72 well known cultivars, 13 of them resulting exclusively present in this collection. The new EST-SSRs have shown values of diversity parameters quite similar to those of best standard SSRs. When compared to hundreds of Mediterranean cultivars, the UNIPG olive accessions were splitted into the three main populations (East, Center and West Mediterranean), confirming that the collection has a good representativeness of the entire olive variability. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis, performed on the 59 genotypes of the collection by the use of both sets of markers, have demonstrated their splitting into four clusters, with a well balanced membership obtained by EST respect to standard SSRs. The new OLEST ( Olea expressed sequence tags) SSR markers resulted as effective as the best standard markers. The information obtained from this study represents a high valuable tool for ex situ conservation and management of olive genetic resources, useful to build a common database from worldwide olive cultivar collections

  7. Biological effects of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: An extra view from genome-wide transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jia Nancy; Ververis, Katherine; Bollu, Sameera; Rodd, Annabelle L; Swarup, Oshi; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, an important component of which are olives and olive oil derived from the olive tree (Olea Europea). It is now well-established that not only the major fatty acid constituents, but also the minor phenolic components, in olives and olive oil have important health benefits. Emerging research over the past decade has highlighted the beneficial effects of a range of phenolic compounds from olives and olive oil, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions. Mechanisms of action include potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Further, accumulating evidence indicates the potential of the polyphenols and potent antioxidants, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in oncology. Numerous studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the anticancer effects of hydroxytyrosol which include chemopreventive and cell-specific cytotoxic and apoptotic effects. Indeed, the precise molecular mechanisms accounting for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties are now becoming clear and this is, at least in part, due to high through-put gene transcription profiling. Initially, we constructed phylogenetic trees to visualize the evolutionary relationship of members of the Oleaceae family and secondly, between plants producing hydroxytyrosol to make inferences of potential similarities or differences in their medicinal properties and to identify novel plant candidates for the treatment and prevention of disease. Furthermore, given the recent interest in hydroxytyrosol as a potential anticancer agent and chemopreventative we utilized transcriptome analysis in the erythroleukemic cell line K562, to investigate the effects of hydroxytyrosol on three gene pathways: the complement system, The Warburg effect and chromatin remodeling to ascertain relevant gene candidates in the prevention of cancer.

  8. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10–100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption. PMID:26132160

  9. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  10. Anticorrosion Coating using Olea sp. Leaves Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal, W. M. K. W. M.; Yasmin, M. Y. N.; Fazira, M. F. M.; Rafizah, W. A. W.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Sabri, M. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Olive leaves extract (OLE) was evaluated as green corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel grade 316L (SS316L) in several media using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results reveals several active compound indicated by O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-OH stretch and C-N stretch which can be attributed to oleuropein and hydroxtyrosol acting as the main inhibiting sources for corrosion. The results obtained also show the inhibition efficiency of OLE increase with the increase of OLE concentration. Through its inhibitive action elucidate from the electrochemical analysis, the extract was found to act as a mixed type inhibitor. Micrographs by SEM showed that the surface of steel which has been coated with 0% and 20% of OLE coating extract possess a lot of pin holes or pores while the steel with 10% of OLE coating extract shows the surface has multiple cracks. This study clearly shows the efficiency of OLE as anticorrosion coating for control of stainless steel in marine application.

  11. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Matteo; Angeletti, Andrea; Cont, Massimiliano; Corazza, Ivan; Aldini, Rita; Donadio, Elisa; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2016-05-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves extract (Oe) and Hybiscus sabdariffa L. flowers extract (Hs) have calcium antagonistic properties. Aim of this work was to study the cardiovascular effects of Pres Phytum(®), a nutraceutical formulation containing a mixture of the two extracts and the excipients, and investigate its possible off-target effects, using in vitro biological assays on guinea pig isolated organs. Cardiovascular effects were assessed using guinea pig atria and aorta. The effects of Pres Phytum on spontaneous gastrointestinal, urinary, and respiratory tracts smooth muscle contractility were evaluated. Pres Phytum exerted a vasorelaxant effect (IC50 = 2.38 mg/mL) and a negative chronotropic effect (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL) at concentrations lower than those producing smooth muscle spontaneous contractility alterations in the other organs. Compared to Pres Phytum, the mixture did not exert negative inotropic activity, while it maintained a negative chronotropic efficacy (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). These experimental data suggest a possible nutraceutical use of this food supplement for the management of preclinical hypertension.

  12. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  13. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  14. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  15. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  16. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B and blue light through the leaf trichome layers of two xeromorphic plants, olive and oak, measured by optical fibre microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, G.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibre-optic microprobes were used to monitor the light microenvironment beneath trichome layers of the xeromorphic leaves of two Mediterranean evergreen sclerophylls, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex. Young developing leaves of both plants were densely pubescent on both surfaces of the lamina, whereas the mature leaves were pubescent only on the abaxial side. Trichome layers of young as well as of mature leaves of both plants attenuated almost all incident ultraviolet (UV)-B (310 nm) and UV-A (360 nm) radiation and a considerable portion of blue light (430 nm). Abaxial trichome layers of young leaves were more effective in screening out the incident radiation compared to the adaxial ones of the same leaves and also compared to the abaxial layer of the mature leaves. The abaxial epidermis of dehaired mature leaves of O. europaea was ineffective in absorbing most of the incident UV-B and UV-A radiation. UV and visible spectra beneath trichome layers of O. europaea in mature leaves confirmed that the light microenvironment on the epidermis was deprived in the UV-B, UV-A and partly in the blue spectral regions. It is proposed that the occurrence of a dense trichome layer, especially in young leaves, may play a protective role against not only UV-B radiation damage, but also against high visible irradiance. This function is performed irrespective of the differing anatomy of individual hairs of both plants. The protection provided by the trichomes could afford advantages under stress conditions, especially during leaf development. (author)

  17. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  18. Effect of Olea ointment and Acetate Mafenide on burn wounds – A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zahmatkesh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Olea ointment is a useful treatment for burns, and it can prevent infections, accelerate tissue repair, and facilitate debridement. Therefore, using this ointment is recommended for the treatment of burns.

  19. Measuring and modelling interception loss by an isolated olive tree in a traditional olive grove - pasture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Cristina; Pereira, Fernando L.; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Water losses associated to the rainfall interception process by trees can be an important component of the local hydrologic balance and must be accounted for when implementing any sustainable water management programme. In many dry areas of the Mediterranean region where agro-forestry systems are common, those programmes are crucial to foster adequate water conservation measures. Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of interception loss in sparse forests or tree plantations should be made for individual trees, being the total value determined as the sum of the individual contributions. Following this approach, rainfall interception was measured and modelled over two years, in an isolated Olea europeaea L. tree, in a traditional low-density olive grove in Castelo Branco, central Portugal. Total interception loss over the experimental period was 243.5 mm, on a tree crown projected area basis, corresponding to 18.0% of gross rainfall (Pg). Modelling made for each rainfall event using the sparse version of the Gash model, slightly underestimated interception loss with a value of 240.5 mm, i.e., 17.8 % ofPg. Modelling quality, evaluated according to a number of criteria, was good, allowing the conclusion that the methodology used was adequate. Modelling was also made on a daily basis, i.e., assuming a single storm per rainday. In this case, interception loss was overestimated by 12%, mostly because 72% of all rainfall events lasted for more than a day.

  20. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  1. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  2. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  3. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Pereira Cunill, J. L.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Ortiz-Leyba, C.; Martínez-Brocca, M.; Mangas-Cruz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic ...

  4. Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, N Z; Hegazy, W A; Abdel-Rahman, S M; Awed, O M; Khalil, S A

    2016-08-29

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide novel approaches to the adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. In this study, different plant extracts from Olea europaea leaves (OLE), Sonchus oleraceus L. (SOE) and Mangifera indica peels (MPE) were prepared to identify phytoconstituents and measure antioxidant capacities. The effects of these three extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of these extracts on tissue-specific promoter expression of CYP19A1 gene in cell culture model (MCF-7) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Results showed a concentration-dependent decrease in aromatase activity after treatment with OLE and MPE, whereas, SOE showed a biphasic effect. The differential effects of OLE, SOE and MPE on aromatase expression showed that OLE seems to be the most potent suppressor followed by SOE and then MPE. These findings indicate that OLE has effective inhibitory action on aromatase at both the enzymatic and expression levels, in addition to its cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Also, MPE may be has the potential to be used as a tissue-specific aromatase inhibitor (selective aromatase inhibitor) and it may be promising to develop a new therapeutic agent against ER+ breast cancer.

  5. Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

  6. Caracterización de las enzimas esterasas implicadas en la interacción polen-pistilo en el olivo (Olea Europaea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rejón García, Juan David

    2013-01-01

    El éxito de la fertilización en las Angiospermas depende en gran medida de la capacidad del polen para germinar y emitir un tubo polínico, el cuál transporta los núcleos espermáticos a través del pistilo hasta el saco embrionario. En este contexto, los objetivos de este proyecto fueron: 1) determinar la existencia de actividad esterolítica en el polen de olivo, 2) identificar y clasificar desde el punto de vista funcional las distintas enzimas esterasas, 3) determinar las funciones del exudad...

  7. Cuantificación de diazótrofos en la rizósfera del olivo (Olea europaea L. cultivado en Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Bello Alvarez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación desarrollada tuvo como objeto cuantificar y determinar la actividad de las unidades formadoras de colonias de microorganismos fijadores de nitrógeno asociados a la rizósfera de árboles de olivo, plantados en el municipio de Sutamarchán, finca las Acacias de la provincia del Alto Ricaurte. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques con submuestras, teniendo como tratamientos la poda y el crecimiento libre; se usaron seis unidades experimentales (árboles tres por tratamiento, los árboles eran jóvenes (

  8. Target molecules in 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation are regulated by maslinic acid, a natural triterpene from Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E; Fernández-Gallego, Nieves; Ortuño-Costela, M Carmen; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J; Peragón, Juan; García-Salguero, Leticia; Mokhtari, Khalida; Medina, Pedro P; Lupiáñez, José A

    2016-11-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a set of pathologies among which stand out the obesity, which is related to the lipid droplet accumulation and changes to cellular morphology regulated by several molecules and transcription factors. Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural product with demonstrated pharmacological functions including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor and anti-oxidation, among others. Here we report the effects of MA on the adipogenesis process in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell viability, glucose uptake, cytoplasmic triglyceride droplets, triglycerides quantification, gene transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2) and intracellular Ca 2+ levels were determined in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes of 3T3-L1 cells. MA increased glucose uptake. MA also decreased lipid droplets and triglyceride levels, which is in concordance with the down-regulation of PPARγ and aP2. Finally, MA increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, which could also be involved in the demonstrated antiadipogenic effect of this triterpene. MA has been demonstrated as potential antiadipogenic compound in 3T3-L1 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic extract from oleaster (Olea europaea var. Sylvestris) leaves reduces colon cancer growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Wafa; Nani, Abdelhafid; Belarbi, Meriem; Dumont, Adélie; de Rosny, Charlotte; Aboura, Ikram; Ghanemi, Fatima Zahra; Murtaza, Babar; Patoli, Danish; Thomas, Charles; Apetoh, Lionel; Rébé, Cédric; Delmas, Dominique; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickael; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, derived from natural products, have received a great interest for their chemopreventive properties against cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of phenolic extract of the oleaster leaves (PEOL) on tumor growth in mouse model and on cell death in colon cancer cell lines. We assessed the effect of oleaster leaf infusion on HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. We observed that oleaster leaf polyphenol-rich infusion limited HCT116 tumor growth in vivo. Investigations of PEOL on two human CRC cell lines showed that PEOL induced apoptosis in HCT116 and HCT8 cells. We demonstrated an activation of caspase-3, -7 and -9 by PEOL and that pre-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), prevented PEOL-induced cell death. We observed an involvement of the mitochondrial pathway in PEOL-induced apoptosis evidenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. Increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by PEOL represents the early event involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis induced by PEOL, as ruthenium red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibited apoptotic effect of PEOL, BAPTA/AM inhibited PEOL-induced ROS generation and finally, N-acetyl-L-cysteine reversed ER stress and apoptotic effect of PEOL. These results demonstrate that polyphenols from oleaster leaves might have a strong potential as chemopreventive agent in colorectal cancer.

  10. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  11. Cuscuta europaea plastid apparatus in various developmental stages: localization of THF1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švubová, Renáta; Ovečka, Miroslav; Pavlovič, Andrej; Slováková, L'udmila; Blehová, Alžbeta

    2013-05-01

    It was generally accepted that Cuscuta europaea is mostly adapted to a parasitic lifestyle with no detectable levels of chlorophylls. We found out relatively high level of chlorophylls (Chls a+b) in young developmental stages of dodder. Significant lowering of Chls (a+b) content and increase of carotenoid concentration was typical only for ontogenetically more developed stages. Lower content of photosynthesis-related proteins involved in Chls biosynthesis and in photosystem formation as well as low photochemical activity of PSII indicate that photosynthesis is not the main activity of C. europaea plastids. Previously, it has been shown in other species that the Thylakoid Formation Protein 1 (THF1) is involved in thylakoid membrane differentiation, plant-fungal and plant-bacterial interactions and in sugar signaling with its preferential localization to plastids. Our immunofluorescence localization studies and analyses of haustorial plasma membrane fractions revealed that in addition to plastids, the THF1 protein localizes also to the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata in developing C. europaea haustorium, most abundantly in the digitate cells of the endophyte primordium. These results are supported by western blot analysis, documenting the highest levels of the THF1 protein in "get together" tissues of dodder and tobacco. Based on the fact that photosynthesis is not a typical process in the C. europaea haustorium and on the extra-plastidial localization pattern of the THF1, our data support rather other functions of this protein in the complex relationship between C. europaea and its host.

  12. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: comparison of different olive oil extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2008-07-23

    The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

  13. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  14. Determining the most suitable frequency and shaking time for olive harvesting by a pneumatic branch shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olive (Oleo europaea includes about 20 species of small trees from Oleaceae family. This point should be considered that Iran has allocated only a small universal market to its olive products in spite of having high production potentials; so that about 23 provinces of this country can produce olive products. Therefore mechanizing of olive production and encouraging to develop olive trade are among the effective methods for development of this market. On the basis of IOOC report, the production of olive oil in 2008-2009 in Iran and all over the world has been 3 and 2866.5 thousand tons, respectively. Currently, harvesting olive product is done by hand in Iran. The expensiveness of work force and providing the needed workers are considered as the biggest problem in olive harvesting. While harvesting the tall trees, the workers use beating method by wood sticks which causes the fruits to be damaged and their quality to be decreased. The harvesting method which the quality and quantity of the olive final products is under its effect and also high expenses of harvesting by hand are considered as the two important factors in developing the mechanical harvesting of olive. For this purpose, the mechanized harvesting of olive should be considered for producing olive conserve and olive oil and decreasing expenses of harvesting. Considering the conducted studies on one hand and shortage of informational resources in the country on the other hand, a research was designed and performed with the following purposes: Designing and fabricating of a portable pneumatic branch shaking system. Determining the best frequency and oscillation duration for harvesting olive by the constructed system. Materials and Methods The branch shaking system is made of two general parts: (a The set of branch shaker driving unit. (b The portable vibration arm. For constructing the set of vibrating arm, two experiments “elasticity and inflectionˮ of tree branches were

  15. THE EUROPEAN COMPANY (SOCIETAS EUROPAEA ON RIND SIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rind aspects of European Company (also known by its Latin name Societas Europaea or SE, a “type of public limited-liability company regulated under European Union law”. Although this form of company was proposed more than 40 years ago, it was only in 2001 when the Council issued Regulation (EC No 2157/2001 of 8 October 2001 on the Statute for a European company defining the European company (SE as “a legal structure that permits a company to operate in different European Union (EU countries under a single statute”, as determined by the law of the Union and common to all EU countries. Being a new legal form, the SE coexists with the corporate forms that already were in each Member Statebeing governed by both European Regulation and national law. As it follows we address the rules, classification, conditions for settling an SE, organization structures, tax harmonization, employee involvement in the SE, advantages and disadvantages of SEs, as well as the opportunity of SPEs.

  16. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the southwest Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Rodriguez, S.; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo Molina, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009–2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain...... be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure...

  17. Effect of photoperiods and photointensities on the mass rearing of the olive fruit fly dacus oleae Gmel. (Diptera - Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, M.M.; Abdel-Rahman, M.A.; El-Moursy, A.A.; Ali, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    The highest mean egg production was produced by females exposed to a photoperiod of 20 hr. On the other hand, the lowest one was obtained when the females were exposed only to a photoperiod of 4 hr. The highest percent hatchability was obtained when the females were exposed to a photoperiod of 16 hr whereas the lowest one was obtained when a photoperiod of 8 hr was applied. Adult males exposed to a photoperiod of 16 hr had the longest mean life span, whereas the shortest one was recorded when a photoperiod of 20 hr was applied. Adult females that were exposed to a photoperiod of 16 hr had the longest mean life span, whereas the shortest one was recorded when females were exposed to a photo period of 4 hr

  18. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  19. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  20. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  1. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  2. Florae Malesianae Praecursores LX. The Oleaceae of Malesia. II. The genus Olea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Olea comprises six species in Malesia: two from Malaya. O. brachiata (Lour.) Merrill (formerly O. maritima Wall. ex G. Don) and O. dentata Wall. ex G. Don (formerly O. penangiana Ridley); two from Borneo, O. borneensis Boerl. and O. decussata (Heine) Kiew and two from Java, O. javanica (Bl.) Knobl.

  3. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  4. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia- oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    OpenAIRE

    Vannelli, T; Logan, M; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B

    1990-01-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride),...

  5. THE BIOENERGETICS OF AMMONIA AND HYDROXYLAMINE OXIDATION IN NITROSOMONAS-EUROPAEA AT ACID AND ALKALINE PH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRIJLINK, MJ; ABEE, T; LAANBROEK, HJ; DEBOER, W; KONINGS, WN

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizers depend on alkaline or neutral conditions for optimal activity. Below pH 7 growth and metabolic activity decrease dramatically. Actively oxidizing cells of Nitrosomonas europaea do not maintain a constant internal pH when the external pH is varied from 5 to 8. Studies of

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in shoots of Salicornia europaea under different salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Fan, Pengxiang; Song, Hongmiao; Chen, Xianyang; Li, Xiaofang; Li, Yinxin

    2009-07-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is a succulent annual euhalophyte and one of the most salt tolerant plant species. The elucidation of its salt tolerance mechanism is of significance for generating salt-tolerant crops. In this study, we provided high resolution of proteome reference maps of S. europaea shoot and obtained evidence on the salt tolerance mechanism by analyzing the proteomic responses of this plant to high salinity. Our results demonstrated significant variations existed in 196 out of 1880 protein spots detected on CBB stained 2-DE gels. Of these, 111 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, the majority was energy production and conversion related proteins, followed by photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism associated enzymes. Analysis of protein expression patters revealed that energy production and ion homeostasis associated proteins played important roles for this plant salt tolerance ability. Hierarchical clustering results revealed many proteins were involved in S. europaea salt tolerance mechanism as a dynamic network. Finally, based on our proteomic results, we brought forward a possible schematic representation of mechanism associated with the systematic salt tolerance phenotype in S. europaea.

  7. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yoshiki; Sawabe, Shogo; Kainuma, Kenta; Katsuhara, Maki; Shibasaka, Mineo; Suzuki, Masanori; Yamamoto, Kosuke; Oguri, Suguru; Sakamoto, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1) a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2) a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3) a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  8. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  9. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  10. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  11. La Antracnosis del olivo y su efecto en la calidad del aceite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral, J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea is one of the first domesticated and cultivated trees that is widely distributed in the Mediterranean regions. The Anthracnose, caused by the two complex fungal species Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides, is the most important disease adversely affecting the olive oil quality. Even so, the effect of Anthracnose on oil quality is largely unknown and many questions remain unanswered. This offers a unique opportunity to study how Colletotrichum species, cultivars, infection type (latent or visible and severity, and other factors that may affect different parameters of oil quality, such us acidity, peroxide value, K232, K270, phenolic compounds, or alkyl esters. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the biology, epidemiology, and management of Anthracnose and its effect on olive oil quality.El olivo (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea es uno de los primeros cultivos leñosos domesticados. Actualmente el olivo se encuentra ampliamente distribuido por todas las regiones de clima mediterráneo. La Antracnosis, causada por las especies complejas Colletotrichum acutatum y C. gloeosporioides, es la enfermedad del olivo que más afecta a la calidad del aceite. Aun así, el efecto de la Antracnosis en la calidad del aceite es ampliamente desconocido. Por lo que creemos esencial que se afronten estudios encaminados a dilucidar el efecto de las especies del patógeno, el cultivar de olivo y el tipo (latente o visible y severidad de las infecciones de la aceituna en los distintos parámetros de calidad del aceite como la acidez, índice de peróxidos, K232, K270, compuestos fenólicos o ésteres alquílicos. Esta revisión presenta los conocimientos actuales sobre la biología, epidemiología, control, y efecto en la calidad del aceite de la Antracnosis del olivo.

  12. Investigating tree bark as an air-pollution biomonitor by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Figueira, R.

    2001-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is an icon of southern Europe and a widespread evergreen in mainland Portugal. First results of a continuing study on the ability of olive-tree bark to act as an air-pollution biomonitor are presented and discussed here. Other than lower signals and an anticipated systemic control over some elements, there seems to be no a priori reason for ruling out the possibility of using bark in atmospheric trace-element surveys. In fact, nonparametric statistics show that, despite their relative magnitude, the variation patterns of bark and lichen concentrations significantly follow one another all across the study area. (author)

  13. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the raw material of the herbal drug Olivae folium and its counterfeits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakušić Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree leaf is a very significant plant raw material from the medical and economic points of view (Ph. Eur. 5, PDR. In the region of Southeast Europe, olive leaves are most commonly adulterated with oleander leaves and the leaves of Pittosporum tobira. This paper deals with the morphological and anatomical features of leaves of the following species: Olea europaea, Nerium oleander and Pittosporum tobira. The aim of this research was to define concrete diagnostic parameters permitting detection of adulterants in commercial samples of the herbal drug Olivae folium.

  14. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... ... and Microbial Activity, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University - ... A total of 24 lipolytic yeasts were isolated from the spent olive derived from olive fruits of ... isolated during process of fermentation of olive table, can.

  15. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  16. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Aharon, Yael; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2010-05-22

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity--an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew.

  17. Interaction of Olive Oil and Metals

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKGÖK, Elif Burçin; ÖTLEŞ, Semih

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil, obtained only from the fruits of olive trees, is a food item consumed in natural form without any chemical process and is liquid at room temperature. In addition to its flavor, oxidative stability is the unique property of it. Oxidative stability of olive oil is so powerful is due to its major components which are fatty acids and minor components which are phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, sterols, phospholipids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, etc. All edible oils, including ol...

  18. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  19. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  1. AAU-Specific RNA Cleavage Mediated by MazF Toxin Endoribonuclease Conserved in Nitrosomonas europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Miyamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrosomonas europaea carries numerous toxin-antitoxin systems. However, despite the abundant representation in its chromosome, studies have not surveyed the underlying molecular functions in detail, and their biological roles remain enigmatic. In the present study, we found that a chromosomally-encoded MazF family member, predicted at the locus NE1181, is a functional toxin endoribonuclease, and constitutes a toxin-antitoxin system, together with its cognate antitoxin, MazE. Massive parallel sequencing provided strong evidence that this toxin endoribonuclease exhibits RNA cleavage activity, primarily against the AAU triplet. This sequence-specificity was supported by the results of fluorometric assays. Our results indicate that N. europaea alters the translation profile and regulates its growth using the MazF family of endoribonuclease under certain stressful conditions.

  2. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  3. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  4. Phytosanitary evaluation of olive germplasm in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on viruses was carried out in 2008 in the main olive-growing areas of Albania (Kruja, Sauk and Vlora. Fifty samples from 14 local and 2 exotic olive cultivars were collected from 10 commercial orchards and one collection field and inspected for Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV, Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1, Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus (OLYaV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D by a one-step RT-PCR assay using virus-specifi c primers. None of these viruses were found in the source plants except SLRSV and OLYaV, which were detected in a ‘K. M. Berat’ olive tree grown in the collection field. These findings are important because the incidence of olive virus diseases is low in Albania but high in other Mediterranean countries. Thus, all efforts should be to directed to maintaining the Albanian olive germplasm pathogen-free and in the best agronomical and phytosanitary condition possible.

  5. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  6. The Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Ovaries of Dacus Oleae Gmel; Effet des rayons gamma sur les ovaires de la Dacus Oleae Gmel; Vozdejstvie gamma-izlucheniya na yaichniki Dacus Oleae; Efecto de las radiaciones gamma sobre los ovarios de la Dacus Oleae Gmel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccetti, Baccio [Agricultural Entomology Station, Florence and Raffaella de Dominicis Radiological Institute, University of Florence (Italy)

    1963-09-15

    The authors have studied by cytological and ultramicroscopio techniques the ovaries of unfertilized adult females of Dacus oleae irradiated in the middle period of the pupal stage with several doses (2-30 kr) of gamma rays. In all cases the treatment inhibits the normal development of the ovary. Nurse cells and egg cells are very small and few in number and show abnormal stricture and ultrastructure, particularly as regards the cytoplasmic organelles. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont fait appel aux techniques cytologiques et ultramicroscopiques pour etudier les ovaires de femelles adultes de Dacus oleae non fecondees, qui avaient ete irradiees au milieu du stade pupaire par plusieurs doses (2-30 kr) de rayons gamma. Dans tous les cas, l'irradiation a empeche un developpement normal de l'ovaire. Les cellules nourricieres et les ovules etaient tres petits et rares, avec une structure anormale, surtout pour les organites du cytoplasme. (author) [Spanish] Los autores de la memoria han estudiado con tecnicas citologicas y ultramicroscopicas los ovarios de hembras adultas, no fertilizadas, de la Dacus oleae irradiadas durante el periodo medio de la fase ninfal con varias dosis de rayos gamma (de 2 a 30 kr). El tratamiento inhibe el desarrollo normal del ovario. Los oocitos, en todas sus fases, son muy pequenos, aparecen en escaso numero y muestran una estructura y ultraestructuca anormales, sobre todo por lo que respecta a los organulos citoplasmicos. (author) [Russian] Avtory izuchili s pomoshch'yu tsitologicheskikh i ul'tramikroskopicheskikh metodov yaichniki neollodotvorennykh khenskikh osobej Dacus oleae, obluchennykh, v seredine fazy okuklivaniya razlichnymi dozami (ot 2000 do 30 000 r) gamma-luchej. V kazhdom sluchae ehto tormozilo normal'noe razvitie yaichnikov. Pitayushchie i yajtsevye kletki byli ochen' malen'kimi, kolichestvo ikh neznachitel'no, struktura i ul'trastruktura nenormal'nye, prezhde vsego v otnoshenii. (author)

  7. The Effects of Gamma Radiation on the Ovaries of Dacus Oleae Gmel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Baccio

    1963-01-01

    The authors have studied by cytological and ultramicroscopio techniques the ovaries of unfertilized adult females of Dacus oleae irradiated in the middle period of the pupal stage with several doses (2-30 kr) of gamma rays. In all cases the treatment inhibits the normal development of the ovary. Nurse cells and egg cells are very small and few in number and show abnormal stricture and ultrastructure, particularly as regards the cytoplasmic organelles. (author) [fr

  8. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia- oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, T; Logan, M; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B

    1990-01-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride), tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), and trans-dibromoethylene were not degraded. PMID:2339874

  9. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  10. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V.; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  11. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  12. Interactive ion-mediated sap flow regulation in olive and laurel stems: physicochemical characteristics of water transport via the pit structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Ahn, Sungsook; Kim, Seung-Gon; Kim, TaeJoo; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-01-01

    Sap water is distributed and utilized through xylem conduits, which are vascular networks of inert pipes important for plant survival. Interestingly, plants can actively regulate water transport using ion-mediated responses and adapt to environmental changes. However, ionic effects on active water transport in vascular plants remain unclear. In this report, the interactive ionic effects on sap transport were systematically investigated for the first time by visualizing the uptake process of ionic solutions of different ion compositions (K+/Ca2+) using synchrotron X-ray and neutron imaging techniques. Ionic solutions with lower K+/Ca2+ ratios induced an increased sap flow rate in stems of Olea europaea L. and Laurus nobilis L. The different ascent rates of ionic solutions depending on K+/Ca2+ ratios at a fixed total concentration increases our understanding of ion-responsiveness in plants from a physicochemical standpoint. Based on these results, effective structural changes in the pit membrane were observed using varying ionic ratios of K+/Ca2+. The formation of electrostatically induced hydrodynamic layers and the ion-responsiveness of hydrogel structures based on Hofmeister series increase our understanding of the mechanism of ion-mediated sap flow control in plants.

  13. The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  15. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  16. Reproductive behavior and physiology of Dacus oleae: egg hatch in females mated successively with normal and gamma sterilized males and vice versa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulos, A.P.; Giannakakis, A.; Voyadjoglou, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    In Dacus oleae (Gmelin), a 2nd mating by an 8-krad gamma ray-sterilized male reduced egg hatch immediately to zero or near-zero in ca. 40-55 percent of individually-tested females. In another 50 percent of females, egg hatch was reduced to between 5 to 70 percent, while in fewer than 10 percent of females, egg hatch showed no change. The above was true for females reared on artificial diet for more than 50 generations and mated with same type males, as well as females reared on olives for 6 to 8 generations and mated first with same type males and 2nd with artificially-reared sterilized males. When the 2nd males were treated at 15 krad the effect on egg hatch was smaller. When the 2nd males were treated at 8 krad and had depleted their sperm, by repeated matings, they produced small or no-effect on egg hatch. When artificially-reared females mated first with a sterilized and second with a normal same type male, egg hatch increased from 0 to 5 percent to 70 to 100 percent in 50 to 55 percent of the cases. In another 43 percent of cases, egg hatch increased to levels between 5 to 70 percent. The combined findings from the 2 mating sequence types are as follows. After females mated first with normal males, egg hatch was above 80 percent in the population; a 2nd mating with 8-krad-sterilized males produced an immediate decrease of egg hatch to ca. 25 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter. When the 1st male was sterilized and the 2nd normal, egg hatch increased to ca. 70 percent, decreasing slowly thereafter

  17. Oil Characteristics of Four Palestinian Olive Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolini, Enrico Maria; Polverigiani, Serena; Ali, Saed; Mutawea, Mohammed; Qutub, Mayyada; Arabasi, Taysir; Pierini, Fabio; Abed, Mohammed; Neri, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Olive oil represents an important source of income for Palestinian farmers in local, national and international markets. Sometimes, olive oil produced in local climatic conditions, does not achieve the International Olive Council (IOC) trade standards so that international markets are precluded. The oil chemical composition and sensory profile of four Palestinian olive varieties (Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Souri and K18) were characterized in 2010 throughout an in situ evaluation. Most of the physicchemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition of the varieties met the International Olive Council trade standards (IOC-TS) for extra virgin olive oils. Values of K 270 for Nabali Baladi and linolenic acid for Souri slightly exceeded the limit. Eicosanoic acid exceeded the IOC-TS limits in the oils of all considered varieties. Among the sterols, the Δ-7-stigmastenol resulted too high for Nabali Baladi and Souri. Sensory profile for the tested varieties showed a reminiscence of tomato or artichoke and light to medium bitter and pungent sensations. Results represent an important baseline reference for further studies about oil composition and quality of the main Palestinian olive germplasm and provide indication of potential critical points to be controlled in order to ensure the full achievement of IOC-TS and access international markets.

  18. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  19. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Angeloni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  2. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  3. 15N Kinetic Analysis of N2O Production by Nitrosomonas europaea: an Examination of Nitrifier Denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Poth, Mark; Focht, Dennis D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of 15N isotope tracer experiments showed that Nitrosomonas europaea produces nitrous oxide only under oxygen-limiting conditions and that the labeled N from nitrite, but not nitrate, is incorporated into nitrous oxide, indicating the presence of the “denitrifying enzyme” nitrite reductase. A kinetic analysis of the m/z 44, 45, and 46 nitrous oxide produced by washed cell suspensions of N. europaea when incubated with 4 mM ammonium (99% 14N) and 0.4 mM nitrite (99% 15N) was performed....

  4. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  5. Investigation on microbiology of olive oil extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zanoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of approx. 200 kg olives from Frantoio and Moraiolo cultivars were processed in an oil mill at two dates of harvesting. Samples were collected in several steps of extraction process for sensory, chemical and microbial analyses.All extracted olive oil from the second olive harvesting date was affected by sensory defects and hence classified as being “non-extra virgin”. A distinction between extra virgin olive oil and nonextra virgin olive oil obtained from both harvesting dates was explained by the volatile compounds content of olive oil samples and by yeast and mould counts collected at different processing steps.

  6. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  7. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Olea africana against pathogenic yeast and nosocomial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoko, Peter; Makgapeetja, David M

    2015-11-17

    Olea africana leaves are used by Bapedi people to treat different ailments. The use of these leaves is not validated, therefore the aim of this study is to validate antimicrobial properties of this plant. The ground leaves were extracted using solvents of varying polarity (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol, butanol and water). Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyse the chemical constituents of the extracts. The TLC plates were developed in three different solvent systems, namely, benzene/ethanol/ammonium solution (BEA), chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) and ethyl acetate/methanol/water (EMW). The micro-dilution assay and bioautography method were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extracts against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Methanol was the best extractant, yielding a larger amount of plant material whereas hexane yielded the least amount. In phytochemical analyses, more compounds were observed in BEA, followed by EMW and CEF. Qualitative 2, 2- diphenylpacryl-1-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay displayed that all the extracts had antioxidant activity. Antioxidant compounds could not be separated using BEA solvent system while with CEF and EMW enabled antioxidant compounds separation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values against test bacteria ranged between 0.16 and 2.50 mg/mL whereas against fungi, MIC ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 mg/mL. Bioautography results demonstrated that more than one compound was responsible for antimicrobial activity in the microdilution assay as the compounds were located at different Rf values. The results indicate that leaf extracts of Olea africana contain compounds with antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Therefore, further studies are required to isolate the active compounds and perform

  8. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinbiao; Zhang, Meiru; Xiao, Xinlong; You, Jinjin; Wang, Junru; Wang, Tao; Yao, Yinan; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S) and salt-free (SeCKS) tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  9. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Ma

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000.A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S and salt-free (SeCKS tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR.Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  10. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  11. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  12. Permanent draft genomes of the two Rhodopirellula europaea strains 6C and SH398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Richter, Michael; Klindworth, Anna; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Frank, Carsten S; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Harder, Jens

    2014-02-01

    The genomes of two Rhodopirellula europaea strains were sequenced as permanent drafts to study the genomic diversity within this genus, especially in comparison with the closed genome of the type strain Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T). The isolates are part of a larger study to infer the biogeography of Rhodopirellula species in European marine waters, as well as to amend the genus description of R. baltica. This genomics resource article is the second of a series of five publications describing a total of eight new permanent daft genomes of Rhodopirellula species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  14. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%. Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system.

  15. Vibration and noise characteristics of hook type olive harvesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... The homeland of olive upper Mesopotamia including south-eastern ... Turkey where 81% of olive trees are grown in slopped and terraced .... effectively, it has been established the minimal security level at the equivalent noise ...

  16. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  17. Rapid and sensitive Nitrosomonas europaea biosensor assay for quantification of bioavailable ammonium sensu strictu in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Dong; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Sørensen, Jan; Brandt, Kristian K

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge on bioavailable ammonium sensu strictu (i.e., immediately available for cellular uptake) in soil is required to understand nutrient uptake processes in microorganisms and thus of vital importance for plant production. We here present a novel ammonium biosensor approach based on the lithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea transformed with a luxAB sensor plasmid. Bioluminescence-based ammonium detection was achieved within 10 min with a quantification limit in liquid samples of ∼20 μM and a linear response range up to 400 μM. Biosensor and conventional chemical quantification of ammonium in soil solutions agreed well across a range of sample and assay conditions. The biosensor was subsequently applied for a solid phase-contact assay allowing for direct interaction of biosensor cells with soil particle-associated (i.e., exchangeable plus fixed) ammonium. The assay successfully quantified bioavailable ammonium even in unfertilized soil and demonstrated markedly higher ratios of bioavailable ammonium to water- or 2 M KCl-exchangeable ammonium in anoxic soil than in corresponding oxic soil. Particle-associated ammonium contributed by at least 74% and 93% of the total bioavailable pool in oxic and anoxic soil, respectively. The N. europaea biosensor should have broad relevance for environmental monitoring of bioavailable ammonium and processes depending on ammonium bioavailability.

  18. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  19. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  20. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R; Jensen, Matthew R; Mohamed, Fatuma A; Wackett, Lawrence P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2016-12-23

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety-unusual for a thiolase-are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys 143 ) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C 12 and C 14 ) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ 117 ) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:27815501

  2. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  3. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  4. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  5. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  6. Protective effects of several plant polyphenols against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays. Comparative study versus diosmin and rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M; Rosa, B [Radiology and Physical Medicine Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Castillo, J; Benavente-Garcia, O; Lorente, J [Research and Development Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Vicente, V [Pathology Department of Furfural Espanol S.A., Murcia (Spain); Canteras, M [Biostatistical Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity. The reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays was examined. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE {approx} CE > rutin {approx} DMSO {approx} OL > diosmin. These results suggest a correlation between the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic extracts. (author)

  7. Protective effects of several plant polyphenols against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by X-rays. Comparative study versus diosmin and rutin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Rosa, B.; Castillo, J.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Lorente, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2001-01-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity. The reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse exposed to X-rays was examined. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE ∼ CE > rutin ∼ DMSO ∼ OL > diosmin. These results suggest a correlation between the antioxidant and anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic extracts. (author)

  8. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  9. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  10. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  11. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  12. Comparison of Manzanilla and wild type olives by RAPD-PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... In this study, the cultivated type olive Manzanilla was supplied from Olive ... America and Australia continents (MOARA, 2006). Olive ... reserved as table olives and 52.869 tons for oil produc- .... phism rate indicates a high genetic diversity in varieties. ... olive germplasm bank by means of RAPD markers.

  13. Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopy, R.J.; Haniotakis, G.E.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    Under field conditions, the authors compared the responses of lab.-type (ca. 85 generations under artificial conditions) and wild-type Dacus oleae flies to host plant colour and odour, host fruit colour and shape, small rectangles of different colours and shades, and McPhail-type traps of different colours baited with different odours. Except for the lab.-type flies being relatively more attracted toward red fruit models and small red rectangles and relatively less attracted toward yellow fruit models and small yellow rectangles than the wild type, the qualitative nature of the responses of the two fly types toward the various experimental treatments was essentially the same. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of the released lab.-type than the released wild-type flies were recaptured, suggesting that the mobility, flight pattern, or vigour of the two types of flies may be different. (author)

  14. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  15. Fifty years of mapping the Balkan flora for Atlas Florae Europaeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uotila Pertti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE, a programme for mapping the distribution of vascular plants in Europe, was launched in 1965 as a collaborative effort between European botanists. A historical review of the mapping for AFE in the Balkan countries, cited in the last volume (16 from 2013 as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic (F. Y. R. of Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey (European part, is presented and achievements and problems discussed. The special challenges facing mapping of the Balkan area during the past 50 years include the extremely rich flora, diverse and mountainous relief, political and economic difficulties, inaccessibility of available data, and scarcity of botanists contributing and collecting data for mapping.

  16. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  17. Influence of Olea europea L. and Ficus Carrica L. fine root activity on the K biodisponibility and clay mineralogy of the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mouas-Bourbia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of fine root activity of Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L. of soil in its immediate vicinity (in the so-called rhizosphere zone. The study was conducted on two stations in Northern Algeria: Guendoul and Bouira. Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L. roots significantly modified some chemical properties of rhizosphere soil. Increases of soil carbon, KNH4+ and KHNO3- were observed in the Olea europea L. and Ficus carrica L rhizosphere soil at both stations. Bulk and rhizosphere soil clay mineralogy was similar. Interstratified illite-smectite, smectite-illite and illite were predominant in the clay fraction. Chlorite and kaolinite were less represented. The decomposition of XRD diffractograms of two soil clay fractions using the Decomp program revealed that Olea europea L. roots promote nK+ storage in interlayer position. Indeed, the lower abscissa position of the gravity center (cg of the X-ray patterns, the peak displacement of clays populations PCI, I/S, S/I toward illite peak position indicates an increase of “illite-like” layer content in the vicinity of Olea europea L. roots. Olea europea L. roots appeared to have more influence on the rhizosphere soil than Ficus carrica L. roots probably because of its higher root biomass and the greater activity of the tree in winter (contrary to Ficus Carrica L., Olea europea L. keep their leaves in winter. The two species underground activity seems to be well reflected in their respective rhizosphere.

  18. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction wi...

  19. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Napiera?a, Agnieszka; M?dra, Anna; Leszczy?ska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; B?oszyk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be ...

  20. 15N kinetic analysis of N2O production by Nitrosomonas europaea: an examination of nitrifier denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of 15 N isotope tracer experiments showed that Nitrosomonas europaea produces nitrous oxide only under oxygen-limiting conditions and that the labeled N from nitrite, but not nitrate, is incorporated into nitrous oxide, indicating the presence of the denitrifying enzyme nitrite reductase. A kinetic analysis of the m/z 44, 45, and 46 nitrous oxide produced by washed cell suspensions of N. europaea when incubated with 4 mM ammonium (99% 14 N) and 0.4 mM nitrite (99% 15 N) was performed. No labeled nitirte was reduced to ammonium. All labeled material added was accounted for as either nitrite or nitrous oxide. The hypothesis that nitrous oxide is produced directly from nitrification was rejected since (i) it does not allow for the large amounts of double-labeled (m/z 46) nitrous oxide observed; (ii) the observed patterns of m/z 44, 45, 46 nitrous oxide were completely consistent with a kinetic analysis based on denitrification as the sole mechanism of nitrous oxide production but not with a kinetic analysis based on both mechanisms; (iii) the asymptotic ratio of m/z 45 to m/z 46 nitrous oxide was consistent with denitrification kinetics but inconsistent with nitrification kinetics, which predicted no limit to m/z 45 production. It is concluded that N. europaea is a denitrifier which, under conditions of oxygen stress, uses nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor and produces nitrous oxide

  1. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of C