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Sample records for olive oil gained

  1. Effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that effect of massage with or without oil on the baby′s weight gain is not clear, but recent studies have shown that massage with essential oils make lipid absorption through the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, infants who met inclusion criteria for the study were divided into two groups by using random numbers table. Newborns in intervention group were under massage for 10 days and 3 times for 15 min daily; the mother of these newborns had been trained already using olive oil. Moreover, the infants of the control group were under massaging without oil same as the above-mentioned method. Researchers weighed babies daily during 10 days and recorded it at the checklist. Data from the study were reviewed and analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure test using the statistical software SPSS/13. Results: This study showed that the neonatal weight gain in the infants with the oil massage was 21 g daily in average, whereas the increase in infant massage without oil was 7 g. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the positive effect of infant massage on weight gain in premature infants with olive oil, it is recommended that nurses use oil in infant massage in the neonatal units.

  2. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  3. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those p

  4. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  5. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  6. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Fistonić; Mario Harapin; Nikola Fistonić; Vedrana Bulat; Mirna Šitum; Donatella Verbanac

    2012-01-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They pro...

  7. Olive oil for tuna canning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucurachi, A

    1967-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the phenomenon of contamination of the preserving oil by contact with the tunnyfish, and attempts to discover a method for guaranteeing the genuineness of the olive oil...

  8. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  9. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising the United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil. This... the grades of olive oil and olive-pomace oil commonly accepted in the United States and abroad....

  10. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  11. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  12. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  13. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  14. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  15. Olive oil in food spreads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los...

  16. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

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    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  17. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  18. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  19. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  20. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  1. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  2. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow....... These results indicate that the quality of the olive oil depends both on the olive cultivar and geographical region. Keywords: Olive oil, Yellow cultivar, Oil-grade cultivar, Shiraz, Kazeroon...

  3. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. Evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo; also, they exert other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  4. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  5. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  6. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98%) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and...

  7. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; López, Sergio; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; Bermúdez, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 %) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipas...

  8. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  9. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  10. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  11. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances protective ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" cholesterol, ...

  12. Microbiological activity in stored olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2002-05-05

    The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides.

  13. [Olive oil, immune system and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  15. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsaftakis, A.; Vekiari, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphe...

  16. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  17. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  18. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  19. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  20. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  1. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration.

  2. Analysis of minor components in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos

    2004-10-29

    Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.

  3. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  4. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  5. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  6. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  7. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  8. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2010-10-01

    The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen.

  9. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Improved soil quality after 16 years of olive mill pomace application in olive oil groves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberto, García Ruiz; Ochoa, M. Victoria; Hinojosa, M. Belén

    2012-01-01

    This report shows notable improvements of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties after long-term soil application of olive mill pomace compost. About four million tons of olive mill pomace is produced annually in Andalusia, Spain. Olive mill pomace is a main by-product of the olive oil...... extraction industry. Composting is a promising strategy to manage the huge volume of this potentially environmentally harmful pomace. Converting olive mill pomace into a useful soil amendment in semiarid Mediterranean areas of olive oil farms, characterized by low organic matter content and subjected...... to progressive degradation, would be valuable. There is actually no data on the long-term effects of composted olive mill pomace application on soil physicochemical and biochemical properties. However, this information is needed to encourage the composting of this pomace. Here, a field study evaluated soil...

  11. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  12. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  13. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In manufacturing, olive oil is used to make soaps, commercial plasters and liniments; and to delay setting ... Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on ... Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient ...

  14. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  15. Olive oil in food spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids). Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lip...

  16. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP guidelines for virgin olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakis, Christos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GMP guidelines for the production of virgin olive oil. Standard procedures and conditions are indicated for olive production, harvesting, transportation and storage, for oil manufacture, storage and packaging, for buildings, process logistics and the materials used throughout the production chain.

  17. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  18. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  19. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    OpenAIRE

    A. GÁMBARO; Raggio, L.; Ellis, A. C.; Amarillo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster ...

  20. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  1. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar ph

  2. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.

  3. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  4. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  5. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG) in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO), has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study...

  6. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  7. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  8. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a v

  9. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  10. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  11. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  12. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  13. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Emmanouilides

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece. To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer and Spain (exporter. The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool.

  14. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  15. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containi

  16. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  17. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  19. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  20. The effect of olive oil on osteoporosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; Rivas, Ana; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ruiz, Concepción

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and associated fractures is found to be lower in countries where the Mediterranean diet is predominant. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of olive oil and especially phenolic compounds. To review current knowledge by searching for all relevant publications since 2001 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, using the descriptors: Mediterranean diet, virgin olive oil, phenols, bone, osteoblast and osteoporosis. Published evidence suggests that olive oil phenols can be beneficial by preventing the loss of bone mass. It has been demonstrated that they can modulate the proliferative capacity and cell maturation of osteoblasts by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity and depositing calcium ions in the extracellular matrix. Further research on this issue is warranted, given the prevalence of osteoporosis and the few data available on the action of olive oil on bone.

  1. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production.

  2. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

    2006-02-01

    Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards

  4. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  5. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  6. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rajabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major,in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results:According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P

  7. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  8. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Independent components analysis coupled with 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy to study the interaction between plastic food packaging and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Amine; El Rakwe, Maria; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette; Rutledge, Douglas N; Maalouly, Jacqueline

    2014-08-11

    Olive oil is one of the most valued sources of fats in the Mediterranean diet. Its storage was generally done using glass or metallic packaging materials. Nowadays, plastic packaging has gained worldwide spread for the storage of olive oil. However, plastics are not inert and interaction phenomena may occur between packaging materials and olive oil. In this study, extra virgin olive oil samples were submitted to accelerated interaction conditions, in contact with polypropylene (PP) and polylactide (PLA) plastic packaging materials. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, being a simple, fast and non destructive analytical technique, was used to study this interaction. Independent components analysis (ICA) was used to analyze raw 3D-front-face fluorescence spectra of olive oil. ICA was able to highlight a probable effect of a migration of substances with antioxidant activity. The signals extracted by ICA corresponded to natural olive oil fluorophores (tocopherols and polyphenols) as well as newly formed ones which were tentatively identified as fluorescent oxidation products. Based on the extracted fluorescent signals, olive oil in contact with plastics had slower aging rates in comparison with reference oils. Peroxide and free acidity values validated the results obtained by ICA, related to olive oil oxidation rates. Sorbed olive oil in plastic was also quantified given that this sorption could induce a swelling of the polymer thus promoting migration.

  11. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  12. SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.

  13. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil.

  14. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  15. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Paul VOSSEN; Kicenik Devarenne, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    California’s olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels....

  16. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.

  17. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017.

  18. Vermicomposting of olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth.

  19. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  20. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  1. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  2. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct bios

  3. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2017-07-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  4. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. Algorithms for the detection of hazelnut oil in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreda, W.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to olive oil can be only detected in high proportions (20–25%, using the D7-stigmastenol and the difference between triacylglycerols of equivalent carbon number 42, determined experimentally by HPLC and calculated theoretically from the fatty acid composition (DECN42. A new method   lies on a sequential comparison of the values of several algorithms with a database built with data obtained from genuine virgin olive oils. The algorithms are: LLLexp vs %L; (LLL/OLLnexp - (LLL/OLLntheor vs DECN44 and (ECN44/LLLexp vs %L; being LLLexp,  OLLnexp,  and ECN44exp  the percentage of triacylglycerols determined by HPLC; LLLtheor, OLLntheor, and ECN44theor the percentage of those calculated theoretically from the fatty acid composition;  DECN44 the difference between the experimental and theoretical value of ECN44; and finally %L the percentage of linoleic acid. The database has been built considering the values obtained from olive oils of different fatty acid composition and from admixtures between them. The method allows the detection of low percentages of hazelnut oil in olive oil (5 %.La adición fraudulenta de aceite de avellana en aceite de oliva puede  ser detectada sólo en altas proporciones (20–25 %, usando el   D7-estigmastenol y la diferencia entre los triglicéridos con número de carbono equivalente igual a 42, determinados experimentalmente por HPLC y teóricamente a partir de la composición de ácidos grasos (DECN42. Se propone un nuevo método que consiste en la comparación de los valores de varios algoritmos con una base de datos de valores experimentales obtenidos de aceites de oliva virgen  genuinos. Estos algoritmos son: LLLexp en función de %L; (LLL/OLLnexp  - (LLL/OLLnteor  en función de  DECN44 y  (ECN44/LLLexp  en función de %L; siendo LLLexp, OLLnexp,  y ECN44exp los porcentajes de los triglicéridos obtenidos por HPLC; LLLteor , OLLnteor,  y ECN44teor los

  6. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  7. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nimer Assy; Faris Nassar; Gattas Nasser; Maria Grosovski

    2009-01-01

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagonlike peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased lowdensity lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

  8. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. A Rapid Method for Detection of Refined Olive Oil as Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is expensive oil, due to unique specification and its high quality among other edible oils; it might be mixed with other oils. The aim of this research was to identify the added refined olive oil (ROO to extra virgin olive oil. One sample of each oil was analyzed, admixtures of EVOO: ROO were prepared at different ratios (50:50 ,60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and 95:5 w/w. To identify this adulteration, exothermic and endothermic thermograms were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing refined olive oil, onset temperature (Ton was increased from -61.08 to -56.16 °C; also, offset temperature (Toff decreased from 19.09 to 12.57 °C. Also results showed that when the ROO ratio increased then the enthalpy average values of both exothermic and endothermic curves were declined. Chemical tests were performed in parallel to better understanding these changes in curves.

  10. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  11. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  13. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  14. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  15. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.

  16. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  17. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoyannos, E.; Batrinou, A.; Chatzilazarou, A.; Bratakos, S. M.; Stamatopoulos, K; Sinanoglou, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki) were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in phenolic and tocopherol contents and the...

  18. Antithrombotic lipid minor constituents from vegetable oils. Comparison between olive oils and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantonis, Haralabos C; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2002-02-27

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that vegetable oils and especially olive oil present a protective effect against atherosclerosis. In this study, total lipids (TL) of Greek olive oils and seed oils of four kinds, namely, soybean, corn, sunflower, and sesame oil, were separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) via a novel extraction procedure. TPL and TNL of olive oil were fractionated by HPLC for further study. Each lipid fraction from HPLC separation along with TL, TPL, and TNL lipid samples from oils were tested in vitro for their capacity to induce or to inhibit washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Comparison between olive and seed oils supports the superiority of olive oil as high levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonists have been detected, mainly in TPL. In addition, the structure of the most active fraction from olive oil was elucidated, as a glycerol-glycolipid. Because it has already been reported that PAF plays a pivotal role in atherogenesis, the existence of PAF agonists and antagonists in vegetable oils may explain their protective role against atherosclerosis.

  19. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  20. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  1. Composition of human VLDL triacylglycerols after ingestion of olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P 100%, P sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition of VLDL triacylglycerols may be of major importance in explaining the beneficial effects of dietary olive oil in reducing the atherogenic risk profile in healthy subjects.

  2. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  3. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  4. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  5. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cayuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%.

  7. Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products. To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO, the “intensive” olive grove (HDO and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO. The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS, the two-phase system (2PS, the three-phase (3PS, and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS. The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained.

  8. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  9. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  10. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  11. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  12. Olive oil: an overview of the Japanese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capogna Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of olive oil consumption in Japan, Asia’s largest per capita consumer and at present 14th in the world. Since the early 1990s, total purchases have increased from 4943 t in the 1992/93 campaign to 61 903 t in 2014/15, a more than 12-fold increase over the space of 22 years. Olive oil, in particular extra virgin olive oil, is appreciated by Japanese people primarily for its beneficial effects on health, as well as for its agreeable taste and for its cultural and historical associations. Other key factors to be considered are economic and cultural. Japan is one of the world’s largest economies; disposable incomes are high and these are reflected in household consumption behavior. Culturally, the country is increasingly open to the outside world, discovering and adopting practices from elsewhere, notably the West. This openness, allied to the country’s relative affluence, is demonstrated in the consumption of olive oil, a pillar of the Mediterranean Diet.

  13. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  15. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  16. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause.

  17. Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.

  18. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E

    2017-02-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha(-1) ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year(-1) of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  1. Olive Oil and Other Sorts of Oil in the Mycenaean Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Melena Jiménez, José Luis

    1983-01-01

    In 1978 an International meeting on «Olive Oil in Antiquity » was planned and subsequently held at Madrid in December, 4-6. I was asked by Professor M. F. Galiano to contribute on the Mycenaean evidence concerning olive oil, and, although I was finally unable to attend the meeting, I sent my contribution, an expanded version of which was published in the Proceedings in due course.

  2. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  3. Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

    Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

  4. Polarized absorption in determination of impurities in olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. N.; Zabidi, Z. M.; Yaacob, Y.; Amir, I. S.; Alshurdin, S. H. N.; Aini, N. A.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of impurities in olive oil blending with palm oil was characterized using polarized absorption method. Polarized absorption was based on the absorption of light which vibrating in a particular plane to pass through the sample. This polarized light allowed the molecule to absorb at the specific orientation. There were four samples have been prepared that were 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 0:100 with volume ratio of the olives to palm oil. Two linear polarizers were mounting between the samples in order to get linearly polarized. This specific orientation was affected the absorption spectra of the sample. The results have shown that the analyzing polarizer with angle 00 has bell shape spectra. All the orientation of analyzing polarizer had shown the maximum current output at 100% olive oil. Whereas 100% palm oil has shown the minimum current output. The changing in absorption spectra indicates that the anisotropic properties of each sample were different due to the present of impurities.

  5. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  6. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  7. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  8. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future.

  9. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  10. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  12. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  13. Extraction of olive oil with supercritical carbon dioxide / Ilana Geerdts

    OpenAIRE

    Geerdts, Ilana

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to extract olive oil from the fruit of Olea europaea by means of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-C02) as an alternative to traditional methods. Extractions were performed on a laboratory scale supercritical fluid extractor of the latest design, featuring three mutually independent flow systems and extremely high flow rates. A number of extraction runs based on a statistical design was performed to establish the conditions (time, pressu...

  14. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  15. The effect of topically extravirgin olive oil on the UVB-induced immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    AriefBudiyanto, Irianiwati, Vohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo

    2015-01-01

    Background: UVBradiation may act as an immunosuppressive agent through Langernans cells (LCs)depletion correlated with cyclobuthane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), as the most mutagenic photoproducts. Other studies showed that olive oil can prevent various human cancers, which are defect of immune-surveillance. The effect of olive oil in the UVBinduced LCs depletion is still unclear. Objective: To discover the topical effect of extravirgin-olive-oil in the LCs depletion. Methods: A simple experimenta...

  16. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  17. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

  18. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

  19. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Olive Oil and the Treatment of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Post-operative adhesions are the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. The management of small bowel obstruction is surgical and non-surgical. Some studies are conducted to show the efficacy of non-surgical management of adhesive small bowel obstruction such as sesame oil, water - soluble contrasts such as gastrographin. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral olive oil on the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Methods All the patients admitted with adhesive bowel obstruction in the hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, from October 2012 to September 2013 that had inclusion criteria were evaluated by general surgeon. The patients were separated into two groups and standard management was done. Then 12 hours after admission, 150 mL olive oil was given by nasogastric (NG tube to the first group. Results The spontaneous resolution time of small bowel obstruction was significantly longer in the control group than the treatment group (59 hours vs. 35 hours. The hospital stay was shorter in the treatment group than the control (three days vs. six days. Conclusions The study results demonstrated that olive is an effective and safe adjunct to the conservative management of small bowel obstruction and markedly reduces the time of resolution of symptoms and length of hospital stay.

  1. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rufus; Etienne, Nicolas; Alonso, Maria Garcia; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Minihane, Anne Marie; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant and cellular activity of the olive oil phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol (which is also a major metabolite of hydroxytyrosol). Well-characterized chemical and biochemical assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Further experiments investigated their influence in cell culture on cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nitric oxide production by activated macrophages, and secretion of chemoattractant and cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium. Inhibitory influences on in vitro platelet aggregation were also measured. The antioxidant assays indicated that homovanillic alcohol was a significantly more potent antioxidant than the other phenolics, both in chemical assays and in prolonging the lag phase of LDL oxidation. Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects.

  2. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  3. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  4. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.

  5. Explaining German imports of olive oil: evidence from a gravity model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this study the case of olive oil imports of Germany is examined since olive oil is a traditional Mediterranean commodity and Germany is the biggest importer in the EU. A gravity model has been employed so as to analyse those factors that explain the German imports of olive oil that were identified in a preceding analysis of the German olive oil supply chain. The results of two random-effects models corrected for serial correlation and heteroskedasticity suggest that being a Mediterranean P...

  6. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  7. Kinetic study of olive oil degradation monitored by fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Application to oil characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Falcó, Iván P; Grané Teruel, Nuria; Prats Moya, Soledad; Martín Carratalá, M Luisa

    2012-11-28

    A new approach for the determination of kinetic parameters of the cis/trans isomerization during the oxidation process of 24 virgin olive oils belonging to 8 different varieties is presented. The accelerated process of degradation at 100 °C was monitored by recording the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The parameters obtained confirm pseudo-first-order kinetics for the degradation of cis and the appearance of trans double bonds. The kinetic approach affords the induction time and the rate coefficient; these parameters are related to the fatty acid profile of the fresh olive oils. The data obtained were used to compare the oil stability of the samples with the help of multivariate statistical techniques. Fatty acid allowed a classification of the samples in five groups, one of them constituted by the cultivars with higher stability. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters showed greater ability for the characterization of olive oils, allowing the classification in seven groups.

  8. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  9. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  10. 168 橄榄油(Olive oil)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 又名 Sweet Oil,Salad Oil,Olivae oleum. 植物名 Olea europaea. 活性成分与药理作用橄榄油含有不饱和脂肪酸,在饮食中用来替代饱和脂肪时可降低胆固醇水平.橄榄油中裂环烯醚萜类(secoiridoides)化合物体外具有广谱的抗微生物活性.

  11. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  12. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  13. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  14. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2017-08-11

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  17. Cultivar origin and admixture detection in Turkish olive oils by SNP-based CAPS assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to establish a DNA-based identification key to ascertain the cultivar origin of Turkish monovarietal olive oils. To reach this aim, we sequenced short fragments from five olive genes for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) identification and developed CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic DNA) assays for SNPs that alter restriction enzyme recognition motifs. When applied on the oils of 17 olive cultivars, a maximum of five CAPS assays were necessary to discriminate the varietal origin of the samples. We also tested the efficiency and limit of our approach for detecting olive oil admixtures. As a result of the analysis, we were able to detect admixing down to a limit of 20%. The SNP-based CAPS assays developed in this work can be used for testing and verification of the authenticity of Turkish monovarietal olive oils, for olive tree certification, and in germplasm characterization and preservation studies.

  18. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  19. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...

  20. Enzyme catalyzed production of biodiesel from olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Fernando; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T

    2006-10-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) was produced by transesterification of triglycerides (triolein) present in olive oil with methanol and Novozym435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, semibatch (stepwise addition of methanol) vs batch operation, enzyme activity, and reaction temperature on overall conversion was determined. Stepwise methanolysis with a 3:1 methanol to triolein molar ratio and an overall ratio of 8:1 gave the best results. The final conversion and yield of biodiesel were unaffected by initial enzyme concentrations greater than 500 U/mL olive oil. The optimum reaction temperature was 60 degrees C. Comparison of conversion data between a test-tube scale reactor and a 2-L batch reactor revealed that the difference in conversion was within 10%. Experiments were also carried out with used cooking oil; the conversion with used cooking oil was slightly lower but no major differences were observed. The efficacy of Novozym435 was determined by reusing the enzyme; although the enzyme's relative activity decreased with reuse, it still retained 95% of its activity after five batches and more than 70% after as many as eight batches.

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  3. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  4. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  5. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Functional olive Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formulated Using Olive Mill Wastewater and Whey Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated b...

  6. Effect of olive oil on the cerebral reperfusion following ischemia injuries in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Raouf Sarshoori

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the current study indicated that olive oil effectively reduced ischemia, helped to the reperfusion of injuries, and improved neurological outcome. Olive oil is also a potent neuroprotective factor that is able to prevent neurodegeneration of transient focal ischemia in the beginning of reperfusion at ischemic areas.

  7. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the

  8. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  9. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Casas, E; Covas, M-I; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Marrugat, J; de la Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake. Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual diet which included 25 ml/day of the same virgin olive oil as the source of raw fat. Unitat de Recerca en Farmacologia. Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Seven healthy volunteers. An increase in 24 h urine of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, after both a single-dose ingestion (50 ml) and short-term consumption (one week, 25 ml/day) of virgin olive oil (P<0.05) was observed. Urinary recoveries for tyrosol were similar after a single dose and after sustained doses of virgin olive oil. Mean recovery values for hydroxytyrosol after sustained doses were 1.5-fold those obtained after a single 50 ml dose. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from realistic doses of virgin olive oil. With regard to the dose-effect relationship, 24 h urinary tyrosol seems to be a better biomarker of sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil consumption than hydroxytyrosol.

  10. Monitoring the Hydrolysis of Olive Oil Catalyzed by Lipase via Acid Value Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolysis of olive oil catalyzed by Candida lipolytica lipase was investigated. The relative concentration of the components in the product was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Furthermore, a novel rapid method to detect the hydrolytic process of olive oil was developed based on the relationship between the acid value and the relative concentration of the different components.

  11. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the absorption

  12. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To bett

  13. 77 FR 61026 - Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production of...

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  15. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  16. Olive and sesame oil effect on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic patients, which better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Kaseb, Fatemeh; Lesan, Soheila

    2013-09-01

    The study on natural substances especially, dietary components such as liquid oils affecting cholesterol can be important for therapeutic propose. Sesame seeds with various biomedical actions can be control the hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic effect on lipid profile in human. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare lipid profile changes after olive and sesame oils consumption in hypercholesterolemia. This study was a clinical randomized trial that was performed via parallel design on 48 patients. The patients were randomly allocated in to two groups: A: olive oil and B: sesame oil. After 1 month prescription of Step I National Cholesterol Education Program diet, patients consumed 4 table spoons aprox. 60 g) of refined olive or sesame oil daily as an exchange of other oils, for 1 month. Lipid profiles The P oil consumption was 224.5 ± 22, 256 ± 132, 132.6 ± 9, and 44.5 ± 11 mg/dl. After olive oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, weight, waist and BMI were decreased and HDL-C was increased. After sesame oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C were significantly decreased. Weight, waist were decreased and HDL-C was increased (P > 0.05). Sesame oil had equivalent effect on lipid profile in comparison olive oil and lipid profile improvement was better in sesame oil in LDL-C and TG.

  17. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  18. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  19. Olive oil intake in relation to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafatos, Anthony G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the principal contributor to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological, clinical and metabolic studies have reported protective associations between (extra virgin olive oil consumption and CAD. As a key component of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil is a rich source of oleic acid, making up about 29 % of the daily dietary caloric intake, and antioxidants (vitamin E and phenolic compounds. Olive oil has beneficial effects by reducing LDL plasma concentration, the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio, and protecting LDL against oxidation. The progress of atherosclerosis and the risk of thrombo-embolic episodes could also be decreased through the reduction in plasma clotting factors levels, including FVIIc, PAI-1, XIIc and XIIa. The findings reaffirm low-moderate fat policies for optimum health, within which olive oil appears to be an important component of the diet.La aterosclerosis es el componente principal en la patogénesis de la enfermedad arterial coronaria (CAD. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y metabólicos indican la existencia de una asociación entre la ingesta de aceite de oliva (virgen extra y una menor manifestación de CAD. El aceite de oliva es uno de los componentes esenciales de la dieta Mediterránea, es rico en ácido oleico (representa el 29 % de la ingesta calórica diaria y en antioxidantes (vitamina E y polifenoles. Tiene efectos beneficiosos al reducir el riesgo cardiovascular relacionado con la concentración plasmática de LDL, la relación LDL:HDL, y la oxidación de las LDL. Además, el aceite de oliva contribuye a la regulación de los sistemas de coagulación y fibrinolisis (FVII, PAI-1, XIIc y XIIa. Estas observaciones reafirman la importancia de las grasas de la dieta para las funciones vitales en el organismo y la prevención de CAD, donde el aceite de oliva ha de considerarse como un elemento nutricional determinante.

  20. Putative Markers of Adulteration of Higher-Grade Olive Oil with Less Expensive Pomace Olive Oil Identified by Gas Chromatography Combined with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Drira, Malika; Rebai, Ahmed; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-07-05

    This work has been performed to ascertain that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is free of adulteration. For this purpose, refined pomace olive oils (RPOOs) are commonly used for extra-virgin olive oil adulteration and repassed olive oils (ROOs) are used for lampante olive oil (LOO) fraudulent operation. Indeed, fatty acid ethyl esters could be used as a parameter for the detection of EVOO fraud with 2% RPOO. The addition of >10% RPOO to EVOO would be detected by the amount of erythrodiol, uvaol, waxes, and aliphatic alcohols. Moreover, the use of stigmasta-3,5-diene content proved to be effective in EVOO adulteration even at a low level (with 1% RPOO). For the detection of adulteration of LOO with >5% ROO, the sum of erythrodiol, uvaol, and the waxes and esters can be considered as good markers of purity. Using linear discriminant analysis can identify the most discriminant variable that allows a faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration by measuring only these variables.

  1. Effect of growing location, malaxation duration and citric acid treatment on the quality of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, HuiJun; James, Anthony P; Jayasena, Vijay; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2013-04-01

    The total phenolic compounds of olive oil exert antiradical activity at cellular level and can prevent cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and cancer. Increased awareness of its health benefits has increased the consumption of olive oil around the world. An alternative processing technique effective in increasing the amount of oil extracted while maintaining the oil quality is needed to meet the rising global demand for olive oil. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period significantly increased the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity by 46.23, 120.27 and 31.48% respectively. While there was no significant effect on the acidity, the peroxide value was significantly reduced by 63.85%. The organoleptic characteristics of the olive oil extracted with citric acid were also comparable to those of the control. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid (i.e. 30% w/v) at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period in a Blixer(®) 4.0 blender is the most promising extraction technique to improve the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity of the extracted olive oil without compromising other quality parameters. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  3. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils.

  4. Blood transport and genomic effects of olive oil components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consuming diets rich in (extra virgin olive oil is associated with a low incidence of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Recent evidence has emerged which implicates raised concentrations of plasma triglycerides in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. It has been demonstrated that olive oil contributes to modulate metabolic processes related to secretion and transport of triglycerides. Intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from olive oil are very efficiently cleared during postprandial metabolism compared to other oils. Then, there is a massive interaction of nascent and remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as lipid metabolites and fat-soluble components, with hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. A diet-related response involves a multitude of gene products, including proteins implicated in lipid synthesis, oxidation and cell differentiation. Particularly, it has been reported a health beneficial effect of several components from (extra virgin olive oil (fatty acids and minor compounds, which are functioning as regulators of gene transcription . This review reaffirm that a diet rich in extra virgin olive oil is of vital importance in the prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.Estudios epidemiológicos asocian el consumo de una dieta rica en aceite de oliva (virgen extra con una baja incidencia de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. Una concentración elevada de triglicéridos en plasma, tanto en ayunas como durante el metabolismo postprandial, está implicada en la patogénesis cardiovascular. Se ha demostrado que el aceite de oliva contribuye a modular los procesos metabólicos relativos a la secreción y al transporte de triglicéridos. Con respecto a otros aceites comestibles, el aceite de oliva genera lipoproteínas intestinales ricas en triglicéridos que se metabolizan con rapidez. En este contexto, se

  5. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  6. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  9. Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

    2013-05-22

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C).

  10. Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947

  11. Varietal tracing of virgin olive oils based on plastid DNA variation profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Pérez-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels, it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties, which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.

  12. Comparative effect of olive oil and fish oil supplementation in combating gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Fouzia; M. Kaleem; Sheema; Bano, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present study is related to the comparative effects of fish oil and olive oil supplementation on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Three treatment groups (Pretrement, Co-treatment and post treatment) were chosen for the study. Nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by intraperitonial administration of gentamicin (80 mg/kg/d) for 3,5,7,10,& 12 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed 12 hrs after last treatment in each group. The maximum nephrotoxicity was developed on 10 days tr...

  13. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  14. Olive oil and immune system functions: potential involvement in immunonutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil plays a crucial role as a main component of the Mediterranean diet, which has shown important benefits for the human health. According to the current knowledge, the administration of diets containing olive oil exerts some beneficial effects on the immune system functions due likely to the action of oleic acid rather than other substances contained in this fat. In the last few years, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have evidenced the potential of certain dietary lipids (containing polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids as modulators of immune system functions due to their ability to suppress several functions of immune system in both humans and animals. As a result, these fats have been applied in the reduction of symptoms from diseases characterized by an overactivation of the immune system (autoimmune diseases or in the reduction of cancer risk. Here, we review several relevant experimental and clinical data associated with the beneficial effects of olive oil upon the health, the mechanisms of action and the immune function susceptible of being be altered by the administration of dietary lipids and particularly of olive oil. In addition, we will also discuss the detrimental effects on the immune system functions caused by the administration of certain dietary lipids attributed mainly to a reduction of host natural resistance against infectious microorganisms as well as the involvement of olive oil diets in the regulation of immune resistance.El aceite de oliva tiene un papel crucial como componente de la dieta Mediterránea, con importantes beneficios sobre la salud humana. Dietas conteniendo aceite de oliva actúan de manera favorable en las funciones del sistema inmune por la acción sobretodo del ácido oleico. Los estudios epidemiológicos, clínicos y experimentales publicados en los últimos años demuestran que ciertos lípidos de la dieta [ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y poliinsaturados (PUFA

  15. Highlighting metabolic indicators of olive oil during storage by the AComDim method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korifi, R; Plard, J; Le Dréau, Y; Rébufa, C; Rutledge, D N; Dupuy, N

    2016-07-15

    Lipid oxidation during olive oil storage induces changes in the metabolite content of the oil, which can be measured using so-called quality indices. High values indicate poor quality oils that should be labeled accordingly or removed from the market. Based on quality indices measured over two years for two olive oils, the AComDim method was used to highlight the influence of five factors (olive oil type, oxygen, light, temperature and storage time) on oxidative stability during storage. To identify the significant factors, two full factorial experimental designs were built, each containing four of the five factors examined. The results showed that all five factors, as well as some two-factor interactions, were significant. Phenols and hydroperoxides were identified as being the most sensitive to these factors, and potential markers for the ageing of olive oil.

  16. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of polyphenols in 55 extra virgin olive oils by HPLC-ECD and their correlation with antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Banu; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Schulze, Nicole; Ozcelik, Beraat; Frank, Jan; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed eight phenolic compounds (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, pinoresinol, and caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid) in 55 mono- and multivarietal extra virgin olive oil samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a coulometric electrochemical array detector (ECD). The phenolic profile of olive oil samples differed depending on the geographical origin and olive variety. The total reducing capacity (total phenolics) of olive oils ranged from about 40 to 530 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg oil. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol were the most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils. The antioxidant capacity of the olive oil extracts was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total reducing capacity was significatly correlated with FRAP (R² = 0.91, p polyphenols in olive oils from 9 different countries and four continents.

  18. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, R.; Rogers, D. A. G.

    2009-07-01

    The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  20. Validation of SPME-GCMS method for the analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles responsible for sensory defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García-González, D L; Aparicio-Ruiz, R; Morales, M T

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aroma of virgin olive oil and also for its quality. The high number and different nature of volatile compounds drive to the need of a reliable analytical method that allows their proper quantification to explain the standard method of panel test. Although there are some analytical solutions available, they have not been validated and the regulatory bodies are reluctant to adopt them since they can be subjected to unknown errors. In this regards, the European Union has encouraged the validation of these analytical tools through the research program Horizon2020, which involves gaining knowledge from the analytical properties of the chemical methods for sensory assessment. This work is focused on the analytical validation of the methodology used to determine the actual concentration of volatiles in virgin olive oils when applying SPME-GCMS. The validation process includes the calibration curves for 29 volatile compounds responsible for the most common sensory perceptions in virgin olive oils, the determination of their working ranges with linear response, the detection and quantification limits, the sensitivity, the accuracy estimated as trueness and precision and the selectivity. Sixty-seven percent of the compounds presented a relative standard deviation in repeatability lower than 10%, and this percentage rises to 95% in lampante virgin olive oils. The accuracy was established in 97% of the studied volatile compounds. Finally, an empirical example of the ability of the method to discriminate virgin olive oils of different categories (extra virgin, virgin, ordinary and lampante) by the quantification of their volatiles is provided.

  1. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  2. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

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    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP. Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31, piroxicam (n=31 or base gel phonophoresis (n=31 groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (p< 0.05, but in olive oil group, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (p< 0.001. A significant difference between olive oil group and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It could be proposed that phonophoresis with virgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies.

  3. Detection of adulteration of extra virgin olive oils available on the Polish market

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    Dorota Derewiaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extra virgin olive oils are valuable and healthy products, appreciated by consumers. The aim of this study was an attempt to detect adulteration of olive oils available on the Polish market (derived from Greece, Spain, and Italy according to European Union Commission Regulation No 1348/2013. Material and methods. Ten extra virgin olive oils available on the Polish market were analysed for fatty acids composition, and amount and composition of sterols (including erythrodiol and uvaol using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry, and values of extinction coefficients (K232 and K270. The results were compared with the requirements of European Union Commission Regulation No 1348/2013. Results. One of the most efficient methods for detecting olive oil adulteration is qualitative and quantitative analysis of sterols. In certain of the analysed extra virgin olive oils some abnormal­ities in composition were detected, which may indicate an attempt to falsify the products. One of the methods can detect if extra virgin olive oils have been adulterated, and if they were falsified with the addition of olive pomace oil. Conclusions. Our research proves that consumers are sometimes misinformed and some food manufacturers attempt to sell lower quality products as high-quality products. There is a need to constantly monitor the quality of foodstuffs and provide consumers with access to reliable inform­ation on food products.

  4. HDL-related mechanisms of olive oil protection in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Fitó, Montse; Covas, María-Isabel; Farràs, Marta; Osada, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in countries bordering the Mediterranean basin, where olive oil is the main source of dietary fat, and the negative association between this disease with high density lipoproteins has stimulated interest. This review summarizes the current knowledge gathered from human and animal studies regarding olive oil and high density lipoproteins. Cumulative evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its main apolipoprotein A1, may be increased by consuming olive oil when compared with carbohydrate and low fat diets in humans. Conflicting results have been found in many studies when olive oil diets were compared with other sources of fat. The role of virgin olive oil minor components on its protective effect has been demonstrated by a growing number of studies although its exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Dietary amount of olive oil, use of virgin olive oil, cholesterol intake, and physiopathological states such as genetic background, sex, age, obesity or fatty liver are variables that may offset those effects. Further studies in this field in humans and in animal models are warranted due to the complexity of HDL particles.

  5. Role of olive oil phenolics in physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacintucci, Veronica; Di Mattia, Carla; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Neri, Lilia; Pittia, Paola

    2016-12-15

    The effect of olive oil phenolic content and pattern on the physical properties and stability of olive oil mayonnaise-like emulsions has been investigated. Mayonnaises were formulated with either naturally phenolic-rich extra virgin olive oils or purified olive oil artificially enriched with a phenolic-rich olive extract and pure oleuropein. Mayonnaises were characterized by droplet size distribution, microstructure, textural properties and flow behaviour. The addition of phenolic extracts significantly affected the dispersion degree of the corresponding mayonnaise-like emulsions, their microstructure and physical stability especially in the systems prepared with purified olive oil treated with pure oleuropein and the highest olive phenolic extract concentration. The viscosity and back-extrusion analyses evidenced that the systems characterized by a relatively high content of phenolics, either natural or by addition, presented lower yield stress and viscosity indices and were easier to deform and to break. This study confirms the main role of olive phenolic compounds, and in particular that of oleuropein, in the dispersion state, and physical properties of emulsions with main effects on their quality and stability.

  6. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation.

  7. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  8. An In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonized Organic Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Giardia Lamblia Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia. The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.

  9. Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve; Travier, Noemie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sánchez, María-José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2012-12-14

    Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events. This emphasises the need to conserve the traditional culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden.

  10. Refractive Index and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Virgin Coconut Oil and Virgin Olive Oil

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    W. M.M. Yunus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the refractive index and FTIR spectra of virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil that have been measured in the wavelength range from 491.0-667.8 nm. The measurement of refractive index was carried out using a minimum deviation method while the IR transmission ranging from 600-4000 cm-1 was measured using FTIR spectrometer respectively. The measurements were done at room temperature and the dispersion equations for the studied samples were verified and the Cauchy constants were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Cauchy formula. For both, refractive index and Cauchy constants, the value obtained are higher in virgin olive oil as compared to virgin coconut oil. A similar result for FTIR absorption spectrum was also observed where the five important peaks explaining the stretching absorption due to aldehyde (C = O and esters (C-O, bending absorption (methylene (CH2 and methyl (CH3 groups and double bond absorptions (C = O were strong in virgin olive oil.

  11. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.

  12. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vivancos, J; N. Tena; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; D. L. García-González

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which ...

  13. Composition and Nutritional properties of Mediterranean extra-virgin olive oils

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    E. Tripoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil plays an important role in diet, economy and culture of Mediterranean people. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence in this area. The purpose of this paper was to compare the nutritional properties of Sicilian and Cretan extra-virgin olive oils. Forty Cretan (cultivar: Koroneiki and forty-six Sicilian olive oil (cultivar: Nocellara del Belice samples are collected in the crop seasons 2003/04 and 2004/05. We estimate free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption, total tocopherols and polyphenols amounts.

  14. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  15. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

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    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  16. Rapid authentication of adulteration of olive oil by near-infrared spectroscopy using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling

    2016-10-01

    A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.

  17. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  18. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel reliable method of DNA extraction from olive oil suitable for molecular traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raieta, Katia; Muccillo, Livio; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil production has a worldwide economic impact. The use of this brand, however, is of great concern to Institutions and private industries because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts to the market products. Here, we present a novel, reliable and not expensive method for extracting the DNA from commercial virgin and extra virgin olive oils. The DNA is stable overtime and amenable for molecular analyses; in fact, by carrying out simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers analysis, we characterise the genetic profile of monovarietal olive oils. By comparing the oil-derived pattern with that of the corresponding tree, we can unambiguously identify four cultivars from Samnium, a region of Southern Italy, and distinguish them from reference and more widely used varieties. Through a parentage statistical analysis, we also identify the putative pollinators, establishing an unprecedented and powerful tool for olive oil traceability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty acid alkyl esters presence in olive oil vs. organoleptic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, R B; Moreda, W; Pérez-Camino, M C

    2012-12-01

    The scientific work on the authenticity and quality of olive oil is an ever-growing area. Olive oil genuineness is not only valuable for the producers, but also for the consumers who expect an actual correspondence between the products they purchase and the information on the packaging labels. Sometimes oil's rejection by consumers is just a matter of taste, sometimes is a more objective question. Low quality olive oils with weak organoleptic defects are the targets of illegal blends that can be detected by determining the content of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs). In this line we have established a relationship between the FAAEs concentration of olive oils and their sensory classification. Besides, a connection between the presence of large quantities of FAAEs and fermentative organoleptic defects has been proven.

  1. Analysis of total contents of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-09-12

    The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils are the phenethyl alcohols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. An optimized method to quantify the total concentration of these substances in olive oils has been described. It consists of the acid hydrolysis of the aglycons and the extraction of phenethyl alcohols with a 2 M HCl solution. Recovery of the phenethyl alcohols from oils was very high (tyrosol, respectively. Precision values, both intraday and interday, remained below 3% for both compounds. The final optimized method allowed for the analysis of several types of commercial olive oils to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents. The results show that this method is simple, robust, and reliable for a routine analysis of the total concentration of these substances in olive oils.

  2. Single-cultivar extra virgin olive oil classification using a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2014-10-01

    Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel qPCR systems for olive (Olea europaea L.) authentication in oils and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Albillos, Silvia M; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    The traceability of olive oil is an unresolved issue that remains a challenge. In this field, DNA-based techniques are very powerful tools for discrimination that are less negatively influenced by environmental conditions than other techniques. More specifically, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) achieves a high degree of sensitivity, although the DNA that it can directly isolate from these oils presents drawbacks. Our study reports the analysis of eight systems, in order to determine their suitability for olive detection in oil and oil-derived foodstuffs. The eight systems were analyzed on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity in the qPCR assay, their relative sensitivity to olive DNA detection and DNA mixtures, their sensitivity and specificity to olive in vegetable oils and the detection of olive in commercial products. The results show that the PetN-PsbM system, designed in this study, is a suitable and reliable technique in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  5. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by origin area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the weight and the influence of the origin area on the analytical and compositional variables of olive oil, an investigation was carried out. Five Italian geographical zones were chosen. They were in the neighbour of the: (i Faculty of Agriculture of University of Perugia (UNI-PG; (ii the Olive Growing Institute-National Research Council of Perugia (NRC-PG; (iii the Experimental Olive Growing Institute of Spoleto (EOI-SPOL; (iv the Agricultural Technical Institute of Pescia (ATI-PES; and (v the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Florence (UNI-FL. From these areas, Frantoio, Leccino and Moraiolo olive variety samples were taken, which were processed by a mini oil-mill. The research results showed that the quality, typicality and shelf-life parameters and the flavour of the oils were largely influenced by the origin zone, i.e., by the climatic and pedologic factors of the production environment. The influence exerted on some oil constituent groups, as phenols, tocopherols, aromatic volatile compounds, and fatty acids, should be emphasized as these components are closely related to the quality and typicality of product. Some oil genuineness parameters were affected as well by the environmental variables.

    Se ha realizado una investigación para evidenciar la importancia y la Influencia que la zona de origen tiene sobre las variables analíticas del aceite de oliva virgen. Han sido seleccionadas cinco zonas geográficas de Italia: (i una cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Perusa (UNI-PG; (ii una cerca del Instituto para la Olivicultura - Consejo Nacional de las Investigaciones de Perusa (CNI-PG; (iii una zona próxima al Instituto Experimental para la Olivicultura de Espoleto (lEO-ESP; (iv una zona cerca Instituto Técnico Agrario de Pescia (ITA-PES; (v una zona cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Florencia (UNI-FL. De estas zonas han sido tomadas muestras de aceitunas de las

  6. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  7. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  8. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlorio, M; Coisson, J D; Bordiga, M; Travaglia, F; Garino, C; Zuidmeer, L; Van Ree, R; Giuffrida, M G; Conti, A; Martelli, A

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as "extra-virgin" should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers and consumers. The high degree of similarity between the two fats complicates the detection of low percentages of HAO in EVOO. Many analytical approaches have been developed in recent years to trace HAO in EVOO, principally based on chromatographic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition adulteration of EVOO with HAO may introduce hazelnut-derived allergens. The aim of this work was to analyse the protein and allergen content of EVOO intentionally spiked with raw cold-pressed HAO or solvent-extracted HAO. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of hazelnut proteins in solvent-extracted HAO with molecular masses ranging 10-60 kDa. In contrast, cold-pressed HAO showed no traces of protein. In spiked EVOO, solvent-extracted HAO was still detectable at a 1% contamination level. Several bands on SDS-PAGE migrated at apparent molecular masses coinciding with known allergens, such as Cor a 1 (approximately 17 kDa), Cor a 2 (approximately 14 kDa), Cor a 8 (approximately 12 kDa), oleosin (approximately 17 kDa) and Cor a 9 (approximately 60 kDa). MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the presence of two oleosin isoforms and of Cor a 9. Immunoblotting demonstrated that an allergic patient with known reactivity to Cor a 1 and Cor a 2 recognized a 17-kDa band in solvent-extracted HAO. In conclusion, we have shown that adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with solvent-extracted hazelnut oil can be traced by simple SDS-PAGE analysis, and that adulteration introduces a potential risk for hazelnut allergic patients.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY BYPRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad-Qasem Mateo, Margarita Hussam

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The main goal of this Thesis was to determine the influence of the main processing stages involved in obtaining natural extracts with high antioxidant potential from byproducts originating in the olive oil industry. Firstly, the effect of freezing and/or the drying methods applied to olive oil byproducts on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of the extracts subsequently obtained was addressed. For this purpose, two byproducts were considered: olive leaves and olive pomace...

  10. Packaging design for the Greek olive oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveli, A.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    Packaging is one of the most important elements that characterize product design. It does not only refer to the appearance of the product, that creates the first impression to the user, but it is a whole communication code. This has been identified by the enterprises involved and their competition is high. Nowadays, the most successful of them pay a great deal of attention on every day's trends concerning packaging design and try to apply these trends upon their own designs. The present paper describes the packaging design in today's industries and the existing trends. It will therefore reveal what makes a package design successful, from the company's perspective and how the company studies such factors in order to achieve the best result. Those factors and the research results are applied on the olive oil packaging industry, producing a final packaging design solution.

  11. Ethyl esters versus fermentative organoleptic defects in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Serio, Maria Gabriella; Giansante, Lucia; Di Loreto, Giuseppina; Faberi, Angelo; Ricchetti, Lorenzo; Di Giacinto, Luciana

    2017-03-15

    The quality and genuineness of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) were assessed following the methods and parameters of EU Commission Regulation N° 2568/91/EEC and subsequent modifications, which also set specific limits for fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study included a subset of EVOOs from among 399 samples analysed as part of a monitoring study for FAEEs in EVOOs. The subset was subjected to statistical evaluation to quantify the relationships between FAEE content and sensory defects associated with fermentation: fusty/muddy sediment, musty/humid/earthy, and winey/vinegary. The use of multiple regression analysis demonstrates that FAEE content can be inferred as a function of the intensity of organoleptic defects for samples with high alkyl esters content. The intensity of the rancid defect negatively influences the accuracy of this model, because of underestimation of the fermentation defects that are also present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  13. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  14. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  15. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  16. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil.

  17. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  18. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Sylvie, E-mail: lamy.sylvie@uqam.ca; Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  19. An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P sunflower oil (ANOVA, P sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.

  20. Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José

    2011-01-01

    After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.

  1. Identification of 3-MCPD esters to verify the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Ching; Peng, Guan-Jhih; Tsai, Wen-Ju; Chang, Mei-Hua; Liao, Chia-Ding; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Kao, Ya-Min; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2017-09-01

    The adulteration of olive oil is an important issue around the world. This paper reports an indirect method by which to identify 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in olive oils. Following sample preparation, the samples were spiked with 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol standard for analysis using gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry. The total recovery ranged from 102.8% to 105.5%, the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.1% to 10.1%, and the limit of quantification was 0.125 mg/kg. The content of 3-MCPD esters in samples of refined olive oil (0.97-20.53 mg/kg) exceeded those of extra virgin olive oil (non-detected to 0.24 mg/kg). These results indicate that the oil refining process increased the content of 3-MCPD esters, which means that they could be used as a target compound for the differentiation of extra virgin olive oil from refined olive oil in order to prevent adulteration.

  2. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mercader-Trejo, Flora [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Metrologia de Materiales, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, km. 4.5 Carretera a Los Cues, El Marques, Queretaro (Mexico); Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de [G.A.S. Gesellschaft fuer analytische Sensorsysteme mbH, BioMedizinZentrumDortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 15, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Arce, Lourdes [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. > Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. > The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. > The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  3. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B; Pemberton, Ryan P; Lounnas, Valère; Vriend, Gert; Tantillo, Dean J; Wang, Selina C

    2015-05-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  4. Hydrolysis of Olive Oil with Immobilized Lipase in a Tapered Column Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伯伦; 赵国胜; 林宏业

    2003-01-01

    Lipase was immobilized in ion exchange resin and then used in the hydrolysis of olive oil to produce fatty acids and glycerol. The time course of hydrolysis of olive oil was investigated in a stirred tank reactor using both of the free and immobilized lipases to find the yield of activity of immobilized enzyme. Continuous hydrolysis of olive oil was also carried out in a tapered column reactor and a cylindrical column reactor with a bottom ID of 10 mm at different upward flow rates. It can be known from experimental results that the degree of hydrolysis of olive oil in the tapered column reactor is moderately better than that in the cylindrical column reactor, the pressure drop in the tapered column reactor is much smaller than that in the cylindrical column reactor.

  5. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedler, H.B.; Pemberton, R.P.; Lounnas, V.; Vriend, G.; Tantillo, D.J.; Wang, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  6. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality. ... appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. VOLATILITY SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN THE EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL MARKETS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Panagiotou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the existence and magnitude of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Spain and Greece. These three Mediterranean countries are responsible for 95% of olive oil production within the European Union and they account for more than 50% of olive oil exports worldwide. In order to measure the degree of volatility transmission between these countries we estimate a vector error correction model along with the BEKK parameterization of a Multivariate Generalized Conditional Autoregressive Heteroskedasticity (M-GARCH model. The empirical results reveal the presence of ARCH and GARCH effects suggesting this way the existence of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Greece and Spain. ARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Spain and Italy. GARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Greece and Italy.

  8. High Pressure Effects on Lipid Oxidation of Extra Virgin Olive Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cereals, milk, fruit, beverages). (TAUSCHER ... during the subsequent storage time at 5°. C in the dark, .... following the method of MONTEDORO and ... the EFC method (1991) for olive oil analysis. .... shelf life of complex foods, containing.

  9. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  10. 355nm Wavelength Generation of Nd:YAG Laser Using Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad T. Al-Dahan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This project introduces a prospective material for photonic laser applications. The material is olive oil which is classified as organic compound, having a good nonlinear optical properties candidate to be used in photonic applications. A high purity sample of olive oil has been used. The theoretical calculation to generate third harmonic wave using olive oil has been determine using MATLAB program. THG (λ=355nm intensity has been determined at two cases of sample thicknesses 1mm and 10mm. The minimum threshold incident intensity to obtain THG intensity are equal Iω=7530 mW/cm2 at L=1mm and Iω= 6220 mW/cm2 at L=10mm. The possibility of generation of third harmonic in olive oil inside the cuvette has been experimented using different powers (90-120 mW of CW Nd:YAG laser. The signal of third harmonic generation has been detected using UV-340 Light Meter.

  11. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  12. Transcriptional Reprogramming at Genome-Scale of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in Response to Olive Oil Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Torres, María; Reverón, Inés; Plaza-Vinuesa, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; López de Felipe, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fats may exert selective pressures on Lactobacillus species, however, knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to fat stress in these organisms is still fragmentary. This study was undertaken to gain insight into the mechanisms of adaptation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to olive oil challenge by whole genome transcriptional profiling using DNA microarrays. A set of 230 genes were differentially expressed by L. plantarum WCFS1 to respond to this vegetable oil. This response involved elements typical of the stringent response, as indicated by the induction of genes involved in stress-related pathways and downregulation of genes related to processes associated with rapid growth. A set of genes involved in the transport and metabolism of compatible solutes were downregulated, indicating that this organism does not require osmoprotective mechanisms in presence of olive oil. The fatty acid biosynthetic pathway was thoroughly downregulated at the transcriptional level, which coincided with a diminished expression of genes controlled by this pathway in other organisms and that are required for the respiratory function, pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, RNA processing and cell size setting. Finally, a set of genes involved in host-cell signaling by L. plantarum were differentially regulated indicating that olive oil can influence the expression of metabolic traits involved in the crosstalk between this bacterium and the host. PMID:28261192

  13. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  14. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  15. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  16. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Robustness of NMR-based metabolomics to generate comparable data sets for olive oil cultivar classification. An inter-laboratory study on Apulian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinonna, Sara; Ragone, Rosa; Stocchero, Matteo; Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful technique in olive oil fingerprinting, but its analytical robustness has to be proved. Here, we report a comparative study between two laboratories on olive oil (1)H NMR fingerprinting, aiming to demonstrate the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in generating comparable data sets for cultivar classification. Sample preparation and data acquisition were performed independently in two laboratories, equipped with different resolution spectrometers (400 and 500 MHz), using two identical sets of mono-varietal olive oils. Partial Least Squares (PLS)-based techniques were applied to compare the data sets produced by the two laboratories. Despite differences in spectrum baseline, and in intensity and shape of peaks, the amount of shared information was significant (almost 70%) and related to cultivar (same metabolites discriminated between cultivars). In conclusion, regardless of the variability due to operator and machine, the data sets from the two participating units were comparable for the purpose of classification.

  18. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders

    2013-01-01

    to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil....... We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf....

  19. The effect of topical olive oil on prevention of bedsore in intensive care units patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Abbas Ali Madadi; Reza Zeighami; Jalil Azimian; Amir Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bedsores are injuries to skin and underlying tissues caused by prolonged pressure. Although, some methods like frequently changing position and using particular tools are used for preventing and caring of pressure ulcers, their prevention would still be as a vital urgency. Olive oil is an herbal product with potential preventive effects to prevent bedsores because of its numerous medical properties. The major aim of this study was to determine whether topical olive oil can prevent...

  20. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  1. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  2. In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fast determination of virgin olive oil phenolic metabolites in human high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ávila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fitó, M; Covas, M I; Muñoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssönen, K; Zunft, H J; López-Sabater, M C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2)  = 0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8 ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3 ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection.

  4. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON DELTA 7 STIGMASTENOL CONTENT OF PALESTINIAN OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad M. Quasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil quality is a term influenced by many factors. Δ7 Stigmastenol is a new criteria used to determine olive oil quality especially its purity from adulteration with other types of seeds oil. Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation were investigated through studying the effect of the literature’s highlighted factors, namely; Olive fly infection, the land topographic and the preservation of olive before pressing. In this study,13 olive samples were collected and analyzed from different areas in Palestine to study the factors that affect Δ7 Stigmastenol in Olive Oil. This study starts on October 2007 and ends on July 2008. The results obtained were very interesting and varied between having positive Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation as in case of infection mode factors and preservation of olive fruit before pressing negative Δ7 Stigmastenol-acidity correlation for other factors as found to the land topographic factors. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlation between acidity and other factors.

  5. Influence of Olive Cultivar on Oil Attributes in the Arid Region of Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Asheri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cultivation has economic and health implications. The quality of harvested oil is affected by the type of cultivar and the climate in which the trees are cultivated. This study was carried out to determine quality indices (peroxide value, K232, and K270, fatty acid composition, and pigment profiles in some cultivars grown in an arid region in central Iran. These are cultivated in completely different climatic conditions than the major olive growing areas of Iran. The results have illustrated that there are significant differences between the cultivars in oil quality, pigments content, and fatty acid composition. Oil quality of all studied cultivars falls within the established ranges for extra virgin olive oil. Oleic acid levels of the ‘Beledy’ and ‘Leccino’ cultivars are below the International Olive Council (IOC established limit. Oils of the ‘Mari’, ‘Koroneiki’, and ‘Mission’ cultivars had the highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content. However, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content for Mission oil was considerably higher than ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Mari’ oils. The ratio of MUFA/PUFA for ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ was higher among all the cultivars studied. Furthermore, these two cultivars presented higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio and lower Cox values. Based on our findings, ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ are among the best performing cultivars for producing olive oil in intensely hot and arid regions.

  6. Myocardial lipids and nucleotides of rats fed olive oil or rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gordon, E

    1976-04-01

    After 1 week, the level of myocardial fatty acids was 4 times greater in young rats fed high erucic rapeseed oil than in those fed oliver oil. The proportion of erucic acid was 5.6% in the mitochondrial fraction, 15.1% in the microsomal fraction, and 34.8% in the floating fat fraction. This incorporation of erucic acid into triglycerides of the floating fat was evidence of esterification. The changes in the mitochondrial lipids did not alter the content of adenine nucleotides of the myocardium nor its apparent capacity to oxidize substrates.

  7. Kinetic study of oil extraction from olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrous, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oil extraction from olive foot cake can be explained by a model based on two stages. The first step corresponds to a simple washing of the oil from the particle surface. In the second step, the extraction is controlled by two mechanisms: slow diffusion from broken cells and very slow diffusion from intact cells.The kinetic coefficients of this mathematical model are calculated using the experimental results obtained from hexane and commercial ethyl alcohol for different particle sizes.La cinética de extracción de aceite de orujo puede ser explicada por un modelo basado en dos etapas. La primera etapa corresponde a un simple lavado del aceite de la superficie de las partículas. En la segunda etapa, la extracción esta controlada por dos mecanismos: difusión lenta desde las células rotas y difusión muy lenta desde las células intactas.Los coeficientes cinéticas de este modelo matemático se calculan usando los resultados experimentales obtenidos con hexano y alcohol etílico comercial para diferentes tamaños de partícula.

  8. Characterization of european virgin olive oils using fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso García, María V.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of discriminating between extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Spain, Italy and Portugal, by means of their fatty acid content, has been investigated. A dendrogram allowed discrimination between the oils starting from their initial grouping and progressing to differentiation on the basis of regions. Multivariant statistical analyses were applied to determine the actual discriminatory capacity of this group of compounds. The confidence associated with the final discrimination was ascertained using the theory of evidence.

    Se ha estudiado la posibilidad de discriminación entre aceites de oliva virgen procedentes de diferentes regiones de España, Italia y Portugal, mediante sus ácidos grasos. Para llevar a cabo la discriminación entre los aceites, desde su agrupación inicial hasta la diferenciación por regiones, se empleó una estructura arborescente. Fueron aplicados procedimientos estadísticos multivariantes para determinar la capacidad discriminante actual de este grupo de compuestos. La certeza asociada a la discriminación final fue calculada mediante la teoría de la evidencia.

  9. Stability of Concentrated Olive Oil-in-water Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Hsiao-Wei; MISRAN Mi-sni

    2008-01-01

    The stability of olive oil-in-water(o/w)emulsion stabilized with sucrose fatty acid ester(SFAE)was evaluated through an accelerated ageing test.The stability of the emulsion in this study was examined by the appearance of any phase separation in the emulsion,mean droplet size and rbeological properties over one month.The effect of accelerated ageing at 45 μ on the emulsion rheological properties was investigated using an amplitude sweep test,a frequency sweep test and a viscometry test.The rheological properties of the emulsion were examined at the one day,one week and one month of storage time.Among the series of emulsions prepared,the emulsion with 2 :8 of water to oil ratio(by weight)is the most stable one,which did not show any of phase separation.The amplitude sweep result shows that there was no significant change of the critical strain of the emulsion throughout one month of storage time.The dynamic properties as well as the steady flow behavior of the emulsion also show no significant changes for over one month of storage time.The mean droplet size of the emulsion remained stable around 2.5 μn within the period of investigation.

  10. Settling of virgin olive oil from horizontal screw solid bowl in static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gila, Abraham M; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Beltrán, Gabriel; Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to study the clarification efficiency of natural decantation in settling tank on virgin olive oil obtained from a two-ways continuous process. For this purpose, the impurities content of the virgin olive oil were monitored during settling process in settling tank at two different depths. Efficiency of purging system was determined for two days. The experiments were performed at industrial scale during three crop years. During the first minutes of settling was observed an ascent of the smaller organic particles of the oil. Then, most of the virgin olive oil impurities were settled at 300 min, independently of the initial content of virgin olive oil. Finally, oil decantation showed slower rate. Higher clarification values were obtained for those decanter oils with higher impurities content, achieving clarification percentages between of 62.69 and 95.91% at 48 h of settling. The highest settling efficiency was observed for those decanter oils with initial higher impurities content. The purging system used in the settling tanks was not able to remove the most of settled impurities since a considerable amount of the impurities remained in the tank after 48 h, between 13.6 and 71.41% for the studied oils. In the tank purges was observed important oil losses. Therefore, decantation was not an efficient system for oil clarification since its settling capacity varied depending on the initial impurities content and due to the settled impurities can not be removed fully by purging system.

  11. Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei

    2017-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.

  12. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  13. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  14. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gamze Guclu; Onur Sevindik; Hasim Kelebek; Serkan Selli

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were iden...

  15. OLIVE OIL PRODUCTION IN A SEMI-ARID AREA: EVIDENCE FROM ROMAN TELL ES-SUKHNAH, JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Olive cultivation and oil pressing can be considered as cultural phenomenon characteriz-ing the Mediterranean area. With special reference to the southern Levant, the culture –history of olive cultivation can be traced back as far as to the Late Neolithic\\ Chalcolithic Pe-riod. Meanwhile, oil pressing began later on, especially during the Bronze Ages and has last-ed until the present time. During the Roman period, olive pressing flourished as indicated by the uncovering of several oil p...

  16. Effect of lycopene-enriched olive and argan oils upon lipid serum parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoud, Aziouz; Ammouche, Ali; Garrido, María; Rodriguez, Ana B

    2014-11-01

    Lycopene has the highest antioxidant activity within carotenoids and is an effective free radical scavenger. Virgin olive oil (VOO) and argan oil (AO) contain trace amounts of a wide variety of phytochemicals which have desirable nutritional properties. The present study intended to assess the effect of various dietary VOO and AO in combination with lycopene consumption on serum biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and phospholipids, as well as on hepatosomatic index (HSI) of rats. Results showed that ingestion of VOO and AO diminished TC, LDL-C, TGs and phospholipid levels, whereas the HDL-C levels augmented in all the groups assayed. The enrichment of VOO and AO with lycopene improved the beneficial effects derived from the consumption of both oils on serum biochemical parameters. A decrease in body weight gain and HSI was detected after the consumption of lycopene-enriched oils. These findings suggest that the inclusion of lycopene in VOO and AO may be used as a natural tool to fight against hyperlipidaemic and hypercholesterolaemic-derived disorders. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Traceability of PDO Olive Oil “Terra di Bari” Using High Resolution Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Montemurro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to verify the applicability of microsatellite (SSR markers in High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis for the identification of the olive cultivars used in the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil. A panel of nine cultivars, widespread in Apulia region, was tested with seventeen SSR primer pairs and the PCR products were at first analysed with a Genetic Analyzer automatic sequencer. An identification key was obtained for the nine cultivars, which showed an unambiguous discrimination among the varieties constituting the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil: Cima di Bitonto, Coratina, and Ogliarola. Subsequently, an SSR based method was set up with the DCA18 marker, coupled with HRM analysis for the distinction of the Terra di Bari olive oil from non-Terra di Bari olive oil using different mixtures. Thus, this analysis enabled the distinction and identification of the PDO mixtures. Hence, this assay provided a flexible, cost-effective, and closed-tube microsatellite genotyping method, well suited to varietal identification and authentication analysis in olive oil.

  18. Effects of some oil-born yeasts on the sensory characteristics of Italian virgin olive oil during its storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2013-10-01

    The olive oil microbiota, mainly composed of yeasts, is associated with the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oils. Some olive oil yeasts are considered useful as they are able to hydrolyse the bitter tasting secoiridoid compound of the oil, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil. Present research demonstrated the influence of some yeast strains belonging to Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Candida wickerhamii species on the olive oil sensory characteristics during its storage. All the tested yeasts survived in the inoculated extra virgin olive oil and, after four months of storage, the suspended yeast cells recovered from the olive oil varied between 50% and 80% of the initial total yeasts, according to their sedimentation capacity. The mean of five analytical indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K232, K270 and ΔK) were quite similar and about 60% of the treated samples analysed after four months of storage, on the basis of these indices, were still classed as extra virgin. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds according to the yeast used. In the samples of oil treated with C. adriatica and C. wickerhamii, instead of some strains of C. diddensiae, a lower concentration of C6 volatile carbonyl compounds and polyphenols, responsible for positive oil attributes, were found. The sensory attributes of the treated olive oils varied according to the composition of the volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds produced with the treatments. "Muddy-sediment", "rancid" or both defects were found in olive oil samples treated with C. adriatica DAPES 1933, C. wickerhamii DAPES 1885 and C. diddensiae DAPES 1912 and 1913 strains, whereas olive oil samples treated with C. diddensiae DAPES 1918 and 1922 after four months of storage were defect-free, and still categorized as extra virgin, according to the requirements of both chemical

  19. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and hydrogen to distinguish olive oil from shark squalene-squalane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Piangiolino, Cristiana; Morchio, Gianni

    2010-06-30

    Squalene and its hydrogenated derivate squalane are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. The two compounds are mainly produced from the liver oil of deep sea sharks and from olive oil distillates. Squalene and squalane from shark cost less than the same compounds derived from olive oil, and the use of these shark-derived compounds is unethical in cosmetic formulations. In this work we investigate whether (13)C/(12)C and (2)H/(1)H ratios can distinguish olive oil from shark squalene/squalane and can detect the presence of shark derivates in olive oil based products. The (13)C/(12)C ratios (expressed as delta(13)C values) of bulk samples and of pure compounds measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were significantly lower in authentic olive oil squalene/squalane (N: 13; -28.4 +/- 0.5 per thousand; -28.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand) than in shark squalene/squalane samples (N: 15; -20.5 +/- 0.7 per thousand; -20.4 +/- 0.6 per thousand). By defining delta(13)C threshold values of -27.4 per thousand and -26.6 per thousand for olive oil bulk and pure squalene/squalane, respectively, illegal addition of shark products can be identified starting from a minimum of 10%. (2)H/(1)H analysis is not useful for distinguishing the two different origins. Delta(13)C analysis is proposed as a suitable tool for detecting the authenticity of commercial olive oil squalene and squalane samples, using IRMS interfaced to an elemental analyser if the purity is higher than 80% and IRMS interfaced to a gas chromatography/combustion system for samples with lower purity, including solutions of squalane extracted from cosmetic products.

  20. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M

    2012-05-01

    Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.

  1. Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Katiucha KHR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group: (C receiving standard-chow; (Ob receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob groups were divided into four subgroups (n = 6/group:(C standard-chow and saline; (C-Olivestandard-chow and olive-oil (3.0 g/kg.day; (C-Oleuropeinstandard-chow and oleuropein (0.023 mg/kg/day; (C-Cafeic standard-chow and cafeic-acid (2.66 mg/kg/day; (Obreceiving hypercaloric-chow and saline;(Ob-Olive hypercaloric-chow and olive-oil;(Ob-Oleuropein hypercaloric-chow and oleuropein;(Ob-Cafeic hypercaloric-chow and cafeic-acid. Treatments were given twice a week during 21 days. Results After 42 days, obesity was evidenced in Ob rats from enhanced body-weight, surface-area, and body-mass-index. Energy-expenditure, oxygen consumption(VO2 and fat-oxidation were lower in Ob-group than in C. Despite no morphometric changes, Ob-Olive, Ob-Oleuropein and Ob-Cafeic groups had higher VO2, fat-oxidation, myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and lower respiratory-quotient than Ob. Citrate-synthase was highest in Ob-Olive group. Myocardial lipid-hydroperoxide(LH and antioxidant enzymes were unaffected by olive-oil and its compounds in obesity condition, whereas LH was lower and total-antioxidant-substances were higher in C-Olive and C-Oleuropein than in C. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions.

  2. HPLC-UV Polyphenolic Profiles in the Classification of Olive Oils and Other Vegetable Oils via Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Farrés-Cebrián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV was applied to the analysis and characterization of olive oils and other vegetable oils. A chromatographic separation on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column was proposed under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase, for the determination of 14 polyphenols and phenolic acids, allowing us to obtain compositional profiles in less than 20 min. Acceptable sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD values down to 80 µg/L in the best of cases, linearity (r2 higher than 0.986, good run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 11.5%, and method trueness (relative errors lower than 6.8% were obtained. The proposed HPLC-UV method was then applied to the analysis of 72 oil samples (47 olive oils and 27 vegetable oils including sunflower, soy, corn, and mixtures of them. Analytes were recovered using a liquid–liquid extraction method employing ethanol:water 70:30 (v/v solution and hexane as extracting and defatting solvents, respectively. HPLC-UV polyphenolic profiles using peak areas were then analysed by principal component analysis (PCA to extract information from the most significant data contributing to the characterization and classification of olive oils against other vegetable oils, as well as among Arbequina and Picual olive oil varieties. PCA results showed a noticeable difference between olive oils and the other classes. In addition, a reasonable discrimination of olive oils as a function of fruit varieties was also encountered.

  3. Can rapeseed oil replace olive oil as part of a Mediterranean-style diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2014-12-14

    The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of olive oil in the hippocampus CA1 neurons following ischemia: Reperfusion in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1. Oxidative Stress is considered to be involved in a number of human diseases including ischemia. Preliminary studies confirmed reduction of cell death in brain following treatment with antioxidants. Aim: According to this finding, we study the relationship between consumption of olive oil on cell death and memory disorder in brain ischemia. We studied the protective effect of olive oil against ischemia-reperfusion. Material and Methods: Experimental design includes three groups: Intact (n = 8, ischemic control (n = 8 and treatment groups with olive oil (n = 8. The mice treated with olive oil as pre-treatment for a week. Then, ischemia induced by common carotid artery ligation and following the reduction of inflammation [a week after ischemia], the mice post-treated with olive oil. Nissl staining applied for counting necrotic cells in hippocampus CA1. Tunnel kit was used to quantify apoptotic cell death while to short term memory scale, we apply y-maze and shuttle box tests and for detection the rate of apoptotic and treated cell, we used western blotting test for bax and bcl2 proteins. Results: High rate of apoptosis was seen in ischemic group that significantly associated with short-term memory loss. Cell death was significantly lower when mice treated with olive oil. The memory test results were adjusted with cell death results and bax and bcl2 expression in all groups′ comparison. Ischemia for 15 min induced cell death in hippocampus with more potent effect on CA1. Conclusion: Olive oil intake significantly reduced cell death and decreased memory loss.

  5. Non-thermal plasma as preparative technique to evaluate olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples.

  6. Olive oil and health: summary of the II international conference on olive oil and health consensus report, Jaén and Córdoba (Spain) 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Miranda, J; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Ros, E

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil (OO) is the most representative food of the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). Increasing evidence suggests that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as a nutrient, OO as a food, and the MedDiet as a food pattern are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity...

  7. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:27258251

  8. Nutraceutical Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols. An Itinerary from Cultured Cells through Animal Models to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo

    2016-05-31

    The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.

  9. Characterization of Three Portuguese Varietal Olive Oils Based on Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols, Phytosterols and Vitamin E Profiles: Application of Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; Mafra, I; M.B.P.P. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, olive oil production is considered an ancient activity, where old olive groves can still be observed. In the last few years monovarietal groves seem to be increasing, though some disadvantages, such as the susceptibility to insects and diseases, can result from the growth of individual olive varieties (Aguilera et al., 2005). In some typical producer countries, the olive cultivation is being improved by renewing old trees, reducing the association with other ...

  10. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  12. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  13. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  14. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  15. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  16. Oil extraction from olive foot cake with acidic hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieciak, S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of acidic hexane as a solvent increases the extracted oil yield from olive foot cake. Two extraction procedures are studied: open air extraction at room temperature and Soxhlet exhaustive extraction. The additional yield is about 5% for a 2.5% acetic acid content in case of open air extraction and turns out to be 9% for 7.5% acetic acid content in the Soxhlet procedure. An analysis of the extracted oil shows a light increase of the acidity of oil. The improved yield may be attributed to the action of acetic acid on the decomposition of intercellular structures and binding of some polar lipids. The phospholipids content of oil extracted with 7.5% acidic hexane is found to be 25 times more than with pure hexane.

    El uso de hexano ácido como disolvente aumenta el rendimiento de aceite extraído de orujo de aceituna. Se han estudiado dos procedimientos de extracción: extracción al aire libre a temperatura ambiente y extracción exhaustiva en Soxhlet. En el caso de extracción al aire libre el rendimiento adicional es alrededor del 5% para un contenido del 2'5% en ácido acético y llega a ser en el procedimiento en Soxhlet del 9% para un contenido en ácido acético del 7'5%. Un análisis del aceite extraído mostró un ligero aumento de la acidez del aceite. La mejora del rendimiento puede ser atribuida a la acción del ácido acético sobre la descomposición de estructuras intercelulares y uniones de lípidos polares. Se ha encontrado que el contenido en fosfolípidos del aceite extraído con el 7*5% de hexano ácido es 25 veces mayor que con hexano puro.

  17. Analytical approaches for the characterization and identification of olive (Olea europaea) oil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-10-30

    Proteins in olive oil have been scarcely investigated probably due to the difficulty of working with such a lipidic matrix and the dramatically low abundance of proteins in this biological material. Additionally, this scarce information has generated contradictory results, thus requiring further investigations. This work treats this subject from a comprehensive point of view and proposes the use of different analytical approaches to delve into the characterization and identification of proteins in olive oil. Different extraction methodologies, including capture via combinational hexapeptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), were tried. A sequence of methodologies, starting with off-gel isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) column, was applied to profile proteins from olive seed, pulp, and oil. Besides this, and for the first time, a tentative identification of oil proteins by mass spectrometry has been attempted.

  18. Identification of olive oil sensory defects by multivariate analysis of mid infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Calvo, Angels

    2015-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000-600 cm(-1)) of olive oils were analyzed using chemometric methods to identify the four main sensorial defects, musty, winey, fusty and rancid, previously evaluated by an expert sensory panel. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish between extra-virgin olive oils (defect absent) and lower quality olive oils (defect present). The most important spectral ranges responsible for the discrimination were identified. PLS-DA models were able to discriminate between defective and high quality oils with predictive abilities around 87% for the musty defect and around 77% for winey, fusty and rancid defects. This methodology advances instrumental determination of results previously only achievable with a human test panel.

  19. Authentication of virgin olive oil by a novel curve resolution approach combined with visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F; Álvarez, José A; Ruiz, Antonio; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Adulteration of olive oil is not only a major economic fraud but can also have major health implications for consumers. In this study, a combination of visible spectroscopy with a novel multivariate curve resolution method (CR), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is proposed for the authentication of virgin olive oil (VOO) samples. VOOs are well-known products with the typical properties of a two-component system due to the two main groups of compounds that contribute to the visible spectra (chlorophylls and carotenoids). Application of the proposed CR method to VOO samples provided the two pure-component spectra for the aforementioned families of compounds. A correlation study of the real spectra and the resolved component spectra was carried out for different types of oil samples (n=118). LDA using the correlation coefficients as variables to discriminate samples allowed the authentication of 95% of virgin olive oil samples.

  20. Stepwise Isothermal Fast Pyrolysis (SIFP of Biomass. Part III. SIFP of Olive Oil Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of olive oil industry wastes was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of a succession of isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions in which the solid products obtained from the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis reaction become the substrates for subsequent reactions at higher temperatures. This article reports the results obtained from the SIFP of olive oil residue carried out between the temperatures of 300 and 500 °C using 100 °C intervals under reduced pressure (200 mm Hg. The maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300 °C and consisted of around 35% bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols, furans, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. At 400 and 500 °C, FAME, which is derived from residual olive oil, was the major product.

  1. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and neural networks to olive oils analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Jorge O; Moncayo, Samuel; Rosales, Juan D; de Villena, Francisco Javier Manuel; Alvira, Fernando C; Bilmes, Gabriel M

    2013-09-01

    The adulteration and traceability of olive oils are serious problems in the olive oil industry. In this work, a method based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and neural networks (NNs) has been developed and applied to the identification, quality control, traceability, and adulteration detection of extra virgin olive oils. Instant identification of the samples is achieved using a spectral library, which was obtained by analysis of representative samples using a single laser pulse and treatment by NNs. The samples used in this study belong to four countries. The study also included different regions of each country. The results obtained allow the identification of the oils tested with a certainty of more than 95%. Single-shot measurements were enough for clear identification of the samples. The method can be developed for automatic real-time, fast, reliable, and robust measurements, and the system can be packed into portable form for non-specialist users.

  2. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted.

  3. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  4. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  5. A rapid screening for adulterants in olive oil using DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A distinctive methodology is developed to trace out the mixing into olive oil, which is marketed every year with 20% or more fraudulent oils. Such adulteration has been difficult to differentiate using fatty acid analysis and other available current techniques, as chemically fatty acids are the same...

  6. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  7. Protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamou, Fouzia; Nemmiche, Saïd; Meziane, Radjaa Kaouthar; Didi, Amal; Yazit, Sidi Mohamed; Chabane-Sari, Daoudi

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants. It is accumulated particularly in liver and kidney. The present study examined the possible protective effect of olive oil and colocynth oil consumption against Cd-induced damage on plasma lipids and stress biochemical parameters of rats. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each and treated orally with Cd (50 mg/l), olive oil and colocynth oil (4%) alone or in combination with cadmium for 8 weeks. It was shown that Cd exposure induced significant increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lipid peroxidation levels (MDA) and protein carbonyl contents in exposed groups of rats compared to control group while the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and vitamins (C, A and E) were significantly decreased. Co-treatment with olive oil or colocynth oil significantly improved the oxidative damage induced by Cd. The antioxidant potential in plasma and liver were markedly restored with a significant decline in MDA levels and activity of transaminases. In conclusion, these results suggest that olive oil or colocynth oil consumption could protect the rat liver against Cd-induced injury by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing oxidative stress.

  8. Influence of Olive Cultivar on Oil Attributes in the Arid Region of Qom, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maisa Asheri; Mohammad Mehdi Sharifani; Ahad Yamchi; Ghaffar Kiani; Maziar Ahmadi Golsefidi; Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani

    2016-01-01

    Olive cultivation has economic and health implications. The quality of harvested oil is affected by the type of cultivar and the climate in which the trees are cultivated. This study was carried out to determine quality indices (peroxide value, K232, and K270), fatty acid composition, and pigment profiles in some cultivars grown in an arid region in central Iran. These are cultivated in completely different climatic conditions than the major olive growing areas of Iran. The results hav...

  9. Experimental and theoretical determination of pesticide processing factors to model their behavior during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Moreno-González, David; Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was the experimental evaluation of pesticides transfer to virgin olive oil during the production step and prediction of their processing factors, which could be eventually used for the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in olive oil from the MRLs set in olives. A laboratory-scale Abencor system was used for the production of olive oil from olives spiked with the 104 pesticides studied, three different chromatographic methods being used for the analysis of raw olives and the obtained olive oil: (i) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for GC-amenable pesticides; (ii) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) for polar pesticides, and; (iii) reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for low to medium polarity pesticides. Processing factors experimentally calculated were correlated to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (logKow), enabling the calculation of the equivalent MRLs in olive oil from the MRLs in olives, considering the percentage of oil extracted (oil yield) and the log Kow of each pesticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Moufida Aggoun; Rabah Arhab; Nassima Leulm; Malika Barkat

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW) are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to...

  11. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity stability of phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oils during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnella, Caterina; Minichino, Patrizia; D'Andrea, Anna Maria; Monteleone, Erminio

    2007-10-17

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenols from 10 extra-virgin olive oil samples was assessed. Extra-virgin olive oil phenols were totally extracted in the aqueous phase, which reproduces gastric fluids during the digestion procedure. A linear bioaccessibility model, based on tyrosol behavior in model oil samples, was used to estimate the bioaccessibility index (BI%) of extra-virgin olive oil phenols. The BI% varied amongst samples from a maximum of 90% to a minimum of 37%, thus indicating that only a fraction of phenols can be considered bioaccessible. The specific antioxidant activity of olive oil phenols proved to be negatively affected by the digestion procedure. By computing a principal component analysis, it was possible to show that differences in the potential bioactive effect of extra-virgin olive oil samples were related to different phenolic profiles.

  12. Modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by olive oil and its phenols in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Paola; Cavallo, Alessandro; Gnoni, Antonio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Siculella, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in western countries, being considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Cumulative lines of evidence suggest that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed health benefits on NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of the knowledge on the protective role of both major and minor components of olive oil on lipid metabolism during NAFLD. In particular, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed, taking into account that several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models fed on olive oil-enriched diet. In addition, new findings that highlight the hypolipidemic and the antisteatotic actions of olive oil phenols are presented. As mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the targeting of these organelles with olive oil phenols as a powerful therapeutic approach is also discussed.

  13. Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema; Martínez, Lorena; Castillo, Julian; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Olive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g(-1) walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g(-1) ) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out. The sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT2 and HXT3 ) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion. These results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Bioavailability of tyrosol, an antioxidant phenolic compound present in wine and olive oil, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, M I; Miró-Casas, E; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Gimeno, E; Marrugat, J; De La Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosol is a phenolic compound present in two of the traditional components of the Mediterranean diet: wine and virgin olive oil. The presence of tyrosol has been described in red and white wines. Tyrosol is also present in vermouth and beer. Tyrosol has been shown to be able to exert antioxidant activity in in vitro studies. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to occur predominantly in arterial intima in microdomains sequestered from antioxidants of plasma. The antioxidant content of the LDL particle is critical for its protection. Thus, phenolics, which are able to bind LDL, could be effective in preventing lipid peroxidation and atherosclerotic processes. The ability of tyrosol to bind human LDL has been reported. We have demonstrated the bioavailability of tyrosol in humans from virgin olive oil in its natural form. Urinary tyrosol increased, reaching a peak at 0-4 h after virgin olive oil administration. Men and women showed a different pattern of urinary excretion of tyrosol. Moreover, tyrosol is absorbed in a dose-dependent manner after sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil. In summary, our results suggest that tyrosol from wine or virgin olive oil could exert beneficial effects on human health in vivo if its biological properties are confirmed in in vivo studies.

  15. Influence of yeasts on the oil quality indexes of table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    After moisture, fat is the major constituent of table olives. However, scarce studies have been carried out to determine the influence of microorganisms and type of processing on the modification of their quality indexes. The present survey studies the influence of lipolytic (Candida boidinii TOMC Y5 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus TOMC Y10) and nonlipolytic (Debaryomyces etchellsii TOMC Y9 and Pichia galeiformis TOMC Y27) yeasts on the oil quality indexes of Manzanilla and Hojiblanca green fruits processed as directly brined and lye-treated table olives. Overall, the inocula scarcely used available sugars, except the lipolytic C. boidinii strain in lye-treated olives. Acetic acid production was limited in all conditions, except for the D. etchellsii strain in directly brined Manzanilla fruits. Ethanol formation was also reduced, although the W. anomalus (in both types of elaboration) and the C. boidinii (in lye-treated olives) strains produced significantly higher proportions. Apparently, changes in the oil quality indexes of processed olives were not related to the presence of yeasts, and hence, could have been caused by the endogenous activity of the fruits. A principal component analysis using the microbiological, physicochemical, and oil quality data supported this hypothesis, grouping treatments according to olive variety and type of elaboration, while segregation due to yeast inocula was not observed.

  16. Phenolic Profiling of Olives and Olive Oil Process-Derived Matrices Using UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-HRMS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klen, Tina Jerman; Wondra, Alenka Golc; Vrhovšek, Urška; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-04-22

    All of the matrices entailed in olive oil processing were screened for the presence of known and new phenol constituents in a single study, combining an ultra high pressure liquid chromatography system with diode array and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-HRMS) detection. Their trail was followed from the fruit (peel/pulp and stone) to the paste and final products, i.e. pomace, wastewater, and oil, providing important insight into the origin, disappearance, and evolution of each during the operational steps. Eighty different phenols, composed of fruit native representatives and their technologically formed and/or released derivatives, were detected in six olive matrices and fully characterized on the basis of HRMS and UV-vis spectroscopic data. In addition to phenols already known in olive matrices, four new molecular formulas were proposed and three new tentative identities assigned to newly discovered phenols, i.e., β-methyl-OH-verbascoside, methoxynüzhenide, and methoxynüzhenide 11-methyl oleoside.

  17. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  18. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  19. Influence of the nocturnal harvesting of olives from Salento (Italy on the quality of the extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Serio, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy, some olive cultivars such as ‘Ogliarola Salentina’ ripen when the day temperature is still high, at up to 28 to 30 °C. This can affect both the oil quality and the expression of its valuable characteristics. In addition, it increases the risk of undesirable fermentation that can generate off-flavors. In the present study, nocturnal olive harvesting was carried out to determine the influence that temperature can have on the characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil, and particularly on the volatile and oxidative compounds. The data obtained are encouraging: the lower temperatures that occur during the night appear to have a particular and positive impact on the organoleptic characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil produced, with enhanced formation of the volatile compounds that contribute to the ‘green’ notes of the flavor. In areas where daytime temperatures are very high, the nocturnal harvesting of olives at the correct stage of maturity therefore represents a good agronomic practice for the production of oils with high organoleptic and nutritional merit.En el sur de Italia, algunas variedades de olivo maduran cuando la temperatura del día sigue siendo alta, hasta 28 °C a 30 °C. Esto puede perjudicar la calidad del aceite y a la expresión de sus valiosas características, y aumenta el riesgo de fermentación indeseable que puede generar malos sabores. En el presente estudio, la cosecha nocturna de aceitunas se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia que la temperatura puede tener sobre las características del aceite de oliva virgen extra, y en particular sobre los compuestos volátiles y los compuestos relacionados con la oxidación. Los datos obtenidos son alentadores: las temperaturas más bajas que se producen durante la noche parecen tener un impacto positivo en las características organolépticas del aceite de oliva virgen extra producido, con una mejora de la formación de los compuestos vol

  20. Variability of 4-Monomethylsterols and 4,4'-Dimethylsterols in Olive Oil and Their Use as Indicators of Olive Variety, Ripening Degree, and Oil Storage Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Marina; Lukić, Igor; Sladonja, Barbara; Piližota, Vlasta

    2015-06-10

    To investigate the variability of 4-monomethylsterols and 4,4'-dimethylsterols in olive oil as a result of variety, ripening, and storage temperature, 36 samples were subjected to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), and results were processed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Relative amounts (percent) of β-amyrin, cycloartenol, and 24-methylenecycloartanol accounted for the most variation due to variety, while citrostadienol (percent) and 24-methylenecycloartanol (milligrams per 100 g) were strongly affected by ripening. Multivariate statistics differentiated olive oils regardless of storage conditions, which implied the possibility to use 4-monomethyl- and 4,4'-dimethylsterols as indicators of variety and ripening degree for fresh and stored oils. Absolute changes in 4-monomethyl- and 4,4'-dimethylsterols after storage were of a much smaller magnitude, meaning the investigated olive oils essentially retained health-beneficial features that derive from these compounds. Relative changes caused by storage were specific for each storage temperature and were useful in discriminating oils by linear discriminant analysis.

  1. Oil quality parameters and quantitative measurement of major secoiridoid derivatives in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins using qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mansour, Amir; Gargouri, Boutheina; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil contains compounds with interesting biological activities which are influenced by the cultivar, the geographic origin and other factors. The aims of this work were to (1) investigate these factors in Neb Jmel olive oil from various Tunisian origins; (2) determine the influence of geographic conditions on phenolic composition of Neb Jmel olive oil and consequently on the antioxidant compounds; and (3) verify whether oils could be discriminated based on geographical origin. The characterisation of extra-virgin Neb Jmel olive oil produced in its original location has been conducted. Owing to the effect of the genotype and environmental, agronomic and technological factors on the chemical composition of olive oil and its quality, all studied olives were collected at the same season, and their oil obtained under the same processing technique. Many analyses were carried out to characterise the different olive oils: free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, Rancimat assay, pigments content and phenolic compounds by (1) H NMR. A recently developed method for the direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1) H NMR was applied. The method was applied to the study of four Neb Jmel olive oils samples, and a broad variation of concentrations of all four secoiridoids was recorded. The concentration of each ranged from 55 to 529 mg kg(-1) and the sum of the four major secoiridoids (known as D3) ranged from 436 to 1063 mg kg(-1) . The quantification of major phenolic compounds of olive oil by NMR indicated that environmental conditions influence the production of qualitative phenolic fractions. All these compounds can be used as base 'markers' to characterise and differentiate these olive oil on geographic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  3. β-cyclodextrin and caffeine complexes with natural polyphenols from olive and olive oils: NMR, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescifina, Antonio; Chiacchio, Ugo; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Romeo, Giovanni

    2010-11-24

    Complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and caffeine (Caf) with biophenols present in olive and olive oil (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and thermodynamical-molecular dynamic studies to verify the formation of supermolecular aggregates. The obtained results indicated that the investigated biophenols form inclusion complexes with β-CD in a molar ratio of 1:1 in aqueous solution having binding constant values from 10- to 40-fold bigger than those of the corresponding complexes with Caf. Then, β-CD preferentially encloses the biophenol molecule, decreasing its bitter taste and, at the same time, preserving it against chemical and physical decomposition reactions that occur during storage.

  4. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio.

  5. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  6. Olive oil production and soil and water conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Union spent about two billion ECU per year on subsidies for the olive oil sector, of which Spain received about 35%. For the rainfed areas in southern Spain the olive oil sector is crucial, and so are these subsidies. The European Commission has formulated two options to change the

  7. Olive oil production and soil and water conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de J.; Eppink, L.A.A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The European Union spent about two billion ECU per year on subsidies for the olive oil sector, of which Spain received about 35%. For the rainfed areas in southern Spain the olive oil sector is crucial, and so are these subsidies. The European Commission has formulated two options to change the subs

  8. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University Hos

  9. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  10. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  11. Oil accumulation kinetic along ripening in four olive cultivars varying for fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether oil accumulation pattern is parallel to drupe olive (Olea europaea L growth and if common climatic parameters may influence oil content we conducted an experiment in rainfed orchards with four olive cultivars, Amygdalolia, Arbequina, Lucques, and Olivière, differing by fruit size at maturity. Fruits were harvested weekly from July to November. They were counted and weighted before being crushed. Fat content was determined on dry matter using a Minispec RMN. Common climatic parameters were recorded. Variance analyses showed stage effects highly significant. Results showed three different patterns for fruit growth. Dry matter accumulated broadly similarly and the weekly rates were positively correlated with fruit size. Oil accumulation is mostly independent of climatic variation and probably depends on genetic programmes for each cultivar. We defined the main steps and events for olive fruit ripening according to recent knowledge on fruit development.

  12. Cultivation and bioactivity assessment of Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies on olive oil press cakes substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Andrej; Svagelj, Mirjan; Berovic, Marin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong; Pohleven, Franc; Klinar, Dusan

    2009-11-30

    Grifola frondosa, a medicinal and edible mushroom, was cultivated on substrates composed of olive oil press cakes with different supplements. Crude extracts were prepared from mature fruiting bodies and tested for their capacity to stimulate splenocyte proliferation. Two wild-growing fruiting bodies were extracted for comparison. Olive oil press cakes reduced the mushroom yield, and the best biological efficiency was obtained on substrates supplemented with wheat bran and without olive oil press cakes. All extracts were capable of inducing splenocyte proliferation and were half as effective as the positive control (6.0 microg/mL phytohaemagglutinin). No correlation between substrate composition and bioactivity could be established. Extracts from wild-growing G. frondosa were superior to cultivated ones in respect to biological activity.

  13. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  14. Assay of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol in olive oil by tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Di Donna, Leonardo; Maiuolo, Loredana; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the strong antioxidant present in large amount in virgin olive oil have been assayed by LC-MS/MS under MRM condition and isotope dilution method, using d(2)-labelled internal standards obtained by simple synthetic procedures. The assay has been performed under MRM condition monitoring two transitions for each analyte to improve the specificity. This paper deals with a modern approach for assaying the content of this polyphenols in virgin olive oil down to a limit of a few hundreds of parts per billion. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol ranged from 10 to 47ppm and from 5 to 25ppm in commercial olive oil, respectively. The accuracy (98-107%) and analytical parameters values confirm the reliability of the proposed approach. The method can be extended to any natural matrices, including mill wastes, after a simple step of sample preparation.

  15. Modeling of oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellag, Hocine

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influences of the factors, which can have effect on oil extraction from olive foot cake using hexane, are studied. From the experimental results, a mathematical model for calculation of the extraction yield is proposed. The statistical tests used to obtain this model show that the yield does not depend on the granulometry and the stirring rate, but depends on the temperature, the contact time and the liquid-solid ratio (L/S. Also, it depends on interactions between time and temperature and interactions between time and L/S. The comparison of the results given by the experiment and the model allows us to say that the model is satisfactory.En este artículo se estudia la influencia de los factores que pueden tener efecto en la extracción del aceite de orujo usando hexano. Se propone a partir de los resultados experimentales, un modelo matemático para el cálculo del rendimiento de la extracción. Los tests estadísticos utilizados para obtener este modelo mostraron que el rendimiento no depende de la granulometría ni de la velocidad de agitación, pero si depende de la temperatura, del tiempo de contacto y de la relación líquido-sólido (L/S. También depende de las interacciones entre el tiempo y la temperatura y entre el tiempo y la relación L/S. La comparación entre los resultados experimentales y el modelo nos permite decir que dicho modelo es satisfactorio.

  16. Analysis of free hydroxytyrosol in human plasma following the administration of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Antoni; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Olesti, Eulàlia; Pujadas, Mitona; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; Solá, Rosa; Motilva, María-José; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-03-11

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) from olive oil, a potent bioactive molecule with health benefits, has a poor bioavailability, its free form (free HT) being undetectable so far. This fact leads to the controversy whether attained HT concentrations after olive oil polyphenol ingestion are too low to explain the observed biological activities. Due to this, an analytical methodology to determine free HT in plasma is crucial for understanding HT biological activity. Plasma HT instability and low concentrations have been major limitations for its quantification in clinical studies. Here, we describe a method to detect and quantify free HT in human plasma by using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The method encompasses different steps of sample preparation including plasma stabilization, protein precipitation, selective derivatization with benzylamine, and purification by solid-phase extraction. A high sensitivity (LOD, 0.3ng/mL), specificity and stability of HT is achieved following these procedures. The method was validated and its applicability was demonstrated by analyzing human plasma samples after olive oil intake. A pharmacokinetic comparison was performed measuring free HT plasma concentrations following the intake of 25mL of ordinary olive oil (nearly undetectable concentrations) versus an extra-virgin olive oil (Cmax=4.40ng/mL). To our knowledge, this is the first time that an analytical procedure for quantifying free HT in plasma after olive oil dietary doses has been reported. The present methodology opens the door to a better understanding of the relationship between HT plasma concentrations and its beneficial health effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of malaxation conditions on phenol and volatile profiles in olive paste and the corresponding virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Salvador, M Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2009-05-13

    Malaxation of olive paste must be considered to be much more than a simple physical separation, because a complex bioprocess takes place that is very relevant to the quality and composition of the final product. A combined study of the effect of kneading temperature and time on the minor composition of olive paste and its corresponding virgin olive oil, processed in an experimental oil mill (Pieralisi, Fattoria) with a working capacity of 200 kg/h, is reported. A large drop in the oleuropein content in the olive paste with respect to its initial content in the olive fruit (between 92 and 96%) was observed, which suggested its almost total degradation during the crushing operation. The major phenolic compound found in the olive paste during kneading was the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA, always higher than 60% of the total phenols). This greatly decreased during malaxation (from 5505 to 2317 mg/kg, on average). The content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil was much more affected by the malaxation temperature than the kneading time. For instance, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content increased by 220-630% in the two batches when the temperature was increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. A reduction in the C6 aldehydes was found in virgin olive oil as the malaxation temperature increased, especially in E-2-hexenal (30% reduction). In contrast, C6 aldehydes in the oils from the oil mill plant significantly increased as the malaxation time increased from 30 to 90 min, chiefly E-2-hexenal (about a 70% increase).

  18. Determination of volatile compounds by GC-IMS to assign the quality of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, María del Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    The characterisation of different olive oil categories (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was improved by replacing the multicapillary column (MCC) with a capillary column (CC). The data obtained with MCC-IMS and CC-IMS were evaluated, studying both the global and the specific information obtained after the analysis of the volatile fraction of olive oils. A better differentiation of the oil categories was obtained employing CC vs MCC, since the classification percentage obtained with the CC-IMS was 92% as opposed to 87% obtained with MCC-IMS; although in productivity analytical terms, MCC offer a faster analysis than GC. The specific information obtained was also used to build a database, with a view to facilitating the characterization of specific attributes of olive oils. A total of 26 volatile metabolites (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and esters) were identified. Finally, as revealed by an ANOVA test, some volatiles differed markedly in content among the different categories of oil. The data obtained confirms the potential of IMS as a reliable analytical screening technique, which can be used to assign the correct category to an olive oil sample.

  19. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  20. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  1. Comparison of the concentrations of phenolic compounds in olive oils and other plant oils: correlation with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; de Castro, Antonio; Romero, Concepcion; Brenes, Manuel

    2006-07-12

    The antimicrobial activity of different edible vegetable oils was studied. In vitro results revealed that the oils from olive fruits had a strong bactericidal action against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, this effect being higher in general against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, olive oils showed bactericidal activity not only against harmful bacteria of the intestinal microbiota (Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli) also against beneficial microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Otherwise, most of the foodborne pathogens tested (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia sp., and Shigella sonnei) did not survive after 1 h of contact with olive oils. The dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein and ligstroside aglycons, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were the phenolic compounds that statistically correlated with bacterial survival. These findings were confirmed by testing each individual phenolic compound, isolated by HPLC, against L. monocytogenes. In particular, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed a potent antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that not all oils classified as "olive oil" had similar bactericidal effects and that this bioactivity depended on their content of certain phenolic compounds.

  2. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  3. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekiari, S. A.; Oreopoulou, V.; Kourkaoutas, Y.; Kamoun, N.; Msallem, M.; Psimouli, V.; Arapoglou, D.

    2010-07-01

    Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rhytmaton in the Greek island of Crete named Throumbolia, and Koroneiki. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30 degree centigrade. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of {beta}-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation. (Author) 41 refs.

  4. Modulation of Nrf2 by Olive Oil and Wine Polyphenols and Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Martínez-Huélamo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with improved cognitive function and a lower prevalence of mild cognitive impairment. Olive oil and red wine are rich sources of polyphenols which are responsible in part for the beneficial effects on cognitive functioning. Polyphenols induce endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms by modulating transcription factors such as the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. This review discusses the scientific data supporting the modulating effect of olive oil and red wine polyphenols on Nrf2 expression, and the potential health benefits associated with cognitive functioning.

  5. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  6. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  7. Edible olive pomace oil concentrated in triterpenic acids, procedure of physical refining utilised for obtainment thereof and recovery of functional components present in the crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Méndez, Mª Victoria; Dobarganes, M. Carmen; Sánchez Moral, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Procedure of refining crude olive pomace oil obtained through centrifuging or decantation of the pomace, comprising the stage of filtration of the starting crude olive pomace oil carried out through filters having a pore size comprised in the interval from 0.1 to 20 microns and at a temperature below 70 C, preferentially between 35 and 45 C.

  8. Lipase production by Yarrowia lipolytica using olive oil processing wastes as substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moftah Omar A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study solid and liquid wastes from the olive oil processing industry were evaluated as substrates for Yarrowia lipolytica growth with the aim of lipase production. Olive mill wastewater and olive oil cake seemed to provide necessary nutrients and physical support for the yeast to grow and produce enzyme. The highest lipolytic activity of 850 IU dm-3 was achieved after 4 days of submerged cultivation in supplemented olive mill wastewater. In addition, olive oil cake appeared to be a convenient substrate for lipase production under solid state fermentation mode. Lipase production was further improved by media supplementation and/or change in physical settings of the experiment. However, the most significant improvement of lipase production under solid state fermentation was achieved by an alkaline treatment of the substrate (more than 10-fold when the amount of produced lipase reached up to ~40 IU g-1 of substrate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. E!6750 i br. III 46010

  9. OLIVE PASTE CONSISTENCY AS A CONTROL PARAMETER FOR OIL EXTRACTION: A PRELIMINARY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piernicola Masella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaxation is a critical step of olive oil extraction process as it can largely affect the extraction yield along with product quality. At present, malaxation control is based upon accumulated empirical results and the experience of the operators. There are evidences that this method rarely point out the olive-paste state suitable for oil extraction. The paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation aimed to verify the feasibility of using the olive paste consistency variation during malaxation as a parameter representing the right state for oil extraction. Olive pastes consistency evaluation was performed with a rotational rheometer. Oil extraction yield was evaluated by means of an extractability index (EI determined by laboratory centrifugation of the paste. The effect of different malaxation time and pastes humidity was investigated. Both malaxation time and humidity increments involve significant decrements of paste consistency and a simultaneous increase of EI. A good linear correlation among paste consistency and EI has been found, i.e. a large proportion of EI variance, about 90%, can be explained in terms of paste consistency variation during malaxation. The availability of a measurable parameter representing the paste state suitable for oil extraction could allow to implement a “closed-loop” control system for extraction yield maximization.

  10. Mild separation system for olive oil: quality evaluation and pilot plant design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Genovese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The entire process of olive oil extraction involves the breakage of olive fruits to obtain a paste, the kneading of the paste, a centrifugation, and a further cleaning, performed by a disc stack centrifuge, to separate the residual water. In this research, in order to evaluate the effect of final centrifugal separation on olive oil quality and to both define and design the settings of a innovative separation system, olive oil was separated off from water using an accelerated separation process, tested in comparison with a disc centrifuge. The laboratory plant used for the trials was constituted by a twin cylindrical separator equipped with 4 variable frequency inverters, in order to regulate the fluid flow rates in the plant. Oil samples were collected during the trials to evaluate the influence of the proposed innovative process on oil quality; measuring some parameters as free acidity, peroxides (PV, specific extinction coefficients K232 and K270, chlorophylls , carotenoids, total polyphenols (POL and turbidity. Results showed statistically significant differences (p-values<0.05 in some parameters as POL, PV, and ultraviolet absorption K232 and K270.

  11. Implications for the future and recommendations for modifications to current regulations concerning virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri, Claudio

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The main conclusions of the FLAIR project can be summarized as follows:
    1. The sensory wheel set up by the FLAIR team is proposed as a European standard to evaluate the sensory profile of extra virgin olive oil.
    2. Preference studies demonstrate that the sensory profile of extra virgin olive oil should be optimized as a function of consumer expectations. Once a sensory profile has been selected, it must be used as a reference for product standardization.
    3. Sensory analysis cannot be used as a legal tool for evaluating the quality or the origin of extra virgin olive oils. It is suggested that a sensory test can only be used as a legal tool if it is applied to assess the absence of defects. This implies a modification of the COI test.
    4. The Good Manufacturing Practices set up by the Flair team are proposed as a European standard for process control and quality system certification.
    5. Nutritional studies demonstrate that extra virgin olive oil has a noticeable in vivo antioxidant activity. This activity is related to the tocopherols and phenols content of oil and is highly varietydependent.

  12. Working towards the development of innovative ultrasound equipment for the extraction of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Durante, Viviana; La Notte, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Malaxation has been recognized as one of the most critical points in the mechanical extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO). It is a low and continuous kneading of olive paste at a carefully monitored temperature. Through this essential technological operation the small droplets of the oil formed during the milling merge into large drops that can be easily separated with a decanter centrifuge. During this technological phase, a complex and necessary bioprocess takes place in order to determine the quality and composition of the final product. The malaxer is a heat exchanger characterized by a low overall heat transfer coefficient because the ratio of surface area to volume is disadvantageous, so it is important to find an innovative technology to improve heat-exchange. As matter of fact, the malaxing step is the only discontinuous phase in a continuous extraction process. In the next future, the essential challenge of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In order to reduce the malaxing time enhancing the quality of the product, two ultrasound-assisted virgin olive oil extraction processes were tested against the traditional method. The sonication treatment was applied on olives submerged in a water bath (before the crushing) and on olive paste (after the crushing). The ultrasound technology provides a reduction of the malaxing duration improving VOO yields and its minor compounds content. Better extractibility and higher minor compounds contents were obtained by sonicating the olives submerged in a water bath than olive paste. After experimental trials the results were employed to suggest innovative scaling up solutions of the process and new applications of ultrasounds in the VOO industry.

  13. Olive oil DNA fingerprinting by multiplex SNP genotyping on fluorescent microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogianni, Despina P; Bazakos, Christos; Boutsika, Lemonia M; Targem, Mehdi Ben; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis; Ioannou, Penelope C

    2015-04-01

    Olive oil cultivar verification is of primary importance for the competitiveness of the product and the protection of consumers and producers from fraudulence. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have emerged as excellent DNA markers for authenticity testing. This paper reports the first multiplex SNP genotyping assay for olive oil cultivar identification that is performed on a suspension of fluorescence-encoded microspheres. Up to 100 sets of microspheres, with unique "fluorescence signatures", are available. Allele discrimination was accomplished by primer extension reaction. The reaction products were captured via hybridization on the microspheres and analyzed, within seconds, by a flow cytometer. The "fluorescence signature" of each microsphere is assigned to a specific allele, whereas the signal from a reporter fluorophore denotes the presence of the allele. As a model, a panel of three SNPs was chosen that enabled identification of five common Greek olive cultivars (Adramytini, Chondrolia Chalkidikis, Kalamon, Koroneiki, and Valanolia).

  14. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  15. Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyanto, A; Ahmed, N U; Wu, A; Bito, T; Nikaido, O; Osawa, T; Ueda, M; Ichihashi, M

    2000-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been shown to play a role in ultraviolet light (UV)-induced skin carcinogenesis. Vitamin E and green tea polyphenols reduce experimental skin cancers in mice mainly because of their antioxidant properties. Since olive oil has also been reported to be a potent antioxidant, we examined its effect on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in hairless mice. Extra-virgin olive oil was applied topically before or after repeated exposure of mice to UVB. The onset of UVB-induced skin tumors was delayed in mice painted with olive oil compared with UVB control mice. However, with increasing numbers of UVB exposures, differences in the mean number of tumors between UVB control mice and mice pretreated with olive oil before UVB exposure (pre-UVB group) were lost. In contrast, mice that received olive oil after UVB exposure (post-UVB group) showed significantly lower numbers of tumors per mouse than those in the UVB control group throughout the experimental period. The mean number of tumors per mouse in the UVB control, pre-UVB and post-UVB groups was 7.33, 6.69 and 2.64, respectively, in the first experiment, and 8.53, 9.53 and 3.36 in the second experiment. Camellia oil was also applied, using the same experimental protocol, but did not have a suppressive effect. Immunohistochemical analysis of DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), (6-4) photoproducts and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in samples taken 30 min after a single exposure of UVB showed no significant difference between UVB-irradiated control mice and the pre-UVB group. In the post-UVB group, there were lower levels of 8-OHdG in epidermal nuclei, but the formation of CPD and (6-4) photoproducts did not differ. Exposure of olive oil to UVB before application abrogated the protective effect on 8-OHdG formation. These results indicate that olive oil topically applied after UVB exposure can effectively reduce UVB-induced murine skin tumors, possibly via its

  16. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  17. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsoyannos, E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P P El aceite de oliva virgen es un alimento funcional natural cuyo papel como ingrediente esencial de la dieta mediterránea, con propiedades beneficiosas para la salud, ha sido reconocido universalmente. Se ha estudiado el efecto del deshuesado de las aceitunas, grado de maduración y variedad (variedades griegas Koroneiki y Megaritiki sobre las características físico-químicas, perfil de ácidos grasos y capacidad de los componentes antioxidantes de los aceites de oliva. La maduración ocasionó una disminución (P < 0,05 del contenido de fenoles y tocoferoles y de la relación de ácidos insaturados/ saturados así como de la relación de los ácidos C18:1ω-9/C18:2ω6. El deshuesado incrementa significativamente el contenido fenólico y de tocoferoles, sin afectar significativamente, en la mayoría de los casos, al perfil y cantidad de ácidos grasos. Los aceites de oliva de la variedad Koroneiki mostraron relaciones de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados/poliinsaturados significativamente mayores (p < 0,05 que son particularmente importantes para la estabilidad del aceite frente a la oxidación. En conclusión, el aceite de oliva deshuesado mantiene un alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos y un alto nivel de actividad antioxidante.

  18. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrancosa) from different irrigation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Falco, V.; Correia, C. M.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil VOO) from the cv. cobrancosa- integrated into a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2)-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET{sub c}), (T1)-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and (T0)- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts. (Author) 34 refs.

  19. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bova Olive Cultivar and Aroma Fingerprint of Its Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study aims to contribute to the characterization of Istrian (Croatia olive cultivars and oil, giving for the first time the morphological and genetic profile of Bova cultivar, and chemical and sensorial characteristics of its oil. Morphological features of Bova cv. were determined according to the International Olive Council methodology, while molecular characterization was performed using eleven microsatellite markers. Bova cultivar was morphologically and genetically different from other described Istrian olive cultivars. The microsatellite profile of Bova was also unique when compared to more than 200 different Italian genotypes using the same set of markers. In order to characterize the oil from Bova cv., fruits from three trees at the same ripening stage were harvested and processed separately under the same conditions. Volatile composition of the obtained oil samples was determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. About 50 volatiles were detected, mostly hydrocarbons (34.69 % of total peak area, followed by aldehydes (25.80 %, alcohols (22.24 %, ketones (8.76 %, organic acids (4.08 %, terpenes (2.10 %, esters (2.18 % and furans (0.26 %. Bova oil was rich in total C6 (39.87 % and C5 volatiles (13.85 %, biogenerated through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most prevalent volatile compound was C6 aldehyde E-2-hexenal. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of the investigated olive oil samples was carried out by a sensory panel. The sensory profile was characterized by medium intensities of olive fruity, green leaves and grass, light tomato and aromatic herbs flavours with mild apple and other ripe fruit notes. The taste was characterized by medium to strong bitterness, followed by medium pungency and mild sweetness.

  20. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with olive oil on the sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausage

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    M.C. Utrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six assays of low-fat venison salchichon were produced using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat added. The control contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other assays, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Samples were evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed significant differences for most of the attributes studied. The replacement of 35% or more of pork meat by olive oil, prompted a decrease in odour intensity, spicy odour, hardness and an increase of fat mouthfeel, together with the olive oil perception. By contrast, the replacement of 25% of pork meat by olive oil yielded a salchichon not greatly different to the control. Consumers accepted all assays, but preferred those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. From a sensory standpoint, therefore, it is recommended that the replacement of pork meat by olive oil in this product should not exceed 25%.

  1. Three-year study of fenthion and dimethoate pesticides in olive oil from organic and conventional cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsakis, A M; Tsakiris, I N; Tzatzarakis, M N; Agourakis, Z B; Tutudaki, M; Alegakis, A K

    2003-06-01

    Residues of fenthion and dimethoate pesticides were determined in organic and conventional olive oils by liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions with subsequent gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis. The olive oil samples were collected from Crete during 1997-99. The average concentrations of fenthion in conventional olive oils were 0.1222, 0.145 and 0.1702 mg x kg(-1), and for dimethoate were 0.0226, 0.0264 and 0.0271 mg x kg(-1) for 1997, 1998 and 1999, respectively. The average concentrations of fenthion in organic olive oils were 0.0215, 0.0099 and 0.0035 mg x kg(-1) for 1997, 1998 and 1999, while for dimethoate they were 0.0098, 0.0038 and 0.0010 mg x kg(-1), respectively. All the olive oils contained residue levels lower than the maximum residue levels according to the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius. The organic olive oil contained significantly lower concentrations of the two pesticides. The levels of fenthion and dimethoate in organic olive oils exhibited a decreasing trend following the implementation of the new cultivation method. We propose procedures that should be established in the organic cultivation in order to maximize its effectiveness.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  3. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols Promote Cholesterol Efflux and Improve HDL Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Berrougui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the present work give evidence from the beneficial role of extra virgin olive of oil (EVOO consumption towards oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenols contained in EVOO are responsible for inhibiting lipoproteins oxidative damages and promoting reverse cholesterol transport process via ABCA1 pathway.

  4. Investigation of natural lipid-phenolic interactions on biological properties of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Mhaidat, Nizar; Kubow, Stan; Johargy, Ayman; Alnaiemi, Ola J

    2014-12-10

    There is limited knowledge regarding the impact of naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions on the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil. Free and bound phenolics were isolated via sequential methanolic extraction at 30 and 60 °C, and were identified and quantified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography. Decreased oleic acid concentrations and increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were observed in virgin olive oil after removal of free and bound lipid phenolic compounds. The presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and tyrosol bound to glycerides was determined via LC-MS/MS, which indicates natural lipid-phenolic interactions in virgin olive oil. Both free and lipid bound phenolic extracts exerted antiproliferative activities against the CRC1 and CRC5 colorectal cancer cell lines. The present work indicates that naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions can affect the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil.

  5. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CORN AND OLIVE OIL VERSUS COCONUT FAT ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the

  6. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (a...

  7. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  8. Unmasking of Olive Oil Adulteration Via a Multi-Sensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonico, Marco; Grasso, Simone; Genova, Francesco; Zompanti, Alessandro; Parente, Francesca Romana; Pennazza, Giorgio

    2015-08-31

    Methods for the chemical and sensorial evaluation of olive oil are frequently changed and tuned to oppose the increasingly sophisticated frauds. Although a plethora of promising alternatives has been developed, chromatographic techniques remain the more reliable yet, even at the expense of their related execution time and costs. In perspective of a continuous increment in the number of the analyses as a result of the global market, more rapid and effective methods to guarantee the safety of the olive oil trade are required. In this study, a novel artificial sensorial system, based on gas and liquid analysis, has been employed to deal with olive oil genuineness and authenticity issues. Despite these sensors having been widely used in the field of food science, the innovative electronic interface of the device is able to provide a higher reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis. The multi-parametric platform demonstrated the capability to evaluate the organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils as well as to highlight the presence of adulterants at blending concentrations usually not detectable through other methods.

  9. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin-Roohi, Babak; Khoshkhahesh, Faegheh; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP). Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31), piroxicam (n=31) or base gel phonophoresis (n=31) groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (ppiroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (ppiroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies. PMID:27761423

  10. Prediction of olive oil sensory descriptors using instrumental data fusion and partial least squares (PLS) regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-08-01

    Headspace-Mass Spectrometry (HS-MS), Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) instrumental responses have been combined to predict virgin olive oil sensory descriptors. 343 olive oil samples analyzed during four consecutive harvests (2010-2014) were used to build multivariate calibration models using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The reference values of the sensory attributes were provided by expert assessors from an official taste panel. The instrumental data were modeled individually and also using data fusion approaches. The use of fused data with both low- and mid-level of abstraction improved PLS predictions for all the olive oil descriptors. The best PLS models were obtained for two positive attributes (fruity and bitter) and two defective descriptors (fusty and musty), all of them using data fusion of MS and MIR spectral fingerprints. Although good predictions were not obtained for some sensory descriptors, the results are encouraging, specially considering that the legal categorization of virgin olive oils only requires the determination of fruity and defective descriptors.

  11. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Lecture and Tasting at Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Diarmuid

    2016-01-01

    Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is synonymous with great taste, cookery, traditional Mediterranean cuisines and increasingly human health. As part of an ongoing series of extra-curricular events organised by the DIT FOOD FORUM, an interactive round table lecture and tutored tasting took place for a limited number of culinary students at the School of Culinary Arts, DIT.

  12. Effect of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil on markers of oxidation in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Wiseman, S.A.; Meyboom, S.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied whether consumption of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil affects the susceptibility of low density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation and other markers of oxidation in humans. Design: Randomized cross-over intervention trial, stratified according to sex, age and energy intake. Se

  13. Unmasking of Olive Oil Adulteration Via a Multi-Sensor Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Santonico

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the chemical and sensorial evaluation of olive oil are frequently changed and tuned to oppose the increasingly sophisticated frauds. Although a plethora of promising alternatives has been developed, chromatographic techniques remain the more reliable yet, even at the expense of their related execution time and costs. In perspective of a continuous increment in the number of the analyses as a result of the global market, more rapid and effective methods to guarantee the safety of the olive oil trade are required. In this study, a novel artificial sensorial system, based on gas and liquid analysis, has been employed to deal with olive oil genuineness and authenticity issues. Despite these sensors having been widely used in the field of food science, the innovative electronic interface of the device is able to provide a higher reproducibility and sensitivity of the analysis. The multi-parametric platform demonstrated the capability to evaluate the organoleptic properties of extra-virgin olive oils as well as to highlight the presence of adulterants at blending concentrations usually not detectable through other methods.

  14. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CORN AND OLIVE OIL VERSUS COCONUT FAT ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the d

  15. Cytostatic activity of some compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D; Ahumada, M C; Ruiz, V

    1998-06-30

    Oleuropein, tyrosol, squalene and the fraction of sterols and triterpenoid dialcohols from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil have been tested for possible cytostatic activity against McCoy cells, using 6-mercaptopurine as a positive control. The samples of sterols and triterpenic dialcohols showed a strong activity.

  16. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.

  17. Mathematical modelling of NIR spectral data and wavelength selection for determination of olive oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miekina, A.; Morawski, Roman Z, E-mail: r.morawski@ire.pw.edu.p [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The spectrophotometric analysis of oil mixtures, containing olive oil, is the subject of this paper. Its objective is to propose and evaluate a new method for wavelength selection aimed at optimisation of the numerical conditioning of the problem of determination of a selected component of such a mixture. The performance of the proposed methodology is assessed using semi-synthetic data and a criterion related to measurement uncertainty.

  18. Fatty acids evolution and composition of olive oils extracted from different olive cultivars grown in Calabrian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincione, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work showed some peculiarities of fatty acids profile of nine olive cultivars cultivated in a typical olive growing Calabrian area. The cultivars studied were: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine and Sinopolese. Oils were extracted by pressure from olives collected for a period of time comprised from October to January. The samplings were repeated for three years. The evolution of the oleic acid content showed an increasing trend in Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino, and Leccino. Palmitic and linolenic acid showed a decrease in all the observed cultivar. Some cultivars in early ripe stage showed a higher linolenic acid content than the limit established legally. From a hierarchical cluster analyses two main groups were distinguished based on all fatty acid. The same statistical results were obtained considering the oleic/linoleic ratio only, that is a constant parameter throughout the olive ripening.Este trabajo muestra algunas peculiaridades de las composiciones en ácidos grasos de aceites extraídos de nueve plantaciones de olivo cultivados en Calabria. La zona de cultivo es típicamente olivícola. Las plantaciones estudiadas fueron: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine y Sinopolese. Los aceites fueron extraídos por presión a partir de aceitunas recogidas en un período comprendido entre Octubre y Enero. Las observaciones fueron repetidas durante tres años consecutivos. La evolución del contenido en ácido oleico mostró una tendencia creciente en aceites de Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino y Leccino. Los ácidos palmítico y linoleico mostraron una tendencia a disminuir durante la maduración en todos los aceites. En los muestreos de inicio de estación algunos aceites superaron los límites establecidos por la ley para el ácido linolénico. Mediante un análisis jerárquico de "cluster" se pueden localizar

  19. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  20. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  1. Extraction of olive oil assisted by high-frequency ultrasound standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Bainczyk, Fabian; Swiergon, Piotr; Supriyatna, Made Ian Maheswara; Guillaume, Claudia; Ravetti, Leandro; Canamasas, Pablo; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Xu, Xin-Qing

    2017-09-01

    High-frequency ultrasound standing waves (megasonics) have been demonstrated to enhance oil separation in the palm oil process at an industrial level. This work investigated the application of megasonics in the olive oil process on laboratory and pilot scale levels. Sound pressure level and cavitational yield distribution were characterised with hydrophones and luminol to determine associated physical and sonochemical effects inside the reactor. The effect of water addition (0%, 15%, and 30%), megasonic power levels (0%, 50%, and 100%), and malaxation time (10min, 30min, and 50min) was evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) in a 700g batch extraction process. The RSM showed that the effect of the megasonic treatment (585kHz) in the presence of a reflector is more prominent at longer malaxation time (50min) and at higher water addition (30%) levels post-malaxation. Longer megasonic treatment of the malaxed paste (up to 15min; 220kJ/kg) increased oil extractability by up to 3.2%. When treating the malaxed paste with the same specific energy, higher oil extractability was obtained with longer treatments and low megasonic power levels in comparison to higher power levels and shorter times. Megasonic treatment of the paste before malaxation (585kHz, 10min, 146kJ/kg) and no water addition provided an increase in oil extractability of up to 3.8% with respect to the non-sonicated control. A double sonication intervention, before and after malaxation, using low (40kHz) and high (585kHz) frequency, respectively, provided up to 2.4% increase in oil extractability. A megasonic intervention post-malaxation (400 and 600kHz, 57-67min, 18-21kJ/kg) on a pilot scale using early-harvest olive fruits resulted in up to 1.7% extra oil extractability. Oil extracted under a high sonication frequency (free radical production regime) did not impact on olive oil quality parameters at reactor characterisation levels. Megasonic standing wave forces can enhance olive oil separation

  2. Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciotti, Maíra; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

    2010-05-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main constituents of vegetable oils where they occur in complex mixtures with characteristic distributions. Mass spectrometry using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (APCI-MS) run in positive mode and an Ion Trap mass analyser were applied in the study of olive and soybean oils and their mixtures. Direct injections of soybean and olive oil solutions allowed the identification of ions derived from the main TAGs of both oils. This procedure showed to be a simple and powerful tool to evaluate mixtures or addition of soybean to olive oil. TAG separation was optimized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an octadecylsilica LiChrospher column (250mm x 3mm; 5microm) and a gradient composed of acetonitrile and 2-propanol allowed the separation of the main TAGs of the studied oils. APCI vaporization temperature was optimized and best signals were obtained at 370 degrees C. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) employing the transition of the protonated TAG molecules ([M+H](+)) to the protonated diacylglycerol fragments ([M+H-R](+)) improved the selectivity of TAG detection and was used in quantitative studies. Different strategies were developed to evaluate oil composition following TAG analysis by MRM. The external standard calibration and standard additions methods were compared for triolein quantification but the former showed to be biased. Further quantitative studies were based on the estimates of soybean and olive oil proportions in mixtures by comparison of TAG areas found in mixtures of known and unknown composition of both oils. Good agreement with expected or labeled values was found for a commercial blend containing 15% (w/w) of olive oil in soybean oil and to a 1:1 mixture of both oils, showing the potential of this method in characterizing oil mixtures and estimating oil proportions. Olive oils of different origins were also evaluated by mass spectra data obtained after direct injections of oil

  3. Chemical characterization of organic and non-organic virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-González Diego Luis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic food products have shown to have lower environmental impact and lower presence of chemical residues. Consumers generally have positive attitudes towards organic food because of superior taste, environment-friendliness, health, food safety and animal welfare. During last years, the demand of consumers for organic virgin olive oils have been increased as a result of their high quality image from nutritional and health aspects. In this work sixteen virgin olive oil samples, four obtained by organic and twelve from non-organic cultivation, were analysed by their quality parameters (acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption, fatty acids, sterols and volatile compounds. Quality parameters were not able to discriminate between organic and non-organic samples although significant differences were found in the values of acidity and K270. Fatty acids and sterols content were able to discriminate samples according to their cultivar but did not show capacity differentiating the samples according to the cultivation system. The results of volatile analysis show that in general terms the organic virgin olive oils showed a higher concentration of volatile compounds, except for the aldehydes, whose concentration was higher in the non-organic oils, and the acids, whose concentration was similar in the both oil classes. The concentration of ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols showed significant variations (p < 0.05 between the two types of oils.

  4. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  5. A novel solution blending method for using olive oil and corn oil as plasticizers in chitosan based organoclay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakas, A; Patsaoura, A; Barkoula, N-M; Ladavos, A

    2017-02-10

    In the current study a novel reflux-solution blending method is being followed with the introduction of small ethanol volumes into chitosan acetic acid aquatic solution in order to incorporate olive oil and corn oil in chitosan and its organoclay nanocomposites. Ethanol enables the direct interaction of chitosan with oils and results in effective plasticization of chitosan/oil films with remarkable increase of the strain at break from 8% of chitosan and chitosan/oil aquatic samples to app. 22% for chitosan/oil ethanol samples. Compared with olive oil, corn oil is less effective as plasticizer (max strain at break app. 14%). Addition of oils is beneficial for water sorption, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability response of the obtained films. Barrier properties are further improved after the use of OrgMMT, however OrgMMT results in significant reduction of strain at break of all oil containing samples (app. 8%) acting as stress concentrator upon deformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (Polive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  7. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Storniolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mediterranean diet (MD reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development.

  8. Wine And Olive Oil From An Early Minoan I Hilltop Fort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, A. J.; Betancourt, P. P.

    Aphrodite's Kephali is a small hilltop site in Eastern Crete. Its pottery indicates that it was inhabited during Early Minoan I (EM I), ca. 3200-2700 B.C. The fortified site has a considerable amount of storage, including nine pithoi. The analysis by gas chromatography of sherds from the site indicates that vessels contained olive oil and wine. These results are the earliest documented presence of both of these commodities in Crete. The evidence is important because the domestication of the olive and grape at this early period in Crete has been previously questioned.

  9. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive

  10. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive fr

  11. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  12. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnai, A.; Venturi, F.; Quartacci, V.F.; Sanmartin, C.; Favati, F.; Andrich, G.

    2016-07-01

    The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation), and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred. (Author)

  13. Quality and Trace Element Profile of Tunisian Olive Oils Obtained from Plants Irrigated with Treated Wastewater

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    Cinzia Benincasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  14. Quality and trace element profile of Tunisian olive oils obtained from plants irrigated with treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Gharsallaoui, Mariem; Perri, Enzo; Briccoli Bati, Caterina; Ayadi, Mohamed; Khlif, Moncen; Gabsi, Slimane

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the use of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate olive plants was monitored. This type of water is characterized by high salinity and retains a substantial amount of trace elements, organic and metallic compounds that can be transferred into the soil and into the plants and fruits. In order to evaluate the impact of TWW on the overall quality of the oils, the time of contact of the olives with the soil has been taken into account. Multi-element data were obtained using ICP-MS. Nineteen elements (Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ba and La) were submitted for statistical analysis. Using analysis of variance, linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis it was possible to differentiate between oils produced from different batches of olives whose plants received different types of water. Also, the results showed that there was correlation between the elemental and mineral composition of the water used to irrigate the olive plots and the elemental and mineral composition of the oils.

  15. Olive oil, dietary fat and ageing, a mitochondrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles, José L.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the high number of people included in this group (indeed, a further increase in the rate of old people it is expected in the near future. Another important aspect concerning ageing is the number of pathologies related with this phenomenon like Alzheimer, Parkinson, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. According to the free radical theory of ageing and its further mitochondrial extension, ageing is the result of the oxidative insult to the organism throughout the life. Some of the damages are not entirely repaired and are accumulated, leading to organism malfunction. Such oxidative-stress related events are particularly important in mitochondria and specially at the mitochondrial DNA level (less protected and more prone to oxidation than nuclear DNA and with a not well established repairing system. Such mitochondrial damage directly affects to the cell energy delivery system, being that, at least in part, the explanation for the structural and functional impairments related to age. Oxidative stress is related with the fatty acid composition of membranes. The intake of a type of fat affects in a direct way the fatty acids and antioxidants composition of subcellular membranes (including mitochondrial membranes and in an indirect way the susceptibility of the membrane to oxidation. Thus, if we build specific biological membranes according to particular types of fats, we would be able to positively affect the way and intensity in which different organs would age. This work hypothesis represents a new point of view in the investigation of ageing and might have important consequences. According to the above-mentioned premises, this work reviews the convenience to use virgin olive oil as dietary fat from the point of view of mitochondrial ageing.El envejecimiento preocupa enormemente en los países desarrollados por el alto número de personas incluidas en este grupo de poblaci

  16. Multivariate models to classify Tuscan virgin olive oils by zone.

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    Alessandri, Stefano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study and classify Tuscan virgin olive oils, 179 samples were collected. They were obtained from drupes harvested during the first half of November, from three different zones of the Region. The sampling was repeated for 5 years. Fatty acids, phytol, aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols, triterpenic dialcohols, sterols, squalene and tocopherols were analyzed. A subset of variables was considered. They were selected in a preceding work as the most effective and reliable, from the univariate point of view. The analytical data were transformed (except for the cycloartenol to compensate annual variations, the mean related to the East zone was subtracted from each value, within each year. Univariate three-class models were calculated and further variables discarded. Then multivariate three-zone models were evaluated, including phytol (that was always selected and all the combinations of palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acid, tetracosanol, cycloartenol and squalene. Models including from two to seven variables were studied. The best model shows by-zone classification errors less than 40%, by-zone within-year classification errors that are less than 45% and a global classification error equal to 30%. This model includes phytol, palmitic acid, tetracosanol and cycloartenol.

    Para estudiar y clasificar aceites de oliva vírgenes Toscanos, se utilizaron 179 muestras, que fueron obtenidas de frutos recolectados durante la primera mitad de Noviembre, de tres zonas diferentes de la Región. El muestreo fue repetido durante 5 años. Se analizaron ácidos grasos, fitol, alcoholes alifáticos y triterpénicos, dialcoholes triterpénicos, esteroles, escualeno y tocoferoles. Se consideró un subconjunto de variables que fueron seleccionadas en un trabajo anterior como el más efectivo y fiable, desde el punto de vista univariado. Los datos analíticos se transformaron (excepto para el cicloartenol para compensar las variaciones anuales, rest

  17. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  18. Determination of Alkyl Esters Content in PDO Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Sicily

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    Rosaria Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality parameter of alkyl esters of fatty acids was checked in a variety of Italian olive oil samples. In particular, 34 samples of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs from South Italy (Sicilian orchards, produced in the years 2014-2015, have been subjected to the analytical protocol dictated by the European Union for the determination of alkyl esters, as an indicator of oil’s quality. All the samples analyzed resulted to be well below the limit set by EU Directive. Besides recently produced EVOOs, a set of very aged oils, produced in the years 1996–2000, were analyzed as well. The main finding was that alkyl esters increased in correspondence with deterioration processes.

  19. Systematic transition from description to prediction for the oxidation in packaged olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavouras, Antonis; Coutelieris, Frank A

    2017-08-15

    In this work, an oxidation predictive model was proposed, following a methodical consideration of the natural laws and principles that determine the phenomena occurring during the olive oil oxidation. A mathematical description was obtained via a road-map involving selected "food-packaging-environment" system descriptors. A straightforward transition from the phenomena description to the tool was also developed. For this work, oxidation of packed edible oil was tested against the developed methodology, as a characteristic exemplar to confirm and support it. In conclusion, the proposed, mathematically supported, methodology was proven to be highly appropriate and satisfactory for capturing the potential chemical-physical evolution of oxidation, and therefore, the effectiveness of the tool has been demonstrated for oxidation of edible olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

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    J. P. Bender

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  1. Characterization of Olive Oil by Ultrasonic and Physico-chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Khechena, F. K.; Lecheb, F.; Boutkedjirt, T.

    Olive oil excels by its nutritional and medicinal benefits. It can be consumed without any treatment. However, its quality can be altered by inadequate storage conditions or if it is mixed with other kinds of oils. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the ability of ultrasonic methods to characterize and control olive oil quality. By using of a transducer of 2.25 MHz nominal frequency, in pulse echo mode, ultrasonic parameters, such as propagation velocity and attenuation,have been measured for pure olive oil and for its mixtures with sunflower oil at different proportions. Mechanical properties, such as density and viscosity, have also been determined. The results of ultrasonic measurements are consistent with those obtained by physico-chemical methods, such as rancidity degree, acid index, UV specific extinction coefficient and viscosity. They show that the ultrasonic method allows to distinguish between mixtures at different proportions. The study allows concluding that ultrasound techniques can be considered as a useful complement to existing physico-chemical analysis techniques.

  2. The effect of water stress on super-high- density 'Koroneiki' olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Arnon; Naor, Amos; Ben-Gal, Alon; Harlev, Guy; Zipori, Isaac; Schneider, Doron; Birger, Reuven; Peres, Moti; Gal, Yoni; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-08-15

    Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the influence of multiple parameters on the commercial categories of Extremadura virgin olive oils

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    Montaño, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Extremadura is an important producing region of Spanish virgin olive oils, it has not been always known for the high quality of its oils. However, implementation of continuous extraction systems in most of its olive mills has shown a general improvement in the quality of most virgin olive oils, but not in all of them. The aim of the present study was to examine how different variables, such as fruit quality discrimination or payment system, affected the overall quality of virgin olive oils from Extremadura. To do so, a screening experimental design and the corresponding statistical analysis of the collected data were performed. Sixty Extremadura oil mills were evaluated (50.4% of the total by taking bottled virgin olive oil samples from each of them. Statistical relationships between physicochemical parameters and production process variables were evaluated, showing that only three of them (separation of ground- and tree-harvested fruits, differential payment according to acidity, and extraction process were significantly correlated with the quality index and acidity of virgin olive oils.Extremadura es una importante región productora de aceites de oliva vírgenes de España, aunque no siempre ha sido conocida por la producción de aceites de oliva de alta calidad. Sin embargo, desde la implantación de los sistemas continuos de extracción de aceite en la mayoría de sus almazaras, ha tenido lugar un aumento de la calidad en muchas de éstas. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar cómo algunas variables, como la clasificación de las aceitunas por la calidad, o su sistema de remuneración, influye en la calidad global de los aceites de oliva vírgenes extremeños. Para ello, se ha hecho uso de un diseño experimental de barrido y el análisis estadístico del mismo. Sesenta almazaras fueron evaluadas en Extremadura (50,4% del total y se tomó una muestra de aceite de oliva virgen envasado de cada una de las almazaras. Los

  5. Comparison of Formulas Based on Lipid Emulsions of Olive Oil, Soybean Oil, or Several Oils for Parenteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Meng-Ying; Ding, Cui-Ling; Su, Yu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Juan; Xue, Sen-Hai; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Chang-Hai; Wang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE) formulas of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) may be a viable alternative for parenteral nutrition. However, some randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have raised concerns regarding the nutritional benefits and safety of SMOFs. We searched principally the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from inception to March 2014 for the relevant literature and conducted a meta-analysis of 15 selected RCTs that 1) compared either olive oil- or SMOF-based LEs with soybean oil-based LEs and 2) reported plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and liver concentrations of total bilirubin and the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. The meta-analysis suggested that SMOF-based LEs were associated with higher plasma concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs correlated with lower plasma concentrations of long-chain ω-6 PUFAs and were similar to soybean oil-based LEs with regard to their effects on liver function indicators. In summary, olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs have nutritional advantages over soybean oil-based LEs and are similarly safe. However, their performance in clinical settings requires further investigation.

  6. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  7. Monitoring the phenolic compounds of Greek extra-virgin olive oils during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Kali; Tasioula-Margari, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples, of five Greek olive varieties, were stored in dark glass bottles (headspace 0.5%) in a basement without central heating for 24 months. Quantitative variations of the phenolic compounds and their degradation products were monitored over time. The differences observed in the initial total phenolic compounds concentration (ranging between 250.77 and 925.75 mg/kg) were attributed to extraction system, olive variety, and maturity stage. Even after 24 months, the degree of reduction in total phenolic compounds did not exceed 31%. The reduction was more pronounced in dialdehydic forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones (DAFOA and DAFLA), indicating a more active participation in the hydrolysis and oxidation processes of the more polar secoiridoids. The initial total phenolic content was the main factor correlated to the degradation rate of the phenolic compounds. The decrease in secoiridoid derivatives, gave rise to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol content and to the formation of four oxidized products.

  8. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (Polive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  9. Effect of the long-term regular intake of virgin olive oil on the phenolic metabolites in human fasting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa-Maria; Soler, Aranzazu; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Lluis; Motilva, Maria-Jose

    2010-09-21

    The effect of repeated consumption of virgin olive oil on endogenous phenolic metabolites of fasting plasma is unknown. For this reason, we hypothesized that regular long-term virgin olive oil intake could have an indirect protection effect on the endogenous phenols. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the phenolic profile of human plasma in a fasting state of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumers, using the fasting plasma of non-consumers as a natural control. Forty participants living in the area of Reus (Catalonia, Spain) were selected, 20 life-long regular consumers of virgin olive oil and a natural control of 20 non-consumers, the latter being Rumanians who dislike the taste of olive oil. The diet was obtained from 3-day food records. The results showed similar phenolic composition of fasting plasmas of the two volunteer groups. Of special interest is that more of the compounds quantified showed higher concentration in fasting plasma from habitual virgin olive oil consumers. The compounds were semi-quantified using caffeic acid as the calibration standard. The quantification of fasting consumer's plasma showed higher concentration of a hydroxyflavanone type compound (2.90+/-0.04 microM vs 1.5+/-0.04 microM) and a catecholamine derivative (0.70+/-0.03 microM vs 0.56+/-0.03 microM) than the plasma of non-consumers (Polive oil consumption related to the protection of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  10. Evaluation of different mechanical fruit harvesting systems and oil quality in very large size olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Famiani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 and 2009, trials were carried out in the Apulia region in Southern Italy to evalu-ate the possibility of mechanizing olive harvesting in groves of old and very large trees. The trees belonged to the cultivars ‘Cellina di Nardò’ and ‘Ogliarola Salentina’. They were 60-100 years old and 7-9 m tall with a canopy volume of 140-360 m3. In the first half of November 2006, with a mechanical beater mounted on a tractor plus hand-held pneumatic combs, the harvesting yield was close to 90% of the total olives present in the canopy, and the harvesting working productivity was around 60 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1. With a self-propelled shaker attached to the main branches the harvesting yield was about 73% in ‘Cellina di Nardò’, and 40% in ‘Ogliarola Salentina’, while the harvesting working productivities were around 103 and 85 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1, respectively. In the second half of No-vember 2009, in ‘Cellina di Nardò’, with a mechanical beater mounted on a tractor plus nets on the ground or a catching frame (reversed umbrella mounted on another tractor, the harvesting yield was about 97%. The working productivity was about 98 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1 with the mechanical beater plus nets and around 133 kg of harvested olives h-1 worker-1 when the mechanical beater was combined with a reversed umbrella. The oil obtained from the mechanically harvested olives was always of high quality. A basic economic evaluation of the harvesting costs is also reported.

  11. Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

    2011-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink

  12. Application of CMC as Thickener on Nanoemulsions Based on Olive Oil: Physical Properties and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arancibia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a hydrocolloid with surface activity that could act as emulsifiers in oil-in-water emulsions; however the principal role is that it acts as structuring, thickening, or gelling agent in the aqueous phase. This study aims to evaluate the application of CMC as thickener into nanoemulsions based on olive oil and their influence on particle characteristics, flow behavior, and color. Four nanoemulsions with different oil (5% and 15% w/w olive oil and CMC (0.5% and 0.75% w/w concentration and two control samples without CMC added were prepared using Tween 80 as emulsifier. All physical properties studied on nanoemulsions were depending on both oil and CMC concentration. In general, z-average particle size varied among 107–121 nm and those samples with 5% oil and CMC were the most polydisperse. The addition of CMC increased anionic charge of nanoemulsions obtaining zeta potential values among −41 and −55 mV. The oil concentration increased both consistency and pseudoplasticity of samples, although samples were more stable to gravitational separation at the highest CMC concentration. Color of nanoemulsions was affected principally by the oil concentration. Finally, the results showed that CMC could be applied in nanoemulsions as thickener increasing their physical stability although modifying their physical properties.

  13. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  14. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  15. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  16. Quality, stability and radical scavenging activity of olive oils after Chétoui olives (Olea europaea L.) storage under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, L; Baccouri, B; Ouni, Y; Hamdi, S

    2012-08-01

    At the industrial scale, the major source of olive oil deterioration is the poor handling of the raw material during the time separating harvesting from processing. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of modified atmospheres and cold storage in relation to quality parameters of the extracted oils. Olives (cv Chétoui) intended for oil extraction, were stored for 21 days at two different temperatures (ambient temperature 14 ± 2 °C and 5 °C) and under two different modified atmospheres 21% O₂ - 0% CO₂ and 2% O₂ - 5% CO₂. Oils quality was ascertained with analytical parameters: free fatty acids, peroxide value, K₂₃₂, K₂₇₀ as suggested by European regulation. Oxidative stability, total phenols content, radical scavenging activity and fatty acids composition were carried out in order to measure the hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of oils. Olive oils quality parameters were significantly affected by treatments with especially a beneficial effect on primary oxidation indicators and free acidity. Most efficient treatments, with regard to oils phenolic content and involved parameters, were 21% O₂ - 0% CO₂ at ambient temperature (636.25 mg ca/kg) and 2% O₂ - 5% CO₂ under 5 °C (637.50 mg ca/kg). Those two treatments improved individually oil samples phenolic content of 25% but not at the same storage period.

  17. Fish oil and olive oil can modify insulin resistance and plasma desacyl-ghrelin in rats

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    Atoosa Saidpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence exists for reciprocal effects of insulin and desacyl-ghrelin (DAG concentration, but the association between different fatty acid saturation in high fat diet (HFD and these hormones remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of different sources of dietary fat and the level of fatty acid saturation on plasma insulin and DAG levels and also the association of DAG with insulin action this study was carried out. Methods: Male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of HFDs, high fat butter (HF-B, high fat soy (HF-S, high fat olive (HF-O, high fat fish (HF-F, and a group of standard diet (SD. Blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and after they were fasted for 24 h. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin, DAG and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were measured. Results: Plasma insulin levels at fed and fasted status, were significantly higher in rats on HF-B compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05. Insulin concentration in rats on HF-S was also higher than those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05, in the feeding status. Insulin resistance was significantly higher in rats on HF-B, compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O (P<0.05. Rats that were fed with HF-B diet had lower fasting plasma DAG levels than the SD, HF-F and HF-O groups (P<0.05; furthermore, the HF-F group had significantly higher DAG level than the HF-S groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: Fish and olive oils may hence contribute to lower insulin level and HOMA-IR by increasing DAG concentration and may have more health benefits than other fat sources in diets.

  18. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

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    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  20. Aging Effect on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Olive Oil as an Alternative Liquid Insulating Medium

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    S. Banumathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the analysis of partial discharge characteristics of aged and aged with copper extra virgin olive oil. To confirm long-term reliability of transformers, it is essential to recognize the degradation characteristics of insulating oil in long-term operations, which are the dominant factors of the transformer dielectric strengths. This study is to identify how the PD characteristics of this oil changes and deteriorates with increasing age and what are the impacts on the electrical characteristics. The changes in the PD pattern and PD pulse due to the degradation of oil have been investigated with an innovative PD detection system PDBASEII. The Phase Resolved Partial Discharge (PRPD pattern, time domain and frequency domain characteristics of PD pulses of vegetable oil was measured and they were compared with the mineral oil.

  1. Development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems with olive vegetable oil for cutaneous application

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    Silas Arandas Monteiro e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Liquid-Crystalline Systems represent active compounds delivery systems that may be able to overcome the physical barrier of the skin, especially represented by the stratum corneum. To obtain these systems, aqueous and oily components are used with surfactants. Of the different association structures in such systems, the liquid-crystalline offer numerous advantages to a topical product. This manuscript presents the development of liquid-crystalline systems consisting, in which the oil component is olive oil, its rheological characterizations, and the location of liquid crystals in its phase map. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using J-774 mouse macrophages as the cellular model. A phase diagram to mix three components with different proportions was constructed. Two liquid crystalline areas were found with olive oil in different regions in the ternary diagram with two nonionic surfactants, called SLC1 (S1 and SLC2 (S2. These systems showed lamellar liquid crystals that remained stable during the entire analysis time. The systems were also characterized rheologically with pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy. The texture and bioadhesion assays showed that formulations were similar statistically (p < 0.05, indicating that the increased amount of water in S2 did not interfere with the bioadhesive properties of the systems. In vitro cytotoxic assays showed that formulations did not present cytotoxicity. Olive oil-based systems may be a promising platform for skin delivery of drugs.

  2. Polyelectrolyte films based on chitosan/olive oil and reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Mariana; Dufresne, Alain; Aranguren, Mirta I; Marcovich, Norma E

    2014-01-30

    Composite films designed as potentially edible food packaging were prepared by casting film-forming emulsions based on chitosan/glycerol/olive oil containing dispersed cellulose nanocrystals (CNs). The combined use of cellulose nanoparticles and olive oil proved to be an efficient method to reduce the inherently high water vapor permeability of plasticized chitosan films, improving at the same time their tensile behavior. At the same time, it was found that the water solubility slightly decreased as the cellulose content increased, and further decreased with oil addition. Unexpectedly, opacity decreased as cellulose content increased, which balanced the reduced transparency due to lipid addition. Contact angle decreased with CN addition, but increased when olive oil was incorporated. Results from dynamic mechanical tests revealed that all films present two main relaxations that could be ascribed to the glycerol- and chitosan-rich phases, respectively. The response of plasticized chitosan-nanocellulose films (without lipid addition) was also investigated, in order to facilitate the understanding of the effect of both additives.

  3. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

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    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  4. Tandem mass spectrometry in food safety assessment: the determination of phthalates in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Brunella; Macchione, Barbara; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2008-09-26

    A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method for the detection of six phthalates in olive oil was developed. A gel permeation chromatography (GPC) clean-up step with cyclohexane:dichoromethane 7:3 as mobile phase was employed to remove the high-molecular mass species present in oil. Two ionization methodologies, i.e. electron (EI) and isobutane-chemical ionization (CI), were compared, in MS/MS mode, to achieve better analytical performances. An overall evaluation of all analytical parameters shows that the EI-MS/MS approach provides satisfactory results and is to be preferred to CI-MS/MS, at least in the case of the examined analytes. The observed accuracies, ranging from 71.7% to 112.2%, and the RSD values less than 9.7%, confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in the assay of phthalate content in such a complex matrix as olive oil. The proposed protocol for the identification and assay of phthalates in olive oil might be of interest for the implementation of the QS (quality assurance scheme) for residue monitoring in food safety assessment.

  5. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Content of fatty acids and phenolics in Coratina olive oil from Tunisia: influence of irrigation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Dabbou, Sihem; Chehab, Hechmi; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    The quality indices and chemical composition of Coratina olive oil produced in the northern region of Tunisia were evaluated, to determine the effect of three different irrigation regimes of the trees on the olive oils. The olives were sampled at two different stages of maturity, the oils were extracted, and standard methods were used to analyze the composition and quality of the oils. The fatty-acid contents and quality parameters were only slightly affected by the irrigation regime. The contents of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were above 12, 72, and 8%, respectively, for the second harvest, regardless of the irrigation level of the olive trees. Parameters such as the α-tocopherol content and the phenolic profile were found to be significantly affected by the harvesting time; however, inconsistent changes were observed for the irrigation regimes, especially for the oil of the second harvest. It was shown that the irrigation conditions of the olive trees as well as the harvesting time of the fruits gave rise to a diverse range of olive oils in Tunisia. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of extra virgin olive oil on blood pressure and kidney angiotensinase activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Ana Belén; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Prieto, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The efficacy of the current strategies of treatment is still not entirely satisfactory, and new approaches are being considered. To analyze the beneficial effects of extra virgin olive oil as a major component of the Mediterranean diet, we studied systolic blood pressure and angiotensinase activities, since this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of angiotensins, in the kidney of hypertensive rats fed during 12 weeks with a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil compared with a standard diet. As a reflex of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostanes and nitric oxide were quantified in urine. Results demonstrated a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure until the end of the feeding period in both groups. However, this increase was delayed in the extra virgin olive oil group until week six, with the systolic blood pressure being always lower in this group. Nitric oxide and 8-isoprostanes were lower in the extra virgin olive oil group. While we can deduce a higher formation of angiotensin 2-10 in the renal cortex, a higher availability of angiotensin II may be presumed in the renal medulla of animals fed an extra virgin olive oil diet than in animals fed a standard diet. Our results support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on cardiovascular function and suggest that the Mediterranean diet may be beneficial in itself but it may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  9. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S

    2015-06-17

    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  10. Study of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with peanut oil using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

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    Magda Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis, was developed to monitor adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with peanut oil (PEO. Principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA allowed quantification of percentage of adulteration based on spectral data of 192 samples. Wavenumbers associated with the biochemical differences among several types of edible oils were investigated by principal component analysis. Two sets of frequencies were selected in order to establish a robust regression model. Set A consisted on the frequency regions from 600 to 1,800 cm−1 and from 2,750 to 3,050 cm−1. Set B comprised 17 discrete peak absorbance frequencies for which the communality value was higher than 0.6. Analysis of an external set of 25 samples allowed the validation and evaluation of the predictability of the models. When using a specific set of discrete peak absorbance frequencies, the R2 coefficients for the prediction were 0.960 and 0.977, and the root mean square error (RMSE were 1.49 and 1.05% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively. LDA was successful in the binary classification presence/absence of PEO in adulterated EVOO (with 5% V/V of less of PEO. LDA provided 92.3% correct classification for the calibration set and 88.3% correct classification when cross-validated. The lowest detectable concentration of PEO in EVOO was the lowest adulteration level studied, 0.5% V/V.

  11. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

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    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  12. Fast screening of turkish olive oil by NMR spectroscopy for geographical determination and discrimination purposes

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    Ok, S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to rapidly screen olive oil contents by acquiring one dimensional (1D 1H NMR spectra of 38 samples from Turkey, The Middle East, and Libya. The quantitative analysis of the 1H NMR helped in distinguishing the geographical origin of the olive oil samples. The intensity of 1H NMR variables was submitted to the statistical method, analysis of variance (ANOVA. As a result of combining the NMR data and ANOVA, olive oils were discriminated based on regional origin rather than province. This less time consuming discriminative screening by 1H NMR does not require any further analysis of the olive oil, including oxidative stability measurements or gas chromatography. The possibility of determining authenticity, even in an olive growing area of a small village was also shown. The two-dimensional (2D non-invasive 1H DOSY NMR experiment, known as “NMR chromatography”, was used to determine the olive oil sub-fraction.El objetivo es conocer de manera rápida el contenido de aceite de oliva mediante la adquisición de espectros de 1H RMN de una dimensión (1D. El estudio se ha realizado con 38 muestras procedentes de Turquía, Oriente Medio y Libia. El análisis cuantitativo de 1H RMN ayudó a distinguir el origen geográfico de las muestras de aceites de oliva. La intensidad de las señales de 1H RMN se sometió a estudio estadístico mediante análisis de varianza (ANOVA. Como resultado de la combinación de los datos de RMN y ANOVA, los aceites de oliva fueron discriminados por origen regional antes que por provincia. Esta técnica de discriminación rápida por 1H RMN no requiere ningún análisis adicional de los aceites de oliva mediante estudios de estabilidad a la oxidación o cromatografía de gases. También se demostró la posibilidad de determinar la autenticidad, incluso en el área de cultivo del olivo de una pequeña aldea. Los experimentos de RMN bi-dimensionales (2D no invasiva 1H DOSY, conocido como

  13. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research.

  14. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW: an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

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    Zipori, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW, provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g.g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill.En los modernos olivares, las tecnologías de recogida mecánica han acelerado significativamente la recogida

  15. Separation of Polyphenols from Jordanian Olive Oil Mill Wastewater

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    Ahmad A. Deeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at separation of polyphenols from Jordanian olive mill wastewater which have possible applications in pharmaceutical industry. The phenolic compounds were isolated using silica column chromatography based on using different solvents after extracting the acidified solution with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The structural elucidation of the separated compounds was achieved using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. The concentrations of these compounds were determined by GC-MS after derivatization with N, O-bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA. The concentrations of the main isolated phenolic compounds in the Jordanian olive mill wastewater were ferulic acid (93.6 mg/L, trans-cinnamic acid (105.3 mg/L, p-coumaric acid (117.0 mg/L, vanillic acid (128.7 mg/L, caffeic acid (140.4 mg/L, tyrosol (210.6 mg/L, and hydroxytyrosol (315.9 mg/L.

  16. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

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    Dias, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n, consistency (K and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’. No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn, even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage.Ha sido desarrollado un nuevo relleno basado en aceite de oliva. En este estudio se testaron tres tipos diferentes de aceite de oliva, en tres concentraciones diferentes en la producción de rellenos de chocolate. El análisis instrumental incluyó análisis químico, como humedad y pH. El análisis del color incluyó el espacio CIE 1976 L*a*b* y el espacio RGB. El análisis reológico incluyó la evaluación del índice de flujo (n, consistencia (K y módulos dinámicos (G’ y G’’. Ni se detectó influencia en la humedad ni el pH de rellenos debido a la concentración o el tipo de aceite. Sin embargo, el uso de aceite de oliva disminuyó la consistencia desde 1371 Pasn a 148 - 559 Pasn, incluso usando concentraciones bajas de aceite como 20

  17. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castañer, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity...... of oxLDL to autoantibody generation. METHODS: In a crossover, controlled trial, 200 healthy men were randomly assigned to 3-week sequences of 25 mL/day of 3 olive oils with high (366 mg/kg), medium (164 mg/kg), and low (2.7 mg/kg) phenolic content. RESULTS: Plasma OLAB concentration was inversely...

  18. In situ net N mineralisation and nitrification under organic and conventionally managed olive oil orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Hinojosa, M. B.; García-Ruiz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil orchard occupies a great percentage of the cropland in southern Spain. Thus, changes in nitrogen (N) fertilization might have a great effect on N dynamics at least at regional scale, which should be investigated for a sustainable N fertilization program. In situ net N mineralization (NM......) and nitrification (NN) were investigated during a year in comparable organic (OR) and conventional (CV) olive oil orchards of two locations differing their N input. Soil samples were collected in two soil positions (under and between trees canopy) and both buried-bags and soil core techniques were used to quantify...... both microbial rates. There were differences in NM and NN between sites mainly due to differences in soil total N (TN), and potential mineralisable N (PMN). In all cases NM and NN were higher in soils under tree canopy. NM and NN were higher in OR than in CV managed orchards in the location with high...

  19. Soft-deodorization of virgin olive oil: Study of the changes of quality and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    The potential adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with soft-deodorized virgin olive oil (VOO) has raised the interest of researchers in investigating this fraud in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine chemical changes occurring after a soft-deodorization process in terms of volatiles, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and pyropheophytins (PPPs) concentrations in VOOs. After testing several conditions (80, 100 and 130°C, for 30 and 60min), the parameters of 100°C and 60min were considered as the optima. These conditions allowed removing volatiles responsible for sensory defects with low losses of total phenols (14%-32%), and values of PPPs (11.83%) and FAEEs (34.53mg/kg) lower than the limits of standard regulations. The experiments show that soft-deodorized VOOs could be added up to 50% to EVOOs and current standard methods would not detect this kind of adulteration.

  20. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders; Sacchi, Raffaele; Novellino, Ettore; Randazzo, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The perception of odour and flavour of foods is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Unfortunately, taste is not objective, but partially subjective and it depends also on the mood of the taster. Generally, sensory analysis is used to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil. We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf.

  1. The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    of oxLDL to autoantibody generation. METHODS: In a crossover, controlled trial, 200 healthy men were randomly assigned to 3-week sequences of 25 mL/day of 3 olive oils with high (366 mg/kg), medium (164 mg/kg), and low (2.7 mg/kg) phenolic content. RESULTS: Plasma OLAB concentration was inversely......BACKGROUND & AIM: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity...... associated with oxLDL (p ...

  2. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater using a Ti/Ta/Pt/Ir electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannes, A.; Diamadopoulos, E. [Lab. of Environmental Engineering and Management, Technical Univ. of Crete, Chania (Greece); Ninolakis, M. [Ferecarpos SA, Agia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2003-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater, an ecotoxic liquid associated with the production of olive oil, was treated by an electrochemical method using Ti/Ta/Pt/Ir as anode and Stainless Steel 316L as cathode. A number of experiments were run in a batch, laboratory-scale pilot-plant. The experimental plant consisted of the electrolytic cell, the recirculation reactor with cooling system and the wastewater feed system. The efficiency of the electrolytic cell was studied in relation to sodium chloride concentration, voltage and time of electrochemical treatment. Optimal conditions were at a sodium chloride concentration 3% (w/v) and 16V. At these conditions COD removal reached 70.8% after 8 h of electrolysis. Color, odor and turbidity were completely removed after short periods of treatment. However, bio-essays with Daphnia Magna and Artemia Salina indicated that the ecotoxicity of the treated wastewater remained unchanged, possibly due to the formation of chlorinated by-products. (orig.)

  3. Application of nano-encapsulated olive leaf extract in controlling the oxidative stability of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Adeleh; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Esfanjani, Afshin Faridi; Akhavan, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of olive leave extract (OLE) encapsulated by nano-emulsions in soybean oil. The average droplet size one day after production was 6.16 nm for primary W/O nano-emulsion and, 675 nm and 1443 nm for multiple emulsions stabilized by WPC alone and complex of WPC-pectin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of these emulsions containing three concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg OLE during storage was evaluated in soybean oil by peroxide value, TBA value and rancimat thermal stability test and was compared with blank (non-encapsulated) OLE and synthetic TBHQ antioxidant. Nano-encapsulated OLE was capable of controlling peroxide value better than unencapsulated OLE. But because of blocking phenolic compounds within dispersed emulsions droplets, thermal stability of encapsulated OLE was lower. To summarize, with increased solubility and controlled release of olive leaf phenolic compounds through their nano-encapsulation, a higher antioxidant activity was achieved.

  4. Direct esterification of olive-pomace oil using mesoporous silica supported sulfonic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alrouh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 containing propyl sulfonic acid groups were synthesized according to the literature and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and the H+ exchange capacities of the sulfonic acid groups were titrated. The esterification reaction of glycerol with olive-pomace oil has been carried out by using prepared functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41 and SBA-15 as catalysts. It has been monitored by GC two fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids as reactants in olive-pomace oil and their related monoacylglycerols (Glycerol monopalmitate GMP and monooleate GMO as reaction product. The catalytic activities of the functionalized mesoporous silica were compared with commercial catalysts, these included homogeneous catalysts (p-toluenesulfonic acid and heterogeneous catalysts (Amberlyst-15. The total yield of monoacylglycerols (GMO + GMP was nearly 40%. Remarkably, we found that MCM-41-SO3H was recycled at least 3 times without any loss of activity.

  5. Potential Role of Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodríguez-Morató

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD has been associated with a reduced incidence of neurodegenerative diseases and better cognitive performance. Virgin olive oil, the main source of lipids in the MD, is rich in minor phenolic components, particularly hydroxytyrosol (HT. HT potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions have attracted researchers’ attention and may contribute to neuroprotective effects credited to MD. In this review HT bioavailability and pharmacokinetics are presented prior to discussing health beneficial effects. In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects together with its multiple mechanisms of action are reviewed. Other microconstituents of olive oil are also considered due to their potential neuroprotective effects (oleocanthal, triterpenic acids. Finally, we discuss the potential role of HT as a therapeutic tool in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Cultivation of three medicinal mushroom species on olive oil press cakes containing substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gregori, Andrej; Pohleven, Franc

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil press cakes (OOPC) represent a waste that has a negative impact on environment. OOPC have little or no use and because of that solutions for their alternative use are sought after. In our experiments we investigated substrate mixtures composed of different proportions of OOPC, wheat bran, crushed corn seeds and beech sawdust for cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes and Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies. The increasing amount of OOPC in fruiting bodies cultivation subst...

  7. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GREEK VIRGIN OLIVE OIL: LEVELS, DIETARY INTAKE AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoutsi, Charoula; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the occurrence of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek virgin olive oil during a two-year (2004–2005) sampling campaign. A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues while only one sample contained dimethoate residues higher than the maximum residue limits. Among the seven detected OPs, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide residues were detected in 10.8% and 14.4% of the samples...

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL EMPLOYMENT OF OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS FOR WATER REMEDIATION AND POTENTIAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Addorisio, Veria

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) are dark-colored wastes characterized by high values of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand). OMW contains high amounts of organic and inorganic compounds. The first category includes mostly sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, proteins, fatty substances, mixed phenol-polysaccharide polymers, polyalcohols, cellulose and hemicellulose, pectins and tannins. The inorganic substance, present in lower amount, includes mainly potassium and,...

  9. Geographical traceability of virgin olive oils from south-western Spain by their multi-elemental composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, María; Sánchez-Astudillo, María; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2015-02-15

    The geographical traceability of virgin olive oil can be controlled by chemical species that are linked to the production area. Trace elements are among these species. The hypothesis is that the transfer of elements from the soil to the oil is subjected to minor variations and therefore this chemical information can be used for geographical traceability. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the trace elements of virgin olive oils from south-western Spain were analysed, and the same elements were determined in the corresponding olive-pomaces and soils. The differences in the concentration were studied according to cultivars and locations. Results show some coincidences in the selection of elements in soils (W, Fe, Na), olive-pomace (W, Fe, Na, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ba, Li) and olive oils (W, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ba, Li, Bi), which supports their utility in traceability. In the case of olive oils, 93% of the samples were correctly classified in their geographical origins (96% for Beas, 77% for Gibraleón, 91% for Niebla, and 100% for Sanlúcar de Guadiana).

  10. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga García-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63 proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis in adulthood and the elderly.

  11. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. PMID:26930190

  12. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  13. Effects of maternal dietary olive oil on pathways involved in diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Romina; Roberti, Sabrina Lorena; Musikant, Daniel; Mazzucco, María Belén; White, Verónica; Jawerbaum, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Maternal diabetes induces a pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory intrauterine environment related to the induction of congenital anomalies. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. We investigated whether maternal diets supplemented with olive oil, enriched in oleic acid, a PPAR agonist, can regulate the expression of PPAR system genes, levels of lipoperoxidation and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs) in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats. The embryos and decidua from diabetic rats showed reduced expression of PPARs and increased concentration of lipoperoxidation, MMPs and TIMPs, whereas the maternal treatments enriched in olive oil increased PPARδ in embryos and PPARγ and PPARγ-coactivator-1α expression in decidua, and increased TIMPs concentrations and decreased lipoperoxidation and MMPs activity in both tissues. Thus, maternal diets enriched in olive oil can regulate embryonic and decidual PPAR system genes expression and reduce the pro-oxidant/pro-inflammatory environment during rat early organogenesis.

  14. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vivancos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11. Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32, at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38, and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47, while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results.

  15. Preparative isolation of oleocanthal, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol from olive oil by HPCCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Zehl, Martin; Dangl, Christina; Dorfmeister, Dominic; Stadler, Marco; Urban, Ernst; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Krenn, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    For the provision of oleocanthal (OLC), a phenolic compound with very promising pharmacological properties, isolation from olive oil is a very important option. Due to the compound's sensitivity to decomposition upon exposure to oxygen and light, a very gentle isolation method has been developed under use of high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC). By partition of olive oil between hexane and methanol, an extract enriched in phenolics was prepared and subjected to a two-step HPCCC separation under use of heptane-EtOAc-MeOH-H2O mixtures in normal-phase and reverse phase mode, respectively. With this method, the isolation of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and the mixture of (3S,4E)- and (3S,4Z)-OLC was achieved in approx. 70 min for each step. By one- and two-dimensional NMR-experiments and LC-MS, the equilibrium of (3S,4E)- and (3S,4Z)-OLC in such olive oil extracts has unambiguously been proven for the first time.

  16. Autochthonous cultivars of Emilia Romagna region and their clones: Comparison of the chemical and sensory properties of olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Annalisa; Lapucci, Chiara; Morrone, Lucia; Neri, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    The olive species (Olea europaea L.) is characterized by significant phenotypic and genetic variability the genetic matrix has a strong influence on several important extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) chemical components. Four clones from cultivars autochthonous of the Emilia Romagna region were selected for their notable performance in terms of agronomical characteristics, and the quality of the olive oil produced was studied in detail. In particular, we analyzed the fatty acid composition, the phenolic profile and the sensory analysis of the oils from these clones and compared them with the oils from the respective cultivars. Most of the new clones, all already provided with a genetic and sanitary certification, exhibited overall higher qualitative standards than the cultivars, producing monovarietal oils interesting both nutritionally and from a sensory point of view, and furthermore with a beneficial effect on health.

  17. Use of coagulants in treatment of olive oil wastewater model solutions by induced air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyssami, B; Kasaeian, A B

    2005-02-01

    Natural polyelectrolytes are suitable coagulants for the treatment of industrial and minicipal wastewaters because they are safe and have environmental benefits. Chitosan, a natural cationic polyelectrolyte, and other similar coagulants were used in the treatment of an olive oil water suspension as a model for the processing wastewater. The effect of chitosan, starch, alum and ferric chloride on the coagulation of oil droplets were determined by the jar test apparatus and turbidometric measurements. Olive oil emulsion samples were prepared by the use of surface active agents and other agents that could form stable oil water emulsions. The effect of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and optimum dosage of the coagulants were determined in the jar test experiments. Following the jar experiments, with the optimum concentration of the suitable coagulant, the emulsions were placed in an induced air flotation (IAF) cell to separate the coagulated oil droplets from solution. In the air flotation experiments, the effect of temperature, surfactant concentration and air flowrate were determined on the decrease of turbidity and COD of the emulsion samples. In the jar experiments, chitosan and alum used together at concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm, respectively, at pH 6 produced the lowest turbidity values. In the air flotation experiments, a concentration of 100 ppm of chitosan, an air flowrate of 3 l/min, aeration time of 45 s, temperature of 20 degrees C and pH 6 produced optimum levels. At optimum conditions of coagulation and flotation stages, the COD of the olive oil emulsion could be reduced by 95%.

  18. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K232 , K270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  20. Sensibility of male rats fertility against olive oil, Nigella sativa oil and pomegranate extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif W Mansour; Sibghatullah Sangi; Sree Harsha; Mueen A Khaleel; A R N Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To clarify the modulatory effects of daily consumption of pomegranate extract (PE), olive oil (OO) and Nagilla sativa oil (NSO) on antioxidant activity, sperm quality and pituitary-testicular axis of adult male wistar rats. Methods:Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups, eight rats each. Using rat gastric tubes, 1.0 mL distilled water, 1.0 mL PE, 0.4 mL NSO and 0.4 mL OO were orally administered daily for 6 weeks in the first, second, third and fourth groups, respectively. Reproductive organs, body weight, sperm criteria, testosterone, FSH, LH, inhibin-B, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. At the end of the study protocol, analyses occurred at the same time. Data were analysed by ANOVA test and P<0.05 was considered to be a significant value. Results:In all studied groups, malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased accompanied with an increases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione. Rats treated with PE showed an increase in catalase activities accompanied with an increase in sperm concentration which was also observed in NSO group. In PE treated group, sperm motility was also increased accompanied with decreased abnormal sperm rate. NSO, OO and PE treated groups shows an insignificant effect on testosterone, inhibin-B, FSH and LH in comparison with control group. Conclusions:These results show that administration of PE, NSO and OO could modify sperm characteristics and antioxidant activity of adult male wistar rats.

  1. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  2. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  3. Influence of mixing and extraction parameters on virgin olive oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualone, A.; Montel, G. L.; Cini, E.; Amirante, R.

    2001-01-01

    The mixing time, the temperature and the degree of dilution of olive paste are the main parameters liable to change during mixing and oil ext raction. They can greatly differ from a processing run to another, with variations being observed in Tuscan oil mills, between 26ºC and 36ºC, 40’ and 90’, and 10% and 50% respectively, for the temperature, the mixing time and the water added during the centrifugal extraction. This note reports on t...

  4. Bioactives and nutraceutical phytochemicals naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. The case study of the Nocellara del Belice Italian olive cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, F; Ranalli, A; Contento, S; Casanovas, M; Antonucci, M; Simone, G Di

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the composition and bionutritional value of organic virgin olive oil from the Nocellara del Belice variety, one cultivated in the olive areas of the Sicily region, Italy. Destoned oils obtained by processing olives with a destoning-based procedure were compared with conventional oils. This innovative technique, consisting in removing the stone from fruits prior to processing, strongly enhanced the already high-quality level of the conventional product. An in-depth analytical investigation from 2008 to 2010 showed how this innovative olive extraction process led to an excellent peculiar final product, mainly attributable to the improved biophenol and volatile composition, as well as higher concentrations of the lipophilic and vitamin antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols). It had higher levels of oleocanthal (p-HPEA-EDA), a nutraceutical compound exerting actions against COX1 and COX2 (cycloxygenases). Its head-space aroma displayed new volatile phytomolecules and also had higher levels of green volatiles from the lipoxygenase (LOX)-pathway (one having as precursors the polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-cis-1,4-pentadiene system). Among the other bioactives, we highlight its significant levels of trans-β-carotene and xanthophylls (lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and other carotenoids). Its enhanced nutritional value was also attributable to the increased intensity of valuable tasting notes.

  5. Physical and chemical characteristics of five Turkish olive (Olea europea L. varieties and their oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünverb, Ahmet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive varieties from different locations in Turkey and their natural oils which were obtained using traditional methods were used. Five olive samples were considered for their moisture, crude oil, crude protein, crude ash, crude energy, crude fiber, pH and alcohol-soluble extract. Olives contained approximately 17.7 %-43.5 % olive oil. The crude fiber contents of olive fruits were found to be 5.5 % (Gemlik, 7.0 % (Kilis, 3.6 % (Uslu, 4.2 % (Tirilye and 5.6 % (Ayval?k. The mineral contents of several olive varieties were determined by ICP-AES and found to be excellent. Olives were found to be rich in Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and P minerals. Also, K, Na and P contents of the Gemlik variety were found higher than those of other varieties. The refractive index and density values of the Uslu variety were found to be high and the other varieties had similar values. Oleic acid (65.7 %- 83.6 % was present in the highest concentration, followed by palmitic (8.1-15.2 %, linoleic (3.5-15.5 %, stearic (2.0- 5.6 % and linolenic (0.1-3.0 %. The total amount of phenols among olive varieties was different. The total phenol content as gallic and catechic acid equivalent in all oil samples ranged from 22.5 to 97.1 mg/kg and 12.3 to 98.7 mg/kg, respectively. The Kilis variety of olives had the lowest total phenol value when compared to the other varieties.Aceitunas de Turquía de cinco variedades (Gemlik, Kilis, Uslu, Tirilye y Ayvalik así como sus correspondientes aceites obtenidos por métodos clásicos fueron usados en este estudio. En las aceitunas se determinó la composición proximal (humedad, contenido graso, proteína, cenizas, fibra, y extracto soluble en alcohol, el contenido en minerales y en fenoles. En el caso de los aceites se determinó la composición en ácidos grasos, acidez, insaponificable, índices de Yodo y de saponificación, densidad e índice de refracción. El contenido en aceite de las muestras fue muy variable oscilando entre 17.7 y 43.5% y

  6. Effect of drought stress on qualitative characteristics of olive oil of cv Koroneiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsifaki, Fani

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, K232, K270, oxidative stability and chemical compositional data (fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerols were studied in virgin olive oil samples from olive trees, cv Koroneiki, subjected to different water regimes. Experimental trials were carried out using three-year old own-rooted olive trees (Olea europaea L variety Koroneiki. Plants were subjected to two irrigation treatments to maintain soil water potential to -0.03 MPa and -1.5 MPa. Results showed that irrigation significantly increased the fruit oil content and the oxidative stability and peroxide value of the resulting oil. Olive oil from fruits of irrigated trees showed significant higher values in total saturated fatty acids. Total sterols were also significantly influenced by irrigation. Acidity and specific absorption coefficients K232, K270, of olive oils were not significantly affected.Se han estudiado los valores de calidad reglamentada (acidez, índice de peróxido, los valores de absorbancia en UV (K270, K232, estabilidad oxidativa media en Rancimat 120ºC y características químicas (ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos en aceite de oliva virgen variedad Koroneiki sometidos a diferentes regímenes hídricos. El estudio se ha realizado en árboles adultos de 3 años cultivados en contenedor al aire libre. Los árboles se riegan con dos dosis tratando de mantener un potencial de agua en el suelo de unos -0,03 Mpa y -1,5 Mpa. Los resultados muestran en los olivos de riego un aumento significativo de la riqueza grasa y de la estabilidad del aceite. Los aceites producidos en olivos de riego presentan una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos saturados (palmítico-esteárico. Los esteroles totales se ven significativamente influenciados por el riego. Acidez y absorbancia K270, K232 no se han visto afectados por el riego.

  7. Evolution of