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Sample records for olive oil-diet improves

  1. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Gutiérrez-García, O; Carbajal, A

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III) were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019) and MUFA (P alcohol (P = 0.005) was higher in the sunflower oil-group. TC/HDL-cholesterol and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased more (P alcohol intakes were adjusted. Data suggest that although Simvastatin is a very effective hypolipemic drug, olive oil-diets in preference to sunflower oil-diets must be consumed in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  2. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  3. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  4. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  5. Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, P T; Ng, T K W; Lee, V K M; Nesaretnam, K

    2015-06-01

    Effects of high-protein diets that are rich in saturated fats on cell adhesion molecules, thrombogenicity and other nonlipid markers of atherosclerosis in humans have not been firmly established. We aim to investigate the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared separately with virgin olive oil (OO), palm olein (PO) and coconut oil (CO) on cell adhesion molecules, lipid inflammatory mediators and thromobogenicity indices in healthy adults. A randomized cross-over intervention with three dietary sequences, using virgin OO, PO and CO as test fats, was carried out for 5 weeks on each group consisting of 45 men and women. These test fats were incorporated separately at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. For fasting and nonfasting blood samples, no significant differences were observed on the effects of the three test-fat diets on thrombaxane B2 (TXB2), TXB2/PGF1α ratios and soluble intracellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules. The OO diet induced significantly lower (Pvirgin OO do not alter the thrombogenicity indices-cellular adhesion molecules, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and TXB2/prostacyclin (PGF1α) ratios. However, the OO diet lowered plasma proinflammatory LTB4, whereas the PO diet raised the antiaggregatory plasma PGF1α in healthy Malaysian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00941837.

  6. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some people. Metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, excess ... Up to 1 liter per week of extra-virgin olive oil has been used safely as part ...

  7. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musrati, Imen

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  8. Beneficial nutritional properties of olive oil: implications for postprandial lipoproteins and factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C M

    2001-08-01

    Previous research concerning protective cardiovascular properties of olive oil has focussed on the beneficial consequences on blood cholesterol levels of substituting dietary saturated fatty acids with oleic acid. Despite evidence implicating raised circulating triglycerides in the postprandial state in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, little research had been conducted to investigate effects of monounsaturated fatty acids on postprandial events. In a case control study of southern (n = 30) versus northern European (n = 30) men, significant differences in postprandial triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 response were observed, with evidence of attenuated and potentially beneficial responses in the Southern Europeans. In a randomised controlled study manufactured foods typical of the Northern European food culture, were used to deliver diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (from olive oil). During the period of the olive oil enriched diet, LDL-cholesterol levels were 15% lower (p factor VII, as well as the production of factor VII antigen, was reduced on the olive oil diet. The study demonstrated significant improvements in biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in subjects osed to high olive oil diets (Southern Europeans) or transferred to such diets in the short term (Northern European volunteers). The study produced novel findings with respect to potential mechanisms by which diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce population risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  10. Some nutritional benefits of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testolin, G.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of olive oil could be related to its antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the "in vivo" antioxidant activity of different extra virgin olive oils (EVOO produced in the Mediterranean area. One hundred and twenty rats were fed diets containing oxidised and refined olive oil (400 mEq O2 kg for 11 weeks, a period of time sufficient to induce globular fragility and marginal plasma tocopherols deficiency.
    The animals were then fed 5 diets containing EVOO with content of tocopherols and phenols ranging from 165 to 335 and from 62 to 389 ppm respectively, in different tocopherols/phenols ratios, for 4 weeks. Results show that plasma tocopherols concentration after EVOO feeding was directly related to dietary intake.
    Moreover, globular resistance improved to a different extent with EVOO diets compared to the oxidised oil diet. The most favourable antioxidant response was obtained by feeding the oil high in both tocopherols and phenols; the action of phenols was considered synergetic to that of tocopherols in restoring normal conditions, impaired by the oxidised oil diet.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    quality olive plants. To study the potential of the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to stimulate the growth of micropropagated olive plants and to compare their ... phosphate, 15% potassium oxide, 2% magnesium oxide, 4.5% sulphur, 0.02% ..... Our results indicate the feasibility of G. mosseae and.

  12. Improving Morocco's olive industry, from harvest to waste disposal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It's a scene that has changed little over the centuries in Morocco's countryside. In the late January sunlight streaming through the open door of the small outbuilding, a patient, blindfolded horse slowly circles a concrete vat. He is the engine of this olive crusher, pulling the stone grinding wheel under which family members ...

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two native Algerian mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices) were tested for their effect on the growth of micropropagated olive tree (Olea europaea L.). The effect of inoculation of plantlets with G. mosseae was also compared with chemical fertilization using osmocote. Specific molecular techniques ...

  14. Commentary to Adam Oliver's 'Incentivising improvements in health care delivery'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The commentary discusses key issues for assessment of performance management within health care. It supports the ambition to develop more realistic understandings of performance management based on insights from behavioral economics as suggested by Adam Oliver. However, it also points to several ...

  15. Ultrasounds pretreatment of olive pomace to improve xylanase and cellulase production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paulina; Salgado, José Manuel; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Olive mills generate a large amount of waste that can be revaluated. This work aim to improve the production lignocellulolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation using ultrasounds pretreated olive mill wastes. The composition of olive mill wastes (crude and exhausted olive pomace) was compared and several physicochemical characteristics were significantly different. The use of both wastes in SSF was evaluated and a screening of fungi for xylanase and cellulase production was carried out. After screening, the use of exhausted olive pomace and Aspergillus niger led to the highest enzyme activities, so that they were used in the study of ultrasounds pre-treatment. The results showed that the sonication led to a 3-fold increase of xylanase activity and a decrease of cellulase activity. Moreover, the liquid fraction obtained from ultrasounds treatment was used to adjust the moisture of solid and a positive effect on xylanase (3.6-fold increase) and cellulase (1.2-fold increase) production was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  17. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  18. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  19. Genetic improvement of olive (Olea europaea L.) by conventional and in vitro biotechnology methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, E; Cristofori, V; Silvestri, C

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.) traditional methods of genetic improvement have up to now produced limited results. Intensification of olive growing requires appropriate new cultivars for fully mechanized groves, but among the large number of the traditional varieties very few are suitable. High-density and super high-density hedge row orchards require genotypes with reduced size, reduced apical dominance, a semi-erect growth habit, easy to propagate, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, with reliably high productivity and quality of both fruits and oil. Innovative strategies supported by molecular and biotechnological techniques are required to speed up novel hybridisation methods. Among traditional approaches the Gene Pool Method seems a reasonable option, but it requires availability of widely diverse germplasm from both cultivated and wild genotypes, supported by a detailed knowledge of their genetic relationships. The practice of "gene therapy" for the most important existing cultivars, combined with conventional methods, could accelerate achievement of the main goals, but efforts to overcome some technical and ideological obstacles are needed. The present review describes the benefits that olive and its products may obtain from genetic improvement using state of the art of conventional and unconventional methods, and includes progress made in the field of in vitro techniques. The uses of both traditional and modern technologies are discussed with recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iconomou, D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and β-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L. of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N2 flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall ogranoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield.

    La evolución de los compuestos fenólicos y su contribución a las caracterísiticas de calidad de aceite de oliva virgen durante el procesado del fruto fue estudiado mediante la adición de una combinación de varias enzimas comerciales conteniendo pectinasas, poligalacturonasa, celulasa y β-glucanasa con y sin flujo de nitrógeno. Las aceitunas (Olea europaea, L. de la variedad Megaritiki, con un estado de madurez correspondiente a una pigmentación semi-negra, fueron usadas en un experimento a escala industrial mediante un sistema de extracción de 3-fase. La

  1. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limón, Piedad; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Acién-Fernández, F Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Rebeca; Bermejo, Ruperto; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-05-15

    Humans are not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo and thus, their presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Consumption of essential carotenoids is reduced due to the lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Microalgae are a good source of carotenoids that can be exploited. In the present work, carotenoids rich extracts from Scenedesmus almeriensis were added to extra-virgin olive oils at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.21 mg/mL) in order to enhance the consumption of these bioactives. Extracts brought changes in olive oils color, turning them orange-reddish. Quality of olive oils was improved, since peroxidation was inhibited. Olive oils fatty acids and tocopherols were not affected. β-carotene and lutein contents increase considerably, as well as oxidative stability, improving olive oils shelf-life and nutritional value. Inclusion of S. almeriensis extracts is a good strategy to improve and enhance the consumption of carotenoids, since olive oil consumption is increasing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Morocco's olive industry, from harvest to waste disposal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... What's more, the oil — "all of it," he says — is of poor quality. ... These are the problems Dr Mustapha Ismaili-Alaoui and his team at the IAV set out to .... Solving the water crisis: Increase supplies or improve management?

  3. Improvements in the malaxation process to enhance the aroma quality of extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-09-01

    The influence of olive paste preparation conditions on the standard quality parameters, as well as volatile profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla cultivars produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain and processed in an oil mill plant were investigated. For this purpose, two malaxation temperatures (20/30 °C), and two malaxation times (30/90 min) selected in accordance with the customs of the area producers were tested. The volatile profile of the oils underwent a substantial change in terms of odorant series when different malaxation parameters were applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feeding olive cake to ewes improves fatty acid profile of milk and cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil extraction yields a residual cake rich in oil that can be used in animal diets as a source of monounsaturated fat. Milk and cheese from sheep are high in saturated fatty acids (FA) thus, it was hypothesized that supplementing olive cake to lactating ewes would result in naturally enhanced...... milk and cheese with healthier FA profiles for human consumption. Nine lactating ewes were randomly assigned to a replicated (n= s3) 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Diets were supplemented with 0, 10 or 25% of dry olive cake. Except for total solids, dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were...... not affected by dietary treatments. Oleic acid, n-6/. n-3 ratio and monounsaturated FA gradually increased (P. olive cake was increased in dietary treatments. Overall, FA profile of milk and cheese...

  5. Improving oxidative stability of virgin olive oil by addition of microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nasireh; Golmakani, Mohammad-Taghi

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant activity of Chlorella ( Chlorella vulgaris ) was evaluated in virgin olive oil (VOO) at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w) under accelerated storage conditions. Antioxidant activity of Chlorella was compared with those of BHT and β-carotene. Chlorella samples significantly retarded the formation of primary, secondary, and total oxidation products in comparison with those of the control. The stability increased as concentrations of Chlorella increased. Samples containing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% Chlorella significantly improved VOO stability by 19.99, 28.83, and 33.14%, respectively. Observed effects can be related to the release in the assortment of bioactive compounds from Chlorella algae to the VOO. Among the different antioxidants evaluatedy, BHT exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. On the contrary, β-carotene had no preventive effect against the oxidation of VOO. It also proved incapable of limiting the progress of VOO oxidation and played role as pro-oxidant. In conclusion, Chlorella enhanced VOO oxidative stability. Thus it can be considered as a promising source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [es

  7. De-stoning technology for improving olive oil nutritional and sensory features: The right idea at the wrong time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Corbo, Filomena; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2018-04-01

    De-stoning technology has been introduced in the olive oil sector more than twenty years ago. It has not gained momentum because, sometimes, innovative ideas are not accepted since they are suggested at the wrong time or under the wrong circumstances. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is one of the most popular functional foods, mainly due to its antioxidant properties. These features, as well as other nutritional characteristics are generally enhanced by the de-stoning process. However, despite the improvement of the nutritional value, in the past the de-stoned oil didn't achieve marketing success mainly in relation to technological limitations (i.e. low oil yield). Only in recent years healthy properties became an element able to influence consumers' behavior, overcoming the limit of low oil yields and attracting the attention of olive oil producers. An analysis of the advantages, in terms of product quality and process sustainability, is given in this review. Here, for the first time, the fragmented results reported in literature are critically analyzed underlining the contradictions reported by different authors showing the main reasons for the unlucky fate of this technology in the industrial sector. In the final section the challenges, that future research must focus on, are presented, including emerging technologies in VOO processing. Literature data, for the first time discussed here exhaustively, show that de-stoning technology is a mechanical strategy useful to increase the nutritional and the sensory quality of the product. Moreover, it reduces the depletion of natural resources obtaining a selective crushing of the drupe by removing the stones from the olive paste so increasing the sustainability and efficiency of VOO extraction plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols Promote Cholesterol Efflux and Improve HDL Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Berrougui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the present work give evidence from the beneficial role of extra virgin olive of oil (EVOO consumption towards oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenols contained in EVOO are responsible for inhibiting lipoproteins oxidative damages and promoting reverse cholesterol transport process via ABCA1 pathway.

  9. Coupling laser desorption with gas chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry for improved olive oil characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Sascha; Seifert, Luzia; Ahlmann, Norman; Hariharan, Chandrasekhara; Franzke, Joachim; Vautz, Wolfgang

    2018-07-30

    The investigation of volatile compounds in the headspace of liquid samples can often be used for detailed and non-destructive characterisation of the sample. This has great potential for process control or the characterisation of food samples, such as olive oil. We investigated, for the first time, the plume of substances released from olive oil droplets by laser desorption in a feasibility study and applied ion mobility spectrometry coupled to rapid GC pre-separation to enhance selectivity. Our investigation demonstrated that significantly more substances can be detected and quantified via laser desorption than in the usual headspace, enabling a rapid (5-10 min), sensitive (low ng/g range) and comprehensive analysis of the sample, with the potential for quality control and fraud identification. Therefore, laser desorption provides a useful sampling tool for characterising liquids in many applications, requiring only a few µL of sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  11. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  12. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Improves Oxidative Stress, Functional Capacity, and Health-Related Psychological Status in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Alma; Molina, Francisco; Ramos, Manuel Miguel; Martínez-Ramírez, María Josefa; Del Moral, María Luisa

    2016-07-21

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease that imposes physical, psychological, and social limitations. We have reported that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of FM. Olive oil has been shown to be effective treatment against the oxidative stress associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive oil on oxidative stress and health-related parameters in FM. This preliminary study was performed on blood samples of 23 women diagnosed with FM who consumed 50 ml of organic olive oil daily for 3 weeks. Subjects were randomized into two groups: one ingested extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and the other refined olive oil (ROO), which have different antioxidant content. The patients' oxidative (lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation) and antioxidative (antioxidant enzyme activities and compounds) profiles were examined before and after the treatment period. Functional capacity and physical and mental health status were assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Physical Component (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summaries (MCS-12) of the Short Form-12 Health Survey, respectively. Significant differences were found in pre-post change between the EVOO and ROO groups for protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation, and FIQ and MCS-12 scores. Differences between groups approached statistical significance for oxidative DNA damage and levels of the antioxidant compound zinc. EVOO may protect women with FM against oxidative stress in addition to improving functional capacity and health-related psychological status. Findings suggest that olive oil may be a valuable therapeutic support in FM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  14. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  15. Improving the water use efficiency of olive trees growing in water harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Leake, Salomon; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit

    2017-04-01

    Water is a primary limiting factor for agricultural development in many arid and semi-arid regions in which a runoff generation is a rather frequent event. If conveyed to dyke surrounded plots and ponded, runoff water can thereafter be used for tree production. One of the most promising runoff collection configurations is that of micro-catchments in which water is collected close to the area in which runoff was generated and stored in adjacent shallow pits. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of the geometry of runoff water collection area (shallow pit or trench) on direct evaporative water losses and on the water use efficiency of olive trees grown in them. The study was conducted during the summer of 2013 and 2014. In this study regular micro-catchments with basins of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) by 0.1 m deep were compared with trenches of one meter deep and one meter wide. Each configuration was replicated three times. One tree was planted in each shallow basin and the distance between trees in the 12 m long trench was four meters. Access tubes for neutron probes were installed in the micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 2.5 m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored periodically throughout drying periods in between simulated runoff events. Transpiration of the trees was estimated from half-hourly sap flow measurements using a Granier system. Total transpiration fluxes were computed for time intervals corresponding to consecutive soil water measurements. During the first year, a large runoff event was simulated by applying once four cubic meters to each plot; and in the second year the same volume of water was split into four applications, simulating a series of small runoff events. In both geometries, trees received the same amount of water per tree. Evaporation from trenches and micro-catchments was estimated as the difference between evapotranspiration obtained computing the differences in total soil water

  16. Ozone-Induced Vascular Contractility and Pulmonary Injury Are Differentially Impacted by Diets Enriched With Coconut Oil, Fish Oil, and Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Henriquez, Andres; Hodge, Myles; Bass, Virgina; Nelson, Gail M; Carswell, Gleta; Richards, Judy E; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Chorley, Brian; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Tong, Haiyan; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2018-05-01

    Fish, olive, and coconut oil dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if they protect against air pollution-induced adverse effects. We hypothesized that these dietary supplements would attenuate ozone-induced systemic and pulmonary effects. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet supplemented with fish, olive, or coconut oil for 8 weeks. Animals were then exposed to air or ozone (0.8 ppm), 4 h/day for 2 days. Ozone exposure increased phenylephrine-induced aortic vasocontraction, which was completely abolished in rats fed the fish oil diet. Despite this cardioprotective effect, the fish oil diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) markers of lung injury and inflammation. Ozone-induced pulmonary injury/inflammation were comparable in rats on normal, coconut oil, and olive oil diets with altered expression of markers in animals fed the fish oil diet. Fish oil, regardless of exposure, led to enlarged, foamy macrophages in the BALF that coincided with decreased pulmonary mRNA expression of cholesterol transporters, cholesterol receptors, and nuclear receptors. Serum microRNA profile was assessed and demonstrated marked depletion of a variety of microRNAs in animals fed the fish oil diet, several of which were of splenic origin. No ozone-specific changes were noted. Collectively, these data indicate that although fish oil offered vascular protection from ozone exposure, it increased pulmonary injury/inflammation and impaired lipid transport mechanisms resulting in foamy macrophage accumulation, demonstrating the need to be cognizant of potential off-target pulmonary effects that might offset the overall benefit of this vasoprotective supplement.

  17. Extra virgin olive oil improves post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Petruccioli, Andreina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Monticolo, Roberto; Cava, Edda; Violi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycaemia in healthy subjects but it has never been investigated if this can be detected in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated if EVOO affects post-prandial glucose and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Thirty IFG patients were randomly allocated to a meal containing or not 10 g of EVOO in a cross-over design. Before, 60 min and 120 min after lunch a blood sample was taken to measure glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo B-48. The meal containing EVOO was associated with a reduction of glucose (p = 0.009) and DPP4 activity (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of insulin (p < 0.001) and GLP-1 (p < 0.001) compared with the meal without EVOO. Furthermore, the meal containing EVOO showed a significant decrease of triglycerides (p = 0.002) and Apo B-48 (p = 0.002) compared with the meal without EVOO. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not significantly change between the two groups. This is the first study to show that in IFG patients EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and lipid profile with a mechanism probably related to incretin up-regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets alters biochemical indices in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Osmund Falade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is thermally oxidized to increase its palatability and this has been a usual practice in most homes. This study sought to assess the biochemical responses of rats to thermally oxidized palm oil diets. Therefore, Wistar strain albino rats (Rattus norveigicus were fed with fresh palm oil (control and thermally oxidized palm oil (test groups diets and water ad libitum for 30 days. Then, the malondialdehyde (MDA contents and total protein of the plasma and liver were determined. Subsequently, the plasma liver function markers [alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin (ALB and total bilirubin (TBIL ] and the lipid profile [triglyceride (TRIG, total cholesterol (T-CHOL, high density lipoprotein (HDL-CHOL and low density lipoprotein (LDL-CHOL ] were assayed. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in the plasma and liver total protein, ALB, TRIG and HDL-CHOL of the test groups when compared with the control. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05 in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP, TBIL, T-CHOL, LDL-CHOL and plasma/liver MDA of the test groups when compared with the control. These effects were most pronounced in rats fed with 20 min-thermally oxidized palm oil diet. Hence, consumption of thermally oxidized palm oil diets had deleterious effects on biochemical indices in rats. Therefore, cooking with and/or consumption of palm oil subjected to heat treatment for several long periods of time should be discouraged in our homes as this might have deleterious effects on human health.

  19. Rapeseed oil, olive oil, plant sterols, and cholesterol metabolism: an ileostomy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Andersson, H; Bosaeus, I

    2005-12-01

    To study whether olive oil and rapeseed oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Short-term experimental study, with controlled diets. Outpatients at a metabolic-ward kitchen. A total of nine volunteers with conventional ileostomies. Two 3-day diet periods; controlled diet including 75 g of rapeseed oil or olive oil. Cholesterol absorption, ileal excretion of cholesterol, and bile acids. Serum levels of cholesterol and bile acid metabolites. Differences between diets evaluated with Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test. Rapeseed oil diet contained 326 mg more plant sterols than the olive oil diet. Rapeseed oil tended to decrease cholesterol absorption by 11% (P = 0.050), and increased excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and their sum as sterols by 9% (P = 0.021), 32% (P = 0.038), and 51% (P = 0.011) compared to olive oil. A serum marker for bile acid synthesis (7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) increased by 28% (P = 0.038) within 10 h of consumption, and serum cholesterol levels decreased by 7% (P = 0.024), whereas a serum marker for cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) as well as serum levels of plant sterols remained unchanged. Rapeseed oil and olive oil have different effects on cholesterol metabolism. Rapeseed oil, tends to decrease cholesterol absorption, increases excretion of cholesterol and bile acids, increases serum marker of bile acid synthesis, and decreases serum levels of cholesterol compared to olive oil. This could in part be explained by different concentrations of natural plant sterols. Supported by the Göteborg Medical Society, the Swedish Medical Society, the Swedish Board for Agricultural Research (SJFR) grant 50.0444/98 and by University of Göteborg.

  20. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  2. Multiple internal standard normalization for improving HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation in virgin olive oil volatile organic compounds (VOO-VOCs) profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Martina; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Calamai, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass. Therefore, HS-SPME-GC-MS quantitation based upon the use of external standard method or of only a single internal standard (ISTD) for data normalization in an internal standard method, may be troublesome. In this work a multiple internal standard normalization is proposed to overcome these problems and improving quantitation of VOO-VOCs. As many as 11 ISTDs were used for quantitation of 71 VOCs. For each of them the most suitable ISTD was selected and a good linearity in a wide range of calibration was obtained. Except for E-2-hexenal, without ISTD or with an unsuitable ISTD, the linear range of calibration was narrower with respect to that obtained by a suitable ISTD, confirming the usefulness of multiple internal standard normalization for the correct quantitation of VOCs profile in VOOs. The method was validated for 71 VOCs, and then applied to a series of lampante virgin olive oils and extra virgin olive oils. In light of our results, we propose the application of this analytical approach for routine quantitative analyses and to support sensorial analysis for the evaluation of positive and negative VOOs attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Promotion of colon cancer metastases in rat liver by fish oil diet is not due to reduced stroma formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, L.; Fehres, O.; Griffini, P.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce 10-fold more metastases in number and 1000-fold in volume in an animal model of colon cancer metastasis in rat liver. It was observed that tumors of rats on a fish oil diet lacked peritumoral stroma unlike

  4. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  5. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, J; Vissers, M N; Wiseman, S; van Putte, K P; Kafatos, A

    2002-10-01

    To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. The Medical School and University Hospital of the University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Twenty-five healthy males and females completed the study. Each intervention was of three weeks duration and intervention periods were separated by a two week washout. Seventy grams of extra virgin olive oil was supplied to each subject per day in the intervention periods. The olive oils supplied differed in their phenol content by 18.6 mg/day. Two fasting venous blood samples were taken at the end of each intervention period. The markers of antioxidant capacity measured in fasting plasma samples (total plasma resistance to oxidation, concentrations of protein carbonyl as a marker of protein oxidation, malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides as markers of lipid oxidation and the ferric reducing ability of plasma) did not differ significantly between the low and high phenol olive oil diets. No effect of olive oil phenols on markers of oxidation in smokers was detected. It may be that the natural concentrations of phenols in olive oil are too low to produce an effect in the post-absorptive phase. Possible reasons for period effects and interactions between diet and administration period need attention to aid further cross-over trials of this kind. Unilever Research Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

  6. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  7. Effectiveness of the mechanical excitation applied to the olive paste: possible improving of the oil yield, in malaxation phase, by vibration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Gallina Toschi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical vibrations characterized by a frequency lower than 200 Hz could promote the cells breakage and improve the oil extraction process by avoiding, at the same time, the negative effects on the commercial qualitative parameters due to the use of the heating during malaxation. Vibration tests were conducted by means of an electrodynamic shaker in order to find the optimal frequency levels of excitation, able to put in a resonant condition the olive paste. Sinusoidal accelerations at constant acceleration (120 m/s2, in a range between 5 and 200 Hz were explored. The 50 Hz and 80 Hz frequencies were able to put in resonant condition the olive paste. In the vibrated samples at 50 Hz (15 min of treatment, the maximum increment of the extraction efficiency (about 53% in comparison with the control, was observed. Further studies could be conducted in order to assess the synergic effect of the mechanical vibrations and the malaxation on the oil extraction efficiency, with the aim of reducing the time of the whole phase and avoiding changes in the oil quality traits.

  8. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%. Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system.

  9. Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, C.; Filesi, C.; Varì, R.; Scazzocchio, B.; Filardi, T.; Fogliano, V.; D’Archivio, M.; Giovannini, C.; Lenzi, A.; Morano, S.; Masella, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic

  10. Influence of extra virgin olive oil on blood pressure and kidney angiotensinase activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Ana Belén; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Prieto, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The efficacy of the current strategies of treatment is still not entirely satisfactory, and new approaches are being considered. To analyze the beneficial effects of extra virgin olive oil as a major component of the Mediterranean diet, we studied systolic blood pressure and angiotensinase activities, since this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of angiotensins, in the kidney of hypertensive rats fed during 12 weeks with a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil compared with a standard diet. As a reflex of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostanes and nitric oxide were quantified in urine. Results demonstrated a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure until the end of the feeding period in both groups. However, this increase was delayed in the extra virgin olive oil group until week six, with the systolic blood pressure being always lower in this group. Nitric oxide and 8-isoprostanes were lower in the extra virgin olive oil group. While we can deduce a higher formation of angiotensin 2-10 in the renal cortex, a higher availability of angiotensin II may be presumed in the renal medulla of animals fed an extra virgin olive oil diet than in animals fed a standard diet. Our results support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on cardiovascular function and suggest that the Mediterranean diet may be beneficial in itself but it may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Food fried in extra-virgin olive oil improves postprandial insulin response in obese, insulin-resistant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetti, Sara; Malandrino, Noemi; Luciani, Davide; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Capristo, Esmeralda

    2011-03-01

    The benefits of low glycemic load (GL) diets on clinical outcome in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have extensively been demonstrated. The GL of a meal can be affected by modulating the bioavailability of carbohydrates or by changing food preparation. We investigated the effect on plasma glucose and insulin response in lean and obese women of adding raw or fried extra-virgin olive oil to a carbohydrate-containing meal. After an overnight fast, 12 obese insulin-resistant women (body mass index [BMI], 32.8 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) and five lean subjects (BMI, 22.2 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive two different meals (designated A and B). Meal A was composed of 60 g of pasta made from wheat flour and 150 g of grilled courgettes with 25 g of uncooked oil. Meal B included 15 g of oil in the 150 g of deep-fried courgettes and 10 g of oil in the 60 g of stir-fried pasta. Both meals included 150 g of apple. Blood samples were collected at baseline and every 30 minutes over a 3-hour post-meal period and were tested for levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides. The area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. In obese women the AUCs for C-peptide were significantly higher after meal A than after meal B at 120 minutes (W [Wilcoxon sign rank test] = 27.5, P = .0020), 150 minutes (W = 26.5, P = .0039), and 180 minutes (W = 26.5, P = .0039). No differences were found in lean subjects. This study demonstrated that in obese, insulin-resistant women, food fried in extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced both insulin and C-peptide responses after a meal.

  12. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C 6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C 6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of repeated two-phase olive mill waste application on phosphorus fractionation in a degraded olive grove soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Flores, S.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Cabrera, D.; Pena, D.; Fernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of organic matter is one of the main forms of soil degradation in Mediterranean agricultural soils, and external sources of organic matter are required to improve soil properties. the two-phase centrifugation system in the olive-oil extraction industry produces a large amount of olive mill waste sludge (TPOMW) which can be used to add organic C to degraded soils. (Author)

  14. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  15. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  16. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in the classroom, especially PowerPoint techniques for which he received university grants. Oliver's computer skills also allowed him to design several, simple but important programs to help students understand difficult subjects. A favorite, "Oliver's Orrery," clearly shows how different models of the solar system produce planetary motions, a program that remains unique. Research interests involved 3-mm radio astronomy, photometry of eclipsing binary systems, and the design of astronomical instruments and computer controlled telescopes. Oliver was the first visiting astronomer of the Copernicus Institute in Warsaw, Poland, where he helped participate in its establishment. He also held a joint appointment as Senior Research Scientist at UF's Institute for Space Science and Technology from 1988 to 1994. During this time he was a co-investigator on the Long Duration Exposure Facility/Interplanetary Dust Experiment and the Clementine Orbital Meteoroid and Debris Counter. These experiments obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and provided information on the population of small mass, man-made debris in near Earth space. Oliver was twice a NASA Faculty Research Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he developed models used to predict meteoroid impacts on space probes. He was always excited about discovering orbital debris clouds around the Earth. A favorite and special project from 1984 to 1988 was Oliver's involvement as co-investigator on UF's South Pole Optical Telescope where his knowledge of computer controlled instruments was vital. He visited the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station four times during Antarctic summers and the U.S. State Department and U.S. Navy awarded him the Antarctic Service Medal for activities in Antarctica in October 1986. This small, specialized instrument, the first stellar telescope located at Earth's South Pole, operated for several seasons

  17. Consumption of extra virgin olive oil improves body composition and blood pressure in women with excess body fat: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Xavier Valente, Flávia; da Silva, Laís Emilia; Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Olívia; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cássia

    2017-08-14

    Despite the fact that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is widely used in obese individuals to treat cardiovascular diseases, the role of EVOO on weight/fat reduction remains unclear. We investigated the effects of energy-restricted diet containing EVOO on body composition and metabolic disruptions related to obesity. This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 41 adult women with excess body fat (mean ± SD 27.0 ± 0.9 year old, 46.8 ± 0.6% of total body fat) received daily high-fat breakfasts containing 25 mL of soybean oil (control group, n = 20) or EVOO (EVOO group, n = 21) during nine consecutive weeks. Breakfasts were part of an energy-restricted normal-fat diets (-2090 kJ, ~32%E from fat). Anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed, and fasting blood was collected on the first and last day of the experiment. Fat loss was ~80% higher on EVOO compared to the control group (mean ± SE: -2.4 ± 0.3 kg vs. -1.3 ± 0.4 kg, P = 0.037). EVOO also reduced diastolic blood pressure when compared to control (-5.1 ± 1.6 mmHg vs. +0.3 ± 1.2 mmHg, P = 0.011). Within-group differences (P group, and for serum creatinine (+0.04 ± 0.01 µmol/L) and alkaline phosphatase (-3.3 ± 1.8 IU/L) in the EVOO group. There was also a trend for IL-1β EVOO reduction (-0.3 ± 0.1 pg/mL, P = 0.060). EVOO consumption reduced body fat and improved blood pressure. Our results indicate that EVOO should be included into energy-restricted programs for obesity treatment.

  18. Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, C; Filesi, C; Varì, R; Scazzocchio, B; Filardi, T; Fogliano, V; D'Archivio, M; Giovannini, C; Lenzi, A; Morano, S; Masella, R

    2016-11-01

    Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021). Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.

  19. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Improvement of soil carbon sink by cover crops in olive orchards under semiarid conditions. Influence of the type of soil and weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Márquez-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most important crops in Spain, and the main one in the region of Andalusia. Most orchards are rain-fed, with high slopes where conventional tillage (CT is the primary soil management system used. These conditions lead to high erosion and a significant transport of organic carbon (OC. Moreover, soil tillage accelerates the oxidation of the OC. Cover crops (CC are the conservation agriculture (CA approach for woody crops. They are grown in-between tree rows to protect the soil against water erosion and their organic residues also help to increase the soil carbon (C sink. Soil and OC losses associated to the sediment were measured over four seasons (2003-07 using micro-plots for the collection of runoff and sediment in five experimental fields located in rain-fed olive orchards in Andalusia. Two soil management systems were followed, CC and CT. Furthermore, the changes in soil C in both systems were analyzed at a depth of 0-25 cm. CC reduced erosion by 80.5%, and also OC transport by 67.7%. In addition, Cover crops increased soil C sink by 12.3 Mg ha-1 year-1 of carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalent, with respect to CT. CC in rainfed olive orchards in a Mediterranean climate could be an environmental friendly and profitable system for reducing erosion and increasing the soil C sink. However, C fixing rate is not regular, being very high for the initial years after shifting from CT to CC and gradually decreasing over time.

  1. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  2. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  3. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  4. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; D'Antuono, Isabella; Durante, Miriana; Conte, Amalia; Cardinali, Angela; Linsalata, Vito; Mita, Giovanni; Logrieco, Antonio F; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2018-04-16

    During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% ( w / w ). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  5. Chronic Swimming Exercise Ameliorates Low-Soybean-Oil Diet-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment by Enhancing BDNF-Mediated Synaptic Potentiation in Developing Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei; Cong, Jiyan; Wu, Yulong; Xie, Jiacun; Wang, Siyuan; Zhao, Yue; Zang, Xiaoying

    2018-05-01

    Exercise and low-fat diets are common lifestyle modifications used for the treatment of hypertension besides drug therapy. However, unrestrained low-fat diets may result in deficiencies of low-unsaturated fatty acids and carry contingent risks of delaying neurodevelopment. While aerobic exercise shows positive neuroprotective effects, it is still unclear whether exercise could alleviate the impairment of neurodevelopment that may be induced by certain low-fat diets. In this research, developing spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with chronic swimming exercise and/or a low-soybean-oil diet for 6 weeks. We found that performance in the Morris water maze was reduced and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus was suppressed by the diet, while a combination treatment of exercise and diet alleviated the impairment induced by the specific low-fat diet. Moreover, the combination treatment effectively increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR), which were both down-regulated by the low-soybean-oil diet in the hippocampus of developing SHR. These findings suggest that chronic swimming exercise can ameliorate the low-soybean-oil diet-induced learning and memory impairment in developing SHR through the up-regulation of BDNF and NMDAR expression.

  6. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  7. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  8. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  9. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  10. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  12. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  13. Olive oil and immune system functions: potential involvement in immunonutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil plays a crucial role as a main component of the Mediterranean diet, which has shown important benefits for the human health. According to the current knowledge, the administration of diets containing olive oil exerts some beneficial effects on the immune system functions due likely to the action of oleic acid rather than other substances contained in this fat. In the last few years, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have evidenced the potential of certain dietary lipids (containing polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids as modulators of immune system functions due to their ability to suppress several functions of immune system in both humans and animals. As a result, these fats have been applied in the reduction of symptoms from diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system (autoimmune diseases or in the reduction of cancer risk. Here, we review several relevant experimental and clinical data associated with the beneficial effects of olive oil upon the health, the mechanisms of action and the immune function susceptible of being be altered by the administration of dietary lipids and particularly of olive oil. In addition, we will also discuss the detrimental effects on the immune system functions caused by the administration of certain dietary lipids attributed mainly to a reduction of host natural resistance against infectious microorganisms as well as the involvement of olive oil diets in the regulation of immune resistance.El aceite de oliva tiene un papel crucial como componente de la dieta Mediterránea, con importantes beneficios sobre la salud humana. Dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva actúan de manera favorable en las funciones del sistema inmune por la acción sobretodo del ácido oleico. Los estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales publicados en los últimos años demuestran que ciertos lípidos de la dieta [ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA

  14. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

  15. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  16. Preexposure to Olive Oil Polyphenols Extract Increases Oxidative Load and Improves Liver Mass Restoration after Hepatectomy in Mice via Stress-Sensitive Genes

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    Jelena Marinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols can act as oxidants in some conditions, inducing redox-sensitive genes. We investigated the effect of preexposure to the olive oil polyphenols extract (PFE on time-dependent changes in the hepatic oxidative state in a model of liver regeneration—a process in which oxidative stress associated with the metabolic overload accounts for the early events that contribute to the onset of liver self-repair. Liver regeneration was induced by one-third hepatectomy in mice. Prior to hepatectomy, mice were intraperitoneally given either PFE (50 mg/kg body weight or saline for seven consecutive days, while respective controls received vehicle alone. Redox state-regulating enzymes and thiol proteins along with the mRNA levels of Nrf2 gene and its targets γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and heme oxygenase-1 were determined at different time intervals after hepatectomy. The liver mass restoration was calculated to assess hepatic regeneration. The resulting data demonstrate the effectiveness of preexposure to PFE in stimulating liver regeneration in a model of a small tissue loss which may be ascribed to the transient increase in oxidant load during the first hours after hepatectomy and associated induction of stress response gene-profiles under the control of Nrf2.

  17. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  18. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Pereira Cunill, J. L.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Ortiz-Leyba, C.; Martínez-Brocca, M.; Mangas-Cruz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic ...

  19. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  20. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  1. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  2. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  3. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: comparison of different olive oil extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2008-07-23

    The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

  4. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Hessin, Alyaa F; Abdelbaset, Marwan; Ogaly, Hanan A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Hassan, Salah M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  5. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  6. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  7. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

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    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  8. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  9. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  10. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  11. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP. Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31, piroxicam (n=31 or base gel phonophoresis (n=31 groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (p< 0.05, but in olive oil group, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (p< 0.001. A significant difference between olive oil group and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It could be proposed that phonophoresis with virgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies.

  12. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  13. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  14. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (psafflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (psafflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  15. Pharma-Nutritional Properties of Olive Oil Phenols. Transfer of New Findings to Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, M Carmen; Tomé-Carneiro, Joao; Dávalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco

    2018-06-11

    The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of olive oil and some of its components are being rapidly decoded. In this paper we review the most recent pharma-nutritional investigations on olive oil biophenols and their health effects, chiefly focusing on recent findings that elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action.

  16. Pharma-Nutritional Properties of Olive Oil Phenols. Transfer of New Findings to Human Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Crespo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been long associated with improved cardiovascular prognosis, chemoprevention, and lower incidence of neurodegeneration. Of the multiple components of this diet, olive oil stands out because its use has historically been limited to the Mediterranean basin. The health benefits of olive oil and some of its components are being rapidly decoded. In this paper we review the most recent pharma-nutritional investigations on olive oil biophenols and their health effects, chiefly focusing on recent findings that elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action.

  17. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  18. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  19. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  20. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  1. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  3. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... ... and Microbial Activity, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University - ... A total of 24 lipolytic yeasts were isolated from the spent olive derived from olive fruits of ... isolated during process of fermentation of olive table, can.

  4. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabaza, Ovidio; Contreras-Montes, José; García-Ruiz, María; Delgado-Ramos, Fernando; Gómez-Lorente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where t...

  5. Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indeed, the use of this compost as biofertilizer allowed an increase of the yield to 30.61% and an improvement of wheat growth, spikes' number (5.25±0.3 per plant in comparison with 1±0.09 for control) and seeds (57.12±0.99 per plant in comparison with 14.87±1.88 for control). Keywords: Compost, Olive husks, olive mill ...

  6. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  7. Interaction of Olive Oil and Metals

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKGÖK, Elif Burçin; ÖTLEŞ, Semih

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil, obtained only from the fruits of olive trees, is a food item consumed in natural form without any chemical process and is liquid at room temperature. In addition to its flavor, oxidative stability is the unique property of it. Oxidative stability of olive oil is so powerful is due to its major components which are fatty acids and minor components which are phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, sterols, phospholipids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, etc. All edible oils, including ol...

  8. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  9. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  10. Fate and Prediction of Phenolic Secoiridoid Compounds throughout the Different Stages of the Virgin Olive Oil Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados

    2017-08-03

    The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process-crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation-is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed. During malaxation, the content of the main phenolic secoiridoids is reduced, especially in the case of the hydroxytyrosol derivatives, in which a variety-dependent behaviour is observed. The prediction of the concentration of phenolic secoiridoids finally transferred from the kneaded paste to the virgin olive oil is also feasible, and depends on the phenolic content and amount of water in the olive paste. The determination of the phenolic compounds in the olive fruit, olive paste and olive oil has been carried out by LC-MS (Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry). This improved knowledge could help in the use of more adequate processing conditions for the production of virgin olive oil with desired properties; for example, higher or lower phenolic content, as the amount of these minor components is directly related to its sensory, antioxidant and healthy properties.

  11. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Canopy architecture and radiation interception measurements in olive

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Espejo, Antonio; Durán, Pablo; Fernández Luque; Girón Moreno, Ignacio Francisco; Martín Palomo, María José

    2008-01-01

    In this work we tested techniques suitable for a future validation of the RATP model to simulate transpiration and photosynthesis of mature olive trees under field conditions. Canopy architecture was characterised with an electromagnetic 3D digitiser and the software 3A. Although the capability of the software to deal with big data sets has to be improved, the system seems to meet the RATP requirements. An array of radiation sensors mounted in an aluminium bar and located at di...

  13. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  14. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  15. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  16. Phytosanitary evaluation of olive germplasm in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on viruses was carried out in 2008 in the main olive-growing areas of Albania (Kruja, Sauk and Vlora. Fifty samples from 14 local and 2 exotic olive cultivars were collected from 10 commercial orchards and one collection field and inspected for Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV, Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1, Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus (OLYaV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D by a one-step RT-PCR assay using virus-specifi c primers. None of these viruses were found in the source plants except SLRSV and OLYaV, which were detected in a ‘K. M. Berat’ olive tree grown in the collection field. These findings are important because the incidence of olive virus diseases is low in Albania but high in other Mediterranean countries. Thus, all efforts should be to directed to maintaining the Albanian olive germplasm pathogen-free and in the best agronomical and phytosanitary condition possible.

  17. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  18. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    vegetation data (biomass partition, C and N content in olive trees branches and roots) were additionally collected to improve the model calibration. Preliminary results showed that olive grove can be an important C sink while agronomic practices and hottest conditions can induce large C losses. DayCent simulations have confirmed that the model properly tuned for the two components can be used to simulate total olive grove NEE. Additional studies should be conducted to assess the possibility of further improving model performances. References Brilli, L., Chiesi, M., Maselli, F., Moriondo, M., Gioli, B., Toscano, P., Zaldei, A., Bindi, M., 2013. Simulation of olive grove Gross Primary Production by the combination of ground and multisensory satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, in press. IPCC, 2007, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp. Loumou, A., Giourga, C., 2003. Olive groves: The life and identity of the Mediterranean. Agricultural and Human Values 20, 87-95.

  19. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive, using N(G-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME- induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO, and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  20. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10 -5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 -3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10 -6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK Ca ) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  1. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mercader-Trejo, Flora [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Metrologia de Materiales, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, km. 4.5 Carretera a Los Cues, El Marques, Queretaro (Mexico); Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de [G.A.S. Gesellschaft fuer analytische Sensorsysteme mbH, BioMedizinZentrumDortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 15, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Arce, Lourdes [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. > Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. > The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. > The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  2. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract as an Alternative Means to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria G Li Destri; Agosteo, Giovanni E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora V; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruit worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks because natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/liter and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/liter, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Because PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olive fruit, it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  3. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio; Mercader-Trejo, Flora; Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de; Arce, Lourdes; Valcarcel, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. → Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. → The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. → The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  4. Thermal characterization of a new effective building material based on clay and olive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamrani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermophysical properties of wall materials on energy performance and comfort in traditional building was investigated. The clay is the most commonly used sustainable building material. The study looked at the effects of the addition of pomace olive on the thermophysical properties of clay bricks to improve the energy efficiency of this ecological material. An experimental measurement of thermal properties of clay mixed with pomace olive was carried out by using the transient and steady state hot-plate and flash methods. The experimental methods are applied to measure the thermal properties of the composite material. The estimation of these thermal characteristics is based on a one dimensional model and the experimental errors are found less than 3%. The composite samples were prepared with different granular classes and mass fractions of the pomace olive in the mixture. The results show that the density of the new material was not substantially influenced by the size of the pomace olive. However, the thermal conductivity and diffusivity decrease from 0.65 W.m-1.K-1 and 4.21×10-7 m2.s-1 to 0.29 W.m-1.K-1 and 2.47×10-7m2.s-1, respectively, according to the variation of the volume fraction of pomace olive from 0 (pure clay to 71% showing that the olive pomace can be used as effective secondary raw materials in the making of clay bricks.

  5. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  6. Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Katiucha KHR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group: (C receiving standard-chow; (Ob receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob groups were divided into four subgroups (n = 6/group:(C standard-chow and saline; (C-Olivestandard-chow and olive-oil (3.0 g/kg.day; (C-Oleuropeinstandard-chow and oleuropein (0.023 mg/kg/day; (C-Cafeic standard-chow and cafeic-acid (2.66 mg/kg/day; (Obreceiving hypercaloric-chow and saline;(Ob-Olive hypercaloric-chow and olive-oil;(Ob-Oleuropein hypercaloric-chow and oleuropein;(Ob-Cafeic hypercaloric-chow and cafeic-acid. Treatments were given twice a week during 21 days. Results After 42 days, obesity was evidenced in Ob rats from enhanced body-weight, surface-area, and body-mass-index. Energy-expenditure, oxygen consumption(VO2 and fat-oxidation were lower in Ob-group than in C. Despite no morphometric changes, Ob-Olive, Ob-Oleuropein and Ob-Cafeic groups had higher VO2, fat-oxidation, myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and lower respiratory-quotient than Ob. Citrate-synthase was highest in Ob-Olive group. Myocardial lipid-hydroperoxide(LH and antioxidant enzymes were unaffected by olive-oil and its compounds in obesity condition, whereas LH was lower and total-antioxidant-substances were higher in C-Olive and C-Oleuropein than in C. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions.

  7. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  8. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  10. Oil Characteristics of Four Palestinian Olive Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolini, Enrico Maria; Polverigiani, Serena; Ali, Saed; Mutawea, Mohammed; Qutub, Mayyada; Arabasi, Taysir; Pierini, Fabio; Abed, Mohammed; Neri, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Olive oil represents an important source of income for Palestinian farmers in local, national and international markets. Sometimes, olive oil produced in local climatic conditions, does not achieve the International Olive Council (IOC) trade standards so that international markets are precluded. The oil chemical composition and sensory profile of four Palestinian olive varieties (Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Souri and K18) were characterized in 2010 throughout an in situ evaluation. Most of the physicchemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition of the varieties met the International Olive Council trade standards (IOC-TS) for extra virgin olive oils. Values of K 270 for Nabali Baladi and linolenic acid for Souri slightly exceeded the limit. Eicosanoic acid exceeded the IOC-TS limits in the oils of all considered varieties. Among the sterols, the Δ-7-stigmastenol resulted too high for Nabali Baladi and Souri. Sensory profile for the tested varieties showed a reminiscence of tomato or artichoke and light to medium bitter and pungent sensations. Results represent an important baseline reference for further studies about oil composition and quality of the main Palestinian olive germplasm and provide indication of potential critical points to be controlled in order to ensure the full achievement of IOC-TS and access international markets.

  11. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  12. Olive oil-induced reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation promotes wound healing of pressure ulcers in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato-Trancoso, Aline; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2016-07-01

    The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbated inflammatory response are the main events that impair healing of pressure ulcers. Therefore, olive oil may be a good alternative to improve the healing of these chronic lesions due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study investigated the effect of olive oil administration on wound healing of pressure ulcers in mice. Male Swiss mice were daily treated with olive oil or water until euthanasia. One day after the beginning of treatment, two cycles of ischemia-reperfusion by external application of two magnetic plates were performed in skin to induced pressure ulcer formation. The olive oil administration accelerated ROS and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and reduced oxidative damage in proteins and lipids when compared to water group. The inflammatory cell infiltration, gene tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression and protein neutrophil elastase expression were reduced by olive oil administration when compared to water group. The re-epithelialization and blood vessel number were higher in the olive oil group than in the water group. The olive oil administration accelerated protein expression of TNF-α, active transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A when compared to water group. The collagen deposition, myofibroblastic differentiation and wound contraction were accelerated by olive oil administration when compared to water group. Olive oil administration improves cutaneous wound healing of pressure ulcers in mice through the acceleration of the ROS and NO synthesis, which reduces oxidative damage and inflammation and promotes dermal reconstruction and wound closure. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  15. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imène; BenAmira, Amal; Khemakem, Ibtihel; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2017-05-01

    This study was focused on the evaluation of the quality and the oxidative stability of olive oil added with Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. Two different amounts of O. ficus - indica flowers were considered 5 and 15% (w/w). The olive oils were evaluated towards their quality, fatty acids profile, total phenol contents and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidative stability was also monitored by employing the Rancimat and the oven test based on accelerating the oxidation process during storage. The addition of O. ficus - indica flowers induced an increase in free acidity values and a variation in fatty acids profile of olive oils but values remained under the limits required for an extra-virgin olive oil. The obtained olive oils were nutritionally enriched due to the increase in their phenols content. The oxidative stability was generally improved, mainly in olive oil enriched with 5% Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. These findings proved that this enriched olive oil could be considered as a product with a greater added value.

  16. Effect Of Dried Olive Oil By-Product Supplementation To Ration On The Performance Of Local Ewes And Their Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of dried olive oil by-products (0, 15 and 30% replacement) on the performance of lactating local ewes and their lambs are the main object of this study. Biochemical, physiological and toxicological aspects, and the safety environmental clearance and fed supplementation of olive oil by-products in ewes feeding are also studied. Moreover, the economic value of olive oil by-products replacement in addition may participate partially in ruminant feeding in Egypt. In the present study, twenty four local dairy ewes at the end of pregnancy (1 weeks before parturition) were used in the 3 experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% olive oil by-products supplementation and prolonged after weaning and during suckling period (8 weeks after lambing). The 1st lactating lambs of ewes was supplemented with 15% olive oil by-products, the 2nd lactating lambs of ewes supplemented with 30% olive oil by-products and the 3rd lactating lambs of ewes served as control. The results showed that the performance of both ewes and their lambs during the experimental period was improved. It can be concluded that olive oil by-products can partially replace sugar beet pulp in diets of growing and lactating ruminants

  17. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Angeloni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  19. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  20. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin-Roohi, Babak; Khoshkhahesh, Faegheh; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP). A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31), piroxicam (n=31) or base gel phonophoresis (n=31) groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (pgroup, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (pgroup and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (pvirgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies.

  1. Effects of olive maturation and stoning on quality indices and antioxidant content of extra virgin oils (cv. Coratina) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacorta, G; Faccia, M; Previtali, M A; Pati, S; La Notte, E; Baiano, A

    2010-04-01

    Quality indices, antioxidant compounds, and antioxidant activities of extra-virgin oils from Coratina olives were evaluated during a 12-mo storage. Whole and stoned olives, picked at 2 different maturation index (MI), were submitted to malaxation for 45 min and extracted by a 3-phase continuous system. A 90-min malaxation trial was also performed for the stoned olives. The following parameters were monitored: free acidity, peroxide value, K(232) and K(270) indices, sensory profile, total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic profiles, tocopherol compounds, and antioxidant activity (AA). The highest TPC, AA, and sensory score were found for the oils obtained by olives picked at low MI and by stoned olives. After 12 mo, all the oils were still included into the "extra-virgin" category, and those deriving from whole olives picked at the lowest MI showed the best sensory characteristics due to high fruity and well-balanced pungent and bitter tastes. This study could represent a helpful tool for oil-makers to improve the marketing of extra-virgin olive oils produced from cultivars with very high phenolic contents, such as Coratina, generally not adequately appreciated by consumers because of their excessive bitterness and pungent taste. These oils, when extracted from whole olives, are generally consumed after a certain period of time (at least 6 mo) during which a decrease in the phenolic content occurs. The results of the present work demonstrate that oils extracted from olives picked at low maturation index can be marketed immediately after production if subjected to stoning and malaxed for a short time. This procedure allows to adjust the phenolic content and to obtain a high flavor and a well-balanced taste.

  2. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  3. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  4. Investigation on microbiology of olive oil extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zanoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of approx. 200 kg olives from Frantoio and Moraiolo cultivars were processed in an oil mill at two dates of harvesting. Samples were collected in several steps of extraction process for sensory, chemical and microbial analyses.All extracted olive oil from the second olive harvesting date was affected by sensory defects and hence classified as being “non-extra virgin”. A distinction between extra virgin olive oil and nonextra virgin olive oil obtained from both harvesting dates was explained by the volatile compounds content of olive oil samples and by yeast and mould counts collected at different processing steps.

  5. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  6. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  7. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  8. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  9. Predicting extra virgin olive oil freshness during storage by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, R.; Tena, N.; Romero, I.; Aparicio, R.; García-González, D.L.; Morales, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Virgin olive oil quality relates to flavor and unique health benefits. Some of these properties are at the most desirable level when the oil is just extracted, since it is not a product that improves with age. On the contrary, the concentrations of many compounds change during its shelf-life. These changes reveal the aging of the oil but do not necessarily mean decay in sensory properties, so in some cases an aged oil from healthy olives may be better qualified than a fresh one from olives affected by fermentation. The aim of this work is to analyze different methodologies proposed for assessing the quality of virgin olive oil with implications in freshness and aging of the oil, and to highlight the possibilities of rapid spectrofluorimetric techniques for assessing oil freshness by checking the evolution of pigments during storage. The observed change in the selected spectral features and mathematical modelling over time was compared with the accepted model for predicting the amount of pyropheophytin a, which is based on isokinetic studies. The best regression was obtained for 655 nm (adjusted-R2 = 0.91) wavelength, which matches the distinctive band of pigments. The two mathematical models described in this study highlight the usefulness of pigments in the prediction of the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil. [es

  10. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. Effect of dietary inclusion of lampante olive oil on milk and cheese fatty acid profiles of ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation of lampant olive oil on the fatty aid profiles of the milk and cheese of ewes. Nine lactating ewes were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were supplemented with 0 (control; T0), 36 (T1......) and 88 (T2) g of lampante olive oil/kg of dry matter intake (DM). DM, milk yield and milk composition (fat and protein) were not affected by dietary treatments. Oleic and vaccenic acids gradually increased (P ... as the concentration of lampante olive oil was increased in dietary rations. Overall, the supplementation of lampante olive oil in the diets of lactating ewes increased monounsaturated FA and decreased saturated FA concentrations in milk and cheese, thus improving their quality from the human health standpoint....

  12. Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Corell, Mireia; Burló, Francisco; Legua, Pilar; Moriana, Alfonso; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of three irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers' acceptance of table olives, cv. 'Manzanilla', was evaluated. A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green colour, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmentally friendly and simultaneously maintain or even improve the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos; de la Rosa, Raúl

    2018-01-01

    Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO) although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties ("Picual" and "Arbequina") used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the simplified procedure of the

  14. Improving oxidative stability of olive oil: Incorporation of Spirulina and evaluation of its synergism with citric acid; Mejora de la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva: Incorporación de Espirulina y evaluación de su sinergismo con ácido cítrico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, N.; Golmakani, M.T.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of different Spirulina concentrations used alone and in combination with citric acid on the oxidative stability of olive oil were assessed. The amounts of primary and secondary oxidation products produced in Spirulina samples were lower than that of the control. The improved oxidative stability indices of Spirulina samples with and without citric acid were in the range of 85.20–94.47% and 258.10–260.21%, respectively. In comparison with the control, Spirulina samples manifested significantly higher carotenoid and chlorophyll contents at the beginning and end of the storage period. The presence of these bioactive compounds results from the presence of Spirulina in the medium and can thus retard the oxidation of olive oil. A higher oxidative stability was reached using BHT in comparison with Spirulina samples. Furthermore, no synergistic action was observed in possible connections between citric acid and Spirulina. In conclusion, Spirulina can enhance oxidative stability and improve the shelf life of olive oil. [Spanish] Se evaluaron los efectos de diferentes concentraciones de Espirulina usadas solas y en combinación con ácido cítrico sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de oliva. Las cantidades de productos de oxidación primarios y secundarios producidos en muestras de Espirulina fueron menores que las del control. Además, la estabilidad oxidativa de muestras de Espirulina con y sin ácido cítrico estaban en el intervalo de 85,20–94,47% y 258,10–260,21%, respectivamente. En comparación con el control, las muestras de Espirulina mostraron un contenido significativamente mayor de carotenoides y clorofila al inicio y al final del período de almacenamiento. La presencia de estos compuestos bioactivos y la presencia de Espirulina en el medio pueden retardar la oxidación del aceite de oliva. Se obtuvo una mayor estabilidad oxidativa usando BHT en comparación con muestras de Espirulina. Además, no se observó ninguna acción sin

  15. Vibration and noise characteristics of hook type olive harvesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... The homeland of olive upper Mesopotamia including south-eastern ... Turkey where 81% of olive trees are grown in slopped and terraced .... effectively, it has been established the minimal security level at the equivalent noise ...

  16. Modulation of Nrf2 by Olive Oil and Wine Polyphenols and Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Martínez-Huélamo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with improved cognitive function and a lower prevalence of mild cognitive impairment. Olive oil and red wine are rich sources of polyphenols which are responsible in part for the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning. Polyphenols induce endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms by modulating transcription factors such as the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. This review discusses the scientific data supporting the modulating effect of olive oil and red wine polyphenols on Nrf2 expression, and the potential health benefits associated with cognitive functioning.

  17. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  18. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  19. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  20. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  2. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Yogurt Added Green Olive Powder during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant and quality characteristics of yogurt added green olive powder stored at 4°С for 15 d. The following four groups were used in this study: Control group (GY0), Yogurt added with 1% green olive (GY1), with 3% green olive (GY3), and with 5% green olive (GY5). The more time of titratable acidity went by, the more it increased. Except GY0, viscosity tended to decrease in other groups (p>0.05), and the more time of syneresis went by, the more it increased, but GY3 of them showed the lowest syneresis. Lactic acid bacteria showed no significant with GY0 until 5 d, but after that, GY1, GY3 and GY5 showed lower than GY0. Yogurt added green olive showed darker color than GY0 (low L* and high a*). The antioxidant activity of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage. Total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage which were 6.96 mg GAE/kg, 47.53%, and 0.57, respectively. In the sensory evaluation sweet and overall of GY3 indicated the highest score among the four groups. Results of this study demonstrated that green olive powder might be used to improve the antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of yogurt. PMID:29725208

  5. Antioxidant Activity and Quality Characteristics of Yogurt Added Green Olive Powder during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Young; Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant and quality characteristics of yogurt added green olive powder stored at 4°С for 15 d. The following four groups were used in this study: Control group (GY0), Yogurt added with 1% green olive (GY1), with 3% green olive (GY3), and with 5% green olive (GY5). The more time of titratable acidity went by, the more it increased. Except GY0, viscosity tended to decrease in other groups ( p >0.05), and the more time of syneresis went by, the more it increased, but GY3 of them showed the lowest syneresis. Lactic acid bacteria showed no significant with GY0 until 5 d, but after that, GY1, GY3 and GY5 showed lower than GY0. Yogurt added green olive showed darker color than GY0 (low L* and high a*). The antioxidant activity of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage. Total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power of GY5 was found to be the highest among the four groups at day 1 of storage which were 6.96 mg GAE/kg, 47.53%, and 0.57, respectively. In the sensory evaluation sweet and overall of GY3 indicated the highest score among the four groups. Results of this study demonstrated that green olive powder might be used to improve the antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

  6. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  7. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  8. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  9. Olive pomace based lightweight concrete, an experimental approach and contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Amel Chaabane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to conventional aggregates resources depletion, material recycling has become an economic and ecologic alternative. In this paper, locally available natural residues such as olive pomace were investigated, when partially incorporated in the concrete formulation, since the mechanical characteristics of lightweight aggregate concrete strongly depend on its properties and proportions. Lightweight aggregates are more deformable than the cement matrix because of their high porosity, and their influence on the concrete strength remains complex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the aggregates properties on lightweight concrete mechanical behaviour through an experimental approach. In addition, the different substitution sequences and the W/C ratio on lightweight concrete behaviour were evaluated, in order to determine the W/C ratio influence on the improvement of the lightweight concrete mechanical properties while knowing that the mixing water quantity gives the cement paste manoeuvrability and mechanical strength effects. The last part of this paper, therefore, was to provide statistical survey for estimating strength and weight reduction through the different natural aggregate substitutions to improve the lightweight concrete properties. The results achieved in a significant olive-pomace lower adhesion with the matrix after the cement setting, making the lightweight concrete mechanical strength weak. However, this work can open several perspectives: Results modeling and correlation with an experimental approach, the evolution and determination of lightweight concrete characteristics when exposed to high temperatures and thermohydric properties.

  10. Corn oil improves the plasma lipoprotein lipid profile compared with extra-virgin olive oil consumption in men and women with elevated cholesterol: results from a randomized controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Kelley, Kathleen M; Kaden, Valerie N; Geiger, Constance J; Dicklin, Mary R

    2015-01-01

    Restricted intakes of saturated and trans-fatty acids is emphasized in heart-healthy diets, and replacement with poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids is encouraged. To compare the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich corn oil (CO) and monounsaturated fatty acid-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) on plasma lipids in men and women (N = 54) with fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL and consumption away from the clinic. Baseline mean (standard error) lipids in mg/dL were: LDL-C 153.3 (3.5), total cholesterol (total-C) 225.7 (3.9), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C 178.3 (3.7), HDL-C 47.4 (1.7), total-C/HDL-C 5.0 (0.2), and TG 124.8 (7.2). CO resulted in significantly larger least-squares mean % changes (all P Consumption of CO in a weight-maintenance, low saturated fat and cholesterol diet resulted in more favorable changes in LDL-C and other atherogenic lipids vs EVOO. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  12. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales) Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Meelad; Alba-Ramírez, Carmen; Garrido Jurado, Inmaculada; Mateu, Jordi; Raya Díaz, Silvia; Valverde-García, Pablo; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    reveal both the efficacy and environmental and food safety of this B. oleae control method, protecting olive groves and improving olive oil quality without negative effects on the natural enemy P. concolor .

  14. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meelad Yousef

    2018-01-01

    . These results reveal both the efficacy and environmental and food safety of this B. oleae control method, protecting olive groves and improving olive oil quality without negative effects on the natural enemy P. concolor.

  15. Comparison of Manzanilla and wild type olives by RAPD-PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... In this study, the cultivated type olive Manzanilla was supplied from Olive ... America and Australia continents (MOARA, 2006). Olive ... reserved as table olives and 52.869 tons for oil produc- .... phism rate indicates a high genetic diversity in varieties. ... olive germplasm bank by means of RAPD markers.

  16. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  17. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  18. Los intangibles del aceite de oliva como ventaja competitiva Olive Oil intangibility for competitive advantage Olive Oil intangibility for competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Martín López

    2012-04-01

    ía implantados en el medio rural, lo que le infiere un impacto social importante por la gran pérdida de rentas que están sufriendo en los últimos años.Originalidad / Valor añadido: El Aceite de Oliva es un producto característico de la cultura mediterránea, y el trabajo conceptualiza todos aquellos aspectos que lo conforman desde que se comenzó a producir hace varios milenios y, cuyos significados, han ido perdiendo impacto en el conocimiento del consumidor actual. El reposicionamiento de un producto característico de nuestra forma de vida a partir de los valores intrínsecos de nuestra cotidianeidad añade una característica más a este trabajo y a los valores que caracterizan a nuestra cultura y nuestra sociedad.Purpose: New strategies and its uses to commercial reposition of the olive oil through the intangibles assets.Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework application of the olive oil intangibility and to concept the intangible assets and statistical research quantitative development to valorize the concepts.Findings: It proposes a conceptualization of the intangibles assets to create the olive oil concept, beyond to alimentary set. Conceptualization of the development of the intangibility of the olive oil responds to a repositioning strategy of the product in front of the competition in a globalization markets place.Research limitations/implications: The research begins from the use limitation in a statistical method demanding reliability margin, but really diffuse, given that the improvement of olive oil consumption is only 5% in the vegetables oils markets.Practical implications: The research proposes the intangibilities and characteristics of the olive oil. This isn´t new, it simply is a conceptualization of diary aspects but without importance, above all with the differentiation elements to competition actually. The commercial positioning of the product needs new strategies of differentiation and the olive oil can use the intangibles to

  19. Combined effects of high pressure processing and addition of soy sauce and olive oil on safety and quality characteristics of chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Zbigniew A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  20. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew A. Kruk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w of soy sauce (SS, 10% (w/w of olive oil (OO, and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w (SO were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  1. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Agregan, R.; GonCalves, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of pâté. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated pâté presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P<0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides pâté with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product. (Author)

  2. Assessing the Challenges in the Application of Potential Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Large-Scale Fermentation of Spanish-Style Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez-Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the inoculation conditions for allowing the survival/predominance of a potential probiotic strain (Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2 when used as a starter culture in large-scale fermentations of green Spanish-style olives. The study was performed in two successive seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013, using about 150 tons of olives. Inoculation immediately after brining (to prevent wild initial microbiota growth followed by re-inoculation 24 h later (to improve competitiveness was essential for inoculum predominance. Processing early in the season (September showed a favorable effect on fermentation and strain predominance on olives (particularly when using acidified brines containing 25 L HCl/vessel but caused the disappearance of the target strain from both brines and olives during the storage phase. On the contrary, processing in October slightly reduced the target strain predominance on olives (70–90% but allowed longer survival. The type of inoculum used (laboratory vs. industry pre-adapted never had significant effects. Thus, this investigation discloses key issues for the survival and predominance of starter cultures in large-scale industrial fermentations of green Spanish-style olives. Results can be of interest for producing probiotic table olives and open new research challenges on the causes of inoculum vanishing during the storage phase.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of olive production using Life Cycle Assessment: A case study, Tarom county, Zanjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ehsan khodarezaie

    2017-10-01

    \tFarmyard manure 476\tKW/h\tElectricity Outputs 3.34\tton\tolive produced (ha Emission to water 0\tkg\tNitrate 0\tkg\tPhosphate Emission to air 0\tkg\tDenitrifictation 15.03\tkg\tNH¬3 0.804\tkg\tN2O 2.5\tkg\tNOx 150.87\tkg\tCO2 1.72\tkg\tCO 1.7 kg\tPesticides The results were concluded through analyzing collected data by using of SimaPro 7.2. The results are presented in Figure 1 and Table 2. Fig. 1- Contribution of production and use of inputs to environmental impact categories in olive production system. Table 2- Life cycle indicators per 1 ton of produced olive. Total\tUnit\tImpact category 7.89\tkg Sb eq\tAbiotic Depletion 30.6\tkg SO2 eq\tAcidification 8.25\tkg PO4 eq\tEutrophication 1290\tkg CO2 eq\tGlobal Warming 0.000323\tkg CFC-11 eq\tOzone layer depletion 414\tkg 1,4-DB eq\tHuman Toxicity 848\tkg 1,4-DB eq\tFresh water aquatic ecotox 848\tkg 1,4-DB eq\tFresh water aquatic ecotox. 173000\tkg 1,4-DB eq\tMarine aquatic ecotox. 10.4\tkg 1,4-DB eq\tTerrestrial Ecotoxicity 0.27\tkg C2H4 eq\tPhotochemical Oxidation The results showed that the production of olive in Tarom region is lead to high environmental impacts. In this regard, production systems of olive in Tarom create more than two times higher environmental impact in seven impact categories (Abiotic resource depletion, acidification, global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, to freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and toxicity to terrestrial ecotoxicity and it has fewer environmental impact in eutrophication impact category compared to olive production systems in similar studies. Moreover, data analysis showed that fertilizer production and direct emission have most shares in pollution making of olive production systems. The main reason for this difference was more use of inputs (especially fertilizers and electricity, not using of improved varieties and micronutrient fertilizers, inefficient use of inputs and lack of management in the olive gardens in Tarom region. Therefore, lack of

  4. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M A; Hayek, B O; Al-Hmoud, N; Al-Gogazeh, L

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  5. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio Rabaza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where there is a great opportunity to reduce electricity consumption, increase additional profits related to the reduction of technologies that are harmful to the environment, and to cut back maintenance costs. For this reason, a feasibility study of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV systems has been carried out for different types of olive mills in Andalusia (southern Spain. This region is highly energy dependent, but has an abundance of “green” resources to be exploited. The results of this study contemplate a reduction in spending on electrical power of between 2% and 37%, and an increase in the use of renewable energy of between 2% and 26%. These results are according to the self-consumption or net metering policy and the production capacity of olive oil.

  6. Use of olive leaf extract to reduce lipid oxidation of baked snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Cosmai, Lucrezia; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Olive leaves are a waste of the olive oil processing industry and represent a good source of phenolic compounds. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on lipid oxidation of baked snacks, like breadsticks, made with wheat flour, extra virgin olive oil (EVO), white wine, and salt. Two EVOs having different peroxide value and antioxidant profile (total phenol content, tocopherols, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity) were considered. The snacks were subjected to oven test or stored in the usual conditions of retailer shelves. The obtained data highlighted that EVO plays a key role both for the quality and for the shelf-life of baked snacks and the use of OLE is recommended especially when baked snacks are produced with low quality EVO which therefore does not have a good content of natural antioxidants. The OLE addition significantly reduced the forced oxidative degradation during oven test, as evidenced by a decrease of 27% in oxidation-related volatile compounds and of 42% in triacylglycerol oligopolymers compared to control snacks (CTR) without OLE. Moreover, OLE effectively acted also in normal storage conditions, improving sensory data, induction times, antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds compared to CTR (i.e. hexanal 165.49 vs 38.31 μg g -1 in OLE-added). The amount of oxidation-related volatile compounds showed an opposite trend with the quality level of oil used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  9. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  10. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Centennial Olive trees in Lebanon: a substantial patrimony

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, L.; Malas, F.; Hamadeh, B.; Essalouh, Laila; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the centennial olive trees growing across Lebanon, with the perspective of conservation of the ancient germplasm. The survey indicated the existence of numerous centennial olive trees distributed in different agro-climatic areas, from 80 to 1350 meters altitude across the country. Centennial olives were found in large size orchards and scattered as well as in young orchards, road hedges and gardens for ornamental purposes. Yet, no reliable information...

  12. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

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    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  13. Effect of olive waste (Husk on behavior of cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Alkheder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is a famous country in terms of olive trees agriculture that resulted in a mass production of olive oil products. The huge amounts of olive waste (husk that resulted from olives processing to produce olive oil represent an environmental challenge in the country. The idea in this paper comes to use olive waste as a partial replacement for Portland cement in cement paste to conserve the environment, reduce cement consumption and increase cost efficiency. The wastes were burned properly in an oven and maintained for 6 h until it was fully transformed into ashes. Then, the oven was turned off and ashes were allowed to cool. After cooling, the material passed sieve #200 were used. The sieved ashes were used in the cement mix as a partial cement replacement for making the mortar and cement paste. Normal consistency and setting time were determined as well as soundness, compressive strength. Results indicated that normal consistency of the cement pastes containing different percentage of olive waste is somehow lower than that of the ordinary cement paste and slightly decreases with increasing the percentage. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of hardened blended cement paste containing different percentages of olive waste slightly decrease with olive waste content at 3, 7, and 28 days.

  14. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  15. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Wild Olives in Breeding Programs: Implications on Oil Quality Composition

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    Lorenzo León

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide genetic diversity has been reported for wild olives, which could be particularly interesting for the introgression of some agronomic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in breeding programs. However, the introgression of some beneficial wild traits may be paralleled by negative effects on some other important agronomic and quality traits. From the quality point of view, virgin olive oil (VOO from olive cultivars is highly appreciated for its fatty acid composition (high monounsaturated oleic acid content and the presence of several minor components. However, the composition of VOO from wild origin and its comparison with VOO from olive cultivars has been scarcely studied. In this work, the variability for fruit characters (fruit weight and oil content, OC, fatty acid composition, and minor quality components (squalene, sterols and tocopherols content and composition was studied in a set of plant materials involving three different origins: wild genotypes (n = 32, cultivars (n = 62 and genotypes belonging to cultivar × wild progenies (n = 62. As expected, values for fruit size and OC in wild olives were lower than those obtained in cultivated materials, with intermediate values for cultivar × wild progenies. Wild olives showed a remarkably higher C16:0 percentage and tocopherol content in comparison to the cultivars. Contrarily, lower C18:1 percentage, squalene and sterol content were found in the wild genotypes, while no clear differences were found among the different plant materials regarding composition of the tocopherol and phytosterol fractions. Some common highly significant correlations among components of the same chemical family were found in all groups of plant materials. However, some other correlations were specific for one of the groups. The results of the study suggested that the use of wild germplasm in olive breeding programs will not have a negative impact on fatty acid composition, tocopherol content

  17. Jamie Oliver i den gode smags tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    »Hi guys – I’d like to ask you a favor: I need your help with a food movement I’ve started«. Således starter Jamie Olivers kogebog »Jamie’s Ministry of Food« (2008). Denne åbning understreger, at der ikke er tale om en helt almindelig kogebog. For mange er kogebogen blot en samling opskrifter på ...

  18. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  19. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  20. Ground beetles in Mediterranean olive agroecosystems: Their significance and functional role as bioindicators (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolotto, Roberto; Mazzei, Antonio; Bonacci, Teresa; Scalercio, Stefano; Iannotta, Nino; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The impact of agricultural practices and soil management on the communities of arthropods living in the agricultural landscape is acknowledged as a critical issue by the literature, and it needs to be better investigated to improve the ecological sustainability of agriculture. In the present study, we aimed to study how soil management affect carabid species distribution in one of the most typical agroecosystem of the Mediterranean region, i.e. the olive grove. In South Italy olive plantations feature different types of soil management, from tillage to half- or full-cover cropping. Species distribution has been examined for a total of 10,189 individuals and 62 species collected from 17 sites. Notably from our analysis we have observed that three factors (climax vegetation, soil features and soil management) explained half of the data variability. The composition of species groupings mirrors both bioclimatic conditions (climax vegetation) and soil features, especially watering, while soil management affects the species distribution, with different intensity from site to site. Eleven species have been recognized as the most abundant in the different facets of the studied olive groves and consequently designated as characteristics of the olive agroecosystem. The species traits of the sampled species have been weighted for a compelling evaluation of the effects of agricultural management on biodiversity, showing uniform traits distribution when coping with the ecological factors that characterize the different plantation facets. We have found that carabid beetles can be used as model organisms for studying the effects of agricultural practices. Our study suggests that the interaction of man-induced trasformation with the natural background of the olive agroecosystem may be difficult to disentangle, so that such complexity must be taken into account when carabid beetles are expected to provide an ecosystem service for good agricultural practices.

  1. Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-10-14

    The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  3. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m 3 ) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  4. Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) activity, fruit infestation and temperature in an organic table olive orchard in southern Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Volakakis, Mr N.; Eyre, Dr M.D.; Kabourakis, Dr E.; Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    Olive fly activity and olive fruit infestation was monitored in a table olive orchard in southern Crete throughout most of 2006 using McPhail traps. Flies were trapped weekly for 40 weeks, starting at the beginning of February. The fly data was split into 10 four-week periods. Male, female and total fly activity was significantly related to sampling period, maximum temperature and relative humidity but the pattern of catches was not consistent. Activity increased from February until July but ...

  5. Olive leaf down-regulates the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hye; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an endocrinologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled glucose regulation and oxidative stress. Olive leaves have been studied extensively for their antioxidant activity and capacity to improve immune function. We hypothesized that olive leaf powder supplementation will be effective in inhibiting the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Mice were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: control (C), STZ-induced diabetes (D), and STZ-induced diabetes supplemented with very low dose (VLOL), low dose (LOL), or high dose of olive leaf powder (HOL). Blood glucose in the VLOL and LOL groups was lower than that in the D group (P LOL groups. Nitric oxide levels decreased in the VLOL and LOL groups, as compared with the D group. The messenger RNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups, and interferon-γ levels were significantly decreased in the liver of the VLOL, LOL, and HOL groups compared with the levels in the D group. Interleukin-17 levels were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups. Th1 and Th17 cytokine levels were increased in the D group but decreased in all the experimental groups. Th2 cytokine levels were increased in all olive leaf-supplemented groups compared with those in the D group. These results indicate a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that olive leaves have the potential to provide therapeutic inhibition of diabetic complications. © 2013.

  6. Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei

    2017-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R 2  = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.

  7. Review and Analysis of Alternatives for the Valorisation of Agro-Industrial Olive Oil By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By-products and waste from olive production (agriculture and the olive oil industry (mills and refineries are an important environmental issue in Mediterranean areas. Industrial waste and by-products contain highly valuable components that can also be phytotoxic. This article reviews recent research on the valorisation of olive by-products under the bioeconomy strategy. The alternatives are classified according to the ‘bioeconomy value pyramid’, which prioritises higher value uses over the current energy and compost valorisation. Special attention is paid to the use of these by-products for animal feed that can be improved by reducing the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and increase the polyunsaturated fatty acids amount considered beneficial in response to their use; this makes the food healthier for humans while simultaneously reducing feeding costs and the environmental impact of livestock.

  8. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Pérez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties (“Picual” and “Arbequina” used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the

  10. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  11. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery contex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.; Ruiz, E.; Ballesteros, M.; Negro, M.J.; Gallego, F.J.; López-Linares, J.C.; Castro, E.

    2017-07-01

    Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB), extracted olive pomace (EOP) and olive leaves (OL) that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  12. Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...

  13. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  14. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic byproducts of olive oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Saez, F; Ballesteros, M

    2001-01-01

    The recent implementation of a new two-step centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby eliminating oil mill wastewater. However, a new high sugar content residue is still generated. In this work the two fractions present in the residue (olive pulp and fragmented stones) were assayed as substrate for ethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Pretreatment of fragmented olive stones by sulfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion was the most effective treatment for increasing enzymatic digestibility; however, a pretreatment step was not necessary to bioconvert the olive pulp into ethanol. The olive pulp and fragmented olive stones were tested by the SSF process using a fed-batch procedure. By adding the pulp three times at 24-h intervals, 76% of the theoretical SSF yield was obtained. Experiments with fed-batch pretreated olive stones provided SSF yields significantly lower than those obtained at standard SSF procedure. The preferred SSF conditions to obtain ethanol from olives stones (61% of theoretical yield) were 10% substrate and addition of cellulases at 15 filter paper units/g of substrate.

  15. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  16. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  17. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  18. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  19. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  20. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared the genetic profiles of six old olive cultivars from an Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to 15 modern Turkish olive cultivars from different geographical origins. The RAPD profiles successfully clarified the molecular relationships among the genotypes tested. Seventeen RAPD primers generated 153 ...

  1. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  2. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  3. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  4. Olives: less kilos, more watts; L`olive: moins de kilos, plus de watts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandroy, L [Biofutur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ``lasting development`` concept. 10 refs.

  5. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  6. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  7. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  8. Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Kapellakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS, planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW

  9. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  10. 'Galega Vulgar' - yield indices and quality of elementary olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.; Vitorino, M.C.; Henriques, L.R.; Peres, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows the evolution of two olive yield indexes (humidity and fat) and three olive oil quality parameters (acidity, peroxid value and UV absorbances) for cv. Galega vulgar from the olive grove Quinta Senhora de Mercules, Castelo Branco, during the 1995/96 harvest. It shows also the evolution of fatty acid composition of the same olive oil [pt

  11. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  12. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  13. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui' Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Dbara

    Full Text Available The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs and improving water use efficiency (WUE. Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui' in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may

  14. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  15. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mineral and sensory profile of seasoned cracked olives packed in diverse salt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Baquero, J M; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A; López-López, A

    2013-05-01

    This work studies the effect of packing cracked seasoned olives with NaCl, KCl, and CaCl(2) mixture brines on their mineral nutrients and sensory attributes, using RSM methodology. The Na, K, Ca, and residual natural Mn contents in flesh as well as saltiness, bitterness and fibrousness were significantly related to the initial concentrations of salts in the packing solution. This new process led to table olives with a significantly lower sodium content (about 31%) than the traditional product but fortified in K and Ca. High levels of Na and Ca in the flesh led to high scores of acidity and saltiness (the first descriptor) and bitterness (the second) while the K content was unrelated to any sensory descriptor. The new presentations using moderate proportions of alternative salts will therefore have improved nutritional value and healthier characteristics but only a slightly modified sensory profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Olive oil and postprandial hyperlipidemia: implications for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-12-07

    Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with a significant improvement in health status, as measured by reduced mortality from several chronic diseases. The current pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is intimately associated with an atherogenic dyslipidemic phenotype. The core components of the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome, which most likely initiate atherosclerosis, are the "lipid triad" consisting of high plasma triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoproteins, and a preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins at fasting. However, postprandial (non-fasting) TGs (postprandial hyperlipidemia) are also recognized as an important component for atherosclerosis. Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on the effects and mechanisms related to olive oil on postprandial hyperlipidemia and its implications for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  20. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  1. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  2. DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Bandelj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites combine several features of an ultimate molecular marker and they are used increasingly in various plant genetic studies and applications. In this work we report on the utilisation of fourteen previously developed olive microsatellite markers for the identification and differentiation of a set of nineteen olive varieties. All analysed microsatellite markers revealed a high level of polymorphism that allowed unique genotyping of the examined varieties. Ninety-six alleles were detected at all 14 loci, which multiplied into a large number of observed genotypes, giving high discrimination value for varietal identification. A minimum number of three microsatellite markers was chosen for the rapid and unambiguous varietal identification of nineteen olive varieties and only two markers were sufficient for differentiation of five local varieties. DNA fingerprints of olive cultivars by means of microsatellites provided meaningful data, which can be extended by additional olive varieties or new microsatellites and used for accurate inter-laboratory comparison. The data obtained can be used for the varietal survey and construction of a database of all olive varieties grown in Slovenia providing also additional genetic information on the agronomic and quality characteristics of the olive varieties.

  3. A value chain analysis for sustainable development of olive oil agro-industry: the case of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkhire Boudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the performance of the olive oil value chain in Algeria and identifies the bottlenecks that must be overcome to achieve sustainable development. Surveys were carried out and interviews conducted during a five-year period. Value chain approach was used as a tool to analyze the entire chain. The results showed that despite the value chain was found to be profitable for all chain actors, significant shortcomings and bottlenecks continue to undermine the overall development of the value chain. Major bottlenecks to improve productivity and value added were the poor agricultural practice and institutional environment; issues related to natural, structural, technology and economic environment; lack of market transparency; market uncertainties; lack of quality control; absence of traceability monitoring system throughout the chain; lack of certification and labelling; almost total absences of organized structures exist around the product; and limited effectiveness of agricultural extension services with low involvement of farmers and millers in professional organization related to olive oil industry. However, Algeria’s olive oil value chain has great potential for future development and currently, the country has an important advantage in terms of current development policies, the use of technology, and the extension of olive tree acreage. Nevertheless, the following upgrading strategies are recommended to enhance sustainability: improvement in product and process; changing in functional position; access to market; supply; cross distribution chain; and intra-chain linkage

  4. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1999-12-01

    The differences in the immune responses in mice fed sesame oil diets and those fed sesamin may be attributed to the presence of other lignans in the non-fat portion of the oil. The fatty acid composition (mean +/- SD mol. %) of liver membrane phospholipids and the levels of endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in mice fed diets supplemented with 5% safflower oil (SO) in the absence or presence of 1% sesamol. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3omega6) were markedly higher (P<0.025) in the livers from mice fed sesamol supplemented SO diets (1.6 +/- 0.1) compared to the controls (1.4 +/- 0.1). These data suggest that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the in vivo delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids. Further, in animals fed sesamol supplemented SO diets, the levels of PGE2 (228 +/- 41 pg/ml) were markedly lower (P<0.01) compared to those fed SO diet alone (1355 +/- 188 pg/ml). Concomitantly, the concentrations of IL-6 were also lower (P<0.01) in mice fed sesamol diet (63 +/- 11 ng/ml) compared to the controls (143 +/- 22 ng/ml). A marked reduction in the levels of PGE2 in animals fed sesamol diets suggests that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.

  5. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  6. Effects of olive oil and its fractions on oxidative stress and the liver's fatty acid composition in 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellouz Meriem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil's beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C a control group, (D group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/kg b.w., (D/EVOO group treated with 2,4-D plus extra virgin olive oil, (D/OOHF group that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (D/OOLF group treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO group that received only extra virgin olive oil, (OOHF group given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF group treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavage for 4 weeks. Results A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The liver's fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs levels in the liver. The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated rats did not show any improvement in the liver oxidative status while a marked improvement was detected in the hepatic fatty acid composition of rats supplemented with olive oil and the two fractions. Conclusion We concluded that the protective effect of olive oil against oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D is mainly related to the antioxidant potential of its hydrophilic fraction.

  7. Review of the Drying Kinetics of Olive Oil Mill Wastes: Biomass Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Gómez-de la Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of olive oil mill wastes was analyzed based on experiments carried out by various researchers utilizing different drying systems. A critical review of the literature was done, and mathematical models of drying curves proposed by investigators were evaluated. A comparison between the best mathematical models of fit in the drying curves used in past experiments and a two-term Gaussian model was performed. This model improved all the results of fit in each experiment. Drying rates and drying stages were obtained and discussed. An average drying rate for each experiment from the two-term Gaussian model was calculated. This value allowed for visualizing and comparing the average speed of evaporated water in each experiment for the different dryers. Finally, and after having verified that almost all drying occurs mainly by a diffusion phenomenon, an analysis on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy values was performed. The results indicated that there was no dependency of these quantities on independent variables such as the drying air temperature, the drying air velocity, and the sample thickness. It follows that drying of olive oil mill wastes is a very complex physical process that depends heavily on aspects such as pieces of pit, pulp, skin, vegetation water, olive oil content, sugars and organics compounds of different nature.

  8. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Lara, M A; Pagnanelli, F; Mainelli, S; Calero, M; Toro, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP>HPOP>OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na(+) in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  9. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Lara, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: marianml@ugr.es; Pagnanelli, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it; Mainelli, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Calero, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Toro, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP > HPOP > OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na{sup +} in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  10. The effect of olive-pomace oil on different blood parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.J.; Naveed, A.K.; Khan, S.; Shah, S.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of olive-pomace oil on glycemic status and lipid profile in diabetes. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Seventy male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were randomly divided into two groups of 35 rats each. Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and group 2 were given normal rodent diet and olive pomace oil supplemented diet respectively for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured for comparison. Results: There was significant increase in high density lipoprotein and significant decrease of blood glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of group II rats when compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Olive pomace oil can significantly improve fasting blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. (author)

  11. Neuroprotection of dietary virgin olive oil on brain lipidomics during stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Zahra; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Rasoulian, Bahram

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that dietary virgin olive oil reduces hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in rat brain. This study investigated the effect of pretreatment with different doses of dietary virgin olive oil on brain lipidomics during stroke. In this experimental trial, 60 male Wistar rats were studied in 5 groups of 12 each. The control group received distilled water while three treatment groups received oral virgin olive oil for 30 days (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg/day respectively). Also the sham group received distilled water. Two hours after the last dose, the animals divided two groups. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group subjected to 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and intact groups for brain lipids analysis. The brain phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol ester and cholesterol levels increased significantly in doses of 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg/day compare with control group. VOO in all three doses increased the brain triglyceride levels. VOO with dose 0.75 ml/kg increased the brain cerebroside levels when compared with control group. VOO pretreatment for 30 days decreased the brain ceramide levels in doses of 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg/day (p<0.05). Although further studies are needed, the results indicate that the VOO pretreatment improved the injury of ischemia and reperfusion and might be beneficial in patients with these disorders and seems to partly exert their effects via change in brain lipid levels in rat.

  12. Chemometric analysis for discrimination of extra virgin olive oils from whole and stoned olive pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Puoci, Francesco; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric discrimination of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from whole and stoned olive pastes was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) approach. Four Italian commercial EVOO brands, all in both whole and stoned version, were considered in this study. The adopted chemometric methodologies were able to describe the different chemical features in phenolic and volatile compounds contained in the two types of oil by using unspecific IR spectral information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in cluster analysis to capture data patterns and to highlight differences between technological processes and EVOO brands. The PLS1-DA algorithm was used as supervised discriminant analysis to identify the different oil extraction procedures. Discriminant analysis was extended to the evaluation of possible adulteration by addition of aliquots of oil from whole paste to the most valuable oil from stoned olives. The statistical parameters from external validation of all the PLS models were very satisfactory, with low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative error (RE%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a mobile application based on RUSLE model to predict erosion in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Moreno, Víctor Javier; Redel, María Dolores; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2017-04-01

    Apache Cordova, which are very efficient to facilitate its implementation in most of mobile platforms. The first evaluations from farmers and technicians are also presented in order to improve the first version. References: - Areal, F.J., Riesgo, L., 2014. Farmers' views on the future of olive farming in Andalusia, Spain. Land Use Policy 36 (2014) 543- 553. - CAPyDR, 2016. Aforo de producción de olivar en Andalucía, Campaña 2016-2017. Consejería de Agricultura, Pesca y Desarrollo Rural - Junta de Andalucía. Regional Government of Andalusia, Seville (2016) (Spain) - FAOSTAT -2016. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS STATISTICS. Accessed at: http://www.fao.org/faostat - Franco, J.A., 2011. Análisis de los factores de participación en programas agroambientales de lucha contra la erosión en el olivar. ITEA 107 (3), 169-183. - Renard, K. G., Foster, G. R., Wessies, G. A., Mccool, D. K., and Yoder, D. C., 1997. Predicting Soil Ero¬sion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning with the Revised Universal LossEquation (RUSLE). USDA Agriculture Handbook, No. 703. - Taguas, E.V., Gómez, J.A., 2015. Vulnerability of olive orchards under the current CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) regulations on soil erosion: a study case in Southern Spain. Land Use Policy, 42, 683-694

  14. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  15. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... their fresh harvested state, whether or not placed in a water or other preserving medium. [33 FR 11266...

  16. Comment on "Rachel Oliver's article on religion and environment"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398

    2008-01-01

    I enjoyed reading Rachel Oliver's article on religion and environment. These differences (both between and within religions) in how people see the relation between mankind, nature and God are quite interesting indeed.

  17. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  18. Flowering in the wild olive (Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    Apr 19, 2012 ... This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female ... ecological niches in oleaster trees. ... The self-pollination may occur, but olive cultivars are ... Plants can ..... The fruit set results from the interaction.

  19. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  20. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Hayek, B.O.; Al-Hmoud, N.; Al-Gogazeh, L.

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  1. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinda, Ángeles

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  3. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  4. Activity- Based Costing: An Application In The Olive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bekçioğlu, Selim; Gürel, Eymen; Kızılyalçın, D. Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study named as “The Activity Based Costing: An Application in the Olive Sector” is the implementation of activity based costing in olive sector and the statement of the differences as regards to the traditional costing. The accepted basic hypothesis in the thesis is that the activity-based costing provides more accurate cost information than the traditional costing process. In this study initially comprehensive information about activity based costing is given and after th...

  5. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Engineering design and prototype development of a full scale ultrasound system for virgin olive oil by means of numerical and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Moramarco, Vito; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Di Palmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Corbo, Filomena; Pesce, Vito; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo; Amirante, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch. The aim of the paper was to design, realize and test the first full scale sono-exchanger for the virgin olive oil industry, to be placed immediately after the crusher and before the malaxer. The innovative device is mainly composed of a triple concentric pipe heat exchanger combined with three ultrasound probes. This mechanical solution allows both the cell walls (which release the oil droplets) along with the minor compounds to be destroyed more effectively and the heat exchange between the olive paste and the process water to be accelerated. This strategy represents the first step towards the transformation of the malaxing step from a batch operation into a real continuous process, thus improving the working capacity of the industrial plants. Considering the heterogeneity of the olive paste, which is composed of different tissues, the design of the sono-exchanger required a thorough fluid dynamic analysis. The thermal effects of the sono-exchanger were monitored by measuring the temperature of the product at the inlet and the outlet of the device; in addition, the measurement of the pigments concentration in the product allowed monitoring the mechanical effects of the sono-exchanger. The effects of the innovative process were also evaluated in terms of extra virgin olive oil yields and quality, evaluating the main legal parameters, the polyphenol and tocopherol content. Moreover, the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in the olive

  7. Mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-06-01

    Olive oil, an oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFCs) and minor constituents including phenolic compounds, is a major component of the Mediterranean diet. The potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet were highlighted by the seminal Seven Countries Study, and more contemporary research has identified olive oil as a major element responsible for these effects. It is emerging that the phenolic compounds are the most likely candidates accounting for the cardioprotective and cancer preventative effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In particular, the phenolic compound, hydroxytyrosol has been identified as one of the most potent antioxidants found in olive oil. This review will briefly consider historical aspects of olive oil research and the biological properties of phenolic compounds in olive oil will be discussed. The focus of the discussion will be related to the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol. Studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Further, research has shown that hydroxytyrosol can prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The molecular mechanisms accounting for these effects are reviewed.

  8. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  9. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  11. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Miguel

    Full Text Available Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3 DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression.

  12. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  13. A Probabilistic Decision-Making Scoring System for Quality and Safety Management in Aloreña de Málaga Table Olive Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á. Ruiz Bellido

    2017-11-01

    obtained higher values for PHSSw being the finished product the most relevant one (mean = 18.44%; 90% CI: 10.34–25.33%. Sensitivity analysis concluded that intervention measures focused on reducing the contamination of washing brines could lead to an improvement of PHSSFTOT value to 67.03%. The present work can be potentially applied in the Aloreña de Málaga table olive food sector for improving food quality and safety assurance.

  14. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot caused by Spilocaea oleaginain different olive cultivars in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba Abuamsha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars including Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Santa Augustino, Nasohi Jaba`a 1, Nasohi Jaba`a 2, Yunani, Talmasani, Chemlali, Arbequino, Frantoio, Coca and Barouni, were sampled for their susceptibility to Spilocaea oleagina the causal agent for Olive leaf spot (OLS disease on olive trees in Palestine. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivars grown commercially in Palestine include Arbequino, Frantoio and ?Barouni’.The “Nabali” is the most dominant and highly susceptible olive cultivar grown in Palestine. Disease incidence varied greatly among the cultivars F=59.4, df=11, 251, p?0.0001 and was correlated with the severity (y = 0.42x + 9.3, P ? 0.0001, R² = 0.84, y = disease severity and x = disease incidence. Disease severity also varied among different cultivars F=13.9, df=11, 251, p?0.0001. Nabali Mohassan was the most affected susceptible while Barouni was most resistant. Progress of disease severity over time fit the logistic function for all cultivars except for highly susceptible cultivars F=1.56, df=6, 83, p?0.169. The assessment method may be useful to screen olive cultivars for OLS resistance in Palestine.

  15. Advanced olive selections with enhanced quality for minor constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Squalene, phytosterols and tocopherols are minor constituents of paramount importance for the olive fruit and oil quality. The objective of this research was to conduct a two-year evaluation of these compounds in the fruits of seven advanced breeding selections. They were mainly selected for early bearing and high oil content from progenies of crosses between the cultivars ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Picual’. An analysis of variance showed high genotypic effects, non-significant year effects, and genotype x year interactions of low magnitude. The selections showed great variability for the traits, surpassing in some cases the parental values. One selection with total tocopherol content of 263 mg·kg−1 fruit flesh, compared to a maximum of 148 mg·kg −1 in the parents, and another one with Δ5-avenasterol concentration of 30.7% of total sterols, compared to a maximum of 22.1% in the parents, were the most relevant phenotypes. These selections may play an important role for improving olive fruit and oil quality for specific market niches.Compuestos como el escualeno, los fitoesteroles y los tocoferoles tienen una enorme importancia para la calidad del fruto y del aceite de oliva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación durante dos años de estos compuestos en los frutos de siete selecciones avanzadas de olivo, seleccionadas principalmente para entrada temprana en producción y alto contenido en aceite a partir de las descendencias de cruzamientos entre los cultivares ‘Arbequina’ y ‘Picual’. El análisis de la varianza mostró, para la mayoría de los caracteres, un elevado efecto del genotipo, ausencia de efecto del factor año, e interacciones entre año y genotipo de baja magnitud. Las selecciones mostraron gran variabilidad para todos los caracteres, sobrepasando en algunos casos los valores de los parentales. Entre las selecciones con valores superiores a los parentales, destacaron una selección con un contenido en tocoferoles

  16. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Population Dynamics of Pre-Imaginal Stages of Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Region of Bar (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit fly is the most harmful pest of olive fruits and important for oil production.Damage involves yield reduction as a consequence of premature fruit drop, but also areduced quality of olive oil and olive products. There is little available data regarding thebiology of Bactrocera oleae in Montenegro. Knowledge of the pest life cycle and developmentwould improve optimization of insecticide application timing and protection offruits, and reduce adverse effects on the environment.Investigation was conducted on the Žutica variety in an olive grove located in Bar duringa three-year period. Population dynamics of the pre-imaginal stages and level of fruitinfestation were monitored from mid-July until the end of October.The results of this three-year investigation showed that the beginning of infestationwas always at the end of July. It was also found that, depending on environmental conditions,the level of infestation was low until the end of August. In September and October itmultiplied, and reached maximum by the end of October.Regarding infestation structure, eggs and first instar larvae were the dominant developmentalstages of the pest until the middle of September. From mid-September until mid-October all developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae were equally present in infestedfruits. Pupae, cocoons and abandoned galleries prevailed until the harvest.

  18. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW. Two free water surface (FWS constructed wetlands, one without (CW1 and one with effluent recirculation (CW2, were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10 and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.

  19. Oliver Peek: me pole teeninud 100 miljonit ebaseaduslikult / Oliver Peek ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peek, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    LHV analüütik Oliver Peek, keda USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutus SEC süüdistab infovarguses ja ebaseaduslikus tulu teenimises, põhjendab, miks ta ei näe oma tegevuses midagi seadusevastast. Lisad: Meestel energiat ka eraettevõtluseks; Mõni LHV Traderi kasutaja võib siiski raha kaotada; LHV pensionifondidega pole probleeme; SEC: enamiku kohtuasju võidame. Tabel: Ost ja müük. Vt. samas: LHV tehingute anatoomia. Kommenteerib Tõnu Samuel

  20. On the origin of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Morchio, G

    1995-04-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and styrene were determined in olives and the oils produced thereof, as well as at various intermediate steps during production. Concentrations were compared to those found in samples of air taken from the olive grove and the olive mills. In an exposition experiment in the laboratory, olives absorbed aromatic compounds, approaching saturation corresponding to the partition coefficient between air and oil. However, concentrations in olives delivered to the mills were 4-10 times higher than expected from the analysis of the air in the olive grove. In the olive mills, concentrations were increased further by a factor of up to 2 because of uptake from air which contained high concentrations of aromatics. Styrene concentrations strongly increased during storage of crushed olives at ambient temperature, which confirms the hypothesis that styrene is a product of metabolism.

  1. Combustion behaviour of Olive pruning/animal manure blends in a fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka

    2017-09-01

    Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1.4. Decreasing excess air from 50 to 30%, or reducing reactor loading, resulted in improved burnout. The optimum performance for the blends was achieved when the feed rate was 0.6 kg/h and excess air was 30%.

  2. Olive oils qualitative evaluation using a potentiometric electronic tongue: a review of practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.G.; Rodrigues, Nuno; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Pereira, J.A.; Peres, António M.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil is a food product highly prone to fraud, including mislabeling of olive oil commercial category, geographical or olive cultivar origin. Several analytical techniques have been reported to assess olive oil quality, authenticity as well as to detect possible adulterations, namely gas-, liquid- and mass-spectrometry chromatography, DNA and spectroscopy based methods. However, in general, these techniques require expensive pre-sample treatments, are time-consuming and need cost equipmen...

  3. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Padilla, Rafael; Raposo Bejines, Francisco; Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three ident...

  4. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Bárbara; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiabl...

  5. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract on amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gayoum, Abdelgayoum A; Al-Hassan, Abdelrahman A; Ginawi, Ibrahim A; Alshankyty, Ibraheem M

    2015-01-01

    Amikacin is an important antibiotic, and its use is limited because of the induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, search for natural and synthetic agents that can moderate amikacin toxicity never stopped. The present study aims to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of virgin olive oil and olive leaf extract against the amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. 48 rats were distributed into 6 groups: 1-Animals of control (C) group were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with saline, 2-(AK); injected ip with amikacin {300 mg/kg/day for 12days}, 3-(OO) group: given olive oil {7 ml/kg/day for 16days}, 4-(OOAK) group: given olive oil as in OO and amikacin for 12days, 5-(OL) group: given olive leaf extract {50 mg/kg/day for 16days}, 6-(OLAK) group: given leaf extract as in OL and amikacin for 12days. Animals were fasted and sacrificed. Serum was used for biochemical analysis and kidneys for histopathology. Serum urea and creatinine were significantly ( P  groups. Serum uric acid was reduced in AK by 45.29%. Kidneys from AK showed necrosis, whereas, those from OOAK and OLAK showed mild histology. The serum triglyceride was decreased by 17.8% in OL, by 37.02% in OOAK and by 31.48% in OLAK. The calculated amikacin effect showed a significant positive correlation with urea ( r  = 0.521, P  = 0.0004), and a negative correlation with uric acid ( r  = ⿿ 0.58, P  virgin olive oil and by olive leaf extract. Amikacin did not cause dyslipidemia but reduced serum uric acid.

  7. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  8. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  9. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  10. Genetic and environmental features for oil composition in olive varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bervillé André Jean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of olive oil helps both prevent and cure heart disease. Olive oils vary in their fatty acid profiles as well as those of other secondary metabolites (phenols, sterols, and terpene compounds. We seek to distinguish the genetic bases from the environmental factors that cause these variations. The genetic base is indeed wide: varieties originate in different domestication occurrences, from different oleaster trees and in differing climatic regimes. With the aid of diagrams, we set out briefly the oil synthesis pathway for fruits in comparison with that of seeds, and the specific aspects of olive oil in particular. Varieties of olive have appeared that are adapted to regions with harsh conditions where the oleaster could not thrive. Environmental stresses have consequences on drupes and their oil profiles; these have been highlighted in European countries through the use of appellations. Whilst stresses tend to enhance the quality of the end product, they do however decrease final yields with potential negative impacts on olive growers’ incomes. Irrigation experiments are underway in order to determine the optimal amount of watering. In breeding new varieties, the result sought is that of accumulating pest tolerances and fruit-quality characteristics; selection programmes are however expensive as they necessitate observations over many years. Consumers have choice across a range of appellations with different organoleptic specificities at different prices, and whatever the appellation of the oil they can expect a positive effect on their health.

  11. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  12. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  13. Harvest of table olives by mechanical harvesting equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gambella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the performance, of an electric comb equipped with five undulated fingers used for mechanized the harvesting of table olives. The first aim of the work was to test three different types of coating materials used for covering the fingers: Silicon (S, Vulcanized rubber (VR and Natural rubber (NR. The diameter of the coating materials tested were 7mm (D1, 14 mm (D2, 19 mm (D3 in order to evaluate the damage of different working conditions on the intact olives. During harvesting, silicon at 7mm and 14mm resulted in the largest percentage of undamaged the fruit (67% and 65%, natural rubber 63% and vulcanized rubber at the 54%. The second aim was to evaluate the combination, in terms of the best performance, of the machines used for mechanized harvesting of table olives. Several factors have been examined: undulating fingers variation thickness, different rotational speeds and different coating materials used to reduce the impact damage on olives. From the tests on olive tree we have determined that while plastic materials (S and (NR appear to have a positive role in harvest quality, the vibration transmitted to the operator’s hand is great from 6.48 m/s2 for S to 6.31 m/ s2 for NR and 2.92 m/s2 for VR, respect to the materials used.

  14. Genome sequence of the olive tree, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando; Julca, Irene; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Loska, Damian; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Cano, Emilio; Galán, Beatriz; Frias, Leonor; Ribeca, Paolo; Derdak, Sophia; Gut, Marta; Sánchez-Fernández, Manuel; García, Jose Luis; Gut, Ivo G; Vargas, Pablo; Alioto, Tyler S; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-06-27

    The Mediterranean olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was one of the first trees to be domesticated and is currently of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The molecular bases underlying the phenotypic differences among domesticated cultivars, or between domesticated olive trees and their wild relatives, remain poorly understood. Both wild and cultivated olive trees have 46 chromosomes (2n). A total of 543 Gb of raw DNA sequence from whole genome shotgun sequencing, and a fosmid library containing 155,000 clones from a 1,000+ year-old olive tree (cv. Farga) were generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and pair-end libraries. Assembly gave a final genome with a scaffold N50 of 443 kb, and a total length of 1.31 Gb, which represents 95 % of the estimated genome length (1.38 Gb). In addition, the associated fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was partially sequenced. Genome annotation, assisted by RNA sequencing from leaf, root, and fruit tissues at various stages, resulted in 56,349 unique protein coding genes, suggesting recent genomic expansion. Genome completeness, as estimated using the CEGMA pipeline, reached 98.79 %. The assembled draft genome of O. europaea will provide a valuable resource for the study of the evolution and domestication processes of this important tree, and allow determination of the genetic bases of key phenotypic traits. Moreover, it will enhance breeding programs and the formation of new varieties.

  15. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive global synchrony of inferior olive neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keum W; Singh, Sahjendra N

    2009-01-01

    This paper treats the question of global adaptive synchronization of inferior olive neurons (IONs) based on the immersion and invariance approach. The ION exhibits a variety of orbits as the parameter (termed the bifurcation parameter), which appears in its nonlinear functions, is varied. It is seen that once the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value, the stability of the equilibrium point of the ION is lost, and periodic orbits are born. The size and shape of the orbits depend on the value of the bifurcation parameter. It is assumed that bifurcation parameters of the IONs are not known. The orbits of IONs beginning from arbitrary initial conditions are not synchronized. For the synchronization of the IONs, a non-certainty equivalent adaptation law is derived. The control system has a modular structure consisting of an identifier and a control module. Using the Lyapunov approach, it is shown that in the closed-loop system, global synchronization of the neurons with a prescribed relative phase is accomplished, and the estimated bifurcation parameters converge to the true parameters. Unlike the certainty-equivalent adaptive control systems, an interesting feature of the designed control system is that whenever the estimated parameters coincide with the true values, the parameter estimates remain frozen thereafter, and the closed-loop system recovers the performance of the deterministic closed-loop system. Simulation results are presented which show that in the closed-loop system, the synchrony of neurons with prescribed phases is accomplished despite the uncertainties in the bifurcation parameters.

  17. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  18. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  19. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans;

    enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening

    Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield

  20. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  1. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  2. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  3. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  5. Modelling the number of olive groves in Spanish municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huete, M.D.; Marmolejo, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    The univariate generalized Waring distribution (UGWD) is presented as a new model to describe the goodness of fit, applicable in the context of agriculture. In this paper, it was used to model the number of olive groves recorded in Spain in the 8,091 municipalities recorded in the 2009 Agricultural Census, according to which the production of oil olives accounted for 94% of total output, while that of table olives represented 6% (with an average of 44.84 and 4.06 holdings per Spanish municipality, respectively). UGWD is suitable for fitting this type of discrete data, with strong left-sided asymmetry. This novel use of UGWD can provide the foundation for future research in agriculture, with the advantage over other discrete distributions that enables the analyst to split the variance. After defining the distribution, we analysed various methods for fitting the parameters associated with it, namely estimation by maximum likelihood, estimation by the method of moments and a variant of the latter, estimation by the method of frequencies and moments. For oil olives, the chi-square goodness of fit test gives p-values of 0.9992, 0.9967 and 0.9977, respectively. However, a poor fit was obtained for the table olive distribution. Finally, the variance was split, following Irwin, into three components related to random factors, external factors and internal differences. For the distribution of the number of olive grove holdings, this splitting showed that random and external factors only account about 0.22% and 0.05%. Therefore, internal differences within municipalities play an important role in determining total variability. (Author)

  6. Modelling the number of olive groves in Spanish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Huete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The univariate generalized Waring distribution (UGWD is presented as a new model to describe the goodness of fit, applicable in the context of agriculture. In this paper, it was used to model the number of olive groves recorded in Spain in the 8,091 municipalities recorded in the 2009 Agricultural Census, according to which the production of oil olives accounted for 94% of total output, while that of table olives represented 6% (with an average of 44.84 and 4.06 holdings per Spanish municipality, respectively. UGWD is suitable for fitting this type of discrete data, with strong left-sided asymmetry. This novel use of UGWD can provide the foundation for future research in agriculture, with the advantage over other discrete distributions that enables the analyst to split the variance. After defining the distribution, we analysed various methods for fitting the parameters associated with it, namely estimation by maximum likelihood, estimation by the method of moments and a variant of the latter, estimation by the method of frequencies and moments. For oil olives, the chi-square goodness of fit test gives p-values of 0.9992, 0.9967 and 0.9977, respectively. However, a poor fit was obtained for the table olive distribution. Finally, the variance was split, following Irwin, into three components related to random factors, external factors and internal differences. For the distribution of the number of olive grove holdings, this splitting showed that random and external factors only account about 0.22% and 0.05%. Therefore, internal differences within municipalities play an important role in determining total variability.

  7. Olive Oil Headspace Characterization by a Gas Sensor Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Catini, Alexandro; Dini, Francesca; Martinelli, Eugenio; Gianni, Giacomo; Migliorini, Marzia; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil quality is strictly correlated to the volatile compounds profile. Both quality and defects can be connected to the presence of specific volatile compounds in the oil headspace. In this paper, olive oil samples have been artificially modified by adding a number of compounds known to be typical of the more frequent defects: fusty, musty, muddy and rancid. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the electronic nose to the compounds characterizing the defects and then the capability of the instrument to identify the defects in real samples.

  8. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  9. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  10. COMPETITIVITE DE LA FILIERE HUILE D'OLIVE EN ALGERIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temps une perte d'intérêt du consommateur pour l'huile d'olive. Ce qui a accéléré la baisse du niveau de sa consommation par les mé- nages. Dès les années 1960, la substitution des huiles de graines aux huiles d'olive a été observée dans l'ensemble des pays méditerranéens et aboutit, une décennie plus tard, à faire de ...

  11. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  12. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  13. In situ olive mill residual co-composting for soil organic fertility restoration and by-product sustainable reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Casacchia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of organic matter in the form of compost improves overall physical, chemical and biological properties of soils but, to be really sustainable, the composting process should be carried out using the by-products available in situ. Two different soils of a Mediterranean olive orchard, one managed traditionally (NAS and the other amended with compost (AS, were investigated in a two-year experiment. Increases in total organic matter, total nitrogen and pH, were detected in AS if compared to NAS. Significant increases in total and specific microbial counts were observed in AS, with a clear amelioration of microbiological soil quality. The results demonstrated that soil amendment using compost deriving from olive mill by-products can be an important agricultural practice for supporting and stimulating soil microorganisms and, at the same time, for re-using these byproducts, so avoiding their negative environmental impact.

  14. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive.

  15. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  16. Fermented Aloreña Table Olives as a Source of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Beatriz Pérez; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Castillo Gutiérrez, Sonia; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli , and Salmonella Enteritidis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have the best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic L. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  17. Distribution of dimorphic yeast species in commercial extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2010-12-01

    Recent microbiological research has demonstrated the presence of a rich microflora mainly composed of yeasts in the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oil. Some of the yeasts are considered useful as they improve the organoleptic characteristics of the oil during preservation, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. However, some dimorphic species can also be found among the unwanted yeasts present in the oil, considered to be opportunistic pathogens to man as they have often been isolated from immunocompromised hospital patients. Present research demonstrates the presence of dimorphic yeast forms in 26% of the commercial extra virgin olive oil originating from different geographical areas, where the dimorphic yeasts are represented by 3-99.5% of the total yeasts. The classified isolates belonged to the opportunistic pathogen species Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii, while among the dimorphic yeasts considered not pathogenic to man, the Candida diddensiae species was highlighted for the first time in olive oil. The majority of the studied yeast strains resulted lipase positive, and can consequently negatively influence the oil quality through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. Furthermore, all the strains showed a high level of affinity with some organic solvents and a differing production of biofilm in "vitro" corresponded to a greater or lesser hydrophobia of their cells. Laboratory trials indicated that the dimorphic yeasts studied are sensitive towards some components of the oil among which oleic acid, linoleic acid and triolein, whereas a less inhibiting effect was observed with tricaprilin or when the total polyphenols extracted from the oil were used. The observations carried out on a scanning electron microscope (SEM), demonstrated the production of long un-branched pseudohyphae in all the tested dimorphic yeasts when cultivated on nutrient

  18. Fermented Aloreña table olives as a source of potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez Montoro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate, good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteriditis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic Lb. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  19. Toward a definition of blueprint of virgin olive oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Bicchi, Carlo; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-03-21

    This study investigates the applicability of an iterative approach aimed at defining a chemical blueprint of virgin olive oil volatiles to be correlated to the product sensory quality. The investigation strategy proposed allows to fully exploit the informative content of a comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to a mass spectrometry (MS) data set. Olive oil samples (19), including 5 reference standards, obtained from the International Olive Oil Council, and commercial samples, were submitted to a sensory evaluation by a Panel test, before being analyzed in two laboratories using different instrumentation, column set, and software elaboration packages in view of a cross-validation of the entire methodology. A first classification of samples based on untargeted peak features information, was obtained on raw data from two different column combinations (apolar×polar and polar×apolar) by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis (i.e., principal component analysis-PCA). However, to improve effectiveness and specificity of this classification, peak features were reliably identified (261 compounds), on the basis of the MS spectrum and linear retention index matching, and subjected to successive pair-wise comparisons based on 2D patterns, which revealed peculiar distribution of chemicals correlated with samples sensory classification. The most informative compounds were thus identified and collected in a "blueprint" of specific defects (or combination of defects) successively adopted to discriminate Extra Virgin from defected oils (i.e., lampante oil) with the aid of a supervised approach, i.e., partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In this last step, the principles of sensomics, which assigns higher information potential to analytes with lower odor threshold proved to be successful, and a much more powerful discrimination of samples was obtained in view of a sensory quality assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Soil management in rainfed olive orchards may result in conflicting effects on olive production and soil fertility

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    I. Q. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of a sustainable soil management system is essential for the steep slopes and low fertility soils still supporting rainfed olive orchards in the Mediterranean basin. The effect of the soil management on olive yield, tree nutritional status and soil fertility was studied in a rainfed olive orchard located in NE Portugal that had been managed since its earliest days as a sheep-walk. In 2001, three different soil management systems were established: Sheep-walk, in which the vegetation was managed with a flock of sheep; Tillage, where the vegetation was controlled by conventional tillage; and Glyphosate, where a glyphosate-based herbicide was applied. The soil management systems had a pronounced effect on olive yield. The accumulated olive yields between 2002 and 2011 were 187.2, 142.9 and 89.5 kg tree-1, respectively in the Glyphosate, Tillage and Sheep-walk treatments. However, the effect of soil management on tree nutritional status was not so clear. On the other hand, the pools of organic carbon and N in the soil, and also the soil available N and phosphorus (P, were found to be less in the Glyphosate and Tillage treatments in comparison with the Sheep-walk. In these soils, N appeared as a much more limiting factor for crop growth than P. In rainfed orchards, the tolerance to herbaceous vegetation appears to be a determining factor in sustainability, which regulates annual crop yields and soil fertility. The higher the tolerance to herbaceous species, the lower the olive yields, but the better are the soil fertility parameters.

  1. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  2. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Patrícia; Kasper Machado, Isabel; Garavaglia, Juliano; Zani, Valdeni Terezinha; de Souza, Daiana; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2014-12-17

    The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) confer benefits to the human health. To review the scientific literature about the benefits of the polyphenols of olive leaves to human health. Literature review in the LILACS-BIREME, SciELO and MEDLINE databases for publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish with the descriptors "Olea europaea", "olive leaves", "olive leaf", "olive leaves extracts", "olive leaf extracts", "phenolic compounds", "polyphenols", "oleuropein", "chemical composition", and "health". There were identified 92 articles, but only 38 related to the objectives of the study and 9 articles cited in the works were included due to their relevance. The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves, especially the oleuropein, are associated to antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective activity. Furthermore, studies associate the oleuropein to an anti-inflammatory effect in trauma of the bone marrow and as a support in the treatment of obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D modeling of olive tree and simulating the harvesting forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glăvan Dan Ovidiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study regarding the influence of shaking forces on olive tree harvesting systems. Shaking forces can be released through several methods. Important is the end result, namely the shaking force and the cadence of shaking speed. Mechanical and automatic harvesting methods collect more olives than traditional methods but may damage the olive trees. In order to prevent this damage, we need to calculate the necessary shaking force. An original research method is proposed to simulate shaking forces using a 3D olive tree model with Autodesk Inventor software. In the experiments, we use different shaking forces and various shaking speeds. We also use different diameters of the olive tree trunk. We analyze the results from this experiment to determine the optimal shaking force for harvesting olives without damaging the olive tree.

  4. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco N; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; García-García, Pedro; Querol, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth, and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favorable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non-assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes), a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2, and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Kluyveromyces lactis, among others), have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  5. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco N.; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; García-García, Pedro; Querol, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth, and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favorable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non-assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes), a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2, and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Kluyveromyces lactis, among others), have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  6. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Noé eArroyo López

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favourable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes, a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, Kluyveromyces lactis, among others, have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  7. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  8. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  9. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  10. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  11. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from olive affected by “olive quick decline syndrome” in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufic ELBEAINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf in olive trees in southern Italy, the scanty molecular information on this bacterium and its association with the olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS prompted the necessity to isolate and acquire more genetic data on the type of strain present in that region. For the first time, the bacterium was isolated from infected olive on culture media. Genetic information were obtained through genomic comparison with other subspecies or strains. The sequences of thirteen genes from its genome, comprising seven housekeeping genes (leuA, petC, lacF, cysG, holC, nuoL and gltT usually used in multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems, and six genes involved in different biochemical functions (RNA Pol sigma-70 factor, hypothetical protein HL, 16S rRNA, rfbD, nuoN, and pilU, were analyzed. The sequences of the biochemical function genes were explored  individually to study the genetic structure of this bacterium, while the MLST genes were linked together into one concatameric sequence (4161 bp long to increase the resolution of the phylogenetic analysis when compared with Xf strains previously reported. Sequence analyses of single genes showed that the Xf olive strain is distinct from the four previously defined taxons (Xf subsp. fastidiosa, Xf subsp. multiplex, Xf subsp. sandyi and Xf subsp. pauca with a dissimilarity rate that reached 4%. In particular, Xf from olive shared the greatest identity with the strain “9a5c” (subsp. pauca, but was nevertheless distinct from it. Similarly, the MLST based on concatameric sequences confirmed the genetic variance of Xf from olive by generating a novel sequence type profile (ST53. Phylogenetic tree analyses showed that Xf from olive clustered in one clade close to subspecies pauca (strains “9a5c” and “CVC0018”, but was nevertheless distinct from them. These results indicate molecular divergence of this olive bacterium with all other strains yet reported.

  12. Effect of olive cultivar on bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Flórez, Angélica; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Sánchez-Quezada, Cristina; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Gaforio, José J; Jimenez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    This study aims to characterize the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of seven monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs) and evaluate their in vitro gastrointestinal stability. 'Picual', 'Blanqueta', 'Sevillana', 'Habichuelero', and 'Chetoui' olive cultivars were selected for VOO extraction. The oils were subjected to in vitro digestion. The recovery index (RI) of phenolic compounds after each digestion step and the bioaccessibility index (BI) were evaluated. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the bioaccessible fraction (BF) of VOOs was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, as well as by studying the intracellular reactive oxygen species in Caco-2 cells. Differences were found in the composition of phenolic compounds in VOOs depending on cultivars. During the digestive process, important losses of phenolic compounds were observed between the buccal and duodenal steps, unlike HTy and Ty, which presented increased recovery due to the hydrolysis of secoiridoid derivatives. Differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds were found between varieties of VOOs. 'Sevillana' VOO had the highest total bioaccessibility (36%), followed by the 'Picual' (19%), 'Chetoui' (17%), 'Habichuelero' (10%), and 'Blanqueta' (8%) varieties. The BF of all the varieties of VOO showed similar radical ABTS scavenging capacity, 'Chetoui', and 'Blanqueta'-BF having the highest radical DPPH scavenging capacity, and 'Habichuelero' and 'Picual'-BF showing protective effects against the peroxyl radical measured by ORAC FL assay. All VOO-BFs presented decreases in ROS levels in Caco-2 cells. Our results suggest differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolics from diverse VOO varieties, which could lead to different biological properties. Therefore, this study represents a first step toward the development of novel dietary strategies focusing on the phenolic supplementation of different VOOs to preserve human health.

  13. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

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    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  14. KIRKIA ACUMINATA OLIV.: A REVIEW OF ITS ETHNOBOTANY AND PHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range. The information documented in this article is derived from books, theses, scientific journals and reports obtained from library collections, Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar and Science Direct. Kirkia acuminata is the most known and widely distributed Kirkia species in the genus and is one of the most popular and promising plant resources due to its several beneficial uses. Kirkia acuminata is used to treat abdominal pains, backache, cholera, constipation, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, snake bites, toothache and wounds. Other applications include its use as charcoal; hedge, ornamental or shade; stock feed, timber and source of water during drought periods. Preliminary phytochemical assessment of roots and stem bark of K. acuminata showed presence of lignans, neo-lignans, nor-carotinoids and other compounds. The extracts of K. acuminata exhibited antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. These phytochemical compounds may be responsible for the medicinal uses and biological activities demonstrated by K. acuminata . Detailed research is required aimed at exploring mode of action of bioactive compounds of Kirkia acuminata that are responsible for the documented pharmacological effects. Kirkia acuminata is an important plant species that has potential to contribute to the primary health care and livelihood improvement of local communities in the geographical areas where it is indigenous and found in abundance.

  15. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  16. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMedina-Pradas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favourable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product.

  17. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  18. Effect of olive meal and supplemental enzymes on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proofreader

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... The evaluated carcass traits and meat ..... with those of Omar (2005), who found that adding up to 10% of olive pulp in broiler diet had no significant ... In healthy chickens, the caecal microbiota plays an important role in ...

  19. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  1. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, Luigi [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  2. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  3. Extraction and utilization of saltcedar and Russian olive biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra

    2010-01-01

    This chapter assesses technologies that might be useful for utilization of saltcedar and Russian olive trees as biomass. These are invasive species that are being targeted for eradication by the Bureau of Reclamation under federal legislation passed in 2007. One option is to utilize the biomass from stems and branches, and possibly even from roots and foliage,...

  4. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  5. Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing to the +ve control group supplementations of the atherogenic diet with either almond or olive oils induced significant reductions (p<0.05) in plasma levels oftotal cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids(FFA) levels and TC/HDL ratio.The same was observed for the %oβ- apo ...

  6. EFFECT OF Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of prunings of Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.), and Senna siamea (Lam.) on the activity of earthworms and soil and worm cast properties. Earthworm activity was measured by quantifying ...

  7. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  8. Warming of olive oil processed by high hydrostatic pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Kubásek, M.; Strohalm, J.; Landfeld, A.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2004), s. 303-308 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe EP9026 Keywords : olive oil * food processing * high pressure * warming Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2004

  9. Stakeholder perceptions: Biological control of Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was distributed through email lists provided by various stakeholder groups on behalf of the International Consortium for Biological Control of Russian Olive in spring of 2012. A total of 392 respondents replied from 24 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province. Questions posed in the survey were designed to identify and categorize 1) stakeholders by...

  10. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  11. Olive oil: an overview of the Japanese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capogna Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of olive oil consumption in Japan, Asia’s largest per capita consumer and at present 14th in the world. Since the early 1990s, total purchases have increased from 4943 t in the 1992/93 campaign to 61 903 t in 2014/15, a more than 12-fold increase over the space of 22 years. Olive oil, in particular extra virgin olive oil, is appreciated by Japanese people primarily for its beneficial effects on health, as well as for its agreeable taste and for its cultural and historical associations. Other key factors to be considered are economic and cultural. Japan is one of the world’s largest economies; disposable incomes are high and these are reflected in household consumption behavior. Culturally, the country is increasingly open to the outside world, discovering and adopting practices from elsewhere, notably the West. This openness, allied to the country’s relative affluence, is demonstrated in the consumption of olive oil, a pillar of the Mediterranean Diet.

  12. Applicability of SCAR markers to food genomics: olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Simona; Agrimonti, Caterina; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2007-07-25

    DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a shortcut toward a genomic comprehension of complex organisms. The availability of micro-DNA extraction methods, coupled with selective amplification of the smallest extracted fragments with molecular markers, could equally bring a breakthrough in food genomics: the identification of original components in food. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) have been instrumental in plant genomics because they may allow rapid and reliable analysis of multiple and potentially polymorphic sites. Nevertheless, their direct application to the analysis of DNA extracted from food matrixes is complicated by the low quality of DNA extracted: its high degradation and the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The conversion of an AFLP fragment to a robust and specific single-locus PCR-based marker, therefore, could extend the use of molecular markers to large-scale analysis of complex agro-food matrixes. In the present study is reported the development of sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) starting from AFLP profiles of monovarietal olive oils analyzed on agarose gel; one of these was used to identify differences among 56 olive cultivars. All the developed markers were purposefully amplified in olive oils to apply them to olive oil traceability.

  13. Standardization of RAPD assay for genetic analysis of olive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Consejo Oleícola Internacional, Madrid, España. Bartlett JMS, Stirling D (2003). PCR Protocols. Humana Press, 2nd. Edition. Bautista R, Crespillo R, Cánovas FM, Claros G (2002). Identification of olive-tree cultivars with SCAR markers. Euphytica, 129: 33-41. Besnard G, Baradat P, Bervillé A (2001).

  14. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  15. Administration of olive oil followed by a low volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution improves patient satisfaction with right-side colonic cleansing over administration of the conventional volume of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution for colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abut, Evren; Guveli, Hakan; Yasar, Bulent; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Ince, Ali Tuzun; Kendir, Tulin; Dalay, Ali Remzi; Kurdas, Oya Ovunc

    2009-09-01

    Proper bowel cleansing before colonoscopy is essential for satisfactory evaluation of the colon. The required consumption of a large volume of salty-tasting liquid, 4 L of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS), is the primary limitation to achieving this goal. To achieve better patient satisfaction with efficient bowel cleansing, we compared the effects of the conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS with those of a low volume (2 L) in combination with pretreatment using different laxatives, such as magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) and olive oil. Randomized, controlled study. A single research hospital. Patients undergoing elective colonoscopy. A total of 120 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 different preparation regimens: 39 patients were prepared with a conventional volume (4 L) of PEG-ELS (Preparation [Prep] 1), and the remaining patients were prepared with a lower volume (2 L) of PEG-ELS and pretreatment with a laxative, either 15 g of magnesium hydroxide (40 patients, Prep 2) or 60 mL of olive oil (41 patients, Prep 3) 3 hours before PEG-ELS administration. The primary outcome was the efficacy of colonic cleansing on the left and right sides. Secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction and side effects. The olive oil regimen (Prep 3) resulted in significantly more adequate bowel cleansing of the right colon than administration of the conventional volume of PEG-ELS (Prep 1) and the magnesium hydroxide (Prep 2) regimen (97.6% vs 74.5% and 72.5%, respectively, P = .007). However, this difference was not observed in the left colon (91.5%, 85.5%, and 91.8% for Preps 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P = .776). When asked, 38 patients (95%) taking Prep 2, 35 patients (85.3%) taking Prep 3, and only 11 patients (28.2%) taking Prep 1 preferred the same preparation regimen if they required a future colonoscopy (P =.006), based on ease of use and taste. The side effects were comparable in each group. The limitations of this study include the relatively

  16. Olive oil and health: summary of the II international conference on olive oil and health consensus report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Ros, E

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) is the most representative food of the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Increasing evidence suggests that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as a nutrient, OO as a food, and the MedDiet as a food pattern are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity......, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Observational studies from Mediterranean cohorts have suggested that dietary MUFA may be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies consistently support the concept that the OO-rich MedDiet is compatible with healthier aging......, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. A MedDiet rich in OO and OO per se has been shown to improve cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipid profiles, blood pressure, postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and antithrombotic profiles. Some...

  17. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eradication by virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio; Vargas, Julio; Medina, Eduardo; Millán, Raquel; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-08-01

     A recent study conducted by Medina et al. disclosed that virgin olive oil has a bactericidal effect in vitro against Helicobacter pylori because of its contents of certain phenolic compounds with dialdehydic structures. We carried out two clinical trials to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oil on H. pylori-infected individuals.  Two different pilot studies were performed with 60 H. pylori-infected adults. In the first study, thirty subjects who tested positive for H. pylori received 30 g of washed virgin olive oil for 14 days, and after 1 month, the patients took 30 g of unwashed virgin olive oil for another 14 days. In a second study, a group of 30 subjects received 30 g of a different virgin olive oil for 14 days. Helicobacter pylori-infection status was checked by the urea breath test.  Helicobacter pylori was eradicated in 8 of 30 individuals when microorganism status was checked after 4-6 weeks from the first clinical intervention although 12 of 30 individuals did not show H. pylori infection at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 27 and 40% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. Moreover, only 3 of 30 individuals were H. pylori negative after 4-6 weeks from the second clinical intervention but 5 of 30 were negative at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 10 and 11% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. It must also be noted that 13 subjects withdrew from the studies because of taste and nausea drawbacks.  The administration of virgin olive oil showed moderate effectiveness in eradicating H. pylori. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially with longer periods, different administration conditions, and several types of olive oils. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Yeast Identification During Fermentation of Turkish Gemlik Olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujdeci, Gamze; Arévalo-Villena, María; Ozbas, Z Yesim; Briones Pérez, Ana

    2018-05-01

    Naturally fermented black table olives of the Gemlik variety are one of the most consumed fermented products in Turkey. The objective of this work was to identify yeast strains isolated during their natural fermentation by using Restriction Fragments Lengths Polymorphism-Polimerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. The study also focused on determining the effect of regional differences on yeast microflora of naturally fermented Gemlik olives. A total of 47 yeast strains belonging to 12 different species which had been previously isolated from the natural brine of Akhisar and Iznik-Gemlik cv. olives were characterized by molecular methods. Forty-two of the tested strains could be identified by RFLP-PCR to species level. These yeast species were determined as Candida mycetangi, Candida hellenica, Candida membranaefaciens, Candida famata, Candida pelliculosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygosaccharomyces mrakii. Five strains were identified by DNA sequencing. These strains belonged to three different species: Aureobasidium pullulans, Kloeckera apiculate, and Cryptococcus saitoi. The most frequent species were C. famata and C. pelliculosa in both regions. This work studies the yeasts from Turkish table olives which could prove to be of importance to the food industry in that area. On the other hand, it compares identification by molecular and classical biochemical methods and offers an idea about the differences between the ecosystems of Gemlik olives in the Akhisar (AO) and Iznik (IO) regions. The study could be useful in characterizing a very important product and, in this way, could help to promote its marketing. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  20. Testing a distributed hydrological model to predict scenarios of extreme events on a marginal olive orchard microcatchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Enrique; Aguilar, Cristina; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2014-05-01

    Olive groves constitute a traditional Mediterranean crop and thus, an important source of income to these regions and a crucial landscape component. Despite its importance, most of the olive groves in the region of Andalusia, Southern Spain, are located in sloping areas, which implies a significant risk of erosion. The combination of data and models allow enhancing the knowledge about processes taking place in these areas as well as the prediction of future scenarios. This aspect might be essential to plan soil protection strategies within a context of climate change where the IPCC estimates a significant increase of soil aridity and torrential events by the end of the century. The objective of this study is to estimate the rainfall-runoff-sediment dynamics in a microcatchment olive grove with the aid of a physically-based distributed hydrological model in order to evaluate the effect of extreme events on runoff and erosion. This study will allow to improve land-use and management planning activities in similar areas. In addition, the scale of the study (microcatchment) will allow to contrast the results in larger areas such as catchment regional spatial scales.

  1. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers.

  2. The phenolic compounds: a commercial argument in the economic war to come on the quality of olive oil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servili Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is deeply related to the amount of its minor compounds, chiefly volatile and phenolic compounds, which confer the sensory note and the remarkable nutritional and biological properties of this traditional Mediterranean fruit juice. Several agronomic aspects and technological factors affect the qualitative and quantitative composition of these compounds in EVOO. The most abundant natural antioxidants of EVOO are tocopherols, carotenoids and hydrophilic phenols. The EVOO phenols represent a group of secondary plant metabolites not often present in other oils and fats. The class of the hydrophilic phenols includes phenolic alcohols and acids, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. The latter group is exclusively found in the Oleacease family plants of which the olive is the only edible fruit and it is considered as the most important fraction from a biological point of view. In particular, the secoiridoids are the most relevant phenols associated to health and biological proprieties and, at the same time, they are responsible for the bitter and pungency sensory notes of EVOO. The new approach to the EVOO extraction technologies is oriented towards the improvement of the virgin olive oil healthy and sensory properties by optimizing the oil mechanical extraction process conditions.

  3. Effect of mufa enriched extra virgin olive oil on glycemic status and insulin secretion in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, A.K.; Yousaf, M.J.; Khan, S.; Ahmed, T.; Azeem, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of monounsaturated fatty acid enriched extra virgin olive oil on glycemic status and insulin secretion in diabetic rats. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Eighty albino rats of Sprague-dawley strain weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into two groups of 40 rats each. Rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and Group II were given normal rodent diet and extra virgin olive oil supplemented diet respectively for 06 weeks. At the end of experimentation, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin were measured. Results: There was significant decrease of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and significant increase of serum insulin of group II rats when it was compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Monounsaturated fatty acids enriched extra virgin olive oil can significantly improve glycemic status and serum insulin in diabetic rats. (author)

  4. Mummified fruit as a source of inoculum and disease dynamics of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 10(8) conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 10(4) conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five washings. When mummies were placed in the tree canopy, conidial production was not reduced after 6 months (May to October); but, when they were held on the soil or buried in the soil, conidial production comparatively decreased up to 10,000 times. Anthracnose epidemics on susceptible 'Hojiblanca' and 'Picudo' during three seasons (2005-08) were influenced by rainfall, temperature, and fruit ripening, and had three main phases: the latent period (May to October); the onset of the epidemic, which coincided with the beginning of fruit ripening (early November); and disease development, which was predicted by the Weibull model (November to March). No epidemics developed on the susceptible cultivars during the driest season (2007-08) or on the resistant 'Picual' olive during any of the three seasons. These results provide the basis for a forecasting system of olive anthracnose which could greatly improve the management of this disease.

  5. NACE-ESI-TOF MS to reveal phenolic compounds from olive oil: introducing enriched olive oil directly inside capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Most CE methods for the analysis of phenols from olive oil use an aqueous electrolyte separation medium, although the importance of NACE is obvious, as this kind of CE seems to be more compatible with the hydrophobic olive oil matrix and could facilitate its direct injection. In the current work we develop a method involving SPE and NACE coupled to ESI-TOF MS. All the CE and ESI-TOF MS parameters were optimized in order to maximize the number of phenolic compounds detected and the sensitivity in their determination. Electrophoretic separation was carried out using a CE buffer system consisting of 25 mM NH(4)OAc/AcH in methanol/ACN (1/1 v/v) at an apparent pH value of 5.0. We studied in depth the effect of the nature and concentration of different electrolytes dissolved in different organic solvents and other experimental and instrumental CE variables. The results were compared with those obtained by CZE (with aqueous buffers) coupled to ESI-TOF MS; both methods offered to the analyst the chance to study phenolic compounds of different families (such as phenolic alcohols, lignans, complex phenols, flavonoids, etc.) from virgin olive oil by injecting methanolic extracts with efficient and fast CE separations. In the case of NACE method, we also studied the direct injection of the investigated matrix introducing a plug of olive oil directly into the capillary.

  6. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  8. Efficacy of ozonized olive oil in the management of oral lesions and conditions: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity is an open ecosystem that shows a dynamic balance between the entrance of microorganisms (bacterial, viral or fungal, colonization modalities, nutritional balance, and host defenses against their removal. The oral lesions including aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis, oral lichen planus, and angular cheilitis some of the common entities encountered in the clinical practice. A variety of treatment options is available in the literature for all of these lesions and conditions. Topical ozone therapy is a minimally invasive technique that can be used for these conditions without any side effects. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ozonized olive oil in the treatment of oral lesions and conditions. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out on 50 patients (aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis, oral lichen planus, and angular cheilitis. The ozonized olive oil was applied twice daily until the lesion regresses for a maximum of 6 months. Results: All the lesions regress in patients with aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis or showed improvement in the signs and symptoms in oral lichen planus patients. No toxicity or side effect was observed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Ozone therapy though requires a gaseous form to be more effective, but topical form can also bring out the positive results without any toxicity or side effect. Hence, it can be considered as a minimally invasive therapy for the oral infective and immunological conditions.

  9. Application of dried blood spot cards to determine olive oil phenols (hydroxytyrosol metabolites) in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Hazas, María Carmen López; Motilva, Maria José; Piñol, Carme; Macià, Alba

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a fast and simple blood sampling and sample pre-treatment method based on the use of the dried blood spot (DBS) cards and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the quantification of olive oil phenolic metabolites in human blood was developed and validated. After validation, the method was applied to determine hydroxytyrosol metabolites in human blood samples after the acute intake of an olive oil phenolic extract. Using the FTA DMPK-A DBS card under optimum conditions, with 20µL as the blood solution volume, 100µL of methanol/Milli-Q water (50/50, v/v) as the extraction solvent and 7 disks punched out from the card, the main hydroxytyrosol metabolites (hydroxytyrosol-3-O-sulphate and hydroxytyrosol acetate sulphate) were identified and quantified. The developed methodology allowed detecting and quantifying the generated metabolites at low μM levels. The proposed method is a significant improvement over existing methods to determine phenolic metabolites circulating in blood and plasma samples, thus making blood sampling possible with the volunteer pricking their own finger, and the subsequent storage of the blood in the DBS cards prior to chromatographic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  11. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  12. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of high-polyphenol extra virgin olive oil on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elena S; Marshall, Skye; Mayr, Hannah L; Trakman, Gina L; Tatucu-Babet, Oana A; Lassemillante, Annie-Claude M; Bramley, Andrea; Reddy, Anjana J; Forsyth, Adrienne; Tierney, Audrey C; Thomas, Colleen J; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Marx, Wolfgang

    2018-04-30

    The polyphenol fraction of extra-virgin olive oil may be partly responsible for its cardioprotective effects. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of high versus low polyphenol olive oil on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in clinical trials. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, CINAHL, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials that investigated markers of CVD risk (e.g. outcomes related to cholesterol, inflammation, oxidative stress) were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Jadad scale. A meta-analysis was conducted using clinical trial data with available CVD risk outcomes. Twenty-six studies were included. Compared to low polyphenol olive oil, high polyphenol olive oil significantly improved measures of malondialdehyde (MD: -0.07µmol/L [95%CI: -0.12, -0.02µmol/L]; I 2 : 88%; p = 0.004), oxidized LDL (SMD: -0.44 [95%CI: -0.78, -0.10µmol/L]; I 2 : 41%; P = 0.01), total cholesterol (MD 4.5mg/dL [95%CI: -6.54, -2.39mg/dL]; poils confer some CVD-risk reduction benefits; however, further studies with longer duration and in non-Mediterranean populations are required.

  15. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  16. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  17. Detection of viruses in olive trees in Croatian Istria

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    Marta LUIGI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Following identification of four viruses in a general survey of olive trees throughout Croatia, a detailed survey was conducted in 2009 in the field collection of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč (an important reservoir of Istrian native olive germplasm in order to evaluate the sanitary status of the most important Croatian Istria olive cultivars. Twenty five samples from symptomatic or symptomless trees were collected from five autochthonous and four exotic cultivars. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of: Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D. Six of the 25 plants were found positive to CLRV; all infected plants showed leaf and fruit deformation and leaf yellowing. Four positive samples were from the native cv. Buža whereas the other two were from two exotic cultivars: Ascolana tenera and Frantoio. The presence of CLRV,  either in native or imported plants, highlights the importance of strict phytosanitary regulations to prevent incursion of key

  18. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  19. Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematode communities infesting olive orchards soils in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  20. Attempts to develop sustainable biocontrol strategies of Xylella fastidiosa infections in olive

    OpenAIRE

    D'Attoma G., Morelli M., Cicco S., Saponari M. and Saldarelli P.

    2017-01-01

    X. fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium, which is causing the ‘Olive Quick Decline Syndrome’ (OQDS), on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region. The knowledge of mechanisms regulating olive- X. fastidiosa interactions is fundamental to develop biocontrol strategies. In Pierce’s Disease (PD) the pathogen virulence relies on a fine balance between motile cells, which move and proliferate in xylem vessels, and sticky cells forming a biofilm and responsible for vessels...

  1. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  2. Differential expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) genes in olive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulia, K; Haralampidis, K; Poghosyan, Z; Murphy, D J; Hatzopoulos, P

    2000-12-01

    Fatty acids are accumulated in triacylglycerols (TAGs), in specialized organelles of seeds named oil bodies. The major site of TAG accumulation is detected in developing seed and mesocarp of certain species. We have isolated two cDNAs encoding DGAT enzymes from olives. The deduced polypeptides differ by 26 amino acids in size. However, they have high homology and almost identical hydropathy profiles. The DGAT gene is expressed in all tissues that synthesize TAGs. However, higher levels of DGAT transcripts have been detected in seed tissues of developing olive drupe. DGAT expression and mRNA accumulation in drupe tissues is developmentally regulated. Each DGAT transcript shows a distinct profile of accumulation. The existence of two different DGAT transcripts might reflect two different enzymes with discrete function and/or localization.

  3. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  4. FMECA application to Rainfall Hazard prevention in olive trees growings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia-Buendía, F. S.; Bermudez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

    2010-05-01

    The FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) is a broadly extended System Safety tool applied in industries as Aerospace in order to prevent hazards. This methodology studies the different failure modes of a system and try to mitigate them in a systematic procedure. In this paper this tool is applied in order to mitigate economical impact hazards derived from Rainfalls to olive trees growing in Granada (Spain), understanding hazard from the System Safety perspective (Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel; damage to or loss of a system, equipment or property; or damage to the environment). The work includes a brief introduction to the System Safety and FMECA methodologies, applying then these concepts to analyze the Olive trees as a system and identify the hazards during the different stages of the whole life cycle plant production.

  5. Labelling of olive oil with radioactive iodine and radioactive technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dayel, O.A.F.

    1988-03-01

    Investigates labelling of olive oil with 125 iodine and with the radioactive 99mTC. A radio analytical study for 99Mo-99mTC generator is also presented. Iodine monochloride and chlormine-T methods are used for labelling olive oil and oleic acid with radioactive iodine. Diethyl ether, benzene and n-heptane have been used as solvents, with diethyl ether giving best results using iodine monochloride method. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that labelling took place at the double bond. Use of milked 99mTc gave very low yield only. A fairly higher labelling yield was achieved when 20 mg of tin chloride has been added in acetone medium than diethyl ether medium. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography technique were used as quality control systems. The labelled oil can be used for diagnostic and study purposes. 140 Ref

  6. A Case Report of Possible Health Benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the chemical analysis of cooking oils suggests that the cholesterol-reducing effect may well be due to the antioxidant agents rather than unsaturated fats. Furthermore, antioxidant agents are present in extra virgin olive oil and not in olive oil. There is some evidence, based on studies using patients, to support such a supposition. In this paper, we present a case report on the possible health effects of changing from olive oil to extra virgin olive oil. The case report is intended to raise some relevant issues to stimulate a debate and more research in this area.

  7. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  9. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  10. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  11. Microsatellite Markers for Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Gaskin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion.

  12. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  13. Sensory properties of Californian and imported extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Claudia; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of thick and citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs.   Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.

  14. Fictional father?: Oliver Sacks and the revalidation of pathography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Andrew John

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a revalidation of Oliver Sacks's role in the development of medicine's narrative turn and, as such, a reinterpretation of the history of narrative in medicine. It suggests that, from the late 1960s, Sacks pioneered in his 'Romantic Science' a new medical mode that reunited the seemingly incommensurable art and science of medicine while also offering a way for medical humanities to shape clinical reasoning more effectively.

  15. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. Methods. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m2 and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil or the control group (with normal consumption of oil for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. Findings. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study (P = 0.004. In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements (P<0.01. There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups (P<0.02. The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  16. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  17. What’s now, what’s new and what’s next in virgin olive oil elaboration systems? A perspective on current knowledge and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of virgin olive oil elaboration process is to obtain the highest recovery of the best quality oil from the fruits. The aim of the researchers is to understand the key elements that allow to modulate the complex series of physical, physico-chemical, chemical and biochemical transformations in order to develop innovative and sustainable plant solutions able to increase simultaneously both yield and quality of product. The basic principles applied also in the newest olive oil industrial plants still follow the technical knowledge which have been empirically learned by humans thousands of years ago. In fact, it is well known that three factors, mixing, water adding and warming, are the three macroscopic driving forces able to favour the separation of the oily phase from the mass of crushed olives. In this consolidated scenario, can new elements emerge? The whole process should be considered more than a simple extraction of the oil present in fruit cells, but a complex elaboration of a product, which is depleted and enriched of both constitutive and neo-synthesised compounds through complex phenomena only in part discovered. In fact, while it is evident that numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate the behaviour of olive paste during virgin olive oil extraction process, a key conclusion is that the current level of understanding can be improved further by means the development of more rigorous researches with more focused targets aimed to understand the rheological changes, the coalescence phenomena, the changes in hydrophobic and hydrophilic phenomena, the partition equilibrium of minor compounds between aqueous and oily phases and, last but not least, the favourable and unfavourable enzymatic reactions. This paper provides an analysis of the present research field and its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Potentially important future directions for research are also proposed.

  18. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  19. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Bahrololumi, Samaneh Sadat; Doaei, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadimanesh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m 2 ) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( P = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements ( P groups ( P < 0.02). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  20. Effects of extra virgin olive oil supplementation at two different low doses on lipid profile in mild hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, B; Gerbaudo, L; Borretta, G; Tassone, F

    2009-11-01

    Olive oil, the principal fat of Mediterranean Diet, is known to improve several cardiovascular risk factors at relatively high doses together with intensive modifications of dietary habits. Since this is hard to obtain in the long term, an intervention with encapsulated oil supplements might be more feasible. Aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of the supplementation of a moderate amount of encapsulated extra virgin olive oil vs a lower dose in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, as part of their established diet, on blood lipid profile. A prospective randomized study was performed. Thirty-four mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects [age, mean+/-SD: 46+/-7 yr; total cholesterol (TC): 235+/-28 mg/dl] were randomly assigned to receive 2 g (group A) or 4 g (group B) per os of extra-virgin olive oil for 3 months. TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-AI), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the study. In group B, but not in group A, a significant reduction of Apo-B values (7%) was observed; TG concentrations showed a trend towards reduction and Apo-A1 values a trend towards increase (9%). A significant decrease in Apo-B/Apo-A1 ratio (pgroup B. Extra virgin olive oil supplementation significantly decreased AIP from baseline in group B (pvirgin olive oil, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, is associated to favorable modifications of the plasmatic lipid profile.

  1. Geographical Basis for Development of Organic Olive Grow in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Čuka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture is among the biggest polluters of the environment. Overuse of synthetic pesticides, herbicides and mineral fertilisers have caused soil exhaustion, erosion, unbalance in the ecosystem, and their harmful effect on human health has been proven. This is why the author tried to point to the importance of development of organic agriculture, and olive growing as a traditional agricultural sector in coastal Croatia.The main intention is to show the basic geographical aspects of coastal Croatia and to explain the ways it can influence the development of organic olive farming. It is specially emphasized that organically produced food must be incorporated in Croatian tourist offer. It will stimulate a bigger interest for Croatia as an attractive tourist destination in the world tourist market and will simplify the sale of organically produced food. Development of organic olive farming will also contribute to the revitalisation of small villages where a strong presence of negative processes, such as deagrarisation, deruralisation and demographic regression is evident.

  2. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  3. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  4. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  5. Biotechnology of olive fermentation of Galega Portuguese variety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.; Brito, D.; Catulo, L.; Leitao, F.; Gomes, L.; Silva, S.A; Vilas-boas, L.; Peito, A.; Fernandes, I.; Gordo, F.; Peres, C.

    2004-07-01

    Galega in the main Portuguese olive variety providing the greatest percentage of table olive production from homemade and industrial methods. In this work a better understanding about the fermentation involved in both methods is intended. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute the microflora acting in olive fermentation, being Pichia membranaefaciens the dominant yeast specie present throughout the process. LAB developed their activity mainly along the second fermentation stage where Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus were isolated and identified, as well as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Results of a chemical analysis have shown the effectiveness of both homemade and industrial fermentation methods. Nevertheless, the chemical composition of the brines from homemade samples was more similar than those from the industrial ones. Remarkables differences were found in the phenolic compounds profile mainly on the final fermentation stage. the amount of volatile compounds has enhanced on the same phase in both methods and some differences were found between them. Sensorial analysis has shown the best results obtained through the homemade method. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Phytochemical analysis and gastroprotective activity of an olive leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA ARSIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Some medicinal features of olive leaf have been known for centuries. It has been traditionally used as an antimicrobial and to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus and heart disease. Whether olive leaf, a natural antioxidant, influences the gastric defense mechanism and exhibits gastroprotection against experimentally-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. In this study, the content of total phenols, total flavonoids and tannins in olive leaf extract (OLE were determined. Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified (oleuropein, caffeic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, and chryseriol. Furthermore, the protective activity of the OLE in gastric mucosal injury induced by a corrosive concentration of ethanol was investigated. In relation to the control group, pretreatment with OLE (40, 80 and 120 mg kg-1 significantly (p < 0.001 attenuated the gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The protective effect of the OLE was similar to that obtained with a reference drug, ranitidine. The results obtained indicate that OLE possesses significant gastroprotective activity, and that the presence of compounds with antioxidative properties would probably explain this effect.

  7. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  8. Fish oil mitigates myosteatosis and improves chemotherapy efficacy in a preclinical model of colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A Almasud

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether feeding a diet containing fish oil was efficacious in reducing tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis, and improving tumor response to treatment.Female Fischer 344 rats were fed either a control diet for the entire study (control, or switched to a diet containing fish oil (2.0 g /100 g of diet one week prior to tumor implantation (long term fish oil or at the start of chemotherapy (adjuvant fish oil. Chemotherapy (irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil was initiated 2 weeks after tumor implantation (cycle-1 and 1 week thereafter (cycle-2. Reference animals received no tumor or treatment and only consumed the control diet. All skeletal muscle measures were conducted in the gastrocnemius. To assess myosteatosis, lipids were assessed histologically by Oil Red O staining and total triglyceride content was quantified by gas chromatography. Expression of adipogenic transcription factors were assessed at the mRNA level by real-time RT-PCR.Feeding a diet containing fish oil significantly reduced tumor- and subsequent chemotherapy-associated increases in skeletal muscle neutral lipid (p<0.001 and total triglyceride content (p<0.03, and expression of adipogenic transcription factors (p<0.01 compared with control diet fed animals. The adjuvant fish oil diet was as effective as the long term fish oil diet in mitigating chemotherapy-associated skeletal muscle fat content, and in reducing tumor volume during chemotherapy compared with control fed animals (p<0.01.Long term and adjuvant fish oil diets are equally efficacious in reducing chemotherapy-associated myosteatosis that may be occurring by reducing expression of transcription factors involved in adipogenesis/lipogenesis, and improving tumor-response to chemotherapy in a neoplastic model.

  9. Identification of molecular markers associated with fruit traits in olive and assessment of olive core collection with AFLP markers and fruit traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Seker, M; Ipek, A; Gul, M K

    2015-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to characterize olive core collection with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and fruit traits and to determine AFLP markers significantly associated with these fruit characters in olive. A total of 168 polymorphic AFLP markers generated by five primer combinations and nine fruit traits were used to characterize relationships between 18 olive cultivars. Although all olive cultivars were discriminated from each other by either AFLP markers (markers and fruit traits was not significantly correlated (r = 0.13). Partial clustering of olive cultivars by AFLP markers according to their geographical origin was observed. Associations of AFLP markers with fruits were determined using a multiple-regression analysis with stepwise addition of AFLP markers. Significant associations between eight AFLP markers and fruit traits were identified. While five AFLP markers demonstrated significant negative correlation with fruit and stone weight, width and length and total polyphenols (P markers displayed significant positive correlation with α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (P molecular markers with fruit traits in olive. Molecular markers associated with morphological and agronomic traits could be utilized for the breeding of olive cultivars. However, the association power of these markers needs to be confirmed in larger populations, and highly correlated markers should then be converted to PCR-based DNA markers such as sequence-characterized amplified region markers for better utilization.

  10. The transcriptional response to the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) reveals extended differences between tolerant and susceptible olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Filomena; Coppola, Mariangela; Carbone, Fabrizio; Baldoni, Luciana; Alagna, Fiammetta; Perrotta, Gaetano; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J; Garonna, Antonio; Facella, Paolo; Daddiego, Loretta; Lopez, Loredana; Vitiello, Alessia; Rao, Rosa; Corrado, Giandomenico

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most devastating pest of cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Intraspecific variation in plant resistance to B. oleae has been described only at phenotypic level. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to study the molecular response to the olive fruit fly in two olive cultivars with contrasting level of susceptibility. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we first generated a catalogue of more than 80,000 sequences expressed in drupes from approximately 700k reads. The assembled sequences were used to develop a microarray layout with over 60,000 olive-specific probes. The differential gene expression analysis between infested (i.e. with II or III instar larvae) and control drupes indicated a significant intraspecific variation between the more tolerant and susceptible cultivar. Around 2500 genes were differentially regulated in infested drupes of the tolerant variety. The GO annotation of the differentially expressed genes implies that the inducible resistance to the olive fruit fly involves a number of biological functions, cellular processes and metabolic pathways, including those with a known role in defence, oxidative stress responses, cellular structure, hormone signalling, and primary and secondary metabolism. The difference in the induced transcriptional changes between the cultivars suggests a strong genetic role in the olive inducible defence, which can ultimately lead to the discovery of factors associated with a higher level of tolerance to B. oleae.

  11. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  12. Dispersal of normal and irradiated laboratory strains and wild strains of the olive fly Dacus oleae in an olive grove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, B.S.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the dispersal rates of normal and γ-irradiated laboratory-reared as well as wild Dacus oleae (Gmelin) were carried out in an olive grove using protein-baited McPhail traps. No differences were found in the dispersal rates of normal and irradiated laboratory-cultured flies or between males and females. The mean distance travelled by the surviving flies up to 2 weeks after release was 180-190 m, and by that time only ca. 13% of the flies remained alive in the grove. No laboratory-reared flies were trapped outside the olive grove. The limited amount of data obtained with wild flies suggested that they may disperse over greater distances than laboratory-reared flies

  13. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  14. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  15. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  16. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  17. Adulteration detection in olive oil using dielectric technique and data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rashvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is one of the most important agricultural crops due to its digestive properties and economic status. However, olive oil production is a costly process which causes an expensive price of the final product. The most jobbery ways during olive oil production consist of mixing other oils such as maize, sunflower and soya oil into the olive oil. So, the aim of this study was to develop a dielectric-based system to detect adulteration in olive oil using cylindrical capacitive sensor. For categorizing of fake olive oil by using frequency specification, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA was developed. A set of 15 samples of olive oil, sunflower oil and canola oil which mixed with different ratio of adulteration, were used for calibration and evaluation of developed system. For each sample, 25 iterations were performed. Regarding results, the highest error rate was for a sample containing 60% olive oil-40% canola oil. In general, 7 iterations failed to be properly recognized. Regarding to accuracy indexes, specificity and sensitivity, the system had the minimum error for a mixed sample (60% olive oil-40% canola oil, specificity and sensitivity were obtained as 98% and 100%, respectively and accuracy was obtained as 72%, which was the weakest value. Finally, regarding mean value table for all sample, accuracy reached to 97%. Results showed the developed technique has a good capability of detecting impurities in olive oil. It is concluded from obtained results that the developed system revealed an acceptable adulterated detection in oil production. Keywords: Olive oil, Adulteration, Dielectric properties, LDA

  18. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  19. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California

  20. Influence of the nocturnal harvesting of olives from Salento (Italy on the quality of the extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Serio, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy, some olive cultivars such as ‘Ogliarola Salentina’ ripen when the day temperature is still high, at up to 28 to 30 °C. This can affect both the oil quality and the expression of its valuable characteristics. In addition, it increases the risk of undesirable fermentation that can generate off-flavors. In the present study, nocturnal olive harvesting was carried out to determine the influence that temperature can have on the characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil, and particularly on the volatile and oxidative compounds. The data obtained are encouraging: the lower temperatures that occur during the night appear to have a particular and positive impact on the organoleptic characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil produced, with enhanced formation of the volatile compounds that contribute to the ‘green’ notes of the flavor. In areas where daytime temperatures are very high, the nocturnal harvesting of olives at the correct stage of maturity therefore represents a good agronomic practice for the production of oils with high organoleptic and nutritional merit.En el sur de Italia, algunas variedades de olivo maduran cuando la temperatura del día sigue siendo alta, hasta 28 °C a 30 °C. Esto puede perjudicar la calidad del aceite y a la expresión de sus valiosas características, y aumenta el riesgo de fermentación indeseable que puede generar malos sabores. En el presente estudio, la cosecha nocturna de aceitunas se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia que la temperatura puede tener sobre las características del aceite de oliva virgen extra, y en particular sobre los compuestos volátiles y los compuestos relacionados con la oxidación. Los datos obtenidos son alentadores: las temperaturas más bajas que se producen durante la noche parecen tener un impacto positivo en las características organolépticas del aceite de oliva virgen extra producido, con una mejora de la formación de los compuestos vol

  1. Fatty acids evolution and composition of olive oils extracted from different olive cultivars grown in Calabrian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincione, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work showed some peculiarities of fatty acids profile of nine olive cultivars cultivated in a typical olive growing Calabrian area. The cultivars studied were: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine and Sinopolese. Oils were extracted by pressure from olives collected for a period of time comprised from October to January. The samplings were repeated for three years. The evolution of the oleic acid content showed an increasing trend in Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino, and Leccino. Palmitic and linolenic acid showed a decrease in all the observed cultivar. Some cultivars in early ripe stage showed a higher linolenic acid content than the limit established legally. From a hierarchical cluster analyses two main groups were distinguished based on all fatty acid. The same statistical results were obtained considering the oleic/linoleic ratio only, that is a constant parameter throughout the olive ripening.Este trabajo muestra algunas peculiaridades de las composiciones en ácidos grasos de aceites extraídos de nueve plantaciones de olivo cultivados en Calabria. La zona de cultivo es típicamente olivícola. Las plantaciones estudiadas fueron: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine y Sinopolese. Los aceites fueron extraídos por presión a partir de aceitunas recogidas en un período comprendido entre Octubre y Enero. Las observaciones fueron repetidas durante tres años consecutivos. La evolución del contenido en ácido oleico mostró una tendencia creciente en aceites de Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino y Leccino. Los ácidos palmítico y linoleico mostraron una tendencia a disminuir durante la maduración en todos los aceites. En los muestreos de inicio de estación algunos aceites superaron los límites establecidos por la ley para el ácido linolénico. Mediante un análisis jerárquico de "cluster" se pueden localizar

  2. Analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae transcriptome and phylogenetic classification of the major detoxification gene families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Chrisargiris, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved.

  3. Vibration parameters assessment to develop a continuous lateral canopy shaker for mechanical harvesting of traditional olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola-Guirado, R.R.; Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Blanco-Roldan, G.L.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Castillo-Ruiz, F.J.; Gil Ribes, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    The fruit harvesting is a key factor involving both product quality and profitability. Particularly, mechanical harvesting of traditional oil olive orchards is hint by tree training system for manual harvesting, tree size and several and slanted trunks which makes difficult trunk shaker work. Therefore, canopy shaker technology could be a feasible alternative to develop an integral harvester able to work on irregular canopies. The aim of this research was to determine vibration parameters applied to the olive tree for efficient mechanical harvesting by canopy shaker measuring fruit removal efficiency and debris. In this work, a continuous lateral canopy shaker harvester has been developed and tested on large olive trees in order to analyse the operating harvester parameters and tree properties to improve mutual adaptation. Vibration amplitude and frequency, rod density and ground speed were assessed. Vibration amplitude and frequency beside ground speed were decisive factors on fruit removal efficiency. Increasing rod density has not influenced on removal efficiency although it increased significantly debris. Promising results has been reached with 77.3% of removal efficiency, applying a 28 s shaking duration, 0.17 m amplitude vibration and 12 rod drum. This result was obtained reporting 0.26 s of accumulative shaking time over 200 m/s2 resultant acceleration. The canopy shaker mechanism enabled more than 65% of detached fruits to fall vertically, facilitating catch fruit. In order to improve removal efficiency it is advisable to adapt trees, set high amplitude in the shaker mechanism, and enhance the contact time between rods and tree. (Author)

  4. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary olive leaves and rosemary on microbial growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary olive leaves and rosemary on microbial growth and lipid oxidation of turkey breast during refrigerated storage. ... During this period olive leaves were more effective in inhibiting bacterial growth than rosemary. Keywords: Antioxidant additives, α-tocopherol, turkey meat, herbs, spices, meat quality ...

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  7. Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Garcia-Rosado, A.; Polonia, I.; Junca-Blanch, G.; Marin, F.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    When olive mill wastes (OMWs) and vegetation waters (VWs) obtained during the manufacture of olive oil were added as substrate supplements for the cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius the material modified growth of the mushroom and the endemic microbiota of the substrate, in particular the

  8. Characterisation and epitypification of Pseudocercospora cladosporioides, the causal organism of Cercospora leaf spot of olives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Trapero, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot of olives is a serious defoliating disease attributed to Pseudocercospora cladosporioides. Although the disease is well distributed throughout olive growing regions of the world, its epidemiology and population structure remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish

  9. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.M.; Almeida, M.; Adikevičius, D.; Andzevičius, P.; Alvarenga, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n), consistency (K) and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’). No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn , even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage. [es

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on olive leaves and application on meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The gamma irradiation is a high technology in the treatment of food product, for this reason we have been interested to study the effect of gamma irradiation on microbial charge (Bioburden), the phenolics compounds and their antioxidant activities on the olive leaves. The irradiated olive leaves are added as an antimicrobial and antioxidant compound on minced meat for preservation.

  11. Traitement de la margine brute d'huile d'olive par distillation suivi de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2014 ... Research on optimization of the distillate and residue are in progress. Keywords: olive oil ... des composés phénoliques de ce distillat avant et après sa ..... Ranalli A. (1991a) the effluent from olive mills: Proposals for re-use ...

  12. Antimicrobial olive leaf gelatin films for enhancing the quality of cold smoked salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive leaf products were evaluated as antimicrobial/antioxidant ingredients in edible films for smoked fish preservation. Olive leaf powder (OLP) and its water/ethanol extract (OLE) were tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica using agar diffusion test...

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and Selection of Molds Associated to Fermented Black Table Olives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavaro, Simona L.; Susca, Antonia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are one of the most important fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Apart from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that mainly conduct the olive fermentation, molds can develop on the brine surface, and can have either deleterious or useful effects on this process. From the food...

  14. organic fertilization of olive tree based on soil analysis and foliar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 sept. 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The present study aims at developing an organic fertilization program of an olive orchard located in the North-west of Tunisia. Soil analyses showed an acceptable level of P2O5 and. K2O in the soil of the studied farm. Based on leaves and olive fruit analyses, the requirements in N, P and K ...

  15. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  16. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vossen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available California's olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels. The UCCE panel helped the California Olive Oil Council develop a seal certification program using sensory analysis. Certification provides consumers with assurance that labeled oils are free of defects and warrant the "extra virgin" grade. Sensory evaluation using a unique UCCE profile sheet provides complete and detailed information about specific positive flavor characteristics of olive cultivars grown in California. The UCCE sensory panel has also contributed to a better understanding of the qualities of California olive oil and advancement of the industry by participating in research on pest management, cultural practices and processing.

  17. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  18. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the

  19. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlorio, M.; Coisson, J. D.; Bordiga, M.; Travaglia, F.; Garino, C.; Zuidmeer, L.; van Ree, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Conti, A.; Martelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers

  20. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  1. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  3. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  4. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  5. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  6. Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.

    2007-01-01

    The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still

  7. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  8. Identification and characterization of the iridoid synthase involved in oleuropein biosynthesis in olive (Olea europaea) fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range...... of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From...... these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive...

  9. Cardiovascular Effects of Olive, a Qur’anic Fruit: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Heidari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies  in which data  were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  11. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  12. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-07-03

    Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.

  14. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  15. Analysis of factors affecting the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olive is one of the most valuable worldwide trees that produces useful products having high nutritional values. It is widely grown in many parts of world. The cost of olives hand picking is estimated to be about two-thirds of the total gross return of olive production. Therefore, various types of olive harvesting machineries were developed in the world. Guilan Province of Iran is one of the leading regions for olives production in Iran. At the present time, almost all olives produced in Guilan province of Iran are manually harvested. Review of the reports showed that no research was performed to study the factors affecting the development of mechanized olive picking in Guilan Province, Iran. Due to the complexity of using the olive harvest machineries, identifying the factors affecting of their application is essential. Therefore, a Delphi study were conducted to identify and analysis the drivers and barriers for mechanized olive harvest in Guilan province, Iran. Materials and Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi technique in Guilan Province, Northern Iran. Delphi technique is a structured process to gather and classify the knowledge of a group of experts. Through consultation with professors and researchers in related institutions, 22 experts from the subsidiary offices of agricultural organization of Guilan Province were selected for the study. In the first round of the study, the participants were asked to answer to two open questions about the driving factors and barriers of mechanical olive harvest in Guilan Province. Nineteen items were found as driving factors and seventeen as barriers for developing the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan Province. In the second phase of the study, the respondents were asked to answer to the all items written in the form of a five-level Likert scale, and finally, experts of panel were asked to answer to the top 10 items of driving factors and barriers in percent form. The

  16. Effects of dietary extra-virgin olive oil on oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Maria Trovato, Francesca; Imbesi, Rosa; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress through production of reactive oxygen species and can cause damage to muscle tissue. Oxidative stress, resulting from exhaustive exercise is high and improvement of antioxidant defenses of the body may ameliorate damage caused by free radicals. Extra-virgin olive oil is widely considered to possess anti-oxidative properties. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-virgin olive oil improved the adaptive responses in conditions of oxidative stress. Twenty-four 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in three groups: (1) rats fed with standard chow and not subjected to physical exercise; (2) rats fed with standard chow and subjected to exhaustive exercise; (3) rats fed with a diet rich in oleic acid, the major component of extra-virgin olive oil, and subjected to exhaustive exercise. Exhaustive exercise consisted of forced running in a five-lane 10° inclined treadmill at a speed of 30 m/min for 70-75 min. We studied some biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidant defenses, histology and ultrastructure of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (Rectus femoris). We observed that, in rats of group 3, parameters indicating oxidative stress such as hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased, parameters indicating antioxidant defenses of the body such as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and Hsp70 expression increased, and R. femoris muscle did not show histological and ultrastructural alterations. Results of this study support the view that extra-virgin olive oil can improve the adaptive response of the body in conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial diversity of a Mediterranean soil and its changes after biotransformed dry olive residue amendment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Siles

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot, about whose soil microbial diversity little is known. Intensive land use and aggressive management practices are degrading the soil, with a consequent loss of fertility. The use of organic amendments such as dry olive residue (DOR, a waste produced by a two-phase olive-oil extraction system, has been proposed as an effective way to improve soil properties. However, before its application to soil, DOR needs a pre-treatment, such as by a ligninolytic fungal transformation, e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa. The present study aimed to describe the bacterial and fungal diversity in a Mediterranean soil and to assess the impact of raw DOR (DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR (CORDOR on function and phylogeny of soil microbial communities after 0, 30 and 60 days. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that bacterial diversity was dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, while 28S-rRNA gene data revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota accounted for the majority of phyla in the fungal community. A Biolog EcoPlate experiment showed that DOR and CORDOR amendments decreased functional diversity and altered microbial functional structures. These changes in soil functionality occurred in parallel with those in phylogenetic bacterial and fungal community structures. Some bacterial and fungal groups increased while others decreased depending on the relative abundance of beneficial and toxic substances incorporated with each amendment. In general, DOR was observed to be more disruptive than CORDOR.

  18. Farmers’ Technical Knowledge about Integrated Pest Management (IPM in Olive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a sustainable approach of pest control, contributing to reduced use of pesticides and risks on human health and the environment, farmers have shown limited interest in practicing this method. The present study explored the levels of technical knowledge about integrated management of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae among olive growers in Roudbar County of Iran and factors underpinning olive farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated management. Data were collected in a survey of olive farmers, on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Almost half of the farmers (48.4% had good to excellent levels of technical knowledge of integrated management, while almost a third of the farmers (35.4% had a moderate knowledge level. However, a noticeable portion of the farmers (15.9% had poor knowledge of integrated management. Moreover, most farmers showed average knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health. While most farmers showed good levels of social participation, cooperation with institutes, and participation in extension activities, they showed low levels of community involvement (involvement in a group of people that have and share common interests with each other. Olive imports and the lack of a common action for olive fly control were perceived as the main barriers of IPM adoption among most farmers. Regression analysis revealed that increased community involvement, large area under olive farming, participation in education activities, and high farming experience promoted farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated olive fly control. Strengthening growers’ technical knowledge of IPM through community involvement and extension services among inexperienced small-scale olive farmers is recommended for reducing possible unnecessary insecticide sprays in olive production.

  19. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  1. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also

  3. Efficacy of lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil for treating burning mouth syndrome: a double-blind randomised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Carrillo, P; Pons-Fuster, A; López-Jornet, P

    2014-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an intensive chronic oral mucosal pain condition of unknown aetiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil used to treat the condition, comparing this with a placebo. This study took the form of a double-bind, randomised clinical trial. A total of 60 patients with BMS were randomly divided into two groups: Group I (n = 30) treated with lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil (300 ppm) (1.5 mL three times a day) and Group II (n=treated with a placebo (1.5 mL three times a day). Evaluations were made before and after 12 weeks of product/placebo application. Symptoms were evaluated by VAS, whilst patient psychological profiles were assessed using the HAD scale and patient quality of life using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and the Medical Outcome Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF36). Fifty patients completed the 12-week treatment (26 in Group I and 24 in Group II). Visual analogue scale pain values improved in both groups but without statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.57). Oral quality of life also improved. Four patients in Group I (treatment) left the study and six left Group II (placebo). No patients experienced any adverse effects resulting from treatment at any of the evaluation times. Patients were lost from the sample due to lack of compliance. It was found that the lipid profile did not change during the 3-month study period as a result of the application of lycopene-enriched olive oil (Group I); nor did any change occur in the placebo group (Group II). In this way, the placebo effect was seen to be strong. The topical lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil is a very safe and an effective similar way that the placebo for treating patients with BMS. However, future studies are required to establish the treatment for patients with chronic and painful syndrome.

  4. Analysis of the British Industrial Revolution in cinema: Oliver Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Diez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    La Revolución Industrial británica fue un fenómeno histórico que incluso a día de hoy continúa atrayendo miradas. Sus dimensiones fueron tales que actualmente sus consecuencias aún son visibles. El objetivo de este proyecto es analizar el impacto social de la Revolución Industrial británica y las causas que llevaron a este punto como retrata Oliver Twist, la película seleccionada. Desde la perspectiva de las injusticias laborales y las desigualdades sociales, el estudio se centra en las conse...

  5. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of all the wild olive trees tested produced virgin olive oil which complies with commercial standards, as well as for their appreciable amounts of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Tocopherol analysis by HPLC revealed the presence of α, β, γ and δ tocopherols in all the studied olive oils. Total tocopherol content was significantly influenced by the varietal factor. It ranged from 310 (SB12 to 780 mg/kg (H3. As for total tocopherols, the amount of each tocopherol varied according to genotype. α tocopherol is the most prominent, whereas β, γ and δ tocopherols are less represented. Results showed a clear influence of total phenols and o-diphenols on virgin olive oil stability (R = 0.905, 0.963 P En este trabajo se han caracterizado los aceites obtenidos a partir de siete acebuches previamente seleccionados entre varias poblaciones de Olea europea L. Subsp. oleaster. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante las campañas de producción 2003/04, 2004/05 y 2005/06.Varios parámetros analíticos fueron evaluados: composiciones en ácidos grasos, pigmentos, tocoferoles, fenoles; así mismo, se investigó la relación de estos parámetros con la estabilidad de los aceites. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que todas las muestras de frutos de acebuche produjeron aceites cuya composición de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos cumplió las normas comerciales para aceite de oliva virgen del Comit

  6. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

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    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  7. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

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    Juan Aparicio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65, followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54, that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013, however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47. In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales.

  8. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Monge, J.F; Ortiz, L.; Pastor, J.T.

    2016-11-01

    Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65), followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54), that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013), however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47). In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales. (Author)

  9. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

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    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  11. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  12. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

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    Katsoyannos, E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P P El aceite de oliva virgen es un alimento funcional natural cuyo papel como ingrediente esencial de la dieta mediterránea, con propiedades beneficiosas para la salud, ha sido reconocido universalmente. Se ha estudiado el efecto del deshuesado de las aceitunas, grado de maduración y variedad (variedades griegas Koroneiki y Megaritiki sobre las características físico-químicas, perfil de ácidos grasos y capacidad de los componentes antioxidantes de los aceites de oliva. La maduración ocasionó una disminución (P < 0,05 del contenido de fenoles y tocoferoles y de la relación de ácidos insaturados/ saturados así como de la relación de los ácidos C18:1ω-9/C18:2ω6. El deshuesado incrementa significativamente el contenido fenólico y de tocoferoles, sin afectar significativamente, en la mayoría de los casos, al perfil y cantidad de ácidos grasos. Los aceites de oliva de la variedad Koroneiki mostraron relaciones de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados/poliinsaturados significativamente mayores (p < 0,05 que son particularmente importantes para la estabilidad del aceite frente a la oxidación. En conclusión, el aceite de oliva deshuesado mantiene un alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos y un alto nivel de actividad antioxidante.

  13. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

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    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  14. Dickens's Dichotomous Formula for Social Reform In Oliver Twist

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    Taher Badinjki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Twist was a direct appeal to society to take action against poverty, exploitation of children, oppression of women, and was meant to be a picture of the "dregs of life” in all their deformity and wretchedness. Among the most miserable inhabitants of the world of Oliver Twist, Nancy appears as a key figure.  Dickens was anxious to expose the truth about such a woman because he believed it would be a service to society. Dickens's portrayal of Nancy illustrates the power of the dual conception of womanhood  held at the time. On the one hand, a woman might be conceived as someone refined and somewhat remote from ordinary life like Rose Maylie. On the other hand, there was a certain fascination in a woman's degradation, even though that could be shown only indirectly.  Nancy is a demonstration of the two elements combined together. Dickens took the ideal nature of womanhood  and the depravity of the prostitute, and combined them in a remarkable dramatization which he had some right to claim was also true to life. The book is an astounding rebuttal of contemporary prejudice, and a call for more humane and liberal attitudes. These attitudes  are based on the concepts that there is now a radically different way of looking at human nature, that everything ought to depend on what one is in oneself, and that it is only in love that humans can live purposefully and happily with each other.

  15. Oliver: The Rise and Decline of a Hero

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    Carlos Alvar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential topic of this paper is the literary figure of Oliver, from his first appearances to his gradual disappearance from the texts. Thus, the starting point is the presence of the anthroponym and the discussions about its etymology, given that numerous problems (as well as some explanations affecting Western epic poetry and the relationships established between characters and texts can be related to that origin. It seems that he is a southern hero and as such, figured prominently in several lost chansons de geste, from which late or geographically distant versions survive (such as the Scandinavian versions. Since this hero belongs to the Occitan tradition, linked to the basin of the Rhone, and is alien to French epic tradition, the importance of his role in the Chanson de Roland is surprising, and from there, its preeminence in onomastics and in the lists of the Twelve Peers; however, the place he occupies is not always the same, and he is often set aside. In the Iberian Peninsula, it is not unusual to see how other heroes take the place of Oliver: Bernardo del Carpio and Reinaldos de Montalbán. Our paladin ends up being a mere shadow, a distant memory that is finally forgotten.

  16. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

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    Inass Leouifoudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE and the olive cake extracts (OCE. Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90±0.728 g/L versus 0.95±0.017 mg/g. The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS. With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH and emulsion (BCBT systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50=12.1±5.6 μg/mL; EC50=157.7±34.9 μg/mL, resp.. However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis.

  17. Biometeorological and autoregressive indices for predicting olive pollen intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Hervás, C; Galán, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on modelling to predict airborne olive pollen season severity, expressed as a pollen index (PI), in Córdoba province (southern Spain) several weeks prior to the pollen season start. Using a 29-year database (1982-2010), a multivariate regression model based on five indices-the index-based model-was built to enhance the efficacy of prediction models. Four of the indices used were biometeorological indices: thermal index, pre-flowering hydric index, dormancy hydric index and summer index; the fifth was an autoregressive cyclicity index based on pollen data from previous years. The extreme weather events characteristic of the Mediterranean climate were also taken into account by applying different adjustment criteria. The results obtained with this model were compared with those yielded by a traditional meteorological-based model built using multivariate regression analysis of simple meteorological-related variables. The performance of the models (confidence intervals, significance levels and standard errors) was compared, and they were also validated using the bootstrap method. The index-based model built on biometeorological and cyclicity indices was found to perform better for olive pollen forecasting purposes than the traditional meteorological-based model.

  18. Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Misra, Anoop; Chadha, Davinder S; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Pasha, Qadar M A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary intervention with canola or olive oil in comparison with commonly used refined oil in Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was a 6-month intervention study including 93 males with NAFLD, matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were randomized into three groups to receive olive oil (n=30), canola oil (n=33), and commonly used soyabean/safflower oil (control; n=30) as cooking medium (not exceeding 20 g/day) along with counseling for therapeutic lifestyle changes. The BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels, lipids, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF), and disposition index (DI) were measured at pre- and post-intervention. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference multiple comparison test procedures. Olive oil intervention led to a significant decrease in weight and BMI (ANOVA, P=0.01) compared with the control oil group. In a comparison of olive and canola oil, a significant decrease in fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-βCF, and DI (Poil group. Pre- and post-intervention analysis revealed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein level (P=0.004) in the olive oil group and a significant decrease in FBG (P=0.03) and triglyceride (P=0.02) levels in the canola oil group. The pre- and post-intervention difference in liver span was significant only in the olive (1.14 ± 2 cm; Poil groups. In the olive and canola oil groups, post-intervention grading of fatty liver was reduced significantly (grade I, from 73.3% to 23.3% and from 60.5% to 20%, respectively [Poil group no significant change was observed. Results suggest significant improvements in grading of fatty liver, liver span, measures of insulin resistance, and lipids with use of canola and olive oil compared with control oils in Asian Indians with NAFLD.

  19. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

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    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  20. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  1. Pigments in Extra-Virgin Olive Oils Produced in Tuscany (Italy) in Different Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Cristina; Domenici, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Pigments are responsible for the color of olive oils, and are an important ingredient that is directly related to the quality of this food. However, the concentration of pigments can vary significantly depending on the climate conditions, harvesting time, and olive cultivars. In this work, we quantified the main pigments in several extra-virgin olive oils produced from a blend of three cultivars (Moraiolo, Frantoio, and Leccino) typical of Tuscany (Italy) harvested in three different years: 2012, 2013, and 2014. Pigments—namely, β-carotene, lutein, pheophytin A, and pheophytin B—were quantified by a method based on the mathematical analysis of the near ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of the oils. Data were analyzed by a multivariate statistical approach. The results show that the pigments’ content of extra-virgin olive oils produced in 2014 can be well distinguished with respect to previous years. This can be explained by the anomalous climate conditions, which strongly affected Italy and, in particular, Tuscany, where the olives were harvested. This study represents an interesting example of how pigment content can be significant in characterizing olive oils. Moreover, this is the first report of pigment quantification in extra-virgin olive oils produced in Tuscany. PMID:28353651

  2. Single-cultivar extra virgin olive oil classification using a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2014-10-01

    Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of bioactive compounds from extra virgin olive oil to modulate atherosclerosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Arnal, Carmen; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    As olive oil is the main source of calories in the Mediterranean diet, a great deal of research has been devoted to characterizing its role in atherosclerosis. Virgin olive oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene; triterpenes such as uvaol, erythrodiol, oleanolic, and maslinic acid; phytosterols; and a wide range of phenolic compounds comprising simple phenols, flavonoids, secoiridoids, and lignans. In this review, we analyze the studies dealing with atherosclerosis and olive oil in several species. A protective role of virgin olive oil against atherosclerosis has been shown in ApoE-deficient mice and hamsters. In the former animal, sex, dose, and dietary cholesterol are modulators of the outcome. Contradictory findings have been reported for rabbits, a circumstance that could be due to the profusion of experimental designs, differing in terms of doses and animal strains, as well as sources of olive oils. This role has yet to be fully validated in humans. Minor components of olive oil have been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis protection. Nevertheless, evidence of the potential of isolated compounds or the right combination of them to achieve the antiatherosclerotic effect of virgin olive oil is inconclusive and will undoubtedly require further experimental support. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Genetic Diversity Among Historical Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genotypes from Southern Anatolia Based on SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is an ancient and important crop in both olive oil production and table use. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of olive genetic resources for cultivar development and evaluation of olive germplasm. In the study, 14 microsatellite markers (UDO4, UDO8, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO22, UDO24, UDO26, UDO28, DCA9, DCA11, DCA13, DCA15, and DCA18) were used to assess the genetic variation on 76 olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes from Mardin province together with 6 well-known Turkish and 4 well-known foreign reference cultivars. All microsatellite markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles varied between 9 and 22, with an average of 14.57. The most informative loci were DCA 11 (22 alleles) and DCA 9 (21 alleles). Dendrogram based on genetic distances was constructed for the 86 olive genotypes/cultivars, which revealed the existence of different clusters. The high genetic similarity was evident between Bakırkire2 and Zinnar5 (0.74) genotypes, while the most genetically divergent genotypes were Gürmeşe5 and Yedikardeşler2 (0.19). It was concluded that there was abundant SSR polymorphism in olive germplasm in southern Anatolia in Turkey and could be important for future breeding activities.

  5. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  6. An explanation for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during ripening on the tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susamci, E.; Romero, C.; Tuncay, O.; Brenes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. [es

  7. Interactions of grass spontaneous cover in olive orchards with site conditions and management: a study case using biodiversity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Carmen; Taguas, Encarnación; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Gómez, Jose A.

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous herbaceous plants are an inexpensive control measure of soil erosion in olive orchards. Grass covers on steep areas are a requirement for compliance by farmers with basic standards concerning the environment, derived from Common Agricultural Policy (cross-compliances). In addition to ground cover, other aspects such as biodiversity and OC storage capacity of these systems are often not considered, despite the fact that the occupation of many ecological niches by different species might provide substantial environmental and landscape benefits. In this study, we evaluated different biodiversity indices on grass cover in two olive orchard catchments with different managements (conventional tillage and non-tillage with natural herbaceous plants) during 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples/ha) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the indicators: number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shanon's and Pielou's indices. The specific objectives of this work were: i) to describe and to compare the biodiversity indices in two contrasting olive orchard catchments of 6 and 9 ha with different soil types, precipitation, topography and management; ii) to explore possible relationships of these indexes with soil organic carbon content and soil loss. The results will allow improving our knowledge of environmental functions of this type of ground cover as well as factors determining its development. These features can be particularly interesting to enhance the environmental values of marginal olive orchards in steep locations. REFERENCES Aguilera L. 2012.Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar Evolución espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba (Spain) Gimeno E. 2011. Análisis de la variabilidad de la cobertura vegetal en tres pequeñas cuencas de olivar

  8. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  9. Blood transport and genomic effects of olive oil components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consuming diets rich in (extra virgin olive oil is associated with a low incidence of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Recent evidence has emerged which implicates raised concentrations of plasma triglycerides in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. It has been demonstrated that olive oil contributes to modulate metabolic processes related to secretion and transport of triglycerides. Intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from olive oil are very efficiently cleared during postprandial metabolism compared to other oils. Then, there is a massive interaction of nascent and remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as lipid metabolites and fat-soluble components, with hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. A diet-related response involves a multitude of gene products, including proteins implicated in lipid synthesis, oxidation and cell differentiation. Particularly, it has been reported a health beneficial effect of several components from (extra virgin olive oil (fatty acids and minor compounds, which are functioning as regulators of gene transcription . This review reaffirm that a diet rich in extra virgin olive oil is of vital importance in the prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.Estudios epidemiológicos asocian el consumo de una dieta rica en aceite de oliva (virgen extra con una baja incidencia de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. Una concentración elevada de triglicéridos en plasma, tanto en ayunas como durante el metabolismo postprandial, está implicada en la patogénesis cardiovascular. Se ha demostrado que el aceite de oliva contribuye a modular los procesos metabólicos relativos a la secreción y al transporte de triglicéridos. Con respecto a otros aceites comestibles, el aceite de oliva genera lipoproteínas intestinales ricas en triglicéridos que se metabolizan con rapidez. En este contexto, se

  10. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-04

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonized Organic Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Giardia Lamblia Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia . The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.

  12. Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

    1994-01-01

    Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3...

  13. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  14. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazza, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil. (author)

  15. Composition and Nutritional properties of Mediterranean extra-virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tripoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil plays an important role in diet, economy and culture of Mediterranean people. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence in this area. The purpose of this paper was to compare the nutritional properties of Sicilian and Cretan extra-virgin olive oils. Forty Cretan (cultivar: Koroneiki and forty-six Sicilian olive oil (cultivar: Nocellara del Belice samples are collected in the crop seasons 2003/04 and 2004/05. We estimate free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption, total tocopherols and polyphenols amounts.

  16. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  17. Perception of olive oils sensory defects using a potentiometric taste device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Silva, Lucas M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Rebello, Ligia P G; Dias, Luís G; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2018-01-01

    The capability of perceiving olive oils sensory defects and intensities plays a key role on olive oils quality grade classification since olive oils can only be classified as extra-virgin if no defect can be perceived by a human trained sensory panel. Otherwise, olive oils may be classified as virgin or lampante depending on the median intensity of the defect predominantly perceived and on the physicochemical levels. However, sensory analysis is time-consuming and requires an official sensory panel, which can only evaluate a low number of samples per day. In this work, the potential use of an electronic tongue as a taste sensor device to identify the defect predominantly perceived in olive oils was evaluated. The potentiometric profiles recorded showed that intra- and inter-day signal drifts could be neglected (i.e., relative standard deviations lower than 25%), being not statistically significant the effect of the analysis day on the overall recorded E-tongue sensor fingerprints (P-value = 0.5715, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test), which significantly differ according to the olive oils' sensory defect (P-value = 0.0084, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test). Thus, a linear discriminant model based on 19 potentiometric signal sensors, selected by the simulated annealing algorithm, could be established to correctly predict the olive oil main sensory defect (fusty, rancid, wet-wood or winey-vinegary) with average sensitivity of 75 ± 3% and specificity of 73 ± 4% (repeated K-fold cross-validation variant: 4 folds×10 repeats). Similarly, a linear discriminant model, based on 24 selected sensors, correctly classified 92 ± 3% of the olive oils as virgin or lampante, being an average specificity of 93 ± 3% achieved. The overall satisfactory predictive performances strengthen the feasibility of the developed taste sensor device as a complementary methodology for olive oils' defects analysis and subsequent

  18. Quantification of pure refined olive oil adulterant in extra virgin olive oil using diamond cell atr-ftir spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, A.A.; Saleem, R.; Laghari, A.H.; Sultana, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO. (author)

  19. Methodological considerations in discriminating olive-orchard management type using olive-canopy arthropod fauna at the level of order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerez-Valle, C.; García-López, P.A.; Campos, M.; Pascual, F.

    2015-07-01

    The cultivation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has great importance in the entire Mediterranean basin, so that the implementation of organic practices in their management directly affects the sustainability of the agricultural system. Bioindication with arthropods can help to detect the different agricultural practices. In this work, we analyse the most appropriate methodology for discriminating between management using arthropods at the taxonomic level of order, with the novelty of taking into account the weather conditions to select the sampling dates. Between 12 and 15 sampling stations (depending on the year) were selected from olive orchards belonging to organic, conventional non-tillage, and strict conventional management, being sampled by beating the canopy fortnightly in the spring-summer period of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Organic management was more abundant and richer than the rest for the three years. Most groups with significant differences in terms of relative abundance were more abundant in organic orchard, except Neuroptera. Finally, different discriminant methods were evaluated (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Multiple Discriminant Analysis, and Support Vector Machine) with several different data sets. The discriminant analysis with interannual variability reached 97.9% accuracy in differentiating between organic and non-organic management using the LDA method, considering the taxa with significant differences from the abundance, excluding pests, and using samples with more uniform and stable weather patterns (late summer. (Author)

  20. The effect of urban waste compost applied in a vineyard, olive grove and orange grove on soil proprieties in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Bono, Giuseppe; Guaitoli, Fabio; Pasciuta, Giuseppe; Santoro, Antonino

    2013-04-01

    The application to soil of compost produced from urban wastes not only could improve the soil properties but also could be a solution for disposal of large quantities of different refuses. Knowledge on compost characteristic, soil properties as well as on mineral crop nutrition are important to proper management of fertilization with compost and to understanding the impact on C and N dynamics in field. We present the results of soil physical and chemical changes after the application of urban waste compost in three different orchards (vineyard, olive grove, and orange grove) in Mediterranean environment (Sicily). The compost was applied on November 2010 and samples were collected 1 month after application for two years. Soil pH, carbon content, weight of soil aggregate fractions, nitrate content were examined during the trial, comparing with adjacent no fertilized plot. The application of compost caused a decrease in soil organic carbon stock of 14% and 28% after two years in vineyard and orange grove, respectively, while a significant increase under olive grove was registered. Nitrate monitoring showed for all crops high content of Nitrate for most of the year that involved SOC stock depletion. This was not observed in olive grove, where soil received further C input thanks to soil management with cover crop. In two years of observations there were no significant change in soil physic properties.