WorldWideScience

Sample records for olive mill wastes

  1. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  2. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  3. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  4. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  5. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt.

  6. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-07-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m{sup 3} during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  7. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of olive mill solid wastes to energy utilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the utilization of olive industry by-products for energy purposes has gained significant research interest and many studies have been conducted focused on the exploitation of olive mill solid waste (OMSW) derived from the discontinuous or continuous processing of olive fruits. In this review study, the primary characteristics of OMSW and the techniques used to define their thermal performance are described. The theoretical background of the main waste-to-energy conversion pathways of solid olive mill wastes, as well as the basic pre-treatment techniques for upgrading solid fuels, are presented. The study aims to present the main findings and major conclusions of previously published works undertaken in the last two decades focused on the characterization of olive mill solid wastes and the utilization of different types of solid olive mill residues for energy purposes. The study also aims to highlight the research challenges in this field.

  9. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  10. Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap.

  11. Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Garcia-Rosado, A.; Polonia, I.; Junca-Blanch, G.; Marin, F.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    When olive mill wastes (OMWs) and vegetation waters (VWs) obtained during the manufacture of olive oil were added as substrate supplements for the cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius the material modified growth of the mushroom and the endemic microbiota of the substrate, in particular the mushroom

  12. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero

    2016-08-03

    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.

  13. Biodegradation of olive-mill pomace mixed with organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) addition on the anaerobic treatment of the olive-mill pomace. Biodegradability of olive-mill pomace mixed with OFMSW was examined in anaerobic bioreactors. Only OFMSW was loaded in the first (control) bioreactor, while run 1 and run 2 bioreactors included different ratio of OFMSW and olive-mill pomace. COD, BOD(5), NH(4)-N, pH, VFA, CH(4) quantity and percentage in anaerobic bioreactors were regularly monitored. In addition, inert COD and anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) were measured in leachate samples. The results of the study showed that 70% of OFMSW addition to olive-mill pomace has an advantage in terms of pollution parameters and methane generation. Since olive-mill pomace is not easy biodegradable, addition of high proportion of OFMSW promotes biodegradability of olive-mill pomace. Decreasing in BOD(5)/COD ratios in the run 1 and run 2 reactors carried out as 62 and 52%, respectively.

  14. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  17. Production of fuel briquettes from olive refuse and paper mill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Sahan, M.; Haykiri-acma, H.; Sesen, K.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University 80626, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-10-01

    Some processes have been widely applied to biomass in order to take advantage of its energy potential. In particular, these processes are based on pyrolysis or gasification. In this study, briquetting was applied to olive refuse and paper mill waste to form fuel briquettes. For this purpose, the particle sizes of both biomass samples were decreased to -250 {mu}m and then they were briquetted in a steel die under pressure between 150 and 250 MPa at ambient temperature. Effects of the moisture content of the biomass samples and briquetting pressure on the shatter index, compressive strength, and water resistance of the briquettes obtained were investigated. This study showed that the mechanical strength of the briquettes produced only from the olive refuse was not high enough. On the other hand, strong briquettes were produced using paper mill waste. When olive refuse was blended with fibrous paper mill waste, briquettes with sufficiently high mechanical strength could be produced. Burning profiles of the samples were derived applying derivative thermogravimetry technique under dynamic dry air atmosphere up to 1273 K with a heating rate of 40 K{center_dot}min{sup -1} and then combustion characteristics of the briquettes were compared.

  18. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  19. Impact of milling, enzyme addition, and steam explosion on the solid waste biomethanation of an olive oil production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).

  20. Polyphenol removal from olive mill waste waters by selected mould strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Yachioui, M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mould strains were isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters, characterized and screened for their activities on polyphenols hydrolysis by reculturing on the olive mill waste waters itself. The selected strains were then used for polyphenols removal in pure culture assays in flasks. Prior to the inoculation, OMW water was diluted to prepare three initial concentrations of polyphenols (2.2 g/L; 4.5g/L; 14.5g/L. Chemical characteristics including polyphenols and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD were followed up in these assays. Results showed that the polyphenols removal by some strains was estimated to around 95.14% and the COD was also decreased by 43%. Olive mill waste waters are normally colored in dark because of the polyphenols oxidation. The microbial strains by hydrolysing the polyphenols had decolored completely these effluents and a clear liquid was obtained afier 12-15 days of treatment under aerobic shaking in laboratory. Polyphenols may have some inhibitory effect which would cause problems to the biological treatment of these effluents. Their removal would facilitate the treatment of the waste.Cepas de moho fueron aisladas del alpechín (OMW, caracterizadas y analizadas para determinar sus actividades en la hidrólisis de polifenoles mediante su recultivo en el mismo alpechín. Las cepas seleccionadas se usaron posteriormente para la eliminación de polifenoles en ensayos de cultivos puros en matraces. Antes de la inoculación, el alpechín fue diluido para obtener tres concentraciones iniciales de polifenoles (2,2g/L; 4,5g/L; 14,5g/L. Las características químicas, incluyendo polifenoles y la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, fueron analizadas en estos ensayos. Los resultados muestran que los polifenoles eliminados por algunas cepas fueron del 95.14% y la DQO disminuyó un 43%. El alpechín es normalmente oscuro por la oxidación de los polifenoles. Las cepas microbianas al hidrolizar los polifenoles decoloraron completamente estos

  1. Modelling of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with olive mill solid waste using anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Fezzani; Ridha, Ben Cheikh

    2008-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1), conceived by the international water association (IWA) task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes is a structured generic model which includes multiples steps describing biochemical and physicochemical processes encountered in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic substrates and a common platform for further model enhancement and validation of dynamic simulations for a variety of anaerobic processes. In this study the ADM1 model was modified and applied to simulate the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The ADM1 equations were coded and implemented using the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink. The most sensitive parameters were calibrated and validated using updated experimental data of our previous work. The results indicated that the ADM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: gas flows, methane and carbon-dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations of effluents for various feed concentrations digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and especially at HRTs of 36 and 24 days. Furthermore, effluent alkalinity and ammonium nitrogen were successfully predicted by the model at HRTs of 12 and 24 days for some feed concentrations.

  2. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  3. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  4. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  5. Valorization of solid olive mill wastes by cultivation of a local strain of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour-Benamar, Malika; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Chavant, Louis

    2013-08-01

    Olive oil industry generates huge quantities of solid olive mill wastes (SOMW), causing environmental damage. Cultivation of edible mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable approach for SOMW valorization. A local strain mycelium (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria) of P. ostreatus (LPO) was isolated from castor oil plants. Oyster mushroom spawn, produced on barley grains, was used to inoculate wet SOMW, steamed in a traditional steamer during 45 min. The mycelium growth rate on SOMW was first estimated in Petri dish by measuring the surface colonized by the mycelium. The fruit body yields were estimated on culture bags containing 2 kg each of SOMW inoculated at 7% (w/w). The local strain potential was compared with that of a commercial one. Both strains produced high-quality mushrooms, but with low yields. The supplementation of the SOMW with wheat straw at the rate of 10% and 2% of CaCO3 had significantly enhanced the productivity of the two strains, multiplying it by 3.2 for LPO and by 2.6 for CPO.

  6. Monitoring of olive oil mills' wastes using electrical resistivity tomography techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis

    2014-08-01

    Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.

  7. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiable and separate waste streams. These are: 1 the wash waters from the initial cleansing of the fruit; 2 the wash waters from the secondary centrifuge and 3 the aqueous solid residues from the primary centrifugation. As well as offering process advantages they also reduce the water consumption of the mill. The introduction of this technology was carried out in 90% of Spanish olive oil factories. Therefore, the new twophase olive mill effluents (TPOME are made up of the mixture of effluents (1 and (2, the total volume of TPOME generated being around 0.25 l/kg of olives processed. In addition, the solid residue (two-phase olive pomace, TPOP has a high organic matter concentration giving an elevated polluting load and it cannot be easily handled by traditional technology which deals with the conventional three-phase olive cake.So, this paper aims to report the main features and characteristics of TPOME, and of TPOP, as compared to the classical olive mill wastewater (OMW and olive cake derived from the three-phase manufacturing process. The advantages and disadvantages of the two-phase decanting process will be summarized. Among the treatments reported for TPOME, aerobic processes in completely mixed and activated sludge reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies. Kinetic constants of the aerobic processes were also compared at different operational conditions. The report also includes the following findings: assays of anaerobic digestion of wastewaters from the

  8. Overcoming the bottlenecks of anaerobic digestion of olive mill solid waste by two-stage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Elitza; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Bochmann, Günther; Fuchs, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) was applied for reducing the inhibiting factors by optimizing the acidification stage. Single-stage AD and co-fermentation with chicken manure were conducted coinstantaneous for direct comparison. Degradation of the polyphenols up to 61% was observed during the methanogenic stage. Nevertheless the concentration of phenolic substances was still high; the two-stage fermentation remained stable at OLR 1.5 kgVS/m³day. The buffer capacity of the system was twice as high, compared to the one-stage fermentation, without additives. The two-stage AD was a combined process - thermophilic first stage and mesophilic second stage, which pointed out to be the most profitable for AD of OMSW for the reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 230 to 150 days, and three times faster than the single-stage and the co-fermentation start-up of the fermentation. The optimal HRT and incubation temperature for the first stage were determined to four days and 55°C. The performance of the two-stage AD concerning the stability of the process was followed by the co-digestion of OMSW with chicken manure as a nitrogen-rich co-substrate, which makes them viable options for waste disposal with concomitant energy recovery.

  9. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  10. Revalorization of a two-phase olive mill waste extract into a micronutrient fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Hernández, Diana; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-01-27

    Micronutrient deficiencies in plants may be treated using metal complexes. A modified two-phase olive mill waste (OMWm) was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. A study was also made of micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) complexation and the stability of complexes. An evaluation was then made of the effectiveness of Fe(III)OMWm to supply Fe to soybean (Glycine max. cv Stine 0480) chlorotic plants through nutrient solution and foliar application. The OMWm presented structural similarities with the fulvic fraction of raw OMW containing abundant phenolic-hydroxyl and carboxyl groups able to form complexes. The OMWm could complex Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, although the stabilities of the complexes under agronomic conditions were low. In dealing with Fe chlorosis, Fe(III)-OMWm improved the Fe nutritional status of soybean chlorotic plants when applied to the nutrient solution, while only regreening of leaves was observed in foliar applications. Hence, OMWm complexes constitute a promising eco-compatible and cheap alternative to synthetic chelates in dealing with micronutrient deficiencies when applied foliarly or to the nutrient solution, although further research is necessary to improve the stability and effectiveness of the complexes.

  11. Chemical and cellular antioxidant activity of phytochemicals purified from olive mill waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Blasa, Manuela; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Ninfali, Paolino

    2011-03-09

    The isolation and identification of a phytocomplex from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) was achieved. The isolated phytocomplex is made up of the following three phenolic compounds: hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), tyrosol (p-HPEA) and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, linked with (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA). The purification of this phytocomplex was reached by partial dehydration of the OMWW, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and middle pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The phytocomplex accounted for 6% of the total phenolic content of the OMWW. The phytocomplex and individual compounds were tested for antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC phytocomplex produced 10,000 ORAC units/g dry weight, whereas the cellular antioxidant activity, measured by the cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cell (CAA-RBC) method, demonstrated that the phytocomplex and all of the components are able to permeate the cell membrane thus exhibiting antioxidant activity inside the red blood cells. Our phytocomplex could be employed in the formulation of fortified foods and nutraceuticals, with the goal to obtain substantial health protective effects due to the suitable combination of the component molecules.

  12. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  13. Long Term Amendment with Fresh and Composted Solid Olive Mill Waste on Olive Grove Affects Carbon Sequestration by Prunings, Fruits, and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Ilarioni, Luana; Brunori, Antonio; Massaccesi, Luisa; Agnelli, Alberto; Proietti, Primo

    2017-01-01

    The soil amendment with organic wastes represents a way to increase the soil fertility and the organic carbon (C) stored in the agro-ecosystems. Among the organic waste materials produced by agricultural and industrial activities, olive mill wastes derived from the olive oil extraction process may represent a suitable soil amendment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fresh (SOMW) or composted mixture of SOMW and shredded olive tree prunings (C-SOMW+P) on the vegetative and productive activities of olive trees, on the C stored in the tree non-permanent structures (prunings and fruits) and in the soil. The plots treated with SOMW or C-SOMW+P showed higher vegetative and productive activities than the untreated plots, and this was attributed to the higher total N and availability of P and K supplied by the amendments. Consequently, treatments increased the C sequestered in the tree non-permanent structures than in the control trees. However, no significant different effect between SOMW and C-SOMW+P treatments was found for the C stored in prunings and fruits, whereas it was evident a stronger influence of C-SOMW+P than SOMW on soil C sequestration. Indeed, about 50% the C supplied by the treatment with C-SOMW+P was sequestered in the olive grove system, with more than 90% of the sequestered C stored into the soil. The low amount of C sequestered in the soil following the addition of SOMW was attributed to its richness of moisture and easily degradable compounds that triggered the mineralization processes controlled by the soil microbial community. Although the 8 years of amendment produced a higher fruit yields than the control, no difference occurred between the characteristics and the oil content of the olive fruits. Only the total phenol content for the oil obtained from the SOMW-treated plots was significantly higher. The other considered fruit characteristics did not show significant differences. PMID:28119719

  14. A study of chemical and microbiological characteristics of olive mill waste water in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste water samples from different traditional mills were analyzed for their microbiota and the physicochemical characteristic. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPG, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci staphylococci, Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus, yeasts and molds and the lipolytic microorganisms. The physicochemical analysis grouped the determination of pH, salinity, density, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, total dry matter, non volatile dry matter, suspended solids, organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, organic nitrogen, fat, polyphenols, polyphosphates, sodium and potassium and the BOD and COD. Results showed that the physicochemical factors were higher than the reported values in other countries. The microbial load was low and mainly made of yeasts and molds as well as the lactic acid bacteria. A net difference between the traditional mill samples and the industrial samples was observed for both analyses.

    Se ha realizado un estudio bacteriológico y físico químico de alpechín de diferentes almazaras tradicionales. Se han investigado los siguientes parámetros físico químicos: pH, salinidad, densidad, conductividad, alcalinidad, acidez, materia seca total, materia seca volátil, materia en suspensión, carbono orgánico, nitrógeno amoniacal, nitrógeno orgánico, grasa, polifenoles, fosfatos, sodio, potasio, BOD y COD. Las determinaciones microbiológicas efectuadas son: recuento de aerobios mesofilos, conliformes totales y fecales, enterococos, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Clostridium y Bacillus, levaduras, mohos y microorganismos lipolíticos. Los valores de los parámetros físico químicos son superiores comparados con los obtenidos por otros autores en otros países. La carga microbiana es débil y está representada principalmente por

  15. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (a...

  16. A biotechnological valorization and treatment of olive mill waste waters by selected yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste waters were diluted to 1/10, supplied with 2% urea and inoculated with yeast strains. 20 yeast strains isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW water were screened for their biomass production, GOD reduction and polyphenols bioconversión activities. Pure cultures of yeasts were realized in 100 ml erlen-meyer flasks. 50 ml cultures were used and the flasks were incubated at room temperature (22°G on a shaker. Biomass production, COD (chemical oxygen demand reduction and Polyphenols bioconversión were followed up in the inoculated OMW waters. Results showed that the urea supply improve significantly the biomass production relatively to the control. This reached in some assays 2.06% expressed as g of biomass dry weight per 100 mL of OMW water. Polyphenols removal was estimated to around 50% and the COD was decreased from 54.14 g/Kg to 21.56 g/Kg. This aerobic treatment lead to the biomass production and also to a pretreated efluent by the COD and the removal of the methanization inhibiting polyphenolic compounds.

    Aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna se diluyeron en la proporción 1/10, se le añadió un 2% de urea y se inoculó con cepas de levaduras. 20 cepas de levaduras aisladas de aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna (OMW se seleccionaron por su producción de biomasa, reducción DQO y actividades de bioconversión de polifenoles. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos puros de levaduras en matraces erlenmeyer de 100 mi. Se tomaron 50 ml de cultivos y los matraces se incubaron a temperatura ambiente (22°C en un agitador. Se siguió la producción de biomasa, la reducción de DQO (demanda química de oxígeno y la bioconversión de polifenoles en las aguas residuales de la aceituna. Los resultados mostraron que el suministro de urea mejoró significativamente la producción de biomasa en relación al control. Esta alcanzó en algunos ensayos el 2.06% expresado como g de peso seco de biomasa por 100 ml de

  17. Soil contamination with olive mill wastes negatively affects microbial communities, invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Oliveira, Vanessa; Sena, Clara; Bouji, Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud; Wali, Ahmed; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of olive mill waste (OMW) on soil habitat function. To this end, soil samples from OMW evaporating ponds (S1-S5) located at Agareb (Sfax, Tunisia) and a reference soil (R) were collected. The effects of OMW on the springtails Folsomia candida (F.c.), the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (E.f.), Enchytraeus crypticus (E.c.) reproduction and on the soil living microbial communities were investigated. E.f. reproduction and tomato growth assays were performed in the reference soil amended with 0.43 to 7.60 % (wOMW/wref-soil) mass ratios of dried OMW. Changes in microbial function diversity were explored using sole-carbon-source utilization profiles (BiologEcoPlates(®)). E.f. absolutely avoided (100 %) the most polluted soil (S4) while the F.c. moderately avoided (37.5 ± 7.5 %) the same soil. E.c. reproduction in S4 was significantly lower than in S1, S2, S3 and S5, and was the highest in R soil. Estimated effect concentration EC50 for juveniles' production by E.f., and for tomato fresh weight and chlorophyll content were 0.138, 0.6 and 1.13 %, respectively. Community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) were remarkably different in R and S4 and a higher similarity was observed between soils S1, S2, S3 and S5. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that differences between soil microbial functional diversity were mainly due to high polyphenol concentrations, while the salinity negatively affected E.c. reproduction in OMW contaminated soils. These results clearly reflect the high toxicity of dried OMW when added to agricultural soils, causing severe threats to terrestrial ecosystem functions and services provided by invertebrates and microbial communities.

  18. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcu, Mucahit; Ozturk, Savas; Yalamac, Emre; Gencel, Osman

    2016-10-01

    Production of porous clay bricks lightened by adding olive mill waste as a pore making additive was investigated. Factors influencing the brick manufacturing process were analyzed by an experimental design, Taguchi method, to find out the most favorable conditions for the production of bricks. The optimum process conditions for brick preparation were investigated by studying the effects of mixture ratios (0, 5 and 10 wt%) and firing temperatures (850, 950 and 1050 °C) on the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the bricks. Apparent density, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and crystalline phase formations of the fired brick samples were measured. It was found that the use of 10% waste addition reduced the bulk density of the samples up to 1.45 g/cm(3). As the porosities increased from 30.8 to 47.0%, the compressive strengths decreased from 36.9 to 10.26 MPa at firing temperature of 950 °C. The thermal conductivities of samples fired at the same temperature showed a decrease of 31% from 0.638 to 0.436 W/mK, which is hopeful for heat insulation in the buildings. Increasing of the firing temperature also affected their mechanical and physical properties. This study showed that the olive mill waste could be used as a pore maker in brick production.

  19. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  20. A process for the treatment of olive mill waste waters by immobilized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElYachioui, M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mould strains were immobilized on sawdust from woods as a solid material for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters. Assays were carried out in flasks. The treatment process was monitored by physico-chemical determinations including pH, polyphenols and COD, which were followed up during the incubation time. In parallel the chemical inhibitory activity of OMW was confirmed biologically by the determination of some microorganisms in the medium including the plate count, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Results indicated that the polyphenol degradation level was 87 %. The COD was also reduced by 60 %. The pH of the effluent increased from 4.5 to 6.6. The microbial profiles showed their best growth during the treatment period indicating a removal of the inhibitory activities from the OMW waters. The growth patterns of all microorganism groups were similar and could reach high levels in the effluent.Cepas de moho fueron inmovilizadas sobre serrín de madera como material sólido para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de un molino de aceituna (OMW. Los ensayos se realizaron en matraces. El proceso de tratamiento se monitorizó mediante determinaciones físico-químicas incluyendo pH, polifenoles y DQO, que también se analizaron durante el tiempo de incubación. En paralelo, la actividad inhibidora química de las OMW se confirma biológicamente mediante su efecto sobre algunos microorganismos incluyendo levaduras y bactérias ácido lácticas. Los resultados indicaron que los polifenoles se degradan hasta un nivel del 87 %. La DQO se redujo también al 60 %. El pH del efluente aumentó de 4.5 a 6.6. Los perfiles microbiológicos mostraron un mejor crecimiento a medida que avanzaba el tratamiento indicando una supresión de las actividades inhibidoras de las aguas (OMW. El comportamiento del crecimiento de todos los grupos de microorganismos fue similar y puede alcanzar altos niveles en el efluente

  1. Use of clinoptilolite to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria K; Elaiopoulos, Kyriakos; Kavvadias, Victor A; Mavraganis, Vasilis

    2012-03-15

    In the framework of LIFE07 ENV/GR/000280 Project "Strategies to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes in the Mediterranean-PROSODOL", a laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate to which extent the natural zeolite clinoptilolite is capable of limiting environmental degradation caused by the uncontrolled disposal of olive oil mills wastes (OOMW). Clinoptilolite was added in various ratios (from 0% up to 30%w/w) to soil samples, which were collected from four OOMW disposal sites (from both the interior of the disposal ponds and the surroundings) located in a pilot Municipality in Rethymno, Crete, Greece. Water soluble K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, polyphenols, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were measured in leachates after equilibration of the soil samples with clinoptilolite It was observed that water soluble K, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and polyphenols were decreased with an increase in zeolite percentage; Ca leaching was slightly increased or remained nearly constant; Mg leaching remained constant or increased, especially for pond soils; and PO4(3-) leaching was very low. Although the soil samples' content in available Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe was high, the metals were not detected in the leachates.

  2. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution with ...

  3. Behavior of MCPA in four intensive cropping soils amended with fresh, composted, and aged olive mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Peña, David; Albarrán, Angel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    An evaluation was made of the impact of olive mill waste and its organic matter transformation on the sorption, desorption, leaching, and degradation of the herbicide MCPA when the waste was applied to four Mediterranean soils. The soils were amended in the laboratory with fresh, composted, and field-aged olive mill waste (OW, COW, and AOW treatments, respectively). It was found that the greater the amount of OW applied to the soils, but especially the greater its organic matter maturity, the greater the adsorption of MCPA. Compared with unamended soils, at the 5% rate of application the adsorption capacity increased by between 9.8% and 40%, 148% and 224%, and by 258% for the OW, COW, and AOW amended soils, respectively. The hysteresis coefficients were significantly lower in the OW-amended soils than in AOW or COW-amended soils, indicating that the adsorbed MCPA could be easily desorbed in OW-amended soils if the amendment is not aged or composted. While the OW addition greatly extended the persistence of MCPA, the application of COW enhanced MCPA degradation in all the soils, as corresponded to the increased soil microbial activity indicated by the higher levels of soil dehydrogenase activity. Fresh OW amendment significantly increased the amount of MCPA leached (from 13.7% in the most alkaline soil to 36.7% in the most acidic, at the 5% rate of application), favored by the higher levels of water soluble organic carbon content. However, leaching losses of the herbicide were reduced by up to 39.9% and 55.3% in the COW- and AOW-amended soils at the 5% loading rate, respectively. The use of OW with a high degree of organic matter maturity may be regarded as a potentially useful management practice to reduce MCPA leaching in soils with low organic matter content. The application of fresh OW, however, could well increase the risk of groundwater contamination by this herbicide, especially in acidic soils.

  4. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Ibieta, F; Serrano, A; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2016-07-01

    Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response. The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0.018 to 0.035mg/L of dissolved cobalt (0.24-0.65mg total cobalt/L), reaching improvements up to 23% and 30% in the methane production rate and the methane yield coefficient, respectively. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions.

  5. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  6. Two-phase olive mill waste composting: enhancement of the composting rate and compost quality by grape stalks addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Roig, Asunción

    2010-06-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated by the olive oil industry. Its recycling as a soil amendment, either unprocessed or composted, is being promoted as a beneficial agricultural practice in the Mediterranean area. One of the major difficulties when composting TPOMW is the compaction of the material due to its dough-like texture, which leads to an inadequate aeration. For this reason, the addition of bulking agents is particularly important to attain a proper composting process. In this study we followed the evolution of two composting mixtures (A and B) prepared by mixing equal amounts of TPOMW and sheep litter (SL) (in a dry weight basis). In pile B grape stalks (GS) were added (10% dry weight) as bulking agent to study their effect on the development of the composting process and the final compost quality. The incorporation of grape stalks to the composting mixture changed the organic matter (OM) degradation dynamics and notably reduced the total amount of lixiviates. The evolution of several maturation indices (C/N, germination index, water soluble carbon, humification indices, C/N in the leachates) showed a faster and improved composting process when GS were added. Moreover, chemical (NH4+, NO3(-), cation exchange capacity, macro and micronutrients, heavy metals) and physical properties (bulk and real densities, air content, total water holding capacity, porosity) of the final composts were analysed and confirmed the superior quality of the compost where GS were added.

  7. Gross and net rates of nitrogen mineralisation in soil amended with composted olive mill pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Muñoz, B.; Hatch, D. J.; Bol, R.

    2011-01-01

    Olive mill pomace is the major waste product in the olive oil industry and composting these by-products for the purpose of recycling nutrients and organic matter is a sound environmental strategy. Yet little is known about the quantity and timing of nitrogen (N) release from composted olive mill...

  8. Melanin and humic acid-like polymer complex from olive mill waste waters. Part I. Isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, Maissa; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Georgios; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Arbez-Gindre, Cécile; Bouzouita, Nabiha; Sotiroudis, Theodore G

    2016-07-15

    A water soluble humic acid and melanin-like polymer complex (OMWW-ASP) was isolated from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) by ammonium sulfate fractionation to be used as natural additive in food preparations. The dark polymer complex was further characterized by a variety of biochemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. OMWW-ASP is composed mainly of proteins associated with polyphenols and carbohydrates and the distribution of its relative molecular size was determined between about 5 and 190 kDa. SDS-PAGE shows the presence of a well separated protein band of 21.3 kDa and a low molecular weight peptide. The OMWW-ASP complex exhibits a monotonically increasing UV-Vis absorption spectrum and it contains stable radicals. Antioxidant activity measurements reveal the ability of the OMWW protein fraction to scavenge both the cationic 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) radical, as well as the stable nitroxide free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Olivibacter sitiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from alkaline olive-oil mill wastes in the region of Sitia, Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Fasseas, Constantinos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2007-02-01

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a viscous two-phase olive-oil mill waste ('alpeorujo') is described. The strain, designated AW-6T, is an obligate aerobe, forming irregular, pigmented creamy white colonies. The pH and temperature ranges for growth were pH 5-8 and 5-45 degrees C, with optimal pH and temperature for growth of pH 6-7 and 28-32 degrees C, respectively. Strain AW-6T was chemo-organotrophic and utilized mostly D+ -glucose, protocatechuate and D+ -xylose, followed by L-cysteine, D- -fructose, D+ -galactose, L-histidine, lactose, sorbitol and sucrose. Menaquinone-7 was detected in the respiratory chain of strain AW-6T. The major fatty acids of strain AW-6T were C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and C(16 : 0). The closest phylogenetic relative of strain AW-6T was clone BIti35 (89.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), while Sphingobacterium thalpophilum DSM 11723T was the closest recognized relative within the Sphingobacteriaceae (88.2 % similarity). Strain AW-6T showed a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to S. thalpophilum DSM 11723T (33.8-37.0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain AW-6T was 45.6 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the distinctiveness of strain AW-6T from members of the genera Sphingobacterium and Pedobacter. Thus, strain AW-6T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, for which the name Olivibacter sitiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AW-6T =DSM 17696T=CECT 7133T).

  10. Effect of olive-mill waste addition to agricultural soil on the enantioselective behavior of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, M Carmen; Cornejo, Juan

    2013-10-15

    Certain soil management practices can affect the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticide enantiomers in agricultural soils. In this work, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of olive-mill waste (OMW) addition to a Mediterranean agricultural soil on the enantioselectivity of sorption, degradation, and leaching processes of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl. Sorption-desorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by unamended and OMW-amended soil (2% w/w) was non-enantioselective and that OMW addition had little effect on the extent of sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by the soil. Soil incubation experiments revealed that the degradation of metalaxyl in unamended soil was highly enantioselective, with R-metalaxyl being degraded faster (t1/2 = 12 days) than S-metalaxyl (t1/2 = 39 days). OMW addition to the soil increased the half-life of the biologically-active R-metalaxyl enantiomer from 12 to 28 days, and decreased the half-life of the non-active S-metalaxyl enantiomer from 39 to 33 days. Consequently, the enantioselectivity of metalaxyl degradation in the soil was greatly reduced upon OMW addition. Column leaching data were consistent with batch sorption and incubation results, showing similar retardation of S- and R-metalaxyl in unamended and OMW-amended soil and enantioselective leaching of the fungicide only in unamended soil. The results have important implications regarding the biological efficacy and environmental impact of the fungicide when applied as a mixture of enantiomers or racemate to OMW-treated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  12. Dissolved organic matter dynamic and resident microbiota evolution in soil amended with fresh and composted olive mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Massaccesi, Luisa; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Nasini, Luigi; Proietti, Primo

    2013-04-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastes represents a problem of environmental relevance particularly in the Mediterranean countries where olive oil is mostly produced. Among the several valorisation and recycling methods proposed, interesting for its operational simplicity and convenience is land spreading, either directly or after composting. However, the agriculture use of the water-saturated husk produced by the new two-phase oil extraction systems may be hampered by its consistency and its high content of phenolic compounds, which may finally lead to phytotoxicity. Humid husk may indeed modify the dynamic of soil organic matter (SOM) and the structure and function of microbial communities. On the other hand, organic amendments are known to positively affect SOM fractions, particularly by increasing the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which may eventually lead to an increase in microbial activity. The aim of this work was to investigate, during a 90-day field trial, the modifications in soil DOM composition and the effects on the soil microbiota induced by a humid husk, obtained from a new generation two-phase oil extraction plant, spread in an olive orchard either as a fresh amendment or after a composting process. With respect to the control, the soil amended with either fresh or composted husk showed an increase in water extractable organic carbon (WEOC). Interestingly, while during the first 30 days the soil amended with the composted husk showed a WEOC content higher than the one amended with the fresh husk, after that time only in the latter the WEOC remained significantly higher than in the control. The total content of phenolic compounds showed a similar trend, with the only difference that their concentration in the soil amended with both treatments remained higher than the control for the entire trial. Similarly, both treatments induced an increase in soil reducing sugars, with an higher effect observed in the soil amended with

  13. Evolution of bacterial diversity during two-phase olive mill waste ("alperujo") composting by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Germán; Castellano-Hinojosa, Antonio; Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are the main contributing factor responsible for organic matter degradation during composting. In this research, the 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to elucidate evolution of bacterial diversity during mesophilic, thermophilic and maturation composting stages of the two-phase olive mill waste ("alperujo"), the main by-product of the Spanish olive oil industry. Two similar piles were performance composting AL with sheep manure as bulking agent. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the main phyla found in genomic libraries from each composting phase. Shannon and Chao1 biodiversity indices showed a clear difference between the mesophilic/thermophilic and maturation phases, which was mainly due to detection of new genera. PCA analysis of the relative number of sequences confirmed maturation affected bacterial population structure, and Pearson correlation coefficients between physicochemical composting parameters and relative number of genera sequences suggest that Planomicrobium and Ohtaekwangia could be considered as biomarkers for AL composting maturation.

  14. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Khatib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A research was needed to monitor the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW: production and relative production of olive mill waste. This was achieved by collecting data from 92 local olive mills in order to study the olive production yield, water consumption in olive washing and in oil recovery, wastewater generation relative to olive processed and oil generated, and solid waste generation. The OMW is usually discharged in the open environment, thus producing pollution to the soil surface and underground water. Approach: The progress on this problem is made by reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD as a major OMW pollutant. An upper flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB facility was constructed and operated for eight months in a progressive program operation for standardization and optimization purpose, and so to treat the waste by COD reduction. Results: The results reveal local variation in most of the investigated parameters. The olives in some area are found to contain large solid waste than other areas, resulting in lower oil yield and higher solid generation per ton of olive produced. The COD concentration was increased gradually from 5,000-30,000 mg/L and the efficiency improved significantly during the operation from 46%-84% COD removal. The organic load of OMW 27,000mg/L was reduce below 5,000 mg/L, that permits its direct discharge into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conclusion: The implications and relevance of the results imply that OMW must be treated before discharge to the sewer system. On the other hand, the nonconformity between areas must be taken into consideration for future work.

  15. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  16. Treatment of olive mill waste-water by aerobic biodegradation: an analytical study using gel permeation chromatography, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajjouji, H; Fakharedine, N; Ait Baddi, G; Winterton, P; Bailly, J R; Revel, J C; Hafidi, M

    2007-12-01

    Liquid waste from olive oil mills was digested following inoculation with soil microorganisms and fractionated through various grades of gel. The fractionation showed the range of sizes of the molecules in the waste. In addition, the disappearance of the low molecular weight fraction, which is retained by the gel, and the increase of the high molecular weight fraction, which is excluded by the gel, during the last stages of the microbial treatment, indicates polymerisation of the low-molecular-weight subunits. Characterization of the fractions by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the increase in their degree of polymerisation during the treatment. This is paralleled by a reduction in the amount of aliphatic components and a concomitant increase in aromatic structures.

  17. Assessment of two-phase olive mill solid waste and microalgae co-digestion to improve methane production and process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M J; Rincón, B; Fermoso, F G; Jiménez, A M; Borja, R

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill solid waste (OMSW) is a pollutant waste coming from olive oil elaboration by the two-phase centrifugation system. OMSW has a high organic matter content and unbalanced carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, 31/1, which avoids obtaining high methane yields in the anaerobic digestion of this waste. In the present study a microalgae, Dunaliella salina, was employed as co-substrate for the OMSW anaerobic digestion in order to decrease the C/N ratio and increase its biodegradability. Different co-digestion mixtures (C/N ratios) were studied. The increase of D. salina from 25% to 50% in the co-digestion mixture clearly increased the biodegradability of the sole substrates. The highest biodegradability was found for the co-digestion mixture 50% OMSW-50% D. salina. Nevertheless, the maximum methane production, 330mLCH4/gVSadded, and the highest methane production rate were obtained for the co-digestion mixture 75% OMSW-25% D. salina, keeping a C/N ratio near to 26.7/1.

  18. Appropriate conditions for applying NaOH-pretreated two-phase olive milling waste for codigestion with food waste to enhance biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallahi, Jumana; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2016-02-01

    The high methane gas production potential of two phase olive milling waste (2POMW) makes its application to biogas plants in business an economical process to increase the productivity of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate conditions for the codigestion of NaOH-pretreated 2POMW with food waste. NaOH pretreatment can increase the methane production by increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), but it may cause inhibition because of higher levels of alkalinity, sodium ion, volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Therefore, the first experimental phase of this study aimed to investigate the effect of different mixing ratios of 2POMW to food waste. A continuous stirred tank reactor experiment with different mixing ratios of 3%, 4.3%, 5.7% and 8.3% (2POMW: food waste) was conducted. NaOH pretreatment in the range of 6-20% was used. A mixing ratio up to 4.3%, when 10% NaOH pretreatment was used, caused no inhibition and increased methane production by 445.9mL/g-VS(2POMW). For this mixing ratio an additional experimental phase was conducted with the 20% NaOH pretreatment as the 20% NaOH pretreatment had the highest sCOD. The methane gas production was increased by 503.6mL/g-VS(2POMW). However, pH adjustment was required for applying this concentration of the high alkalinity 20% NaOH-pretreated 2POMW. Therefore, we consider using 10% NaOH pretreatment in a mixing ratio of 4.3% to be more applicable. The increase in methane gas production was correlated to the oleic acid concentration inside the reactors. The high oleic acid concentration of 61.8mg/L for the 8.3% mixing ratio was responsible for the strong inhibition. This study showed that adjusting the appropriate mixing ratio of the NaOH-pretreated 2POMW could increase the electricity production of a reactor that regularly receives food waste.

  19. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  20. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  1. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  2. Recovery of soil properties after seedlings Inoculation with AM fungi and addition of composted olive mill waste in the regeneration of a heavy metal polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) on the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal polluted soil. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96% and 60% respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soils properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided G-mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs; because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy-metal contaminated soils derived from mining process, and also can be a good way for olive mill wastes disposal.

  3. Composted versus Raw Olive Mill Waste as Substrates for the Production of Medicinal Mushrooms: An Assessment of Selected Cultivation and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios I. Zervakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, “alperujo” is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota, that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120–135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20–40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium. Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  4. Composted versus raw olive mill waste as substrates for the production of medicinal mushrooms: an assessment of selected cultivation and quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Katsaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, "alperujo") is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota), that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120-135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea) and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20-40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium). Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  5. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  6. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on biomethane potential of two-phase olive mill solid waste: kinetic approach and process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, B; Bujalance, L; Fermoso, F G; Martín, A; Borja, R

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on two-phase olive mil solid waste (OMSW) composition and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand solubilization and biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. OMSW was ultrasonically pretreated at a power of 200 W and frequency of 24 kHz for time periods of 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes, corresponding to specific energies of 11367, 21121, 34072, 51284, 68557, and 106003 kJ/kg total solids, respectively. In order to evaluate the US pretreatment, a low, medium, and high exposure time, that is, 20, 90, and 180 min, were selected for BMP tests. Methane yields of 311 ± 15, 393 ± 14, and 370 ± 20 mL CH₄/g VSadded (VS: volatile solids) were obtained for 20, 90, and 180 minutes, respectively, while the untreated OMSW gave 373 ± 4 mL CH₄/g VSadded. From a kinetic point of view, the BMP tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage. In the first stage, the kinetic constant obtained for US pretreated OMSW at 20 minutes was 46% higher than those achieved for the pretreated OMSW at 90 and 180 minutes and 48% higher than that for untreated OMSW. The maximum methane production rate achieved was 12% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSW.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Pretreatment on Biomethane Potential of Two-Phase Olive Mill Solid Waste: Kinetic Approach and Process Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, B.; Bujalance, L.; Fermoso, F. G.; Martín, A.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound (US) pretreatment on two-phase olive mil solid waste (OMSW) composition and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand solubilization and biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. OMSW was ultrasonically pretreated at a power of 200 W and frequency of 24 kHz for time periods of 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes, corresponding to specific energies of 11367, 21121, 34072, 51284, 68557, and 106003 kJ/kg total solids, respectively. In order to evaluate the US pretreatment, a low, medium, and high exposure time, that is, 20, 90, and 180 min, were selected for BMP tests. Methane yields of 311 ± 15, 393 ± 14, and 370 ± 20 mL CH4/g VSadded (VS: volatile solids) were obtained for 20, 90, and 180 minutes, respectively, while the untreated OMSW gave 373 ± 4 mL CH4/g VSadded. From a kinetic point of view, the BMP tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage. In the first stage, the kinetic constant obtained for US pretreated OMSW at 20 minutes was 46% higher than those achieved for the pretreated OMSW at 90 and 180 minutes and 48% higher than that for untreated OMSW. The maximum methane production rate achieved was 12% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSW. PMID:25197705

  8. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with a thermal dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Vasileiadis, I; Fountoulakis, M; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-08-11

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. However, transportation and storage of wastes to WWTP may be the bottleneck for the successful implementation of this technology. In case of wet wastes and wastewater it is possible to reduce their volume and as a result the transportation and storage cost by using a drying process. During this study, the optimization of biogas production from sewage sludge (SS) was attempted by co-digesting with a dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater (FCO). A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors at 37°C, fed with thermal dried mixtures of FCO at concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7%. The overall process was designed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24days. FCO addition can boost biogas yields if the mixture exceeds 3% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of 5% FCO causes a small increase in biogas production. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 287ml CH4/Lreactor/d before the addition of FCO and 815ml CH4/Lreactor/d (5% v/v in the feed). The extra FCO-COD added (7% FCO v/v) to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to have the same results. In all cases, the estimated biodegradability of mixtures was over 80%, while the VS removal was 22% for the maximum biomethane production (5% v/v). Moreover, co-digestion improved biogas production by 1.2-2.7 times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of oil mill waste water from Tunisian olive varieties (Chetoui and Chemlali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Khemakhem Sellami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil mill waste water (OMWW is of great interest due to the presence of valuable resources such as biophenols that can be recovered as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of physicochemical composition of OMWW from Chetoui and Chemlali varieties, to evaluate phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of OMWW extracts under native and acidified conditions. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed for the extraction of polyphenols. Antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP tests. Phenolic compounds content was determined by HPLC-DAD method. OMWW from Chetoui variety has been shown to contain an important amount of K, Ca and Na whereas Chemlali cultivar was rich in Mg. Phenolic extract from Chetoui fruit (COCt has been  shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols (2.48 ± 0.21 g L-1 as well as an appreciable content of flavonoids (9.39 ± 0.32 g L-1. However, phenolic extract from Chemlali fruit (COCm has been shown to have the highest content of proanthocyanidins (0.39 ± 0.00 g L-1. Acidification treatment improved polyphenol recovery of extracts from both varieties. COCt was more active using DPPH (EC50 of 7.5 mg L-1 and FRAP tests. However, COCt and COCm exhibited the same activity using ABTS test. In general, acidification treatment decreased antioxidant activity of extracts. COCt has been shown to contain higher amount of hydroxytyrosol when compared to COCm (157.16 ± 0.820 and 23.440 ± 0.440 mg g-1 D.W. of extract, respectively as revealed by HPLC-DAD analysis. 

  11. Improved soil quality after 16 years of olive mill pomace application in olive oil groves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberto, García Ruiz; Ochoa, M. Victoria; Hinojosa, M. Belén

    2012-01-01

    This report shows notable improvements of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties after long-term soil application of olive mill pomace compost. About four million tons of olive mill pomace is produced annually in Andalusia, Spain. Olive mill pomace is a main by-product of the olive oil...... extraction industry. Composting is a promising strategy to manage the huge volume of this potentially environmentally harmful pomace. Converting olive mill pomace into a useful soil amendment in semiarid Mediterranean areas of olive oil farms, characterized by low organic matter content and subjected...... to progressive degradation, would be valuable. There is actually no data on the long-term effects of composted olive mill pomace application on soil physicochemical and biochemical properties. However, this information is needed to encourage the composting of this pomace. Here, a field study evaluated soil...

  12. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  13. Environmental fate of the fungicide metalaxyl in soil amended with composted olive-mill waste and its biochar: An enantioselective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Pignatello, Joseph J; Cox, Lucía; Hermosín, María C; Celis, Rafael

    2016-01-15

    A large number of pesticides are chiral and reach the environment as mixtures of optical isomers or enantiomers. Agricultural practices can affect differently the environmental fate of the individual enantiomers. We investigated how amending an agricultural soil with composted olive-mill waste (OMWc) or its biochar (BC) at 2% (w:w) affected the sorption, degradation, and leaching of each of the two enantiomers of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl. Sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers was higher on BC (Kd ≈ 145 L kg(-1)) than on OMWc (Kd ≈ 22 L kg(-1)) and was not enantioselective in either case, and followed the order BC-amended>OMWc-amended>unamended soil. Both enantiomers showed greater resistance to desorption from BC-amended soil compared to unamended and OMWc-amended soil. Dissipation studies revealed that the degradation of metalaxyl was more enantioselective (R>S) in unamended and OMWc-amended soil than in BC-amended soil. The leaching of both S- and R-metalaxyl from soil columns was almost completely suppressed after amending the soil with BC and metalaxyl residues remaining in the soil columns were more racemic than those in soil column leachates. Our findings show that addition of BC affected the final enantioselective behavior of metalaxyl in soil indirectly by reducing its bioavailability through sorption, and to a greater extent than OMWc. BC showed high sorption capacity to remove metalaxyl enantiomers from water, immobilize metalaxyl enantiomers in soil, and mitigate the groundwater contamination problems particularly associated with the high leaching potential of the more persistent enantiomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance and microbial communities of a continuous stirred tank anaerobic reactor treating two-phases olive mill solid wastes at low organic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, B; Raposo, F; Borja, R; Gonzalez, J M; Portillo, M C; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2006-02-24

    A study of the performance and microbial communities of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating two-phases olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) was carried out at laboratory-scale. The reactor operated at a mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C) and an influent substrate concentration of 162 g total chemical oxygen demand (COD)L(-1) and 126 g volatile solids (VS)L(-1). The data analyzed in this work corresponded to a range of organic loading rates (OLR) of between 0.75 and 3.00 g CODL(-1)d(-1), getting removal efficiencies in the range of 97.0-95.6%. Methane production rate increased from 0.164 to 0.659 L CH(4)L(reactor)(-1)d(-1) when the OLR increased within the tested range. Methane yield coefficients were 0.225 L CH(4)g(-1) COD removed and 0.290 L CH(4)g(-1) VS removed and were virtually independent of the OLR applied. A molecular characterization of the microbial communities involved in the process was also accomplished. Molecular identification of microbial species was performed by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing. Among the predominant microorganisms in the bioreactor, the Firmicutes (mainly represented by Clostridiales) were the most abundant group, followed by the Chloroflexi and the Gamma-Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas species as the major representative). Other bacterial groups detected in the bioreactor were the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deferribacteres. Among the Archaea, the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii was the most representative species.

  15. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  16. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  17. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  18. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  19. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  20. Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

  1. Detection of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) disposal areas using high resolution GeoEye's OrbView-3 and Google Earth images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, Athos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The olive oil industry is considered to be as one of the driving sectors of the agricultural economy of the Mediterranean basin. The extraction of olive oil generates huge quantities of wastes that may have a great impact on land and water environments due to high concentrations in phenolic compounds that could cause ophytotoxicity. This paper aims to examine the potential use of freely distributed satellite images for the detection of olive oil mil waste (OOMW) areas in the island of Crete through the use of two cases studies. In the first case study an archive GeoEye OrbView-3 image was used to detect OOMW areas using the Spectral Angle Mapper detection algorithm and other geometric and topographic parameters. In the second case study, Google Earth images were examined through different classification algorithms at different scales. The overall results demonstrate that remote sensing techniques can be used as an alternative to field observations so as to detect and monitor OOMW areas Furthermore, freely distributed RGB images from digital globes (such as Google Earth) can be sufficiently and effectively used for this purpose.

  2. Detection of olive oil mill waste (OOMW disposal areas using high resolution GeoEye’s OrbView-3 and Google Earth images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapiou Athos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The olive oil industry is considered to be as one of the driving sectors of the agricultural economy of the Mediterranean basin. The extraction of olive oil generates huge quantities of wastes that may have a great impact on land and water environments due to high concentrations in phenolic compounds that could cause ophytotoxicity. This paper aims to examine the potential use of freely distributed satellite images for the detection of olive oil mil waste (OOMW areas in the island of Crete through the use of two cases studies. In the first case study an archive GeoEye OrbView-3 image was used to detect OOMW areas using the Spectral Angle Mapper detection algorithm and other geometric and topographic parameters. In the second case study, Google Earth images were examined through different classification algorithms at different scales. The overall results demonstrate that remote sensing techniques can be used as an alternative to field observations so as to detect and monitor OOMW areas Furthermore, freely distributed RGB images from digital globes (such as Google Earth can be sufficiently and effectively used for this purpose.

  3. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containi

  4. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  5. Continuous integrated treatment of olive mill waste waters by pilot plant experiment; Trattamento integrato in continuo di acque di vegetazione con impianto pilota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, M.; Bortone, C. [Sistema S.r.l., Taranto (Italy); Aresta, M. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica, Centro Ricerche METEA

    2001-10-01

    This research has dealt with the treatment of olive mill waters, through the use of a pilot bench-scale plant. The plant is feeded in continuous mode and implements a primary treatment (sand filtering and irradiation with ultra-violet rays) and a secondary treatment (anoxic and aerobic biological treatment). [Italian] Questa ricerca e' consistita nella messa a punto di una tecnica combinata pr il trattamento di acque di vegetazione mediante l'uso di un impianto pilota da banco che e' stato alimentato in continuo con acqua di vegetazione non diluita. In via preliminare, e' stata effettuata una filtrazione su sabbia e un irraggiamento con luce UV (trattamento primario), cui e' seguito un trattamento di tipo secondario attraverso una successione di due stadi biologici, anossico ed aerobico. L'effluente ha proprieta' tali da poter essere vantaggiosamente usato per fertirrigazione.

  6. Vermicomposting of olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth.

  7. Does wastewater from olive mills induce toxicity and water repellency in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikert, B.; Bandow, N.; Schaumann, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater is the effluent generated by the olive oil extraction process. It is the main waste product of this industry mainly being produced in the Mediterranean Basin. Because proper treatment options are rare it is often disposed into the environment, e.g. fields or wadies. Due to its high concentration of fatty acids and phytotoxic phenolic compounds and its high chemical and biological oxygen demand, olive oil mill wastewater becomes a serious environmental problem. In this screening study we investigated long-term effects of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil properties in several locations in the West Bank and Israel. We determined wettability via water drop penetration time and the contact angle as well as general soil properties including pH, EC, carbon content, and we conducted thermogravimetrical analyses in order to characterize the impact of the waste water on the quality of soil organic matter. Our results show that application of olive oil mill wastewater has various effects. We determined contact angles between 110 and 120° and water drop penetration times up to 1367 s indicating significant reduction in wettability. Furthermore, soil carbon and nitrogen content and water extractable organic matter increased as well as electric conductivity, which could be pointed out as a fertilizing effect. In contrast soil pH was significantly reduced. Conducting thermal analyses we observed an increase in the labile and refractory carbon fraction. Probably first one is responsible for induced water repellency. As a consequence the reduced wettability negatively affects soil quality. It would therefore be promising to minimize the hydrophobizing impacts without losing fertilizing effects of the olive oil mill wastewater.

  8. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  9. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  10. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future.

  11. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  12. The effects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the availability and plant uptake of nutrients in a highly saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a compost (produced from by-products of the olive oil industry) and a poultry manure on mineral ion solubility and exchangeability in a highly saline agricultural soil (electrical conductivity for a 1:5 soil:water extract=1.85 dS m(-1)) from Murcia (SE Spain) were studied. The organic amendments did not change significantly the soil electrical conductivity or the soluble Na(+), Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Only soluble K(+) increased, due to the K(+) supplied by the amendments. The cation exchange capacity increased in treated soils, the exchange complex being mainly saturated with Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+). However, Na(+) was not retained in the exchange sites, and the sodium absorption ratio remained low. The compost and manure increased markedly the shoot growth of the salt-tolerant Beta maritima L. (sea beet) and Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet). For B. maritima, this seemed to be related to decreases in the shoot concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) and increases in K(+) and H(2)PO(4)(-). In the case of B. vulgaris, increases in shoot H(2)PO(4)(-) and B and, for manure-treated soil, a decrease in shoot Na(+) may have been involved. Cultivation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) in the soil used previously for B. vulgaris indicated that the effects of the manure on tissue cation concentrations were longer-lasting than those of the compost.

  13. Purification and biochemical characterization of a new alkali-stable laccase from Trametes sp. isolated in Tunisia: role of the enzyme in olive mill waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María Jesús; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2013-11-01

    A white-rot basidiomycete, isolated from decayed acacia wood (from Northwest of Tunisia) and identified as Trametes sp, was selected in a broad plate screening because of its ability to decolorize and dephenolize olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) efficiently. The major laccase was purified and characterized as a monomeric protein with apparent molecular mass of 61 kDa (SDS-PAGE). It exhibits high enzyme activity over broad pH and temperature ranges with optimum activity at pH 4.0 and a temperature of 60 °C. The purified laccase is stable at alkaline pH values. The enzyme retained 50 % of its activity after 90 min of incubation at 55 °C. Using ABTS, this laccase presented K m and V max values of 0.05 mM and 212.73 μmoL min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. It has shown a degrading activity towards a variety of phenolic compounds. The purified laccase was partially inhibited by Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+), while Cu(2+) acted as inducer. EDTA (10 mM) and NaN3 (10 mM) were found to completely inhibit its activity. 73 % OMW was dephenolized after 315 min incubation at 30 °C with 2 U mL(-1) of laccase and 2 mM HBT.

  14. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Papadopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW administered through drinking water, on chickens’ redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50 μg/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, protein carbonyls (CARB, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD in plasma, and glutathione (GSH and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  15. Involvement of microbial populations during the composting of olive mill wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Chamkha, M; Godon, J J; Sayadi, S

    2007-07-01

    Olive mill waste water sludge obtained by the electro-Fenton oxidation of olive mill waste water was composted in a bench scale reactor. The evolution of microbial species within the composter was investigated using a respirometric test and by means of both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism, PCR SSCP). During the period of high respiration rate (7-24 days), cultivation method showed that thermophilic bacteria as well as actinomycetes dominated over eumycetes. During the composting process, the PCR-SSCP method showed a higher diversity of the bacterial community than the eukaryotic one. After 60 days of composting, the compost exhibited a microbial stability and a clear absence of phytotoxicity.

  16. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL EMPLOYMENT OF OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS FOR WATER REMEDIATION AND POTENTIAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Addorisio, Veria

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) are dark-colored wastes characterized by high values of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand). OMW contains high amounts of organic and inorganic compounds. The first category includes mostly sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, proteins, fatty substances, mixed phenol-polysaccharide polymers, polyalcohols, cellulose and hemicellulose, pectins and tannins. The inorganic substance, present in lower amount, includes mainly potassium and,...

  18. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2017-08-11

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater and the Use of Polyphenols Obtained After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastes are signicant environmental problem especially in Mediterranean areas where they are generated in huge quantities in a short period of time. They are phytotoxic materials because of their high phenol, lipid and organic acid concentrations, but these wastes also contain valuable resources that could be recycled such as a large proportion of organic matter and a wide range of nutrients. The effluent from olive oil mills contains a large amount of polyphenols that have antioxidant properties. The market value of these antioxidants is high and they are commonly used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and chemical industries. For the management of olive mill wastewater (OMW and other olive residues, various treatment methods can be used. Many scientists work on more efficient and cheaper treatment alternatives. Due to the great variety of compounds in the waste, several technologies to remove the harmful compounds for the environment should be used single or together. Some of the most used OMW treatments are drying / evaporation, forced evaporation, thermal treatment, centrifugation-ultraltration, electrocoagulation, composting, lagooning, adsorption, powdered activated carbon, filtration, sand filtration, membrane filtration, ultrafiltration, precipitation / flocculation, distillation, electrolysis, co-composting, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as ozonation, hydrogen peroxide / ferrous iron oxidation (the so-called Fentons reagent. Several OMW treatment technologies have been developed aiming at the removal of the main toxic organic compounds. A lot of factors must be considered to choose the treatment methods among them the investment, required area, specic training of the workers, noise and odour emissions and seasonality of production.

  20. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater and the Use of Polyphenols Obtained After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastes are signicant environmental problem especially in Mediterranean areas where they are generated in huge quantities in a short period of time. They are phytotoxic materials because of their high phenol, lipid and organic acid concentrations, but these wastes also contain valuable resources that could be recycled such as a large proportion of organic matter and a wide range of nutrients. The effluent from olive oil mills contains a large amount of polyphenols that have antioxidant properties. The market value of these antioxidants is high and they are commonly used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and chemical industries. For the management of olive mill wastewater (OMW and other olive residues, various treatment methods can be used. Many scientists work on more efficient and cheaper treatment alternatives. Due to the great variety of compounds in the waste, several technologies to remove the harmful compounds for the environment should be used single or together. Some of the most used OMW treatments are drying / evaporation, forced evaporation, thermal treatment, centrifugation-ultraltration, electrocoagulation, composting, lagooning, adsorption, powdered activated carbon, filtration, sand filtration, membrane filtration, ultrafiltration, precipitation / flocculation, distillation, electrolysis, co-composting, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as ozonation, hydrogen peroxide / ferrous iron oxidation (the so-called Fentons reagent. Several OMW treatment technologies have been developed aiming at the removal of the main toxic organic compounds. A lot of factors must be considered to choose the treatment methods among them the investment, required area, specic training of the workers, noise and odour emissions and seasonality of production.

  1. Field-scale electrical geophysics over an olive oil mill waste deposition site: Evaluating the information content of resistivity versus induced polarization (IP) images for delineating the spatial extent of organic contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Robinson, Judith; Soupios, Pantelis; Slater, Lee

    2016-12-01

    We performed 2D resistivity and IP measurements over a known olive oil mill waste plume at a site in western Crete, Greece. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to determine whether IP is more diagnostic in delineating the spatial extent of the plume relative to resistivity measurements alone; (2) to evaluate whether the additional information content obtained from IP is worth the effort given longer data acquisition times and higher measurement errors that inevitably characterize field IP data acquisition. Complex conductivity inversion of the field IP dataset revealed that the organic plume is characterized as a region of high electrical conductivity (real part of complex conductivity) consistent with the conceptual model for the electrical structure of a biodegraded LNAPL contaminant plume. The plume is also characterized by a region of high polarizability (imaginary part of complex conductivity) that is more localized to the known plume location (based on conventional monitoring) relative to the high conductivity region in the electrical conductivity image. This observation is attributed to the fact that electrical conductivity is more strongly controlled by hydrogeological and geological characteristics of the site that mask the response from the biodegraded plume. This result encourages the use of field IP to improve the spatial delineation of organic contamination in the subsurface. However, more laborious field procedures are required to acquire reliable field IP data and the inversion of field IP data remains more challenging than resistivity data alone.

  2. Antioxidant activity of olive wine, a byproduct of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qian; He, Gang; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yibing; Shen, Yuanfu; Gou, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    Context Although olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds, disposing OMWW is a serious environmental challenge. Production of wine via fermenting OMWW may be a promising alternative to deal with OMWW. However, whether or not olive wine from OMWW still reserves its original bioactivities remains unclear. Objective This study examines antioxidant activity of olive wine fermented from OMWW. Materials and methods Hydroxytyrosol in olive oil was determined by HPLC. Total flavonoid, total polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Aged mice were intragastricly administered 7, 14 and 28 mL/kg olive wine consecutively for 30 d. Afterward, levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in mouse plasma and liver. Results Contents of hydroxytyrosol, total flavonoid and total polyphenol in olive wine were 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of olive wine to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was 2.5% and 3.2% (v/v), respectively. Compared with the solvent control group, olive wine with a dose of 28 mL/kg remarkably lowered mouse MDA concentration in liver, and reduced protein carbonyl level in plasma (p wine at doses of 7 and 28 mL/kg notably enhanced SOD activity in both mouse plasma and liver (p wine from OMWW has potential for treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  3. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    conventional treatment with coal fly ash. One of the most important parameters to evaluate the swelling potential, swelling pressure, dramatically decreased in samples treated with olive mill wastewater, from 220kPa in the original sample of bentonite to values under 60kPa after 30 days. Regarding the mineralogy of the treated soil, X-ray Diffraction tests suggested a noticeable reduction in the amount of smectite within the crystalline structure of treated soils. Moreover, the smectite 001 peak shifted to right indicating a smaller d-spacing and hence a more stable mineral structure. To sum up, the improvements achieved by adding olive mill wastewater were, to some extent, similar to those produced by lower dosages of conventional additives (Portland cement or coal fly ash). The first results obtained in this work therefore indicate promising properties of biomass for its use in stabilization of expansive soils. A further research is still necessary. Finally, it must be pointed out that the use of raw biomass proceeding from olive grove might considerably improve the waste management in olive oil industry while offering new opportunities to civil works.

  4. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  5. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  6. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  7. Analysis of metal cations and inorganic anions in olive oil mill waste waters by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography. Detection of metals bound mainly to the organic polymeric fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, M; Capasso, R

    2000-04-01

    Metal cations were quantitatively detected by atomic absorption spectrometry in samples of olive oil mill waste waters obtained by a pressure process (omww(1)) (K, 17.1; Mg, 2.72; Ca, 2.24; Na, 0.40; Fe, 0.123; Zn, 0.0630; Mn, 0.0147; Cu, 0.00860 g L(-)(1)) and a centrifugation process (omww(2)) (K, 9.80; Mg, 1.65; Ca, 1.35; Na, 0. 162; Fe, 0.0330; Zn, 0.0301; Mn, 0.00910; Cu, 0.00980 g L(-)(1)). The inorganic anions, determined in the same samples by ion chromatography, proved to be Cl(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), F(-), SO(4)(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) (1.61, 1.05, 0.66, 0.52, and 0.023 g L(-)(1), respectively, in omww(1) and 0.61, 0.40, 0.25, 0.20, and 0.0090 g L(-)(1), respectively, in omww(2)). Most of the metal cations were revealed to be bound to the omww organic polymeric fraction (opf), composed of polysaccharides, phenol polymers, and proteins. Opf relative molecular weight was substantially estimated in the range between 1000 and 30000 Da for approximately 75% and in the range from 30000 to 100000 Da for approximately 25%. The free residual cations pool proved to be neutralized by the inorganic counteranions. Finally, the possible exploitation of this material in agriculture and in environmental biotechnology processes is also discussed in the light of its chemical and biochemical oxygen demand parameters.

  8. Separation of Polyphenols from Jordanian Olive Oil Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Deeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at separation of polyphenols from Jordanian olive mill wastewater which have possible applications in pharmaceutical industry. The phenolic compounds were isolated using silica column chromatography based on using different solvents after extracting the acidified solution with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The structural elucidation of the separated compounds was achieved using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. The concentrations of these compounds were determined by GC-MS after derivatization with N, O-bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA. The concentrations of the main isolated phenolic compounds in the Jordanian olive mill wastewater were ferulic acid (93.6 mg/L, trans-cinnamic acid (105.3 mg/L, p-coumaric acid (117.0 mg/L, vanillic acid (128.7 mg/L, caffeic acid (140.4 mg/L, tyrosol (210.6 mg/L, and hydroxytyrosol (315.9 mg/L.

  9. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  11. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  12. Lipase production by Aspergillus ibericus using olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Oliveira, Felisbela; Dantas, Danielle; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Belo, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) characteristics make it a suitable resource to be used as a microbial culture media to produce value-added compounds, such as enzymes. In this work, the ability of the novel species Aspergillus ibericus to discolor OMW and produce lipase was studied. An initial screening on plates containing an OMW-based agar medium and an emulsified olive oil/rhodamine-B agar medium was employed to select the strain A. ibericus MUM 03.49. Then, experiments in conical flasks with liquid OMW-based media showed that the fungus could growth on undiluted OMW, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 97 ± 2 g/L, and to produce up to 2,927 ± 54 U/L of lipase. When pure OMW was used in the media, the maximum COD and color reduction achieved were 45 and 97 %, respectively. When OMW diluted to 10 % was used, A. ibericus was able to reduce phenolic and aromatic compounds by 37 and 39 %, respectively. Additionally, lipase production was found to be promoted by the addition of mineral nutrients. When the fermentations were scaled up to a 2-L bioreactor, A. ibericus produced up to 8,319 ± 33 U/L of lipase, and the maximum COD and color reduction were 57 and 24 %, respectively.

  13. Valorization of antioxidants extracted from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Imen; Kharrat, Nadia; Aloui, Fatma; Sellami, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidants are highly important gradients used to preserve cosmetic products and reduce the effect of oxidative stress on the skin. The present work explores the possibility of using phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) as effective alternatives to the commercial antioxidants used in cosmetic formulations deemed by their allergic and carcinogenic effects. Esterification of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol extracted from OMW with various fatty acids was conducted using Novozyme 435 lipase as a biocatalyst. Upon synthesis, butyrate, caprate, laurate, and palmitate tyrosyl and hydroxytyrosyl esters were isolated and evaluated for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Results showed that laurate derivatives are the most efficient in preventing lipid oxidation and inhibiting growth of pathogenic strains. In the prospective of industrial use, laurate tyrosyl and hydroxytyrosyl derivatives were incorporated in a formulation of moisturizer to substitute the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxyltoluene. Oleuropein, extracted from olive leaves powder, was also tested as an antiaging ingredient in cosmetic formulations. The evaluation of physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties of the new cosmetic products indicated that oleuropein and lipophilic derivatives do not affect the properties of the standard formulation. Oleuropein and lipophilic derivatives can be added as active ingredients to stabilize cosmetic preparations. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  15. Purification of olive mill wastewater phenols through membrane filtration and resin adsorption/desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Vavouraki, Aikaterini I; Kornaros, Michael E; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2015-03-21

    Olive tree cultivation has a long history in the Mediterranean countries, and even today consists an important cultural, economic, and environmental aspect of the area. The production of olive oil through 3-phase extraction systems, leads to the co-production of large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW), with toxic compounds that inhibit its biodegradation. Membrane filtration has been used for the exploitation of this byproduct, through the isolation of valuable phenolic compounds. In the current work, a fraction of the waste occurring from a membrane process was used. More specifically the reverse osmosis concentrate, after a nanofiltration, containing the low-molecular-weight compounds, was further treated with resin adsorption/desorption. The non ionic XAD4, XAD16, and XAD7HP resins were implemented, for the recovery of phenols and their separation from carbohydrates. The recovered phenolic compounds were concentrated through vacuum evaporation reaching a final concentration of 378 g/L in gallic acid equivalents containing 84.8 g/L hydroxytyrosol.

  16. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Functional olive Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formulated Using Olive Mill Wastewater and Whey Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated b...

  17. [Pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills and drinking-water production. Case study of the Sebou river in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutlane, A; Saadallah, M; Echihabi, L; Bourchich, L

    2002-01-01

    The National Office for Drinking Water (ONEP), responsible for the drinking-water supply in Morocco, faces serious difficulties in producing water of good quality at a reasonable price from the River Sebou waters. The ONEP's three water treatment plants have been disrupted or even stopped due to the poor quality of waters received. The main source of pollution is the urban and industrial waste of the town of Fes, compounded by episodic pollution caused by the olive oil mills of Fes and its surrounding area. The ONEP study shows that the additional production costs incurred as a result of the pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills far exceeds the drinking-water rates charged in the study area.

  18. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Moufida Aggoun; Rabah Arhab; Nassima Leulm; Malika Barkat

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW) are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to...

  19. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  20. The Problem of Olive Mill Wastewater in Turkey and some Solution Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Tunalioğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive, as a fruit, cannot be consumed directly due to the oleuropein substance it contains and needs to be processed into either table olives or olive oil through various production systems. The process of olive oil extraction results in olive oil as the main product, and two by-products, with olive pomace being one and brown-coloured Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW as the other. OMWW has no direct use and it is usually discharged directly to soil, small rivers, lakes or sea, resulting in potential contamination of the environment. Turkey is the fourth largest olive producing country in the world and fifth in olive oil production. Turkey produces approximately 891 393 tonnes of OMWW on average per two years using the current mill production technologies, and hence faces the problem of OMWW. This study proposes and discusses various solution alternatives to overcome the problem of OMWW in Turkey. The results of this study aim to contribute to the ongoing efforts in resolving this problem by the olive industry and to aid policy making to tackle this important issue.

  1. The Problem of Olive Mill Wastewater in Turkey and some Solution Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Tunalioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive, as a fruit, cannot be consumed directly due to the oleuropein substance it contains and needs to be processed into either table olives or olive oil through various production systems. The process of olive oil extraction results in olive oil as the main product, and two by-products, with olive pomace being one and brown-coloured Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW as the other. OMWW has no direct use and it is usually discharged directly to soil, small rivers, lakes or sea, resulting in potential contamination of the environment. Turkey is the fourth largest olive producing country in the world and fifth in olive oil production. Turkey produces approximately 891 393 tonnes of OMWW on average per two years using the current mill production technologies, and hence faces the problem of OMWW. This study proposes and discusses various solution alternatives to overcome the problem of OMWW in Turkey. The results of this study aim to contribute to the ongoing efforts in resolving this problem by the olive industry and to aid policy making to tackle this important issue.

  2. Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Kapellakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS, planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW

  3. Lipase production by Yarrowia lipolytica using olive oil processing wastes as substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moftah Omar A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study solid and liquid wastes from the olive oil processing industry were evaluated as substrates for Yarrowia lipolytica growth with the aim of lipase production. Olive mill wastewater and olive oil cake seemed to provide necessary nutrients and physical support for the yeast to grow and produce enzyme. The highest lipolytic activity of 850 IU dm-3 was achieved after 4 days of submerged cultivation in supplemented olive mill wastewater. In addition, olive oil cake appeared to be a convenient substrate for lipase production under solid state fermentation mode. Lipase production was further improved by media supplementation and/or change in physical settings of the experiment. However, the most significant improvement of lipase production under solid state fermentation was achieved by an alkaline treatment of the substrate (more than 10-fold when the amount of produced lipase reached up to ~40 IU g-1 of substrate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. E!6750 i br. III 46010

  4. Olive mill wastewater treatment in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells.

  5. Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, A.R.; Rojas, S. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Area de Proyectos de Ingenieria

    2007-07-15

    The olive and grape agro-industrial sectors have a major economic importance in Extremadura. Annual production of olive oil is more than 50 x 10{sup 3} t, and of wine is more than 3 x 10{sup 6} hectolitres. The large amounts of by-products are in most cases under-used, although they could be converted into a zero cost of the waste at the point of origin. In this context, the present work describes an estimate of plant size, and an economic analysis of grate firing+steam turbine (GF/ST) and fluidized bed combustion+steam turbine (FBC/ST) waste-to-energy solutions using industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura. The fuel is dry olive husk waste (OH), olive mill wastewater (OMW), OH+OMW sludge, and grape waste from wineries, with total calculated specific costs of 3.28, 8.09, 2.67, and 2.05 EUR GJ{sup -1} with respect to the lower heating value (LHV), respectively. The logistics component corresponding to trucking the biomass to the power production plant is that of greatest economic importance, even when the logistics strategy includes de-centralized drying plants. For real onsite availabilities of OH 21.084 x 10{sup 3} t, OMW 37.483 x 10{sup 3} t, olive sludge 87.462 x 10{sup 3} t, and grape waste 89.486 x 10{sup 3} t, the gross power is 19.13 MW for a GF/ST plant and 20.46 MW for an FBC/ST plant. The results are compared using standard economic indices - net present value (NPV), profitability index (PI), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback time (PBT). A sensitivity and risk analysis of the proposals showed the GF/ST option to be the better suited to the studied scenario, with better values for all the indicators. (author)

  6. Rhizosphere dynamics during phytoremediation of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, S F; Cicalini, A R; Santori, F

    2011-03-01

    The potential of phytoremediation as a treatment option for olive mill wastewater (OMW) was tested on five perennial tree species. Cupressus sempervirens and Quercus ilex proved tolerant to six-month OMW treatment followed by six-month water irrigation, whereas Salix sp. and Laurus nobilis and, later, Pinus mugo suffered from phytotoxic effects. Test plants were compared to controls after treatment and irrigation, by monitoring biochemical and microbiological variations in the rhizosphere soil. OMW-treated soils were exposed to 50-fold higher phenols concentrations, which, irrespective of whether the respective plants were OMW-resistant or susceptible, were reduced by more than 90% by the end of the irrigation cycle, owing to significantly increased laccase, peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities, recovery/acquisition of bacterial culturability and transitory development of specialized fungal communities sharing the presence of Geotrichum candidum. Of all results, the identification of Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum as dominant rhizosphere fungi was distinctive of OMW-tolerant species.

  7. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW. Two free water surface (FWS constructed wetlands, one without (CW1 and one with effluent recirculation (CW2, were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10 and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.

  8. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Olive oil mill wastewater for remediation of slag contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively.

  10. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Hayek, B.O.; Al-Hmoud, N.; Al-Gogazeh, L.

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  11. Antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater obtained from different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMWW is considered a by-product because of the presence of biostatic compounds with a high polluting rate, in particular phenols. Moreover, during olive oil processing, a large amount of this by-product constitutes an ecological and economical problem for the producers. To reevaluate this by-product, the reuse of this wastewater to obtain useful compounds appears to be very important. In order to purify the wastewater, the development of operations that modify its organic content seems necessary for obtaining of eventual fertilizing agents and/or to recover substances with a high added value such as phenolic compounds, which are currently recognized scientifically as molecules with a high antioxidant activity. A chromatographic analysis of these compounds was conducted to characterize different concentrations of wastewater and the reducing power of the extracts was measured. The thermal treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in a rotary evaporator and in an oven involved an increase in radical scavenging efficiency. These results could be correlated with the possibility of recovering and reusing this type of waste for its antioxidant properties.

    En la industria alimentaria, el alpechín se considera un subproducto debido a la presencia de compuestos bioestáticos, con una alta tasa de contaminación, particularmente los fenoles. Además, durante el procesado de la aceituna, la generación de una gran cantidad de este subproducto supone un problema ecológico y económico para los productores. Es importante la reutilización de este agua de desecho para obtener compuestos útiles. Para purificar el agua de desecho es necesario el desarrollo de operaciones que modifiquen su contenido orgánico, para poder obtener agentes fertilizantes y/o recuperar sustancias con un alto valor añadido como los compuestos fenólicos, que actualmente están reconocidos científicamente como moléculas con una

  12. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  13. Olive mill wastewater characteristics: modelling and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins-Dias, Susete

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of the work carried out on Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW characterisation is given, covering articles published over the last 50 years. Data on OMW characterisation found in the literature are summarised and correlations between them and with phenolic compounds content are sought. This permits the characteristics of an OMW to be estimated from one simple measurement: the phenolic compounds concentration. A model based on OMW characterisations accounting 6 countries was developed along with a model for Portuguese OMW. The statistical analysis of the correlations obtained indicates that Chemical Oxygen Demand of a given OMW is a second-degree polynomial function of its phenolic compounds concentration. Tests to evaluate the regressions significance were carried out, based on multivariable ANOVA analysis, on visual standardised residuals distribution and their means for confidence levels of 95 and 99 %, validating clearly these models. This modelling work will help in the future planning, operation and monitoring of an OMW treatment plant.Presentamos una síntesis de los trabajos realizados en los últimos 50 años relacionados con la caracterización del alpechín. Realizamos una recopilación de los datos publicados, buscando correlaciones entre los datos relativos al alpechín y los compuestos fenólicos. Esto permite la determinación de las características del alpechín a partir de una sola medida: La concentración de compuestos fenólicos. Proponemos dos modelos, uno basado en datos relativos a seis países y un segundo aplicado únicamente a Portugal. El análisis estadístico de las correlaciones obtenidas indica que la demanda química de oxígeno de un determinado alpechín es una función polinómica de segundo grado de su concentración de compuestos fenólicos. Se comprobó la significancia de esta correlación mediante la aplicación del análisis multivariable ANOVA, y además se evaluó la distribución de residuos y sus

  14. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process...

  15. Membrane-filtered olive mill wastewater: Quality assessment of the dried phenolic-rich fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW a...

  16. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  17. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  18. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  19. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  20. Application of lime and calcium hypochlorite in the dephenolisation and discolouration of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhoubza, F; Jail, A; Korchi, F; Idrissi, L Loukili; Hannache, H; Duarte, J C; Hassani, L; Nejmeddine, A

    2009-10-01

    The application of hypochlorite for the removal of soluble COD, phenolic and polyphenolic like compounds, and other organic compounds responsible for the olive mill wastewater (OOWW) colour has been experimentally studied. After the OOWW filtration on a sand column, the effluent was subjected to a fast liming under optimal conditions. Lime application reduced polyphenols, COD and SS contents to half of their initial values but an important blackening of the treated OOWW was observed, especially when adding high concentrations of lime (10% (W/V) and 15% (W/V)). A second stage of treatment was applied using calcium hypochlorite. In this stage, removal of the studied compounds reached as much as 95% at higher concentrations, and particularly the colouring of OOWW which is generally difficult to eliminate was greatly reduced. The OOWW hypochloration acted through coagulation-flocculation and a rapid oxidation of the organic matter proceeded from the first 5min. The kinetic study of the degradation of the waste polluting compounds from liming showed that Ca(ClO)(2) reacts similarly in the elimination of organic compounds, polyphenols, SS and colouration. The analysis of the organochloride compounds generated by the reaction between hypochlorite and the organic compounds showed that DDD, DDT and the heptachlor contents exceeded the values recommended by the International and European drinking water standards.

  1. Dose and frequency dependent effects of olive mill wastewater treatment on the chemical and microbial properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, Salwa; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Jarboui, Raja; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2013-11-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic by-product of olive oil production. While its high organic load and polyphenol concentrations are associated with troublesome environmental effects, its rich mineral and organic matter contents represent valuable nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the valorization of this waste biomass as a potential soil conditioner and fertilizer in agriculture. OMW was assayed at three doses 50, 100, and 200 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1)) over three successive years in olive fields. The effects of the effluent on the physico-chemical and microbial properties of soil-layers were assessed. The findings revealed that the pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, total nitrogen, sodium, and potassium soil contents increased in proportion with OMW concentration and frequency of application. While no variations were observed in phosphorus content, slow increases were recorded in calcium and magnesium soil contents. Compared to their control soil counterparts, aerobic bacteria and fungi increased in proportion with OMW spreading rates. The models expressing the correlation between progress parameters and OMW doses were fitted into a second degree polynomial model. Principal component analysis showed a strong correlation between soil mineral elements and microorganisms. These parameters were not related to phosphorus and pH.

  2. A review on the use of membrane technology and fouling control for olive mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Javier Miguel Ochando

    2016-09-01

    Olive mill effluents (OME) by-produced have significantly increased in the last decades as a result of the boost of the olive oil agro-industrial sector and due to the conversion into continuous operation centrifugation technologies. In these effluents, the presence of phytotoxic recalcitrant pollutants makes them resistant to biological degradation and thus inhibits the efficiency of biological and conventional processes. Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for OME have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory and cost-effective results. Olive oil industries in its current status, typically small mills dispersed, cannot afford such high treatment costs. Furthermore, conventional treatments are not able to abate the significant dissolved monovalent and divalent ions concentration present in OME. Within this framework, membrane technology offers high efficiency and moderate investment and maintenance expenses. Wastewater treatment by membrane technologies is growing in the recent years. This trend is owed to the fact of the availability of new membrane materials, membrane designs, membrane module concepts and general know-how, which have promoted credibility among investors. However, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time and leads to premature substitution of the membrane modules, and this is a problem of cost efficiency since wastewater treatment must imply low operating costs. Appropriate fouling inhibition methods should assure this result, thus making membrane processes for wastewater stream treatment both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the treatment of the effluents by-produced in olive mills, generally called olive mill wastewaters, will be addressed. Within this context, the state of the art of the different pretreatments and integral membrane processes proposed up to today will be gathered and discussed, with an insight in the problem of fouling.

  3. Agrochemical characterization, net N mineralization, and potential N leaching of composted olive-mill pomace currently produced in southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hatch, David J.; Bol, Roland

    2013-01-01

    In S Spain, the Andalusian olive oil industry generates annually 2.5-3.0 million tons of olive mill pomace, a by-product which is comprised of the residues from the two-phase oil-extraction process. The agricultural policies of the EU have led to widespread interest in recycling these agricultural...

  4. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed.

  5. The Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Soils in Northwest Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahsha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination may influence negatively soil health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies soil biodiversity and decreases plant growth. Soil health is the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system, providing essential ecosystem services. Within soils, all bio-geo-chemical processes of the different ecosystem components are combined. These processes are able to sustain biological productivity of soil, to maintain the quality of surrounding air and water environments, as well as to promote plant, animal, and human health. A common criterion to evaluate long term sustainability of ecosystems is to assess the quality of soil. However, the increased concentration and distribution of toxic substances in soils by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. A major environmental concern in the Mediterranean countries is the production of the large quantities of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW produced during olive oil extraction process. OMW inhibits several groups of bacteria and fungal species, thus affecting soil stability. In the present study, we investigated the effect of OMW on the soil physical, chemical characteristics and the microarthropods structure. All soil samples were collected from an olive mill garden in Northwest Jordan. Biological soil quality index (QBS-ar values appeared to decrease with respect to soil pollution by OMW. All investigated parameters were significantly different depending on the levels of OMW contamination in soil. Anthropogenic activities influenced the microarthropod community, altering both quantity and quality of soil chemical and physical structure of the microhabitats. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the application of QBS-ar index could be a useful tool for evaluating surface soils health status.

  6. Halotalea alkalilenta gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel osmotolerant and alkalitolerant bacterium from alkaline olive mill wastes, and emended description of the family Halomonadaceae Franzmann et al. 1989, emend. Dobson and Franzmann 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Fasseas, Constantinos

    2007-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, motile, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from alkaline sludge-like wastes ('alpeorujo' or 'alperujo') of two-phase olive oil extraction is described. The strain, designated AW-7(T), is an obligate aerobe that is halotolerant (tolerating up to 15 % w/v NaCl), sugar-tolerant (tolerating up to 45 % and 60 % w/v (+)-d-glucose and maltose respectively; these are the highest concentrations tolerated by any known members of the Bacteria domain) and alkalitolerant (growing at a broad pH range of 5-11). Strain AW-7(T) is chemo-organotrophic. Ubiquinone-9 was detected in the respiratory chain of strain AW-7(T). The major fatty acids present are C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0), C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c, C(12 : 0) 3-OH and C(16 : 1)omega7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain AW-7(T) showed almost equal phylogenetic distances from Zymobacter palmae (95.6 % similarity) and Carnimonas nigrificans (95.4 % similarity). In addition, low DNA-DNA relatedness values were found for strain AW-7(T) against Carnimonas nigrificans CECT 4437(T) (22.5-25.4 %) and Z. palmae DSM 10491(T) (11.9-14.4 %). The DNA G+C content of strain AW-7(T) is 64.4 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the differentiation of strain AW-7(T) from the genera Zymobacter and Carnimonas. Thus, strain AW-7(T) represents a novel bacterial genus within the family Halomonadaceae, for which the name Halotalea gen. nov. is proposed. Halotalea alkalilenta sp. nov. (type strain AW-7(T)=DSM 17697(T)=CECT 7134(T)) is proposed as the type species of the genus Halotalea gen. nov. A reassignment of the descriptive 16S rRNA signature characteristics of the family Halomonadaceae permitted the placement of the novel genus Halotalea into the family; in contrast, the genus Halovibrio possessed only 12 out of the 18 signature characteristics proposed, and hence it was excluded from the family Halomonadaceae.

  7. Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, Nuri; Keskin, Tugba; Yuruyen, Aysegul [Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey (CW) and laying hen litter (LHL) in order to enhance the methane production of OME was investigated. For this purpose, biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was carried out for both raw OME alone and OME mixed with varying amount of other substrates such as LHL and CW in the serum bottles, respectively. Corresponding methane production values for various mixtures of the organic residue streams used in this study were determined. It was demonstrated that co-digestion of OME with LHL significantly enhanced the biodegradability of OME which was too low if it was digested alone. Over 90% increase in biogas production was obtained when digesting OME with LHL. The biogas production increased only 22%, when CW was used for the same purpose. It was demonstrated that the biodegradability of OME could be significantly enhanced by co-digestion and thereby integrated management of OME using anaerobic degradation could be proposed as an economically viable and ecologically acceptable solution for the safe disposal of OME. (author)

  8. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio Rabaza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where there is a great opportunity to reduce electricity consumption, increase additional profits related to the reduction of technologies that are harmful to the environment, and to cut back maintenance costs. For this reason, a feasibility study of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV systems has been carried out for different types of olive mills in Andalusia (southern Spain. This region is highly energy dependent, but has an abundance of “green” resources to be exploited. The results of this study contemplate a reduction in spending on electrical power of between 2% and 37%, and an increase in the use of renewable energy of between 2% and 26%. These results are according to the self-consumption or net metering policy and the production capacity of olive oil.

  9. Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

    Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

  10. Pilot scale nanofiltration treatment of olive mill wastewater: a technical and economical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, S; Fraga, M C; Silva, N A; Nunes, P; Crespo, J G; Pereira, V J

    2016-11-22

    The treatment of large volumes of olive mill wastewater is presently a challenge. This study reports the technical and economical feasibility of a sequential treatment of olive mill wastewater comprising a dissolved air flotation pre-treatment and nanofiltration. Different pilot nanofiltration assays were conducted in a concentration mode up to different volume reduction factors (29, 45, 58, and 81). Data attained demonstrated that nanofiltration can be operated at considerably high volume reduction factors and still be effective towards the removal of several components. A flux decline of approximately 50% was observed at the highest volume reduction factor, mainly due to increase of the osmotic pressure. Considerably high rejections were obtained across all experiments for total suspended solids (83 to >99%), total organic carbon (64 to 99%), chemical oxygen demand (53 to 77%), and oil and grease (67 to >82%). Treated water was in compliance with European legal limits for discharge regarding total suspended solids and oil and grease. The potential recovery of phenolic compounds was evaluated and found not relevant. It was demonstrated that nanofiltration is economically feasible, involving operation costs of approximately 2.56-3.08 €/m(3), depending on the working plan schedule and volume reduction factor, and requiring a footprint of approximately 52 m(2) to treat 1000 m(3) of olive mill wastewater.

  11. Assessment of a New Silicon Carbide Tubular Honeycomb Membrane for Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Maria C; Sanches, Sandra; Crespo, João G; Pereira, Vanessa J

    2017-02-27

    Extremely high removals of total suspended solids and oil and grease were obtained when olive mill wastewaters were filtered using new silicon carbide tubular membranes. These new membranes were used at constant permeate flux to treat real olive mill wastewaters at pilot scale. The filtration conditions were evaluated and optimized in terms of the selection of the permeate flux and flux maintenance strategies employed-backpulsing and backwashing-in order to reduce fouling formation. The results obtained reveal that the combination of backpulses and backwashes helps to maintain the permeate flux, avoids transmembrane pressure increase and decreases the cake resistance. Moreover, membrane cleaning procedures were compared and the main agents responsible for fouling formation identified. Results also show that, under total recirculation, despite an increased concentration of pollutants in the feed stream, the quality of the permeate is maintained. Membrane filtration using silicon carbide membranes is an effective alternative to dissolved air flotation and can be applied efficiently to remove total suspended solids and oil and grease from olive mill wastewaters.

  12. Assessment of a New Silicon Carbide Tubular Honeycomb Membrane for Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Fraga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Extremely high removals of total suspended solids and oil and grease were obtained when olive mill wastewaters were filtered using new silicon carbide tubular membranes. These new membranes were used at constant permeate flux to treat real olive mill wastewaters at pilot scale. The filtration conditions were evaluated and optimized in terms of the selection of the permeate flux and flux maintenance strategies employed—backpulsing and backwashing—in order to reduce fouling formation. The results obtained reveal that the combination of backpulses and backwashes helps to maintain the permeate flux, avoids transmembrane pressure increase and decreases the cake resistance. Moreover, membrane cleaning procedures were compared and the main agents responsible for fouling formation identified. Results also show that, under total recirculation, despite an increased concentration of pollutants in the feed stream, the quality of the permeate is maintained. Membrane filtration using silicon carbide membranes is an effective alternative to dissolved air flotation and can be applied efficiently to remove total suspended solids and oil and grease from olive mill wastewaters.

  13. Assessment of a New Silicon Carbide Tubular Honeycomb Membrane for Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Maria C.; Sanches, Sandra; Crespo, João G.; Pereira, Vanessa J.

    2017-01-01

    Extremely high removals of total suspended solids and oil and grease were obtained when olive mill wastewaters were filtered using new silicon carbide tubular membranes. These new membranes were used at constant permeate flux to treat real olive mill wastewaters at pilot scale. The filtration conditions were evaluated and optimized in terms of the selection of the permeate flux and flux maintenance strategies employed—backpulsing and backwashing—in order to reduce fouling formation. The results obtained reveal that the combination of backpulses and backwashes helps to maintain the permeate flux, avoids transmembrane pressure increase and decreases the cake resistance. Moreover, membrane cleaning procedures were compared and the main agents responsible for fouling formation identified. Results also show that, under total recirculation, despite an increased concentration of pollutants in the feed stream, the quality of the permeate is maintained. Membrane filtration using silicon carbide membranes is an effective alternative to dissolved air flotation and can be applied efficiently to remove total suspended solids and oil and grease from olive mill wastewaters. PMID:28264453

  14. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  15. Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

    2012-03-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management.

  16. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  17. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  18. Efforts to explain and control the prolonged thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Kalogeraki, Maria; Mari, Eirini; Stratakis, Emmanouil; Terzakis, Stelios; Boytzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Zampetakis, Leonidas

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of different bulking agents in different ratios as a means to control, optimise and eventually reduce the duration of the thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS) composting. The bulking agents used were: (i) olive tree leaves (OTL), (ii) olive tree shredded branches (OTB) and (iii) woodchips (WDC). The selection of these materials was based on their abundance and availability on the island of Crete, the southernmost point of Greece. The ratios studied were: Pile 1, OOMS:OTL in 1:1 v/v; Pile 2, OOMS:WDC in 1:1.5 v/v; Pile 3, OOMS:OTL in 1:2 v/v; Pile 4, OOMS:OTL:OTB in 1:1:1 v/v; and Pile 5, OOMS:OTL:OTB in 1:1:2 v/v. The composting system used was that of windrows with the volume of each pile approximately 20-25 m3. The experiments took place over two consecutive years. A composting turner was used and turnings were performed at one and two week intervals. In each pile a variety of physiochemical parameters were monitored. Temperature remained high in all five trials. Piles 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 temperatures recorded values of above 50 degrees C for 106, 158, 160, 175 and 183 days, respectively. Volumes were reduced by approximately 67%, 62%, 63%, 80% and 84%, respectively. Temperature remained high, mainly due to the presence in large amounts of oily substances which during their complete oxidation release important amounts of energy and aid the cometabolism of more stable molecules such as lignin. This process is better described as the slow "burning" of a "fuel" mixture in an "engine" than composting. This approach is based on the extensive similarities of this process to that of crude oil sludge or similar waste composting.

  19. Olive Mill Effluent Spreading Effects on Water Retention of Tunisian Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SAHRAOUI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill effluents (OME are characterized by their nutrients content and their adhesive and hydrophobic properties. An experiment was carried out at an olive growing area in Tunisia, “Sidi Bou Ali”, to identify the impact of spreading over OME on physical soil characteristics. Three treatments were in situ monitored, namely T0 (Control, T1 (25 m3/ha and T2 (50 m3/ha, over a period of 4 months. Measurements were conducted monthly corresponding respectively to D1, D2, D3 and D4. Water retention curves were established by a physical capillary model in porous medium. Results showed that the two applied OME doses induced a decrease in water retention, especially for potential matrixes above pF 2 corresponding to the water available range. No significant differences were found between the treated soil plots T1 and T2.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.27

  20. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater using a Ti/Ta/Pt/Ir electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannes, A.; Diamadopoulos, E. [Lab. of Environmental Engineering and Management, Technical Univ. of Crete, Chania (Greece); Ninolakis, M. [Ferecarpos SA, Agia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2003-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater, an ecotoxic liquid associated with the production of olive oil, was treated by an electrochemical method using Ti/Ta/Pt/Ir as anode and Stainless Steel 316L as cathode. A number of experiments were run in a batch, laboratory-scale pilot-plant. The experimental plant consisted of the electrolytic cell, the recirculation reactor with cooling system and the wastewater feed system. The efficiency of the electrolytic cell was studied in relation to sodium chloride concentration, voltage and time of electrochemical treatment. Optimal conditions were at a sodium chloride concentration 3% (w/v) and 16V. At these conditions COD removal reached 70.8% after 8 h of electrolysis. Color, odor and turbidity were completely removed after short periods of treatment. However, bio-essays with Daphnia Magna and Artemia Salina indicated that the ecotoxicity of the treated wastewater remained unchanged, possibly due to the formation of chlorinated by-products. (orig.)

  1. Biochemical activity and chemical-structural properties of soil organic matter after 17 years of amendments with olive-mill pomace co-compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, V; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Masciandaro, G

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates soil fertility, biochemical activity and the soil's ability to stabilize organic matter after application of composted olive-mill pomace. This organic amendment was applied in two different olive groves in southern Spain having different soil typologies (carbonated and silicic). Olive grove soils after 17 years of organic management with application of olive-mill pomace co-compost were of higher quality than those with conventional management where no co-compost had been applied. The main chemical parameters studied (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, total extractable carbon (TEC), and humic-to-fulvic acids ratio), significantly increased in soils treated with the organic amendment. In particular, the more resistant pool of organic matter (TEC) enhanced by about six and eight fold in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively. Moreover, the amended silicic soils showed the most significant increases in enzyme activities linked to C and P cycles (β-glucosidase twenty-five fold higher and phosphatase seven fold higher). Organic management in both soils induced higher organic matter mineralization, as shown by the higher pyrrole/phenol index (increasing 40% and 150% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively), and lower furfural/pyrrole index (decreasing 27% and 71% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). As a result of mineralization, organic matter incorporated was also more stable as suggested by the trend of the aliphatic/aromatic index (decreasing 36% and 30% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). Therefore, management system and soil type are key factors in increasing long-term C stability or sequestration in soils. Thus application of olive-oil extraction by-products to soils could lead to important mid-to -long-term agro-environmental benefits, and be a valuable alternative use for one of the most widespread polluting wastes in the Mediterranean

  2. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  3. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytwo, Giora, E-mail: rytwo@telhai.ac.il [Tel Hai College, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel); Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Dultz, Stefan [Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Koenig, Tom N. [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel)

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several cycles of

  4. Analysis and anaerobic degradation of wool scouring and olive oil mill wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindone, B. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Organica e Industriale); Andreoni, V. (Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Microbiologia e Industrie Agrarie); Rozzi, A. (Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Sanitaria); Sorlini, C. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche)

    1991-03-01

    Two types of fatty industrial wastewaters, wool scouring effluents (WSE) and olive oil mill effluents (OME) were analysed (lipids, phenols and COD), and were then treated anaerobically in laboratory-scale fixed bed filters. Approximately 50% of the organic compounds in both wastewaters was degraded at two days of hydraulic residence time. A higher biogas production was obtained when using OME rather than WSE. This experimental study confirmed that anaerobic digestion can be considered as a roughing treatment in a multi-step process for industrial fatty wastewaters. (orig.).

  5. Physical and oxidative stability of functional olive oil-in-water emulsions formulated using olive mill wastewater biophenols and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Róisín; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated by analysing the creaming rate, mean particle size distribution and mean droplet size, viscosity and rheological properties, while chemical stability was assessed through the measurement of primary and secondary oxidation products. The rheological behaviour and creaming stability of the emulsions were dramatically improved by using xanthan gum, whereas the concentration of WPI and the addition of encapsulated OMW phenolics did not result in a significant improvement of physical stability. The formation of oxidation products was higher when higher concentrations of encapsulated polyphenols were used, indicating a possible binding with the WPI added in the system as a natural emulsifier. This paper might help in solving the issue of using the olive mill wastewater from olive processing in formulating functional food products with high antioxidant activity and improved health properties.

  6. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  7. Dietary effect of rice milling waste and supplementary enzyme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... Key words: Rice milling waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance ... greater than the supply. ... energy, 5.25% crude protein and as high as 33.1% fibre. ..... bacterial population by digesting the long chain carbo-.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Johnson, Anbu Clemensis, E-mail: acj265@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Bachmann, Robert T. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 1988 Vendor City, 7800 Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka (Malaysia); Williams, Ceri J. [Yorkshire-Forward, Victoria House, Victoria Place, LS11 5AE Leeds (United Kingdom); Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L{sub biogas}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio; Johnson, Anbu Clemensis; Bachmann, Robert T; Williams, Ceri J; Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G J

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 degrees C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20L fixed-bed reactor at 37 degrees C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L(biogas)L(reactor)(-1)day(-1), respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  10. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  11. Membrane-Filtered Olive Mill Wastewater: Quality Assessment of the Dried Phenolic-Rich Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Ivana; Milczarek, Rebecca; Wang, Selina C; Sheng, Runqi; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2016-04-01

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production.

  12. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ruiz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion.

  14. Ozone treatment of olive mill wastewater; Tratamiento con ozono de las aguas residuales de almazara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia Alonso, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, J. R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the ozonization of olive mill wastewater has been studied. The evolution process was followed by measuring the chemical oxygen demand, the aromaticity and the contents of phenolic compounds. The aromaticity conversion ranged between 4.85 and 21% chemical oxygen demand degradation varied from 3.25 to 19.4% and the total polyphenolic reduction varied between 6.86 and 43.7%. The ozone consumption in the reduction of each variable was determined, being the average values of 57.2 g COD/mol O{sub 3} 2.9 un. Abs/mol O{sub 2} and 3.3 g poly phen./mol O{sub 3}. Finally, considering a first order kinetic equation with respect to each reactant, the apparent kinetic constants are evaluated for the studied variables. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Isolation and identification of a yeast strain involved in the degradation of Marrakech olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Fakharedine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are widely used in various sectors of biomedical research, biotechnologies and environmental contexts. During the treatment of Olive oil Mill Wastewater (OMW by yeasts, extensive degradation of the polyphenols responsible for the highly toxic nature of this effluent occurs. In this study, one yeast isolate was selected for its ability to use the phenolic compounds in OMW as the sole carbon source for growth. The treatment of OMW using this isolate reduced the levels of polyphenols by about 50% and the fats by over 80%. Analysis of the polyphenol pool by HPLC revealed the presence of 6 compounds, most of which had disappeared after 5 and 25 days of treatment. Using API ID 32C, the taxonomic study of the selected isolate was found to be 99.9% identical to Candida valida. However, the molecular data using the Rep-PCR technique showed 83.6% similarity to Pichia membranifaciens and 80.6% to Pichia anomala.

  16. Involvement of lignin peroxidase in the decolourization of black olive mill wastewaters by Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, L; Assas, N; Sayadi, S; Hamdi, M

    2005-01-01

    Decolourization of black olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by depolymerization of phenolic compounds by Geotrichum candidum. Our results show that G. candidum is able to grow on black OMW supplemented with carbon source and nitrogen. The Geotrichum growth decreased the pH and induced a 49% of colour removal when the black OMW was supplemented with glycerol and diammonium tartrate (20 mm ammonium). An improvement of 10% of colour removal was observed when the culture was supplemented with veratryl alcohol. The decolourization was inhibited with glutamate as nitrogen source. Our results suggest the potential use of G. candidum in black OMW decolourization and support the concept that lignin peroxidase (LiP) of G. candidum is involved in the depolymerization of phenolic compounds. This is the first report of LiP production by G. candidum on OMW.

  17. EFFECTS OF OLIVE MILL WASTEWATER SPREADING ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Sahraoui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of olive mill wastewater (OMW by agricultural spreading constitutes an alternative among the solutions proposed. The experiment was carried out in Sidi Bou Ali (Tunisia, with three treatments, T0, T1 (25 m3/ha and T2 (50 m3/ha during four months. By means the physical capillary model for porous media, pF curves were established and the effects of OMW on the soil physical characteristics were studied. It was concluded that the OMW, for the two applied doses, induced a decrease in water retention for all tensions. An increase in saturated state hydraulic conductivity was obtained in a more pronounced manner in the case of topsoil for all dates. These results confirm the migration process of OMW from the topsoil to the underlying horizon. Such soil modifications are already required in order to establish a mulch on the soil surface so as to reduce the evaporation water losses.

  18. Isolation of lipase producing Bacillus sp. from olive mill wastewater and improving its enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, Sevgi; Dönmez, Gönül; Takaç, Serpil

    2007-11-19

    The bacteria that could grow on media containing olive mill wastewater (OMW) were isolated and their lipase production capacities were investigated. The strain possessing the highest lipase activity among 17 strains grown on tributyrin agar medium was identified as Bacillus sp. The effect of initial pH on the lipase activity was investigated in tributyrin medium and pH 6 was found to be the optimal. The liquid medium composition was improved by replacing tributyrin with various carbon sources. Among the media containing different compositions of triolein, trimyristin, trilaurin, tricaprin, tricaprylin, tributyrin, triacetin, Tween 80, OMW, glucose, and whey; the medium contained 20% whey +1% triolein was found to give the highest lipase activity. Cultivation of Bacillus sp. in the optimal medium at pH 6 and 30 degrees C for 64h resulted in the extracellular and intracellular lipase activities of 15 and 168U/ml, respectively.

  19. Toxicity and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters in batch anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdi, M. (Centre de Biotechnologie, Sfax (Tunisia) Universite de Provence, Marseille (France))

    1992-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were studied in batch anaerobic digestion experiments. Anaerobic digestion of OMW or the supernatant of its centrifugation, the methane production was achieved at up to 5-15% (V/V) dilution corresponding to only 5-20 g/L COD. The washed suspended solids of OMW were toxic at up to 80 g/L COD; however, the kinetic of biodegradability of OMW or the supernatant was faster than for suspended solids, which are constituted mealy of cellulose and lignin. The darkly colored polyphenols induce the problem of biodegradation of OMW, whereas the long chain fatty acids (LCFA), tannins and simple phenolic compounds are responsible for its toxicity for methanogenic bacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Sequential treatment of olive oil mill wastewater with adsorption and biological and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Sam, Mesut; Farizoğlu, Burhanettin; Çabuk, Ahmet

    2013-05-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), a recalcitrant pollutant, has features including high phenolic content and dark color; thereby, several chemical or physical treatments or biological processes were not able to remediate it. In this study, the treatment efficiencies of three treatments, including adsorption, biological application, and photo-Fenton oxidation were sequentially evaluated for OMWW. Adsorption, biological treatment, and photo-Fenton caused decreasing phenolic contents of 48.69 %, 59.40 %, and 95 %, respectively. However, after three sequential treatments were performed, higher reduction percentages in phenolic (total 99 %) and organic contents (90 %) were observed. Although the studied fungus has not induced significant color reduction, photo-Fenton oxidation was considered to be an attractive solution, especially for color reduction. Besides, toxicity of OMWW treatment was significantly reduced.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  2. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufida Aggoun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to vetch-oat hay, using in vitro gas production technique coupled with NH3-N and protozoa measurements. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. The determination of gazes produced (carbon dioxide and methane was recorded at 6, 9, 24, 48 and 96 hours. However, Ammonia and protozoa number were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. Fermentation profile was fitted to the exponential model y = a + b (1 – e-kt. The OMWW are characterized by their high sugars content (39.91% and their low content in ash (1.99% and crude protein (2.70%. This by-product is also characterized by its high concentration in total phenols (7.2% and tannins (4.5%. However, they contain a very small amount of condensed tannins (0.89%. Comparatively to vetch-oat hay, OMWW produced low amount of gas (-23.6 units. Furthermore, its in vitro fermentation generates low volume of methane (9.83%, V/V, suggesting that the OMWW nature enhanced the efficiency of ruminale microbiota towards microbial biomass production and inhibition of ruminale methanogenesis pathway. This result is reinforced by the reduction of ammonia production (-0.35 units and protozoa proliferation (-1 unit comparatively to vetch-oat hay. The anaerobic biodegradation of OMWW reveal their significant use by the rumen microbiota, allowing us to strongly recommend its use as a supplement in feed ruminant. In addition, it allows considering using this residue as a feed additive in

  3. Degradation of polyphenolic content of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by solar photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gernjak, W.; Maldonado, M.I.; Malato, S.; Caceres, J. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Almeria (Spain); Krutzler, T.; Glaser, A.; Bauer, R. [Vienna Univ. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry, Vienna (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW), a highly polluted wastewater from the olive oil industry, was treated by solar photocatalytic processes. Among the tested systems only the application of titanium dioxide alone was not successful. The addition of peroxydisulfate as an electron acceptor had only limited effect on degradation performance and led to high salt concentrations (30 g/L sulfate generated) and a pH value near zero. The photo-Fenton method successfully removed up to 85% COD and up to 100% of phenol index of OMW with different content and from different sources. Two solar photocatalytic pilot-plant reactors were used; one of conventional CPC type and an open non-concentrating falling film reactor. The latter, newly designed reactor worked properly and yielded comparable results to the CPC in terms of degradation rate referred to incident UV radiation energy per solution volume. The suspended solids in the OMW hinder light from entering the reactor. Therefore, flocculation induced by a commercial flocculation agent was successfully applied to remove suspended solids. Application of this pre-treatment led to considerable increase of degradation rates and decrease of hydrogen peroxide consumption. (orig.)

  4. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khayet, Mohamed; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2011-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is an important environmental pollution problem, especially in the Mediterranean, which is the main olive oil production region worldwide. Environmental impact of OMW is related to its high organic load and particularly to the phytotoxic and antibacterial action of its phenolic content. In fact, polyphenols are known as powerful antioxidants with interesting nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. In the present work, the efficiency of OMW Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) treatment for removal and concentration of polyphenols was investigated, using an anionic surfactant (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate salt, SDS) and a hydrophobic poly(vinyldene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. The effects of the process experimental conditions on the permeate flux were investigated, and the secondary membrane resistance created by SDS molecules was evaluated. The initial fluxes of OMW processing by MEUF using SDS were 25.7 and 44.5 l/m2 h under transmembrane pressures of 3.5 and 4.5 bar, respectively. The rejection rate of polyphenols without using any surfactant ranged from 5 to 28%, whereas, it reached 74% when SDS was used under optimum pH (pH 2). The MEUF provides a slightly colored permeate (about 88% less dark), which requires clearly less chemical oxygen demand (COD) for its oxidation (4.33% of the initial COD). These results showed that MEUF process can efficiently be applied to the treatment of OMW and for the concentration and recovery of polyphenols.

  5. Effects of olive mill wastewater disposal on soil: Interaction mechanisms during different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamimi Nisreen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions play a major role for effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW application to soil. Choosing a different season for OMW application than the commonly practiced winter, may help avoid negative effects. However, understanding of the OMW-soil interaction during different seasons is still incomplete due to the lack of comparative data. In this study, an 18 months field experiment was carried out in an olive orchard in West Bank. Degree and persistence of soil salinization, acidification, accumulation of phenolic compounds and soil water repellency were investigated as a function of soil depth and time elapsed after OMW application, which was performed either in spring, summer (with and without irrigation or winter. The persistence of negative effects increased with duration of the hot and dry period following the application due to accumulation and polymerization of OMW. On the other hand, leaching of OMW components to groundwater is favored during the rainy season and by formation of preferential flow paths before the rain season starts. The risks of groundwater contamination and persistent negative effects decrease with increasing time under conditions favoring biological activity. Therefore, OMW application in spring if improved by a careful irrigation is considered as the most suitable under semiarid conditions for clay loam soils.

  6. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF, ultrafiltration (UF, nanofiltration (NF, and reverse osmosis (RO, as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD, osmotic distillation (OD and forward osmosis (FO. Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided.

  7. Strategies for dephenolization of raw olive mill wastewater by means of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Giardina, Paola; Marzocchella, Antonio; Sannia, Giovanni; Salatino, Piero

    2012-05-01

    The reduction of polyphenols content in olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major issue in olive oil manufacturing. Although researchers have pointed out the potential of white-rot fungus in dephenolizing OMW, the results available in the literature mainly concern pretreated (sterilized) OMW. This paper deals with the reduction of polyphenols content in untreated OMW by means of a white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. Dephenolization was performed both in an airlift bioreactor and in aerated flasks. The process was carried out under controlled non-sterile conditions, with different operating configurations (batch, continuous, biomass recycling) representative of potential industrial operations. Total organic carbon, polyphenols concentration, phenol oxidase activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, oxygen consumption rate, and pH were measured during every run. Tests were carried out with or without added nutrients (potato starch and potato dextrose) and laccases inducers (i.e., CuSO₄). OMW endogenous microorganisms were competing with P. ostreatus for oxygen during simultaneous fermentation. Dephenolization of raw OMW by P. ostreatus under single batch was as large as 70%. Dephenolization was still extensive even when biomass was recycled up to six times. OMW pre-aeration had to be provided under continuous operation to avoid oxygen consumption by endogenous microorganisms that might spoil the process. The role of laccases in the dephenolization process has been discussed. Dephenolization under batch conditions with biomass recycling and added nutrients proved to be the most effective configuration for OMW polyphenols reduction in industrial plants (42-68% for five cycles).

  8. Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco. Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents.

  9. Assesing the effect of an olive mill wastewater evaporation pond in Sousse, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'habou, Rakia; Zairi, Moncef; Kallel, Amjed; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2009-08-01

    Olive oil is a typical and valuable agro-industrial product in Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia, olive mill wastewaters (OMW) reach an amount of about 1,000,000 t year-1 and constitute a serious organic pollution risk because of the high chemical oxygen demand values and the presence of phytotoxic and antibacterial polyphenols. OMW have been generally stored in pond sites to be eliminated by natural evaporation or valorised by spreading on cultivated soils or by composting. Many researches on the interactions of OMW with soils at laboratory scale (columns) have been reported, but less attention have been paid to the effect of OMW on soils at field scale. The aim of this work is to investigate an area used for >15 years as an uncontrolled OMW pond site. The transformations of soil properties and groundwater occurring during OMW storage were characterised by the pH, phenolic contents, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content and organic contents. The soil samples were taken from two borings and compared to those of a control one located near the pond site. Groundwater samples were taken on the accessible and nearest water wells to the evaporation ponds. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site support the infiltration of OMW near the evaporation ponds. This infiltration has reached a depth of 6 m at a distance of almost 50 m laterally. The results show that the OMW infiltration in the subsoil has affected the pH, EC, organic content, phenolic compounds and the moisture.

  10. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutrotsios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent’s decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64% followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW’s phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  11. Pilot-scale treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by physicochemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, M Yalili; Yonar, T; Kestioğlu, K

    2013-01-01

    The pilot-scale treatability of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by physicochemical methods, ultrafiltration and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. Physicochemical methods (acid cracking, oil separation and coagulation-flocculation) showed high efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85%), oil and grease (O&G) (> 97%), suspended solids (SS) (> 99%) and phenol (92%) removal from the OOMW. Ultrafiltration followed by physicochemical methods is effective in reducing the SS, O&G. The final permeate quality is found to be excellent with over 90% improvements in the COD and phenol parameters. AOPs (ozonation at a high pH, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, and O3/H2O2/UV) increased the removal efficiency and the O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs studied in this paper was found to give the best results (> 99% removal for COD, > 99% removal for phenol and > 99% removal for total organic carbon). Pilot-scale treatment plant has been continuously operated on site for three years (3 months olive oil production campaign period of each year). The capital and operating costs of the applied treatment alternatives were also determined at the end of these seasons. The results obtained in this study have been patented for 7 years by the Turkish Patent Institute.

  12. Oxidative stress induced in sunflower seedling roots by aqueous dry olive-mill residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Garrido

    Full Text Available The contamination of soils with dry olive-mill residue can represent a serious problem as being an environmental stressor in plants. It has been demonstrated that inoculation of aqueous extract of olive oil-mill residue (ADOR with saprobe fungi removes some phenolic compounds. In this paper we studied the effect of ADOR uninoculated or inoculated with saprobe fungi in sunflower seedling roots. The germination and root growth, O(2·(- generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and extracellular peroxidases (EC-POXs activities, and the content of some metabolites involved in the tolerance of stress were tested. The roots germinated in ADOR uninoculated show a decrease in meristem size, resulting in a reduction of the root length and fresh weight, and in the number of layers forming the cortex, but did not alter the dry weight, protein and soluble amino acid content. ADOR caused the decreases in O(2·(- generation and EC-POX's activities and protein oxidation, but enhanced SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and proline content. Fluorescence imaging showed that ADOR induced O(2·(- and H(2O(2 accumulation in the roots. The increase in SOD and the decrease in EC-POX's activities might be involved in the enhancement of H(2O(2 content and lipid peroxidation. Control roots treated with ADOR for 10 min show an oxidative burst. Roots germinated in ADOR inoculated with saprobe fungi partially recovered normal levels of ROS, morphological characteristics and antioxidant activities. These results suggested that treatment with ADOR caused a phytotoxic effect during germination inducing an oxidative stress. The inoculation of ADOR with saprobe fungi limited the stress.

  13. Oxidative Stress Induced in Sunflower Seedling Roots by Aqueous Dry Olive-Mill Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Inmaculada; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Casimiro, Ilda; Casero, Pedro Joaquin; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Espinosa, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of soils with dry olive-mill residue can represent a serious problem as being an environmental stressor in plants. It has been demonstrated that inoculation of aqueous extract of olive oil-mill residue (ADOR) with saprobe fungi removes some phenolic compounds. In this paper we studied the effect of ADOR uninoculated or inoculated with saprobe fungi in sunflower seedling roots. The germination and root growth, O2·- generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extracellular peroxidases (EC-POXs) activities, and the content of some metabolites involved in the tolerance of stress were tested. The roots germinated in ADOR uninoculated show a decrease in meristem size, resulting in a reduction of the root length and fresh weight, and in the number of layers forming the cortex, but did not alter the dry weight, protein and soluble amino acid content. ADOR caused the decreases in O2·- generation and EC-POX′s activities and protein oxidation, but enhanced SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and proline content. Fluorescence imaging showed that ADOR induced O2·- and H2O2 accumulation in the roots. The increase in SOD and the decrease in EC-POX′s activities might be involved in the enhancement of H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation. Control roots treated with ADOR for 10 min show an oxidative burst. Roots germinated in ADOR inoculated with saprobe fungi partially recovered normal levels of ROS, morphological characteristics and antioxidant activities. These results suggested that treatment with ADOR caused a phytotoxic effect during germination inducing an oxidative stress. The inoculation of ADOR with saprobe fungi limited the stress. PMID:23049960

  14. Oxidative stress induced in sunflower seedling roots by aqueous dry olive-mill residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Inmaculada; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Casimiro, Ilda; Casero, Pedro Joaquin; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Espinosa, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of soils with dry olive-mill residue can represent a serious problem as being an environmental stressor in plants. It has been demonstrated that inoculation of aqueous extract of olive oil-mill residue (ADOR) with saprobe fungi removes some phenolic compounds. In this paper we studied the effect of ADOR uninoculated or inoculated with saprobe fungi in sunflower seedling roots. The germination and root growth, O(2)·(-) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extracellular peroxidases (EC-POXs) activities, and the content of some metabolites involved in the tolerance of stress were tested. The roots germinated in ADOR uninoculated show a decrease in meristem size, resulting in a reduction of the root length and fresh weight, and in the number of layers forming the cortex, but did not alter the dry weight, protein and soluble amino acid content. ADOR caused the decreases in O(2)·(-) generation and EC-POX's activities and protein oxidation, but enhanced SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and proline content. Fluorescence imaging showed that ADOR induced O(2)·(-) and H(2)O(2) accumulation in the roots. The increase in SOD and the decrease in EC-POX's activities might be involved in the enhancement of H(2)O(2) content and lipid peroxidation. Control roots treated with ADOR for 10 min show an oxidative burst. Roots germinated in ADOR inoculated with saprobe fungi partially recovered normal levels of ROS, morphological characteristics and antioxidant activities. These results suggested that treatment with ADOR caused a phytotoxic effect during germination inducing an oxidative stress. The inoculation of ADOR with saprobe fungi limited the stress.

  15. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  16. Fenton treatment of olive oil mill wastewater--applicability of the method and parameters effects on the degradation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bensalah Nasr; Bedoui Ahmed; Gadri Abdellatif

    2004-01-01

    The low biodegradability of polyphenolic compounds typically found in olive processing indicated that biological treatment is not always successful in the treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in term of COD removal. In this study the results of investigations on the applicability of Fenton's reagent in the treatment of this effluent were discussed. The efficiency of this method was determined. 86 % of removal COD was obtained using 5 mol H2O2 and 0.4 mol Fe2+ per liter of crude OMW. The main parameters that govern the complex reactive system, i.e., time, pH, [H2O2] and [Fe(II)] have been studied.

  17. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  18. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In manufacturing, olive oil is used to make soaps, commercial plasters and liniments; and to delay setting ... Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on ... Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient ...

  19. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index.

  20. Supplementation of olive mill wastes in broiler chicken feeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... large proportion of organic matter and a wide range of ... Data was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a comparison post hoc of ..... Production et Santé Animales, Rome, FAO No.43. Sanz M, Flores A, ...

  1. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  2. Evaluation of the suitability of low hazard surfactants for the separation of phenols and carotenoids from red-flesh orange juice and olive mill wastewater using cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyannos, Evagelos; Gortzi, Olga; Chatzilazarou, Arhontoula; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Lalas, Stavros

    2012-10-01

    Natural antioxidants derived from plant sources attract considerable scientific interest. While classic extraction methods consume high volumes of toxic organic solvents, cloud point extraction requires surfactant not exceeding 15% of the waste volume. In preliminary tests, the suitability of various low hazard surfactants (Span 20, PEG 400, Tween 80 and 20) was explored for separation of phenols and carotenoids from olive mill wastewater and red-flesh orange juice. Tween 80 showed the highest recovery and further applied to the next experiments. The most appropriate surfactant concentrations were 5% (for olive mill wastewater) and 7% (for orange juice) as indicated by recovery % and the rest cloud point extraction parameters (analyte concentration, concentration factor, and phase volume ratio). A double step CPE with 5% + 5% of Tween 80 recovered up to 94.4% of the total phenols from olive mill wastewater, while a 7% + 7% of Tween 80 recovered up to 72.4% of the total carotenoids from orange juice. Evaluation of the final effects and extraction efficiency of single and double step cloud point extraction shows that double step scheme seems to be preferable in both cases. Finally, phenols and carotenoids recovered by Tween 80 maintained high antiradical activity (DPPH test).

  3. Characterization of the harmful effect of olive mill wastewater on spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, F Z; Zinedine, A; Amraoui, M Bendriss; Errachidi, F; Alaoui, S Mdaghri; Aissam, H; Merzouki, M; Benlemlih, M

    2009-10-30

    In this study, changes in viability, biomass production, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) were investigated. Spearmint cuttings were sensitive to OMW and, after 6h of incubation in raw or diluted OMW, their viability was null. The short contact of raw OMW with mint cuttings caused an irreversible damage in rhizogenesis and shoots development. Roots were more sensitive to phytotoxicity than shoots. In a field essay, spearmint showed a good capability to recover when OMW was spread at 8 l m(-2) at the vegetative phase of growth (45 days after plantation). At this dose, a slight increase of mostly of the mint essential oil constituents was obtained. When the dose applied was 16 l m(-2), phytotoxicity was manifested by a high reduction of biomass and essential oil yield. The essential oil composition was also affected and a disappearance of many of mint essential oil constituents was observed with an increase of 59% for carvone, the major compound of spearmint essential oil. As far as we know, this is the first report on the effect of field application of OMW on an aromatic plant essential oil yield and composition.

  4. Impacts of operating conditions on nanofiltration of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martínez Férez, Antonio

    2015-09-15

    In the present paper, a thin-film composite polymeric nanofiltration (NF) membrane is examined for the tertiary treatment of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater, in substitution of the reverse osmosis membrane used in previous work by the Authors. Overcoming the deleterious fouling phenomena persistently encountered in membrane processes managing wastewater streams was indeed pursued. Setting the adequate parameters of the operating variables - that is, operating at ambient temperature upon a net pressure equal to 13 bar (Pc), tangential crossflow in the order of 2.55 m s(-1) to attain enough turbulence over the membrane, and above the point of zero charge (pH > 5.8) of the membrane - ensured high steady-state permeate productivity (59.6 L h(-1) m(-2)), also economically sustainable in time owed to minimization of the fouling-build up rate (0.91 h(-1)). Moreover, these conditions also provided high feed recovery (90%) and significant rejection efficiencies for the electroconductivity (58.1%) and organic matter (76.1%). This led to a purified permeate stream exiting the NF membrane operation exhibiting average EC and COD values equal to 1.4 mS cm(-1) and 45 mg L(-1). This permits complying with the water quality parameters established by different regulations for discharge public waterways and irrigation purposes.

  5. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of household mycoflora in fermented sausages using phenolic fractions from olive mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello

    2015-08-17

    Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics.

  7. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER membrane was used as pre-treatment for electrochemical process. The obtained permeate from the ultrafiltration process allowed COD removal efficiency of about 96% from OMW. Obtained permeate with an average COD of about 1.1gdm-3 was treated by electrochemical reactor equipped with a reactor with bipolar iron plate electrodes. The effect of the experimental parameters such as current density, pH, surface electrode/reactor volume ratio and NaCl concentration on COD removal was assessed. The results showed that the optimum COD removal rate was obtained at a current density of 93.3Am-2 and pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5. At the optimum operational parameters for the experiments, electrocoagulation process could reduce COD from 1.1gdm-3 to 78mgdm-3, allowing direct discharge of the treated OMW as that meets the Algerian wastewater discharge standards (<125mgdm-3). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Response of Soil Microbial Community to a High Dose of Fresh Olive Mill Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.MORENO; F.BASTIDA; M.A.S(A)NCHEZ-MONEDERO; T.HERN(A)NDEZ; C.GARC(I)A

    2013-01-01

    An incubation experiment was designed in order to determine the further microbiological response to an addition (500 m3 ha-1)of fresh olive mill wastewater (FOMWW) in a soil that has been frequently amended with uncontrolled doses of OMWW since the 1990s in an active disposal site (ADS soil).To achieve this aim,the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles,microbial biomass C (Cmic),and dehydrogenase (DHA) and urease activities (URA) were monitored at the beginning (T0),3 h (T1) and 97 d (Tf,i.e.,the end) of incubation after FOMWW addition.After the FOMWW addition,an increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs was observed in ADS soil.Moreover,a relative increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) with respect to saturated fatty acids (SATFA) was found in the ADS soil.An increase of the Gram-positive to Gram-negative ratio was observed in this soil at the end of the incubation.While DHA and Cmic increased in the ADS soil after FOMWW addition,URA showed a decrease.Fungi and Gram-positive bacterial biomass experienced an increase after addition of a high dose of FOMWW in laboratory conditions.

  9. Potential role of Bacillus endospores in soil amended by olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Gino; Falasca, Antonio; Petrella, Emma; Nerone, Valentina; Cocco, Federica; Celico, Fulvio

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to know how spread is laccase activity in spores of Bacillus species isolated from a soil where Italian law allows olive mill wastewater (OMW) spreading, and to investigate the potential role of such autochthonous soil microorganisms in degradation of OMW phenols, and prevention of groundwater pollution. Laccase activity was detected for the first time in spores of wild-type Bacillus pumilus, B. cereus sensu lato, and B. amyloliquefaciens strains. Because B. pumilus, B. cereus sensu lato, and B. amyloliquefaciens, together with B. subtilis account for a total of 93% of Bacillus isolates at the study site, the nearly totality of Bacillus spores reveals laccase activity. Thus, taking also into consideration that Bacillus spores are more abundant (about 100-fold) than white-rot fungi (that possess a well known extracellular, radical-based ligninolytic enzyme system capable of degrading OMW phenols) in the studied soil, these spores may contribute to in-situ degradation of OMW phenols. This role is further emphasized by dilution of crude OMW during infiltration of rainwater through soil that allows to minimize the antibacterial activity of phenols. The widespread presence of Bacillus spores in soils indicates a potential detoxifying role of these spores in a broader context.

  10. Combined treatment of olive mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; García, Juan; Dominguez, Joaquín R; De Heredia, J Beltrán; Peres, José A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the application of Fenton's reagent process combined with anaerobic digestion to treat an olive mill wastewater (OMW). Firstly, OMW was pre-treated by chemical oxidation in a batch reactor with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. This advanced oxidation treatment allowed reaching reductions of 17.6 and 82.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total polyphenols (TP), respectively. Secondly, OMW treatment by anaerobic digestion was performed using previously adapted microorganisms immobilized in Sepiolite. These biological tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration supplied to the reactor and COD conversions from 52 to 74% were obtained. Afterwards, Fenton's reagent followed by anaerobic digestion was applied to OMW treatment. This combined process presented a significant improvement on organic load removal, reaching COD degradations from 64 to 88%. Beyond the pollutant load removal, it was also monitored the yield of methane generated throughout anaerobic experiments. The methane produced ranged from 281 cm(3) to 322 cm(3) of CH4/g COD removed. Additionally, a methane generation kinetic study was performed using the Monod Model. The application of this model allowed observing a kinetic constant increase of the combined process (kFN = 0.036 h(-1)) when compared to the single anaerobic process (kF = 0.017 h(-1)).

  11. Short-term impact of dry olive mill residue addition to soil on the resident microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Giubilei, Mariangela; Cajthaml, Tomas; Federici, Ermanno; Federici, Federico; Petruccioli, Maurizio; D'annibale, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    The short-term response of the resident soil bacterial and fungal communities to the addition of 5% (w/w) of either dry olive mill residue (DOR), DOR treated with Phlebia sp. (PTDOR) or DOR previously extracted with water (WEDOR) was investigated. As opposed to bacteria, the diversity of fungi increased upon the amendments as assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rDNA. Over the first 30 days, phospholipid fatty acids analyses indicated a gradual decrease in the relative abundances of gram(+) bacteria (from 44.8% to 37.9%) and a concomitant increase of gram(-) bacteria (from 37.3% to 51.2%) in DOR-amended soil. A considerable increase in the fungal/bacterial ratio was observed after 7 days in DOR, WEDOR and PTDOR-amended soils with respect to the control (0.316, 0.165 and 0.265, respectively, vs. 0.011). The overall microbial activity was stimulated by the amendments as indicated by the higher activity levels of both dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolase. These results indicate that DOR at the application level examined is not toxic on soil microorganisms.

  12. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in olive-oil mill wastewater treated with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-05-01

    The subject of this paper is the cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Sprirulina) platensis in olive-oil mill wastewater (OMWW) treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The main positive effect of NaOCl on the OMWW characteristics is the decrease of the phenol concentration and turbidity, rendering the OMWW suitable for A. platensis growth. Maximum biomass production (1696 mg/l) was obtained when the concentration of OMWW in the cultivation medium was 10% with the supplementation of 1g/l NaNO(3) and 5 g/l NaHCO(3). However, the addition of NaHCO(3) has no significant effect, indicating that the only limited nutrient in this wastewater is nitrogen, while carbon is provided by the organic compounds of the wastewater. The maximum of the removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrates was 73.18% and 91.19%, respectively, while phenols, phosphorus and nitrates in some runs was completely removed.

  13. Fate of Potential Contaminants Due to Disposal of Olive Mill Wastewaters in Unprotected Evaporation Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Elaiopoulos, K; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Soupios, P

    2017-03-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) in shallow and unprotected evaporation ponds is a common, low-cost management practice, followed in Mediterranean countries. So far, the fate of potential soil pollutants in areas located near evaporation ponds is not adequately documented. This study investigates the extent in which the long-term disposal of OMW in evaporation ponds can affect the soil properties of the area located outside the evaporation pond and assesses the fate of the pollution loads of OMW. Four soil profiles situated outside and around the down slope side of the disposal area were excavated. The results showed considerable changes in concentration of soil phenols at the down-site soil profiles, due to the subsurface transport of the OMW. In addition, excessive concentrations of NH4(+), PO4(3-) and phenols were recorded in liquid samples taken from inside at the bottom of the soil profiles. It is concluded that unprotected evaporation ponds located in light texture soils pose a serious threat to favour soil and water pollution.

  14. Microencapsulation by Membrane Emulsification of Biophenols Recovered from Olive Mill Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Piacentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated.

  15. Enzymatic saccharification of solid residue of olive mill in a batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi; Hamdache; Belhocine; Grib; Lounici; Piron; Mameri

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the enzymatic hydrolysis of solid residue of olive mill (OMRS) in a batch reactor with the Trichoderma reesei enzyme. Before enzymatic saccharification, crude lignocellulosic material is submitted to alkaline pre-treatment with NaOH. Optimum conditions of the pre-treatment (temperature of T=100 degrees C and OMRS-NaOH concentration ratio of about R=20) were determined. The optimum enzymatic conditions determined were as follows: pH of about 5, temperature of T=50 degrees C and enzyme to mass substrate mass ratio E/S=0.1g enzyme (g OMRS)(-1). The maximum saccharification yield obtained at optimum experimental conditions was about 50%. The experimental results agree with Lineweaver Burk's formula for low substrate concentrations. At substrate concentrations greater than 40gdm(-3), inhibitory effects were encountered. The kinetic constants obtained for the batch reactor were K(m)=0.1gdm(-3)min(-1) and V(m)=800gdm(-3).

  16. Evolution of several soil properties following amendment with olive mill wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Mekki; Abdelhafidh Dhouib; Sami Sayadi

    2009-01-01

    Occurrences of olive mill wastewater (OMW) amendment on several chemical and biochemical properties of soil were investigated. Compared to the control, soils amended with untreated and treated OMW (by an integrated process based on aerobic fungal pre-treat-ment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSMZ 6909 followed by anaerobic treatment) showed high levels of organic and mineral mat-ters. Soil amended with untreated OMW presented low levels of total and inorganic nitrogen (0.38 and 0.08 mg g~(-1) dry soil). Treated OMW contained little content of pollutants (COD=4 gl~(-1); phenolic compounds=0.6 gl~(-1)); so, organic matter brought by these res-idues was rapidly mineralized in the soil. The number of heterotrophic bacteria was increased (from 54×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil in control soil to 123×10~5 CFU g~(-1) dry soil) in response to the OMW amendment, mainly after C/N ratio correction. Untreated OMW applica-tion improved the soil carbon content (2.18 times higher), while the specific respiration remained very low. However, the treated OMW application positively affected the soil-specific respiration that increased from 6.1 in control soil to 9.75 in soil amended with treated OMW. This phenomenon was accompanied by an enhancement of nitrifiers number, urease and ammonium oxidases activities.

  17. Enhancement of olive mill wastewater biodegradation by homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, M I; El Gohary, F; Ghaly, M Y; Ali, M E M

    2009-09-30

    Olive mills wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic content and refractory compounds. In this study, an advanced technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW has been investigated. The technique used was either photo-Fenton as homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation or UV/semi-conductor catalyst (such as TiO(2), ZrO(2) and FAZA) as heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation for treatment of OMW. For both the processes, the effect of irradiation time, amounts of photocatalysts and semi-conductors, and initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been studied. At the optimum conditions, photo-Fenton process achieved COD, TOC, lignin (total phenolic compounds) and total suspended solids (TSSs) removal values of 87%, 84%, 97.44% and 98.31%, respectively. The corresponding values for UV/TiO(2) were 68.8%, 67.3%, 40.19% and 48.9%, respectively, after 80 min irradiation time. The biodegradability expressed by BOD(5)/COD ratio for treated wastewater was ranged from 0.66 to 0.8 compared to 0.19 for raw wastewater indicating enhancement of biodegradation.

  18. Enhancement of olive mill wastewater biodegradation by homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, M.I.; Gohary, F.El. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 11312 (Egypt); Ghaly, M.Y., E-mail: ghalynrc@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Ali, M.E.M. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 11312 (Egypt)

    2009-09-30

    Olive mills wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic content and refractory compounds. In this study, an advanced technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW has been investigated. The technique used was either photo-Fenton as homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation or UV/semi-conductor catalyst (such as TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and FAZA) as heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation for treatment of OMW. For both the processes, the effect of irradiation time, amounts of photocatalysts and semi-conductors, and initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been studied. At the optimum conditions, photo-Fenton process achieved COD, TOC, lignin (total phenolic compounds) and total suspended solids (TSSs) removal values of 87%, 84%, 97.44% and 98.31%, respectively. The corresponding values for UV/TiO{sub 2} were 68.8%, 67.3%, 40.19% and 48.9%, respectively, after 80 min irradiation time. The biodegradability expressed by BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio for treated wastewater was ranged from 0.66 to 0.8 compared to 0.19 for raw wastewater indicating enhancement of biodegradation.

  19. Short-term impact of olive mill wastewater (OMWW) applications on the physico-chemical and microbiological soil properties of an olive grove in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Torres, Mariela; Verdenelli, Romina; Basanta, María; Maestri, Damián M; Meriles, José M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of spreading olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW) on soil biochemical parameters and olive production in an organically managed olive orchard. The experiment was carried out with three different doses of OMWW (80, 160 and 500 m(3) ha(-1)) and a control (untreated soil). Three samplings were done at 10, 30 and 90 days after the administration of the byproduct. OMWW application differentially modified the biochemical properties of the soil analyzed. Organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus soil contents increased proportionally with each increasing dose. The values of these parameters decreased gradually with time. Total microbial activity was altered and the OMWW 500 m(3) ha(-1) treatment proved to be the most active when compared with the other applied doses. OMWW agricultural application also modified the structure of soil microbial communities, particularly affecting Gram positive and negative bacteria, while fungal biomass did not show consistent changes. Although there was a salinity increase in the treated soil, especially at the highest dose, the productive parameters analyzed (fruit and oil tree(-1)) were not affected. In light of the obtained results, we consider that low dose of OMWW could be considered an alternative farming practice for semiarid regions.

  20. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  1. On olive-stones: Hypothesis of modification of the `extra-vergine` production process; Una via alternativa per l`estrazione dell`olio extra vergine d`oliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpati, Maria Luisa; Soriero, Anna; Veri`, Franca [Rome, Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    1997-10-01

    In the olive, besides small amounts of oleuropein, tyrosolglucosides of complex structure are present. As the stones milling gives a very small contribution (1.5%) at the olive-oil production and it brings to the formation of the tyrosol, one of the main pollutants of the olive oil waste waters, the authors propose for the extra vergine olive oil production a different procedure, that excludes the stones milling. 001IT9800210

  2. Olive Mill Wastewater: From a Pollutant to Green Fuels, Agricultural Water Source and Bio-Fertilizer—Part 1. The Drying Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Jeguirim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW treatment is considered to be one of the main challenges that Mediterranean countries face. Although several procedures and technologies are mentioned in the literature, these techniques have several disadvantages or have been limited to laboratory pilot validation without posterior industrial projection. Recently, an advanced environmental friendly strategy for the recovery of OMWW was established involving the impregnation of OMWW on dry biomasses, drying of these impregnated samples, and finally green fuels and biochar production. This established strategy revealed that the drying step is crucial for the success of the entire recovery process. Hence, two impregnated samples were prepared through OMWW impregnation on sawdust (IS and olive mill solid waste (ISW. The drying kinetics of OMWW and impregnated samples (IS and ISW were examined in a convective dryer (air velocity range from 0.7–1.3 m/s and the temperature from 40–60 °C. The experimental results indicated that the drying of the impregnated samples occurred twice as fast as for the OMWW sample. Such behavior was attributed to the remaining thin layer of oil on the OMWW surface Furthermore, the Henderson and Pabis model showed the suitable fit of the drying curves with a determination coefficient R2 above 0.97. The drying rates were extracted from the mathematical models and the drying process was analyzed. The coefficient of effective diffusivity varied between 2.8 and 11.7 × 10−10 m2/s. In addition, the activation energy values ranged between 28.7 and 44.9 kJ/mol. These values were in the same range as those obtained during the drying of other agrifood byproducts. The final results could be very helpful to engineers aiming to improve and optimize the OMWW drying process.

  3. In situ olive mill residual co-composting for soil organic fertility restoration and by-product sustainable reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Casacchia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of organic matter in the form of compost improves overall physical, chemical and biological properties of soils but, to be really sustainable, the composting process should be carried out using the by-products available in situ. Two different soils of a Mediterranean olive orchard, one managed traditionally (NAS and the other amended with compost (AS, were investigated in a two-year experiment. Increases in total organic matter, total nitrogen and pH, were detected in AS if compared to NAS. Significant increases in total and specific microbial counts were observed in AS, with a clear amelioration of microbiological soil quality. The results demonstrated that soil amendment using compost deriving from olive mill by-products can be an important agricultural practice for supporting and stimulating soil microorganisms and, at the same time, for re-using these byproducts, so avoiding their negative environmental impact.

  4. Assessment of Coriolopsis gallica-treated olive mill wastewater phytotoxicity on tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Sellami, Sahar; Frikha, Fakher; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) after being treated by the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis gallica. For this, the effect of irrigation with treated OMW (TOMW) and untreated OMW (UOMW) on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 3 weeks was studied. The control plants were irrigated with distilled water. Agronomic tests were performed in pot experiments in a greenhouse using the randomized complete block (RCB) experimental design. The relative leaf height (RLH), as a morphological parameter, and the content of total phenols in the roots and total chlorophyll [Cha + Chb] and reducing sugars in the leaves, as physiological parameters, were selected as responses of the experimental design. The results obtained showed that [Cha + Chb] in the leaves of tomato growth under TOMW was enhanced by 36.3 and 19.4 % compared to the plant growth under UOMW and to the controls, respectively. Also, reducing sugar concentrations were closed to those of the control plants, ranging from 0.424 to 0.678 g/L for the different dilutions tested. However, the plants irrigated with UOMW showed lower reducing sugar concentrations ranging from 0.042 to 0.297g/L. The optimum RLH (0.537) was observed in the plants irrigated with TOMW diluted at (1:4), this value being higher than that observed in the controls (0.438). Our study proved that the irrigation with TOMW significantly improved tomato growth and photosynthesis activity over those irrigated with UOMW. Optimization of TOMW as a fertilizer was obtained for a dilution of 1:4. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that OMW treated by C. gallica holds potential to be used as a fertilizer for tomato plants. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Please provide a caption for the graphical abstract.The graphical abstract is improved and sent as attachment Please replace it.

  5. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment.

  6. Agronomic application of olive mill wastewater: Effects on maize production and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaqziz, Majdouline; El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Lakhal, El Khadir; Agrafioti, Evita; Galanakis, Charis M

    2016-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of direct amendment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the fertility of soil, described as poor in the area of Marrakech (semi-arid region) in Morocco. The treated plots were amended with untreated OMW generated by a traditional extraction process at the amount of 10 L/m(2)/year during two consecutive years. Results of these two years treatments with crude OMW at relatively high dose reveal an important increase in soil physicochemical characteristics, namely electric conductivity (EC), Na(+,) K(+), phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter and soluble phenolic compounds. EC of treated soil was enhanced from 0.34 to 2.91 mS/cm as compared to the control soil. After spreading OMW in soil, the amounts of its nutritive elements increased by 81% for nitrogen, 66% for phosphorus and 88% for potassium. The accumulation of phenolic compounds and the increase of total peroxidase activity in plants provide evidence of their protective role against the physiological stress induced by OMW. However, this enrichment in mineral and nutritive elements decreased three months after OMW application, revealing OMW biodegradation in the studied calcareous soil. In parallel, an increase in the contents of the soluble phenolic compounds on the upper layer of soil was denoted and maize plants growth was efficiently raised. Significant amelioration was obtained notably in terms of fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaves area, spikes fresh and dry weight, 100 seeds weight and straw yield (37, 54, 27, 24, 14 and 9% respectively). Along with the correct choice of convenient soils notably calcareous ones and tolerant crops such as maize, this method could constitute an efficient approach for avoiding problems attributed to the uncontrolled disposal of these effluents and an effective strategy to regenerate degraded soils and represents an economical alternative that provides a local fertilizer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of soil-applied olive mill wastewater and potential phytotoxicity assessed by two bioassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Ibrahim; Raviv, Michael; Berkovich, Shimrit; Hanan, Aviva; Aviani, Ido; Laor, Yael

    2013-11-01

    Controlled land spreading of untreated olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been widely practiced as a means of its disposal. However, potential phytotoxic effects are critical for the selection of sites and crop types and for proper synchronization between land application and cropping. This study traced the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total phenols (TP), electrical conductivity, pH, microbial counts, and phytotoxicity to cress ( L.) after soil application at doses equivalent to 80, 160, and 320 m ha. Vertisol (fine-clayey) and Loess (sandy loam) soils were treated and incubated at 12 or 25°C and at moisture contents maintained at 70% of field water capacity or gradually reduced from 70 to 20% without compensation. Temperature, rather than moisture content, had a major effect on removal rates of DOC and TP. The maximum combined effect of warm temperature and higher moisture content resulted in removal rates greater than those under cooler, drier conditions by factors of up to 1.8 and 4.1 for DOC and TP, respectively. Favorable biodegradation conditions were indicated by increased numbers of total soil microorganisms and fungi by factors of up to 26 and 5, respectively. A whole-soil bioassay was developed to assess the dynamics of residual soil phytotoxicity after OMW application. Phytotoxicity measurement in soil extract generally showed stronger inhibition or stimulation activity than measurement in whole soil, depending on soil type and OMW dose. The newly developed bioassay seems to be useful for the refinement of general recommendations regarding permitted OMW application doses.

  8. Use of cheese whey to enhance Geotrichum candidum biomass production in olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouidi, Fathia; Khelifi, Eltaeif; Asses, Nedra; Ayed, Lamia; Hamdi, Moktar

    2010-08-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a yeast-like filamentous fungus that has attracted industrial interest. The present work investigated G. candidum biomass production in agro-industrial wastewaters (olive mill wastewater (OMW) and cheese whey (CW)) as the only substrate. Different solid media (Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), CW, OMW, and OMW/CW mixtures in different proportions) were tested. OMW/CW mixtures proved to be suitable for optimal mycelia growth of G. candidum with a very high hyphae density. The highest fungal and expansion rate growth of 83 +/- 1 mm and 12.4 day(-1), respectively, were obtained on a 20:80 mixture of OMW/CW, which was incubated for 7 days. This optimal mixture was used to study the biomass production and the OMW decolorization ability of G. candidum in the presence of CW in liquid medium. Liquid cultures were also conducted in OMW and CW separately. After 5 days of incubation, fungal biomass reached 9.26 g l(-1) in the OMW/CW mixture and only 2.83 g l(-1) in CW, while no biomass production was observed in OMW alone. OMW decolorization and dephenolization by G. candidum also improved in the presence of CW with a decolorization efficiency of 54.5% and a total phenolic reduction of 55.3%, compared with the control which yielded values of about 10% and 15%, respectively. These results suggested that OMW/CW--as the only substrate--could be used as a cost-effective medium to produce G. candidum biomass, without the need for water dilution or supplementation with other nutriments.

  9. Biological hydrogen production from olive mill wastewater with two-stage processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Ela; Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work two novel two-stage hydrogen production processes from olive mill wastewater (OMW) have been introduced. The first two-stage process involved dark-fermentation followed by a photofermentation process. Dark-fermentation by activated sludge cultures and photofermentation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 were both performed in 55ml glass vessels, under anaerobic conditions. In some cases of dark-fermentation, activated sludge was initially acclimatized to the OMW to provide the adaptation of microorganisms to the extreme conditions of OMW. The highest hydrogen production potential obtained was 29l{sub H{sub 2}}/l{sub OMW} after photofermentation with 50% (v/v) effluent of dark fermentation with activated sludge. Photofermentation with 50% (v/v) effluent of dark fermentation with acclimated activated sludge had the highest hydrogen production rate (0.008ll{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The second two-stage process involved a clay treatment step followed by photofermentation by R. sphaeroides O.U.001. Photofermentation with the effluent of the clay pretreatment process (4% (v/v)) gives the highest hydrogen production potential (35l{sub H{sub 2}}/l{sub OMW}), light conversion efficiency (0.42%) and COD conversion efficiency (52%). It was concluded that both pretreatment processes enhanced the photofermentative hydrogen production process. Moreover, hydrogen could be produced with highly concentrated OMW. Two-stage processes developed in the present investigation have a high potential for solving the environmental problems caused by OMW. (author)

  10. Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccar, R. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: rym.baccar@tunet.tn; Bouzid, J. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: jalel.bouzid@tunet.tn; Feki, M. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Industrielle et Materiaux, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: mongi.feki@yahoo.fr; Montiel, A. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: montiel.antoine@free.fr

    2009-03-15

    The present work explored the use of Tunisian olive-waste cakes, a by-product of the manufacture process of olive oil in mills, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon. Chemical activation of this precursor, using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent, was adopted. To optimize the preparation method, the effect of the main process parameters (such as acid concentration, impregnation ratio, temperature of pyrolysis step) on the performances of the obtained activated carbons (expressed in terms of iodine and methylene blue numbers and specific surface area) was studied. The optimal activated carbon was fully characterized considering its adsorption properties as well as its chemical structure and morphology. To enhance the adsorption capacity of this carbon for heavy metals, a modification of the chemical characteristics of the sorbent surface was performed, using KMnO{sub 4} as oxidant. The efficiency of this treatment was evaluated considering the adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions as a model for metallic species. Column adsorption tests showed the high capacity of the activated carbon to reduce KMnO{sub 4} into insoluble manganese (IV) oxide (MnO{sub 2}) which impregnated the sorbent surface. The results indicated also that copper uptake capacity was enhanced by a factor of up to 3 for the permanganate-treated activated carbon.

  11. A case study of waste management at the Northern Finnish pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Veitsiluoto Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Pöykiö, Risto; Keiski, Riitta Liisa

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the current waste management system at the pulp and paper mill complex of Stora Enso Oyj Veitsiluoto Mills at Kemi, Northern Finland. This paper covers examples of case studies carried out at the mill and describes how the wastes and by-products are utilized as a neutralizing agent for acidic wastewaters (i.e., green liquor dregs from the causticizing process), as a hardener in filling mine cavities (i.e., ash from the fluidized bed boiler), as a landscaping agent (i.e., ash as well as the fibre clay from chemical wastewater treatment plant), as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills (i.e., fibre clay), and as a soil enrichment agent (i.e., calcium carbonate from the precipitated calcium carbonate plant). In addition, the wood waste from the wood-handling plant, sawmill, packaging pallet plant and from the groundwood mill, as well as the biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant, are all incinerated in the fluidized bed boiler for energy production. Due to effective utilization of the solid wastes generated at the mills, the annual amount of waste to be disposed of in the landfill has decreased between 1994 and 2004 from 42,990 to 6083 tonn (expressed as wet weight). The paper also gives an overview of the relevant European Union legislation on the forest industry and on waste management, as well as of the pulping process and of the generation of major solid wastes in the pulp and paper mills.

  12. Depuration of olive oil mill wastewater by an activated sludge system; Depuracion de alpechin mediante us sistema de fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Ramos Viscas, M. P.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of alpechin (olive oil mill wastewaters) have been studied by an activated sludge treatment. The substrate evolution (based on COD and BOD{sub 5}), nitrogen Kjeldahl, phosphorus, biomass, aromaticity and total polyphenolic contents was followed during each experiment. A kinetic study is performed by using the Contois model, which applied to the experimental data, provides the specific kinetic parameters of this model. Moreover, others interesting biological parameters like the cellular yield and the kinetics of endogenous metabolism were determined. (Author) 17 refs.

  13. Adopting strategies to improve the efficiency of ozonation in the real-scale treatment of olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rui C; Silva, Adrián M T; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Garção-Nunes, Paulo; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2010-12-01

    In this experimental work the ozone action on the depuration of olive oil mill wastewater is studied for different operational conditions based on an actual industrial treatment plant. It was verified that the application of a Mn-Ce-O catalyst prepared at the laboratory, with a Mn/Ce molar proportion of 70/30, enhances the depuration efficiency and the effluent biodegradability. Ozonation operation at the natural pH of the effluent is recommended. Moreover, the integration of the Fenton process as a pretreatment improves the final chemical oxygen demand removal and enables a totally biodegradable effluent to be obtained, as confirmed by respirometric techniques.

  14. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties.

  15. Reuse of olive mill effluents from two-phase extraction process by integrated advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando-Pulido, J M; Hodaifa, G; Victor-Ortega, M D; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Martinez-Ferez, A

    2013-12-15

    In this work, complete reclamation of the olive mill effluents coming from a two-phase olive oil extraction process (OME-2) was studied on a pilot scale. The developed depuration procedure integrates an advanced oxidation process based on Fenton's reagent (secondary treatment) coupled with a final reverse osmosis (RO) stage (purification step). The former aims for the removal of the major concentration of refractory organic pollutants present in OME-2, whereas the latter provides efficient purification of the high salinity. Complete physicochemical composition of OME-2 after the secondary treatment was examined, including the particle size distribution, organic matter gradation and bacterial growth, in order to assess the selection of the membrane and its fouling propensity. Hydrodynamics and selectivity of the membrane were accurately modelized. Upon optimization of the hydrodynamic conditions, the RO membrane showed stable performance and fouling problems were satisfactorily overcome. Steady-state permeate flux equal to 21.1 L h(-1)m(-2) and rejection values up to 99.1% and 98.1% of the organic pollutants and electroconductivity were respectively attained. This ensured parametric values below standard limits for reuse of the regenerated effluent, e.g. in the olives washing machines, offering the possibility of closing the loop and thus rending the production process environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of olive-mill wastewater from a two-phase process by chemical oxidation on an industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, L M; Hodaifa, G; Vives, S R; Casares, J A G; Driss, S B; Grueso, R

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a solution for reducing the environmental effect of wastewaters generated by the olive-oil industry. Olive-oil companies produce variable quantities of wastewaters, which require treatment for disposal or reuse. Today, regulations are becoming increasingly strict regarding the parameters measured in these effluents. In Spain, the resolution by the president of the Hydrographical Confederation of the Guadalquivir on water use 2004 set parameter limits as follows: pH = 6.0-9.0, total suspended solid = 500 mg/L; and COD and BOD(5) (20)=1,500 mg O(2)/L. For the year 2006, maximum values for COD and BOD(5) (20) were fixed at 1,000 mg O(2)/L. To solve this problem, a study has been made to derive irrigation water from the above-mentioned effluents through chemical oxidation based on the Fenton's process. This would be first step towards using a closed-circuit system in olive-oil mills to treat and reuse effluents.

  17. Desulfovibrio marrakechensis sp. nov., a 1,4-tyrosol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkh, Fatima; Spröer, Cathrin; Lemos, Paulo Costa; Besson, Stephane; El Asli, Abdel-Ghani; Bennisse, Rhizlane; Labat, Marc; Reis, Maria; Qatibi, Abdel-Illah

    2009-05-01

    A novel mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, EMSSDQ(4)(T), was isolated from olive mill wastewater in the semi-arid region of Morocco (Marrakech). Cells were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, straight rods that were non-motile and non-spore-forming and contained cytochrome c(3) and desulfoviridin. The DNA G+C content was 65.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was a member of the genus Desulfovibrio with Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus D41(T), Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans SPSN(T), Desulfovibrio fructosivorans JJ(T) and Desulfovibrio carbinolicus EDK82(T) as the most closely related strains with validly published names. In addition to the classical substrates used by Desulfovibrio species, the isolate oxidized 1,4-tyrosol, one of the most abundant phenolic compounds occurring in olive mill wastewater, to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate without ring cleavage. D. alcoholivorans SPSN(T) was also found to carry out this reaction. Under air, strain EMSSDQ(4)(T) exhibited limited growth on lactate and yeast extract in the absence of sulfate. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Desulfovibrio marrakechensis sp. nov. The type strain is EMSSDQ(4)(T) (=DSM 19337(T) =ATCC BAA-1562(T)).

  18. The biodegradation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters by Sawdust and by a Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, stirred and immobilized cultures. When P. Chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after the removal of polyphenols by adsorption in sawdust, which allows a 39% polyphenol removal. The use of a High lignin peroxides (Lip producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. Chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. And COD abatement reached 70%. The reduction of polyphenols reached its highest level at 62%. A significant effluent decolorization is apparent.Este trabajo describe la decoloración y la disminución de la demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín (OMW por Phanerochaetae chrysosporium, crecido en cultivos estáticos, agitados e inmovilizados. Cuando P. chrysosporium fue cultivado en agitación, no se observa ninguna decoloración de OMW crudo, la decoloración ocurre solamente después de eliminar los polifenoles mediante adsorción en el serrín (Disminución del 39% del contenido en polifenoles. La utilización de la lignina peroxidasa generada en el medio da lugar a la mayor decoloración de alpechín y a las eficiencias de eliminación de DQO más altas. Las pruebas de la decoloración realizadas en las muestras de OMW que fueron pretratadas por la adsorción de madera del serrín, y usaron cultivos inmovilizadas demostraron resultados mejores. Por tanto, la eficiencia de eliminación de DQO alcanzó un 70%. La reducción de los polifenoles alcanzó los niveles más altos siempre, i.e. 62%. Se observó una decoloración significativa del efluente.

  19. Recovery of antioxidants from olive mill wastewaters: a viable solution that promotes their overall sustainable management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Politi, Maria; Foteinis, Spyros; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2013-10-15

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are rich in water-soluble polyphenolic compounds that show remarkable antioxidant properties. In this work, the recovery yield of compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, as well as total phenols (TPh) from real OMW was investigated. Antioxidants were recovered by means of liquid-liquid solvent extraction. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale pilot unit was established and the effect of various organic solvents, namely ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and a mixture of chloroform/isopropyl alcohol, on process efficiency was investigated. It was found that the performance of the three extraction systems decreased in the order: ethyl acetate > chloroform/isopropanol > diethyl ether, in terms of their antioxidant recovery yield. It was estimated that treatment of 1 m(3) OMW with ethyl acetate could provide 0.247 kg hydroxytyrosol, 0.062 kg tyrosol and 3.44 kg of TPh. Furthermore, the environmental footprint of the whole liquid-liquid extraction system was estimated by means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to provide the best available and most sustainable extraction technique. From an environmental perspective, it was found that ethyl acetate and diethyl ether had similar environmental impacts. Specifically, for the production of 1 g hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol or TPh, 13.3, 53.1 or 0.949 kg CO2 equivalent would be released to the atmosphere, respectively. On the other hand, the chloroform/isopropyl alcohol mixture had detrimental effects onto ecosystems, human health and fossil fuels resources. In total, ethyl acetate yields low environmental impacts and high antioxidant recovery yield and thus it can be considered as the best solution, both from the environmental and technical point of view. Three alternative scenarios to improve the recovery performance and boost the sustainability of the ethyl acetate extraction system were also investigated and their total environmental impacts were estimated. It was found that

  20. The Importance of Drying for Valorization of 2-Phase Olive Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Baysan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With starting healthy consumption awareness in people throughout world, olive oil demand has increased and it is expected that this demand will increase day by day. As a result of increase in the demand for olive oil, the rise in amount of olive pomace that emerges after olive oil production is evident. The differences in olive oil production methods result in varied wastes in terms of property and quantity. Olive mill waste water and olive pomace possessing 35-40% moisture come out in 3-phase system while only olive pomace possessing 60-70% moisture comes out in 2-phase system. The quantity and pollution degree of waste water coming out in 3-phase system are considerably high from 2-phase system. Recycling of 2-phase olive pomace containing also olive mill waste water, which is highly harmful for environment and is generally discharged to nature without any treatment, is considerably important by processing. This review gives information about the necessity of drying of olive pomace and related studies with this subject.

  1. Stepwise Isothermal Fast Pyrolysis (SIFP of Biomass. Part III. SIFP of Olive Oil Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Luna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of olive oil industry wastes was carried out using stepwise isothermal fast pyrolysis (SIFP. SIFP consists of a succession of isothermal fast pyrolysis reactions in which the solid products obtained from the previous isothermal fast pyrolysis reaction become the substrates for subsequent reactions at higher temperatures. This article reports the results obtained from the SIFP of olive oil residue carried out between the temperatures of 300 and 500 °C using 100 °C intervals under reduced pressure (200 mm Hg. The maximum yield of liquid products occurred at 300 °C and consisted of around 35% bio-oil, which contained mainly phenols, furans, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. At 400 and 500 °C, FAME, which is derived from residual olive oil, was the major product.

  2. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  3. Mill wastewater and olive pomace compost as amendments for rye-grass

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    International audience; A two-year experiment was carried out to study the effects of applying untreated Olive Wastewater (OWW), treated OWW and olive pomace compost as soil amendments on both rye-grass growth and soil characteristics. We analysed growth parameters (Leaf Area Index, and fresh and dry weight), leaf green colour (SPAD readings), N uptake of the rye-grass and chemical soil characteristics. The results indicate that the highest untreated OWW application increased growth parameter...

  4. Solid olive waste in environmental cleanup: oil recovery and carbon production for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hamouz, Amer; Hilal, Hikmat S; Nassar, Nashaat; Mardawi, Zahi

    2007-07-01

    A potentially-economic three-fold strategy, to use solid olive wastes in water purification, is presented. Firstly, oil remaining in solid waste (higher than 5% of waste) was recovered by the Soxhlet extraction technique, which can be useful for the soap industry. Secondly, the remaining solid was processed to yield relatively high-surface area active carbon (AC). Thirdly, the resulting carbon was employed to reversibly adsorb chromate ions from water, aiming to establish a water purification process with reusable AC. The technique used here enabled oil recovery together with the production of a clean solid, suitable for making AC. This process also has the advantage of low production cost.

  5. Vermiremediation of toxic jute mill waste employing Metaphire posthuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasish; Deka, Priyanka; Goswami, Linee; Sahariah, Banashree; Hussain, Nazneen; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2016-08-01

    India has a giant jute-producing basket which produces considerable quantity of toxic jute mill waste (JMW). Conversely, report on usability potential of JMW is rather scanty. The present study illustrates the efficiency of vermicomposting in bioconversion of JMW for agricultural use. Various combinations of JMW, cow dung, and vegetable waste were fed to Metaphire posthuma in vermireactors. Rapid increment of earthworm count, body weight, and cocoon production was evidenced. Total organic carbon and pH reduction was noteworthy, but N, P, and K availability, formation of stable humic acid C, fulvic acid C, and microbial biomass C substantially increased due to vermicomposting. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed a higher stability of vermicomposted JMW over the composted product. A significant decline in heavy metal concentration (Cr, Pb, Fe, and Zn) in the vermicomposted JMW further establishes the potential of vermicomposting with M. posthuma in successful conversion of the toxic JMW into valuable product.

  6. Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Sparling, Richard; Risbey, Derek; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemi; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked for methanogenesis inhibition. In the first phase of experiments it was found that acetylene at 1% v/v in the headspace was as effective as BES in inhibiting methanogenic activity. Hydrogen gas accumulated in the headspace of the bottles, reaching a plateau. Similar final hydrogen concentrations were obtained for reactors spiked with acetylene and BES. In the second phase of tests the headspace of the batch reactors was flushed with nitrogen gas after the first plateau of hydrogen was reached, and subsequently incubated, with no further addition of inhibitor nor substrate. It was found that hydrogen production resumed and reached a second plateau, although somewhat lower than the first one. This procedure was repeated a third time and an additional amount of hydrogen was obtained. The plateaux and initial rates of hydrogen accumulation decreased in each subsequent incubation cycle. The total cumulative hydrogen harvested in the three cycles was much higher (approx. double) than in the first cycle alone. We coined this procedure as IV-SSAH (intermittently vented solid substrate anaerobic hydrogen generation). Our results point out to a feasible strategy for obtaining higher hydrogen yields from the fermentation of industrial solid wastes, and a possible combination of waste treatment processes consisting of a first stage IV-SSAH followed by a second SSAD stage. Useful products of this approach would be hydrogen, organic acids or methane, and anaerobic digestates that could be used as soil amenders after post-treatment.

  7. Hydrogen generation via anaerobic fermentation of paper mill wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez Vazquez, I.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. of Biotechnology and Bioengineering; Sparling, R.; Risbey, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology; Rinderknecht Seijas, N. [ESIQUIE-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Division Base Sciences

    2005-11-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the hydrogen production from paper mill wastes using microbial consortia of solid substrate anaerobic digesters. Inocula from mesophilic, continuous solid substrate anaerobic digestion (SSAD) reactors were transferred to small lab scale, batch reactors. Milled paper (used as a surrogate paper waste) was added as substrate and acetylene or 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was spiked for methanogenesis inhibition. In the first phase of experiments it was found that acetylene at 1% v/v in the headspace was as effective as BES in inhibiting methanogenic activity. Hydrogen gas accumulated in the headspace of the bottles, reaching a plateau. Similar final hydrogen concentrations were obtained for reactors spiked with acetylene and BES. In the second phase of tests the headspace of the batch reactors was flushed with nitrogen gas after the first plateau of hydrogen was reached, and subsequently incubated, with no further addition of inhibitor nor substrate. It was found that hydrogen production resumed and reached a second plateau, although somewhat lower than the first one. This procedure was repeated a third time and an additional amount of hydrogen was obtained. The plateaux and initial rates of hydrogen accumulation decreased in each subsequent incubation cycle. The total cumulative hydrogen harvested in the three cycles was much higher (approx. double) than in the first cycle alone. We coined this procedure as IV-SSAH (intermittently vented solid substrate anaerobic hydrogen generation). Our results point out to a feasible strategy for obtaining higher hydrogen yields from the fermentation of industrial solid wastes, and a possible combination of waste treatment processes consisting of a first stage IV-SSAH followed by a second SSAD stage. Useful products of this approach would be hydrogen, organic acids or methane, and anaerobic digestates that could be used as soil amenders after post-treatment. (author)

  8. Waste to resource: Converting paper mill wastewater to bioplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Tamis, Jelmer; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Dijkman, Henk; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2012-11-01

    In this study we investigated the feasibility of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by microbial enrichments on paper mill wastewater. The complete process includes (1) paper mill wastewater acidogenic fermentation in a simple batch process, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community in a selector operated in sequencing batch mode with feast-famine regime, (3) Cellular PHA content maximization of the enrichment in an accumulator in fed-batch mode. The selective pressure required to establish a PHA-producing microbial enrichment, as derived from our previous research on synthetic medium, was validated using an agro-industrial waste stream in this study. The microbial enrichment obtained could accumulate maximum up to 77% PHA of cell dry weight within 5 h, which is currently the best result obtained on real agro-industrial waste streams, especially in terms of biomass specific efficiency. Biomass in this enrichment included both Plasticicumulans acidivorans, which was the main PHA producer, and a flanking population, which exhibited limited PHA-producing capacity. The fraction of P. acidivorans in the biomass was largely dependent on the fraction of volatile fatty acids in the total soluble COD in the wastewater after acidification. Based on this observation, one simple equation was proposed for predicting the PHA storage capacity of the enrichment. Moreover, some crucial bottlenecks that may impede the successful scaling-up of the process are discussed.

  9. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  10. Olive crop wastes; Los residuos de la poda del Olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cal Herrera, J. A.

    1999-11-01

    Nowadays, lots of tons of vegetables residues are incinerated every year since February to April, when olive crop campaign is finished, in the fields of provinces of Jaen, Cordoba and Granada. This process doesn`t provide any benefits to the farmers, but a high cost and risk for them. Finally, it causes a high environmental impact in those areas where it`s developed. Thermal and biochemical exploitation of these vegetables residues could contribute to increase social, economical and environmental benefits in province of Jaen. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Experimental Studies on Co-composting of Municipal Solid Waste with Paper Mill Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, G; Meenambal, T

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a series of experimental studies were conducted with regard to bioconversion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste along with paper mill sludge at different C/N ratios. About 10 kg of shredded waste containing paper mill sludge, saw dust and municipal solid waste was placed in reactors in different proportions and 100 mL of effective microorganisms was added to it. The variation in physical and chemical parameters was monitored throughout the process. The results indicate that co-composting of paper mill sludge with municipal solid waste produces compost that is more stable and homogenous and can be effectively used as soil conditioner.

  12. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges.

  13. Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater, by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelegenis, John; Goumenaki, Maria [Energy Technology Department, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Str., Egaleo/Athens, GR-122 10 (Greece); Georgakakis, Dimitris; Christopoulou, Nicholetta [Agricultural University of Athens, Agricultural Engineering Department, Laboratory of Agricultural Structures, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens (Greece); Angelidaki, Irini [Institute of Environment and Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    Optimization of biogas production from olive-mill wastewater (OMW) was attempted by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure (DPM) at mesophilic conditions. A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors, fed with mixtures of OMW and DPM at various concentrations. It was concluded that codigestion of OMW with DPM is possible without any dilution of OMW or addition of any chemicals. Biogas production was slightly higher when OMW was added to DPM up to a critical concentration (about 40%, expressed as contribution of OMW to the volatile solids of the mixture), after which production is decreased. The results were further verified by scaling up to a continuously-operating pilot-plant reactor digesting DPM, and confirmed that no negative impact was imposed by adding OMW up to the above critical value. (author)

  14. Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) Phenol Compounds Degradation by Means of a Visible Light Activated Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Francesca; Venditti, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The use of titanium dioxide as heterogeneous photocatalyst is drawing considerable attention for water and air purification and remediation. Recently, TiO2 particles have been modified in order to make this material attractive for industrial and environmental remediation usage. In the present study, phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) were degraded in the presence of glucose-doped titanium particles (CDT) through a photocatalysis process activated by visible light. The photocatalyst effectiveness towards the polluted wastewater from olive oil industry was tested on systems having different initial concentrations of phenols and in the presence of different amounts of CDT. For kinetic analysis the role of Ti/TPh ratio (amount of catalyst/amount of total phenols) was investigated. The rate constant (k2) and the amounts of species adsorbed on adsorbent at equilibrium (qe) of each reaction were calculated by fitting kinetics data to a second-order kinetic adsorption model. The results collected at different Ti/TPh ratios showed that the amount of phenols that can be removed from the water solution linearly increases with the Ti/TPh ratio till a maximum value (optimal ratio) at which no further degradation of phenolic compounds was obtainable. Such kind of parameter allows to identify the optimal value of catalyst and the initial substrate concentration for a high level of degradation. The results showed in this study can have an important impact for an applicative point of view.

  15. Kinetic and Isotherm Modelling of the Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro A. Casazza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive oil wastewater by commercial activated carbon was studied as a function of adsorbent quantity and temperature. The sorption kinetics and the equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (8 g of activated carbon per 100 mL, the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon expressed as mg of caff eic acid equivalent per g of activated carbon was 35.8 at 10 °C, 35.4 at 25 °C and 36.1 at 40 °C. The pseudo-second-order model was considered as the most suitable for kinetic results, and Langmuir isotherm was chosen to bett er describe the sorption system. The results confi rmed the effi ciency of activated carbon to remove almost all phenolic compound fractions from olive mill effl uent. The preliminary results obtained will be used in future studies. The carbohydrate fraction of this upgraded residue could be employed to produce bioethanol, and adsorbed phenolic compounds can be recovered and used in different industries.

  16. An Innovative Device to Convert Olive Mill Wastewater into a Suitable Effluent for Feeding Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Carlozzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A device (prototype with a working volume of 200 L was used to deplete olive mill wastewater (OMW of polyphenols. The OMW transformed into feedstock by means of the device was then used for feeding a lab-scale photobioreactor, just for testing the production of bioH2. The main novelty of this prototype consists in the combination of several adsorbent matrices and the exploitation of their synergic action. In this investigation, three matrices have been used: active carbon, Azolla and zeolite. The device was operated at an olive oil company located in the heart of the Chianti zone (Province of Florence, Italy. The efficiency of polyphenol removal obtained using the device was ≥96%. The multi-matrix effluent (MMeff generated was then used to obtain three different culture broths containing 25%, 50% and 100% of MMeff, respectively. The diluted (with water culture broths were suitable for hydrogen generation, with the highest hydrogen production rate (12.7 mL H2/Lculture/h being obtained using 50% MMeff. The hydrogen yields were: 334 mL H2/L of MMeff, when feeding the photofermenter with pure effluent (100%; 1308 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the half-diluted effluent (50%, v/v; and 432 mL H2/L of MMeff, with the highest-diluted effluent (25%, v/v.

  17. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Reina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS in solid state fermentation (SSF. This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments.

  18. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  19. Optimization of the Enzymatic Saccharification Process of Milled Orange Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange juice production generates a very high quantity of residues (Orange Peel Waste or OPW-50–60% of total weight that can be used for cattle feed as well as feedstock for the extraction or production of essential oils, pectin and nutraceutics and several monosaccharides by saccharification, inversion and enzyme-aided extraction. As in all solid wastes, simple pretreatments can enhance these processes. In this study, hydrothermal pretreatments and knife milling have been analyzed with enzyme saccharification at different dry solid contents as the selection test: simple knife milling seemed more appropriate, as no added pretreatment resulted in better final glucose yields. A Taguchi optimization study on dry solid to liquid content and the composition of the enzymatic cocktail was undertaken. The amounts of enzymatic preparations were set to reduce their impact on the economy of the process; however, as expected, the highest amounts resulted in the best yields to glucose and other monomers. Interestingly, the highest content in solid to liquid (11.5% on dry basis rendered the best yields. Additionally, in search for process economy with high yields, operational conditions were set: medium amounts of hemicellulases, polygalacturonases and β-glucosidases. Finally, a fractal kinetic modelling of results for all products from the saccharification process indicated very high activities resulting in the liberation of glucose, fructose and xylose, and very low activities to arabinose and galactose. High activity on pectin was also observed, but, for all monomers liberated initially at a fast rate, high hindrances appeared during the saccharification process.

  20. Liquid Nitrogen and Water Jet Milling of Energetic Material Production Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP017711 TITLE: Liquid Nitrogen and Water Jet Milling of Energetic...NITROGEN AND WATER JET MILLING OF ENERGETIC MATERIAL PRODUCTION WASTES Roger L. Schneider Rho Sigma Associates, Inc. Whitefish Bay, WI 53217-5968 USA 414

  1. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing...

  2. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  3. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  4. Performance Modeling and Cost Analysis of a Pilot-Scale Reverse Osmosis Process for the Final Purification of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h−1 m−2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h−2 m−2 bar−1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day−1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m−3 total costs for the RO process were estimated. PMID:24957058

  5. Performance modeling and cost analysis of a pilot-scale reverse osmosis process for the final purification of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2013-10-11

    A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h-1 m-2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h-2 m-2 bar-1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day-1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m-3 total costs for the RO process were estimated.

  6. Increasing the large scale feasibility of a solid phase extraction procedure for the recovery of natural antioxidants from olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Scoma, Alberto; Pintucci, Cristina; Bertin, Lorenzo; Carlozzi, Pietro; Fava, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was focused on improving the feasibility of large scale applications of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure dedicated to the recovery of polyphenols from olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). To this aim, a previously developed SPE procedure was optimized in terms of contact time without negatively affecting the overall process productivity. The possibility of regenerating and recycling both the solid phase (Amberlite XAD16 non-polar resin) and the extraction solvent (...

  7. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  8. Treatment efficiency and economic feasibility of biological oxidation, membrane filtration and separation processes, and advanced oxidation for the purification and valorization of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou-Ttofa, L; Michael-Kordatou, I; Fattas, S C; Eusebio, A; Ribeiro, B; Rusan, M; Amer, A R B; Zuraiqi, S; Waismand, M; Linder, C; Wiesman, Z; Gilron, J; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2017-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major waste stream resulting from numerous operations that occur during the production stages of olive oil. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact can be notable. The present work aims at investigating the efficiency of (i) jet-loop reactor with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system (Jacto.MBR), (ii) solar photo-Fenton oxidation after coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment and (iii) integrated membrane filtration processes (i.e. UF/nanofiltration (NF)) used for the treatment of OMW. According to the results, the efficiency of the biological treatment was high, equal to 90% COD and 80% total phenolic compounds (TPh) removal. A COD removal higher than 94% was achieved by applying the solar photo-Fenton oxidation process as post-treatment of coagulation/flocculation of OMW, while the phenolic fraction was completely eliminated. The combined UF/NF process resulted in very high conductivity and COD removal, up to 90% and 95%, respectively, while TPh were concentrated in the NF concentrate stream (i.e. 93% concentration). Quite important is the fact that the NF concentrate, a valuable and polyphenol rich stream, can be further valorized in various industries (e.g. food, pharmaceutical, etc.). The above treatment processes were found also to be able to reduce the initial OMW phytotoxicity at greenhouse experiments; with the effluent stream of solar photo-Fenton process to be the least phytotoxic compared to the other treated effluents. A SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats) analysis was performed, in order to determine both the strengths of each technology, as well as the possible obstacles that need to overcome for achieving the desired levels of treatment. Finally, an economic evaluation of the tested technologies was performed in an effort to measure the applicability and viability of these systems at real scale; highlighting that the cost cannot be regarded as

  9. Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hanandeh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar.

  10. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biodegradation and detoxification of olive mill wastewater by selected strains of the mushroom genera Ganoderma and Pleurotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Antoniou, Theodoros; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2012-07-01

    Thirty-nine white-rot fungi belonging to nine species of Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota) were initially screened for their ability to decrease olive-mill wastewater (OMW) phenolics. Four strains of Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were selected and further examined for key-aspects of the OMW biodegradation process. Fungal growth in OMW-containing batch cultures resulted in significant decolorization (by 40-46% and 60-65% for Ganoderma and Pleurotus spp. respectively) and reduction of phenolics (by 64-67% and 74-81% for Ganoderma and Pleurotus spp. respectively). COD decrease was less pronounced (12-29%). Cress-seeds germination increased by 30-40% when OMW was treated by Pleurotus strains. Toxicity expressed as inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri luminescence was reduced in fungal-treated OMW samples by approximately 5-15 times compared to the control. As regards the pertinent enzyme activities, laccase and Mn-independent peroxidase were detected for Ganoderma spp. during the entire incubation period. In contrast, Pleurotus spp. did not exhibit any enzyme activities at early growth stages; instead, high laccase (five times greater than those of Ganoderma spp.) and Mn peroxidases activities were determined at the end of treatment. OMW decolorization by Ganoderma strains was strongly correlated to the reduction of phenolics, whereas P. eryngii laccase activity was correlated with the effluent's decolorization.

  12. Anaerobic acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters in biofilm reactors packed with ceramic filters or granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Lampis, Silvia; Todaro, Daniela; Scoma, Alberto; Vallini, Giovanni; Marchetti, Leonardo; Majone, Mauro; Fava, Fabio

    2010-08-01

    Four identically configured anaerobic packed bed biofilm reactors were developed and employed in the continuous acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be exploited in the biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ceramic porous cubes or granular activated carbon were used as biofilm supports. Aside packing material, the role of temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA production yield and mixture composition were also studied. The process was monitored through a chemical, microbiological and molecular biology integrated procedure. The highest wastewater acidification yield was achieved with the ceramic-based technology at 25 degrees C, with an inlet COD and an OLR of about 17 g/L and 13 g/L/day, respectively. Under these conditions, about the 66% of the influent COD (not including its VFA content) was converted into VFAs, whose final amount represented more than 82% of the influent COD. In particular, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were the main VFAs by composing the 55.7, 21.5 and 14.4%, respectively, of the whole VFA mixture. Importantly, the relative concentrations of acetate and propionate were affected by the OLR parameter. The nature of the packing material remarkable influenced the process performances, by greatly affecting the biofilm bacterial community structure. In particular, ceramic cubes favoured the immobilization of Firmicutes of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium, which were probably involved in the VFA producing process.

  13. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  14. KINETIC STUDIES ON BIODEGRADATION OF LIPIDS FROM OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS WITH FREE AND IMMOBILIZED Bacillus sp. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Irina Galaction

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the biodegradation of lipids from olive oil mill wastewater with free and immobilized Bacillus sp. cells indicated that the maximum specific rate of the process is reached at pH = 8. The use of immobilized cells allows to increasing the number of biodegradation process cycles, but reduces the rate of the process. In this case, the process rate depends on the biocatalysts size and cells concentration inside them. Thus, at bacterial cells concentration of 9 g d.w./100 mL biocatalyst, the apparent specific rate varied from 4.65 to 1.46×10-2 h-1 by increasing the biocatalyst particles diameter from 3 to 4.2 mm.The cumulated influences of the particles size and cells concentration have been included in a mathematical model for the apparent specific rate of lipids biodegradation. The model offers a good concordance with the experimental data, the average deviation being of +/- 7.38%.

  15. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  16. Toxicities effects of pharmaceutical, olive mill and textile wastewaters before and after degradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Hedi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removal of numerous classes of chemical pollutants from the industrial wastewater such as textile, pharmaceutical and olive mill using conventional wastewater treatment, is incomplete and several studies suggested that improvement of this situation would require the application of biological treatment techniques. Dyes, polyphenols and drugs are an environmental pollutants extremely toxics to plants and other living organisms including humans. These effluents were previously treated by Pseudomonas putida. The main of this work was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of the three wastewaters. Methods Writhes and convulsant effect of effluents were carried out and were compared to the treated effluents. Only pharmaceutical wastewater was exhibited a convulsant effect which observed in mice treated by effluent. On the other hand, all industrial wastewater induced significantly an algogenic effects particularly when mice were treated by the pharmaceutical wastewater (Number of writhes = 44. Conclusion Toxicity was totally removed when mice were treated by the bio remediated effluent. This indicates that P. putida was able to completely detoxify the toxic industrial effluent.

  17. Photodegradation of Polyphenols and Aromatic Amines in Olive Mill Effluents with Ni Doped C/TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Teresa Sponza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nickel coated carbon based titanium dioxide [C/TiO2/Ni] nanocomposites were used for photodegradation of polyphenols and total aromatic amines (TAAs metabolites from olive mill wastewaters (OMW at different operational conditions such as different mass ratios of C, TiO2, and Ni (1%/2%/5%; 5%/1%/2%; and 2%/5%/1%, being at increasing photodegradation times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 120, and 180 min, photocatalyst concentrations (100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg L−1, pH values (3.5, 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0 and temperatures (15°C, 25°C, 50°C, and 80°C, and being under 300 W ultraviolet (UV and 30 W sunlight irradiation. Under the optimized conditions, at pH=7.0, at 500 mg L−1 C/TiO2/Ni nanocomposite, under 300 W UV light, after 60 min, at 25°C, the maximum CODdissolved, total phenol, and TAAs removals were 99%, 90%, and 96%, respectively. Photodegradation removals in the OMW under sunlight and being lower than those under UV light.

  18. Phenolic compounds removal from mimosa tannin model water and olive mill wastewater by energy-efficient electrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kraljić Roković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of NaCl concentration, time, and current density on the removal efficiency of phenolic compounds by electrocoagulation process, as well as to compare the specific energy consumption (SEC of these processes under different experimental conditions. Electrocoagulation was carried out on two different samples of water: model water of mimosa tannin and olive mill wastewater (OMW. Low carbon steel electrodes were used in the experiments. The properties of the treated effluent were determined using UV/Vis spectroscopy and by measuring total organic carbon (TOC. Percentage of removal increased with time, current density, and NaCl concentration. SEC value increased with increased time and current density but it was decreased significantly by NaCl additions (0-29 g L-1. It was found that electro­coagulation treatment of effluents containing phenolic compounds involves complex formation between ferrous/ferric and phenolic compounds present in treated effluent, which has significant impact on the efficiency of the process.

  19. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity.

  20. Effect of olive mill wastewaters on the oxygen consumption by activated sludge microorganisms: an acute toxicity test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, S M; Anselmo, A M

    2002-01-01

    The test for inhibition of oxygen consumption by activated sludge (ISO 8192-1986 (E)) was evaluated as a tool for assessing, the acute toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW). According to the ISO test, information generated by this method may be helpful in estimating the effect of a test material on bacterial communities in the aquatic environment, especially in aerobic biological treatment systems. However, the lack of standardized bioassay methodology for effluents imposed that the test conditions were modified and adapted. The experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of an easily biodegradable carbon source (glucose) with different contact times (20 min and 24 h). The results obtained showed a remarkable stimulatory effect of this effluent to the activated sludge microorganisms. In fact, the oxygen uptake rate values increase with increasing effluent concentrations and contact times up to 0.98 microl O(2) h(-1) mg(-1) dry weight for a 100% OMW sample, 24 h contact time, with blanks exhibiting an oxygen uptake rate of ca. 1/10 of this value (0.07-0.10). It seems that the application of the ISO test as an acute toxicity test for effluents should be reconsidered, with convenient adaptation for its utilization as a method of estimating the effect on bacterial communities present in aerobic biological treatment systems.

  1. Enhanced reduction of phenol content and toxicity in olive mill wastewaters by a newly isolated strain of Coriolopsis gallica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Belbahri, Lassaad; Vallat, Armelle; Woodward, Steve; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2014-02-01

    The search for novel microorganisms able to degrade olive mill wastewaters (OMW) and withstand the toxic effects of the initially high phenolic concentrations is of great scientific and industrial interest. In this work, the possibility of reducing the phenolic content of OMW using new isolates of fungal strains (Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes trogii, and Fusarium solani) was investigated. In vitro, all fungal isolates tested caused an outstanding decolorization of OMW. However, C. gallica gave the highest decolorization and dephenolization rates at 30 % v/v OMW dilution in water. Fungal growth in OMW medium was affected by several parameters including phenolic compound concentration, nitrogen source, and inoculum size. The optimal OMW medium for the removal of phenolics and color was with the OMW concentration (in percent)/[(NH4)2SO4]/inoculum ratio of 30:6:3. Under these conditions, 90 and 85 % of the initial phenolic compounds and color were removed, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of extracts from treated and untreated OMW showed a clear and substantial reduction in phenolic compound concentrations. Phytotoxicity, assessed using radish (Raphanus sativus) seeds, indicated an increase in germination index of 23-92 % when a 30 % OMW concentration was treated with C. gallica in different dilutions (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8).

  2. Engineered tobacco and microalgae secreting the fungal laccase POXA1b reduce phenol content in olive oil mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaiese, Pasquale; Palomba, Francesca; Tatino, Filippo; Lanzillo, Carmine; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Filippone, Edgardo

    2011-12-10

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWs) are characterised by low pH and a high content of mono- and polyaromatic compounds that exert microbial and phytotoxic activity. The laccase cDNA of the poxA1b gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying a signal peptide sequence for enzyme secretion and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector. Nuclear genetic transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cv Samsun NN leaves and cells of five different microalgae accessions belonging to the genera Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Ankistrodesmus. Transgenic plants and microalgae were able to express and secrete the recombinant laccase in the root exudates and the culture medium, respectively. In comparison to untransformed controls, the ability to reduce phenol content in OMW solution was enhanced up to 2.8-fold in transgenic tobacco lines and by up to about 40% in two microalgae accessions. The present work provides new evidence for metabolic improvement of green organisms through the transgenic approach to remediation.

  3. Olive mill wastewater treatment by a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow (SSF-h) constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bubba, Massimo; Checchini, Leonardo; Pifferi, Chiara; Zanieri, Laura; Lepri, Luciano

    2004-12-01

    Performances of a pilot-scale reed bed for the olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment were investigated, by monitoring influent and effluent pH, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus and polyphenols. In order to reduce the suspended matter concentration and to avoid clogging, OMW was pre-treated by adding lime putty, calcium hydroxide and hydraulic lime. The best results were obtained with 2 g/L of hydraulic lime. Pre-treated OMW was dosed in the reed bed at dilution ratios of 1/3 and 1/10 (v/v), pointing up that the latter only did not give rise to reed suffering and allowed to obtain good and durable removal efficiencies, above all for COD (74.1+/-17.6%) and polyphenols (83.4+/-17.8%). Recycling of the effluent was quite effective for the improvement of the wastewater quality, allowing a further removal of 26-70%, depending on the parameter taken into account. A post-dosage study, carried out by feeding the reed bed with the effluent of an activated sludge plant, pointed up a rapid decreasing of the outlet concentrations of the investigated parameters to values compatible with Italian regulations concerning wastewater discharge in surface water. Polyphenols were the exception, being their outlet concentration at the end of post-dosage study around 2 mg/L.

  4. Clostridium tunisiense sp. nov., a new proteolytic, sulfur-reducing bacterium isolated from an olive mill wastewater contaminated by phosphogypse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Olfa Ben Dhia; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Joulian, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre; Hamdi, Moktar; Garcia, Jean-Louis; Ollivier, Bernard

    2004-06-01

    A new sporulated fermentative bacterium designated strain E1(T) (T=type strain), was isolated from an anaerobic mud of an olive mill wastewater basin contaminated by phosphogypse produced by a Tunisian factory. Strain E1(T) was a motile Gram-positive slightly curved rod with spherical terminal spore swelling the cell. It grew between 18 degrees C and 43 degrees C with an optimum at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 (range 5.5-8.7), without NaCl (range 0-3%). Strain E1(T) was a chemoorganotrophic anaerobic bacterium fermenting only proteins and amino acids. Yeast extract was required for growth. Elemental sulfur was used as terminal electron acceptor. The G+C content of the DNA was 32.6 mol%. The closest phylogenetical relatives of strain E1(T) were Clostridium thiosulfatireducens and C. subterminale (97.3% similarity for partial rRNA gene sequences). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain E1(T) and both species were 17% and 20.8%, respectively. On the basis of differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, strain E1(T) (DSM 15206(T), CIP 107666(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a new species, C. tunisiense sp. nov. GenBank accession number for the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain E1(T) is AY187622.

  5. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  6. The importance of pretreatment tailoring on the performance of ultrafiltration membranes to treat two-phase olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando Pulido, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of an ultrafiltration (UF membrane in the treatment of the effluents by-produced by olive mills is addressed by applying different pretreatments on the raw effluents. By conducting a photo-catalytic process (UV/TiO2 PC after pH-temperature flocculation (pH-T F higher threshold flux values were observed for all feed stocks than by applying solely the pH-T F process, with an 18.8–34.2% increment. In addition, the performance of the UF membrane was also improved in terms of rejection efficiency, such that higher rejection values were yielded by the membrane for the organic pollutants (RCOD by 48.5 vs. 39.9% and 53.4 vs. 42.0%. The UF membrane performance was also improved in terms of the volume feed recovery factor (VFR, achieving up to 88.2 vs. 87.2% and 90.7 vs. 89.3%. Results in the same line were also observed when the highly polluted olives oil washing wastewater raw stream was previously mixed with the effluent stream coming from the washing of the olives. This permits the UF to permeate, achieving the standard limits to reuse the purified effluent for irrigation purposes (COD values below 1000 mg·L−1, which makes the treatment process cost-effective and results in making the olive oil production process environmentally friendly.En este estudio se aborda el rendimiento de una membrana de ultrafiltración (UF para el tratamiento de los efluentes generados por la industria oleícola, mediante la aplicación de distintos pretratamientos. Tras aplicar un proceso fotocatalítico (UV/TiO2 PC después de una floculación pH-temperatura (pH-T F se observaron flujos límite para todos los efluentes mayores que tras la aplicación únicamente del proceso pH-T F, con incrementos del 18.8–34.2 %. Además, el rendimiento de la membrana de UF mejoró en términos de eficiencia de rechazo, con mayores valores de rechazo respecto de los contaminantes orgánicos (RCOD, 48.5 vs. 39.9 % y 53.4 vs. 42.0 %. El rendimiento de

  7. Mobilization of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings and related waste materials in anaerobic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Specific extraction studies in our laboratory have shown that iron and manganese oxide- and alkaline earth sulfate minerals are important hosts of radium in uranium mill tailings. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria may enhance the release of radium (and its analog barium) from uranium mill tailings, oil field pipe scale [a major technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) waste], and jarosite (a common mineral in sulfuric acid processed-tailings). These research findings are reviewed and discussed in the context of nuclear waste forms (such as barium sulfate matrices), radioactive waste management practices, and geochemical environments in the Earth's surficial and shallow subsurface regions.

  8. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  9. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  10. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  11. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  12. Hydrophobization potential of organic compounds deriving from olive oil production waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerer, Sina E.; Bandow, Nicole; Marschner, Bernd; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2010-05-01

    Olive oil production waste water (OPWW) is rich in dissolved organic carbon and nutrients (e.g. potassium). In order to use it as organic fertilizer, small-scale and family run olive oil production farms in Israel and Palestine often discharge it directly onto agricultural land without any previous treatment. One unwanted side effect that can be observed is the development of soil water repellency (SWR) which is probably induced by amphiphilic substances. Previous studies on the composition of OPWW have shown that it contains oil components such as phenols, fats and large-molecular organic compounds (e.g. Gonzalezvila et al., 1995), some of which have been reported to induce water repellency on soil mineral surfaces (e.g. Ma'shum et al., 1988; Leelamanie and Karube, 2007). For prioritization of compounds the individual hydrophobization potential of 16 common OPWW components was systematically evaluated using the sessile drop and the Wilhelmy plate method. Acid-washed sand was taken as model soil mineral material. In a batch experiment OPWW samples from Israel and Palestine were applied to sand and two different soils in order to investigate their hydrophobization potential under different temperature and humidity conditions. To facilitate the identification of the chemicals responsible for inducing SWR, a fractionation procedure was applied to fraction the OPWW samples using solvents of different polarity. The prioritized compounds were analyzed by GC-MS. First results of this identification will be presented as well.

  13. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  14. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: Treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chokri Belaid; Moncef Khadraoui; Salma Mseddi; Monem Kallel; Boubaker Elleuch; Jean Francois Fauvarque

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts:(1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes.This investigation deals with these two aspects,an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under pla ttmized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination.The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution.Indeed,87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation.Moreover,55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced.On the other hand,UV-Visible spectrophotometry,Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry,cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW.It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Gaignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW.Among the monitoring analytical tools applied,cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR are among the techniques that are introduced for the first time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance.

  15. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase).

  16. Saprobe fungi decreased the sensitivity to the toxic effect of dry olive mill residue on arbuscular mycorrhizal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, I; Aranda, E; Díaz, R; García-Sanchez, M; Ocampo, J A; García-Romera, I

    2008-02-01

    We studied the influence of olive mill dry residue (DOR) treated with saprobe fungi on growth of tomato and alfalfa colonized by Glomus deserticola. The application of 25g kg(-1) of dry DOR to soil decreased the shoot and root dry weight of tomato and alfalfa. Plants were more sensitive to the toxicity of DOR when colonized with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The sensitivity of both plants to the toxicity of DOR differed according to whether they were colonized by G. deserticola or by indigenous AM fungi. The phytotoxicity of DOR towards tomato and alfalfa was decreased by incubation the residue before planting with saprobe fungi for 20wk. The beneficial effects of AM fungi on plant growth added with DOR incubated with saprobe fungi depend of the type of the plant and AM fungi. The contribution of AM fungi to the beneficial effect of DOR incubated with saprobe fungi varied according to the type of the plant and AM fungi. G. deserticola increased the shoot and root dry weight of plants when they were grown in the presence of DOR incubated with saprobe fungi for 20wk. The beneficial effect of saprobe fungi on the dry weight and the level of AM mycorrhization of plants seem to be related to the decrease caused by these fungi in the phenol concentration in DOR. However, the toxicity of DOR due to substances other than phenols can not be ignored. The use of certain saprobe and AM fungi allows the possibility of using DOR as an organic fertilizer.

  17. Degradation of model olive mill contaminants of OMW catalysed by zero-valent iron enhanced with a chelant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Irama; Stueber, Frank; Fabregat, Azael; Font, Josep [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Fortuny, Agusti [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Bengoa, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.bengoa@urv.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation of OMW models catalysed by Fe(0) and nitrilotriacetic acid was effective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p-hydroxyphenylacetic, vanillic and caffeic acids were totally removed in isolation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coumaric acid, tyrosol and cinnamic acid attained a lower removal, less than 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Order of reactivity was modified in the mixtures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal of some acids was highly enhanced by the presence of other compounds. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a chelated zero valent iron as catalyst on the oxidation of six organic acids that are generally found in olive mill wastewater. The reaction was carried out in a stirred tank reactor under extremely mild conditions, a temperature of 30 Degree-Sign C and atmospheric pressure. Solutions of 350 mg/L of the six organic compounds were treated individually using zero valent iron particles (15 g), nitrilotriacetic acid disodium salt (NTA, 100 mg/L) and air. The efficiency of the process was evaluated to determine the organic compound conversion, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and the total organic carbon (TOC) reduction. The caffeic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic and vanillic acids showed a total conversion after 180, 240 and 300 min of reaction, respectively. In turn, coumaric acid, tyrosol and cinnamic acid only reached conversions of 90, 87 and 68%, respectively, after 360 min of reaction. Four mixtures of the six acids with an initial total concentration of 1000 mg/L were also tested and gave an overall conversion of the organic compounds of 92-99% after 360 min of reaction. The COD conversions of the mixtures were always above 84%, but the TOC conversions values were lower, indicating a poorer mineralization.

  18. Efficacy of bioconversion of paper mill bamboo sludge and lime waste by composting and vermiconversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, B; Sinha, I; Sharma, P; Goswami, L; Bhattacharyya, P; Gogoi, N; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Paper mill bamboo sludge (PMBS) and Paper mill lime waste (PMLW) are extensively produced as solid wastes in paper mills. Untreated PMBS and PMLW contain substantial amount of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr) in soluble forms. Efficiency of vermiconversion and aerobic composting with these wastes is reported here. Adopted bioconversion systems enhanced the availability of some essential nutrients (N, P, K and Zn) in various combinations of cow dung (CD) with PMBS and PMLW. Colonization of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria considerably intensified under the vermiconversion system. Moreover, significant metal detoxification occurred due to vermiconversion. Various combinations of bioconverted PMBS and PMLW were applied to tissue cultured bamboo (Bambusa tulda) and chilli (Capsicum annum). Accelerated nutrient uptake coupled with improved soil quality resulted in significant production of chilli. Furthermore, vermiconverted PMBS+CD (1:1) and PMLW+CD (1:3) confirmed as potential enriching substrate for tissue cultured bamboo.

  19. Processing, Valorization and Application of Bio-Waste Derived Compounds from Potato, Tomato, Olive and Cereals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fritsch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of potato, tomato, cereals and olive arise in significant amounts in European countries and are consequently of high relevance. Due to their composition with various beneficial ingredients, the waste products can be valorized by different techniques leading to economic and environmental advantages. This paper focuses on the waste generation during industrial processing of potato, tomato, cereals and olives within the European Union and reviews state-of-the-art technologies for their valorization. Furthermore, current applications, future perspectives and challenges are discussed.

  20. 橄榄油废水处理技术研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS IN TREATMENT OF OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 芦小茜; 张辉

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a byproduct,generated in the olive oil extraction industry.OMW is becoming a severe environmental problem because of the high chemical oxygen demand,biochemical oxygen demand and the high content of phenols.A lot of research work has been carried out on the treatment of oil mill wastewater in overseas,and many effective technologies were proposed.However,in our country,the olive oil mill wastewater is still placed in the evaporation pool or discharged into drainage ditch.The present foreign research status was summarized systematically from five aspects,such as physical,physicochemical,chemical,biological and combined technology,and the prospect for the research direction of OMW treatment was also given.%橄榄油废水是在橄榄油制取过程中产生的副产物.由于富含高浓度的COD、BOD5以及酚类化合物,已经引发了一系列的环境污染问题.国外的研究人员围绕橄榄油废水的治理已经开展了大量的研究工作,提出了多种有效的处理技术和方法,而我国仍然采用置于蒸发池中或直接排放至排水沟中的方式.文章从物理法、物理化学法、化学法、生物法、混合工艺5个方面,系统地总结了当前国外橄榄油废水的处理现状,并对今后橄榄油废水治理的研发趋势进行了展望.

  1. Olive cake combustion in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topal, H.; Durmaz, A. [Gazi Univ, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Atimtay, A.T. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which an environmentally sound technology was developed for biomass usage for energy production in Turkey. A circulating fluidized bed of 125 mm diameter and 1,800 mm height was used to determine the combustion characteristics of olive cake (OC) produced in Turkey. Olive cake, an olive oil milling waste product, is available in large amounts at a very low cost. Efficient use of OC in energy production solves the problem of waste management and contributes to meeting targets of the Kyoto Protocol. In this study, olive cake alone and olive cake plus lignite mixtures were burned in separate experiments and in various ratios. A new feeding mechanism was developed to feed the olive cake to the bed. On-line concentrations of oxygen, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons were measured in the flue gas along with temperature distribution in the bed. Emissions were compared with national standards and combustion efficiency of the olive cake plus lignite coal mixtures and olive cake alone were calculated. The optimum operating parameters were described. OC burned with 94 to 98.5 per cent efficiency. The combustion efficiency increased with increased excess air ratio because volatiles released from the fuel were burned more completely. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  3. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 40 - Criteria Relating to the Operation of Uranium Mills and the Disposition of Tailings or Wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Disposition of Tailings or Wastes Produced by the Extraction or Concentration of Source Material... Relating to the Operation of Uranium Mills and the Disposition of Tailings or Wastes Produced by the... relating to milling operations and the disposition of tailings or wastes resulting from such milling...

  5. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by photooxidation with ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanocomposite and its reuse capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium dioxide (zirconia, ZrO2)-doped TiO2 (TiO2/ZrO2) nanocomposite was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of pollutant parameters [COD components (CODtotal, CODdissolved and CODinert)], polyphenols (catechol, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) and total polyaromatic amines [aniline, 4-nitroaniline, o-toluidine and o-anisidine] from the olive mill effluent wastewaters at different operational conditions such as at different mass ratios of ZrO2 (50, 25, 14, 10 and 5 wt%) in the TiO2/ZrO2 nanocomposite, at different TiO2/ZrO2 photocatalyst concentrations (1, 4, 15 and 50 mg/L) and pH values (4.0-7.0-10.0) under 300 W UV irradiations, respectively. Under the optimized conditions (pH = 4.6, 15 mg/L ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite with a ZrO2 mass ratio of 14 wt%, 300 W UV light, after 60 min photooxidation time, at 21°C), the maximum CODdissolved, total phenol and total aromatic amines photooxidation yields were 99%, 89% and 95%, respectively. High pollutant removal (89%) yields after sequential five times utilization of ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite show that this catalyst can be effectively used commercially in the treatment of olive mill effluent.

  6. Feasibility of using olive mill effluent (OME) as a wetting agent during the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmis, Erbil; Azbar, Nuri; Yildiz, Hasan; Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2008-01-01

    In this study, cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on wheat straw substrate containing tap water and olive mill effluent (OME) mixture containing varying volume of OME was studied in order to investigate the feasibility of using OME as an alternative wetting agent and OME's impact on some fundamental food quality characteristics of mushrooms. Time period for mycelial colonization, primordium initiation and first harvest were comparatively evaluated with the control group. It was shown that the use of OME and tap water mixture consisting of OME up to 25% volumetrically was possible for the purpose of commercial mushroom production. Experimental results obtained from substrate containing 25% OME mixture showed no statistically significant difference compared to control group. The negative effects of increasing volume of OME in the mixture were also indicated by bioefficiency, which was found to be 13.8% for substrates wetted with 100% OME, whereas bioefficiency was 53.6% for control group. Increasing volume of OME in the mixture resulted in deformation of fruit body shape, whereas no significant difference in food quality was observed due to the higher amount of OME. This work suggested that the use of OME up to 25% as moisturizer could be considered, especially for the locations having significant number of olive mills and mushroom producers, both as an environmentally friendly solution for the safe and ecological disposal of OME and a practical way for recovering OME's economic value thereby.

  7. Ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols from olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi, Angelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biofiltration ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove polyphenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD from olive mill wastewater (OMWw collected from the traditional (TS and continuous (CS extraction systems. Azolla biomass was packed into five sequential Imhoff cones and five sequential columns. In both experiments, the filtrates collected from the 5th biofilter showed a decrease in polyphenol contents: from 7650 mg l–1 to 3610 mg l–1 in TS OMWw and from 3852 mg l–1 to 1351 mg l–1 in CS OMWw. The COD contents decreased from 110200 mg L–1 to 52400 mg L–1 in TS OMWw and from 41600 mg L–1 to 2300 mg L–1 in CS OMWw. A 5:1 OMWw to Azolla-fresh-weight ratio was optimal for both polyphenol and COD removal. The biofiltration ability of alfalfa was compared with that of Azolla, but the treatment with alfalfa did not result in the reduction of COD or polyphenols.La eficacia del helecho de agua azolla para eliminar polifenoles y reducir la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de los alpechines obtenidos en el proceso de obtención tradicional y continuo del aceite de oliva, fue investigado mediante ensayos de filtración. Cinco conos secuenciales de Imhoff y cinco columnas secuenciales se rellenaron de biomasa de Azolla. En ambos experimentos, el filtrado procedente de la quinta extracción mostró una disminución en el contenido de polifenoles de 7650 mg L–1 a 3610 mg L–1en el alpechín obtenido mediante el sistema tradicional y de 3852 mg L–1 a 1351 mg L–1en el alpechín del sistema continuo. La demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín del sistema tradicional disminuyó de 110200 mg L–1 a 52400 mg L–1 en y de 41600 mg L–1a 2300 mg L–1en el procedente del sistema continuo. Una proporción en peso 5:1 de alpechín: Azolla fue la óptima tanto para la reducción de los polifenoles como para la de la DQO. La eficiencia del tratamiento biológico con alfalfa se comparó con la obtenida con Azolla. Los

  8. Extraction procedure testing of solid wastes generated at selected metal ore mines and mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, David M.; Terlecky, P. Michael

    1986-09-01

    Solid waste samples from a reconnaissance study conducted at ore mining and milling sites were subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency extraction procedure (EP) leaching test Sites visited included mines and mills extracting ores of antimony (Sb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), tungsten (W), and nickel (Ni). Samples analyzed included mine wastes, treatment pond solids, tailings, low grade ore, and other solid wastes generated at these facilities Analysis of the leachate from these tests indicates that none of the samples generated leachate in which the concentration of any toxic metal parameter exceeded EPA criteria levels for those metals. By volume, tailings generally constitute the largest amount of solid wastes generated, but these data indicate that with proper management and monitoring, current EPA criteria can be met for tailings and for most solid wastes associated with mining and milling of these metal ores. Long-term studies are needed to determine if leachate characteristics change with time and to assist in development of closure plans and post closure monitoring programs.

  9. Bleaching of olive mill wastewater by clay in the presence of hydrogen peroxide; Decoloration d'effluents liquides des huileries d'olives par des sols argileux en presence du peroxyde d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oukili, O.; Chaouch, M.; Rafiq, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux et de l' Environnement, Fes (Morocco); Hadji, M. [Laboratoire de Controle des Eaux, R.A.D.E.E.F., Fes (Morocco); Hamdi, M. [INSAT, Lab. de Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Fes (Morocco); Benlemlih, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Fes (Morocco)

    2001-04-01

    Treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with clayey soils in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) allows the elimination of phenolic compounds responsible for the black-brownish color of this industrial effluent. The aim of this research was to define optimal physicochemical parameters for the bleaching of OMW with clay in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Two clayey soil powders were tested (A and B) and the results obtained indicate that high bleaching could be reached after 24 hours exposure of OMW to 7 % (W/V) clay material A in the presence of 0.5 % (V/V) hydrogen peroxide. Under these conditions, the bleaching led to about 87 % decrease of polyphenols (PF) and a 66 % decrease of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The structure of clay and its concentration in iron salts have an effective adsorbent and catalytic effect on the removal of the majority of polyphenols. (authors)

  10. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  11. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  12. Feasibility investigation and combustion enhancement of a new burner functioning with pulverized solid olive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounaouara H., Sautet J.C., Ben Ticha H., Mhimid A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experimental study on solid olive residue (olive cake combustion in form of pulverized jet. This is a contribution to the valorization of olive residue as a source of renewable energy available in the majority of mediterranean countries. A sample of olive cake from Tunisian origin is prepared for the experiment; this sample is crushed, dried and sifted in order to obtain the desired particles form. A new burner made up of a coaxial cylindrical tube is especially designed and fabricated. In order to start the combustion of olive cake and maintain the main flame, two types of pilot flame were used: a central premixed flame of methane/oxygen and an annular diffusion flame of methane. This paper shows the conditions for an efficient olive cake burner operation in free air. The effects of particle size and pilot flame position have been discussed. The olive cake combustion is possible only with particles at a size below 200 μm. Moreover, the combustion maintained by the annular pilot flame ensures better burning conditions than the central pilot flame. Finally, the inserted preheating system has improved the olive cake combustion.

  13. Conversion of Mill Scale Waste into Valuable Products via Carbothermic Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Eissa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is one of waste materials which is produced as a result of hot rolling of steel in all steel companies. On the other hand, mill scale is considered a rich iron source with minimum impurities. This work aims at conversion of mill scale by adjusting smelting processes to produce different valuable products. The smelting processes were carried out using carbothermic reduction in a submerged arc furnace. Two carbonaceous reducing agents and different fluxing materials have been used to adapt optimum smelting process condition. A maximum iron recovery of 83% was obtained by using graphite compared with 76% obtained by using coke. Low sulphur content (≤0.02 wt% S can be attained by using graphite as a reducing agent in amount that equals or exceeds the stoichiometric molar ratio. By using coke, the highest degree of desulfurization of 97.8% and much lower content of sulphur in the castable metal (0.0028 wt% S were obtained by controlling the type and quantity of the flux. The results reveal that mill scale waste can be converted into valuable products such as high purity iron as alternative to Sorelmetal used in ductile iron production, low carbon steel, and free cutting steel.

  14. An indicator to evaluate the environmental Impact of olive oil waste water’s shedding on cultivated fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    Full Text Available Several climatic, soil and topographic factors need to be considered when evaluating the impact of human actions on the environment. Such variables may be related in a complex way to environmental impact, thus making its evaluation difficult. Problems of this type emerge when evaluating the risks olive oil waste water pose to the environment when shed on cultivated soils. This paper proposes a fuzzy expert system to calculate a modular indicator, ICARO, which allows an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the application of olive oil waste water in a field. Five modules were formulated, one (“Waste water” reflecting the nature of the waste water, two (“Groundwater”, “Surface water” reflecting the risk for the most sensitive agro-environmental compartments (groundwater, surface water, one (“Crop” reflecting possible consequences on the cropping system adopted, and one (“Soil” reflecting the soil aptitude to receive waste waters.The input variables are therefore waste water amount and properties, site-specific conditions, and characteristics of the application considered. For each input variable, two functions describing membership to the fuzzy subsets Favorable (F and Unfavorable (U have been defined. The expert system calculates the value of each module according to both the degree of membership of the input variables to the subsets F and U, and a set of decision rules. The five modules can be considered individually or can be aggregated (again according to level of membership to fuzzy subsets F and U and a set of decision rules into the synthetic indicator ICARO. Outcomes of a sensitivity analysis are presented. The system is flexible and can be used as a decision aid tool to authorize waste water’s shedding or subordinate the distribution on fields to acceptance of some limitations (amount, timing, site, etc.

  15. Aerobic biological treatment of olive mill wastewater previously treated by an ozonization stage; Tratamiento biologico aerobico del alpechin depurado previamente con ozono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia Alonso, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Ramos Viseas, M. P.; Dominguez Vargas, J. R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of olive mill wastewaters previously treated by an ozonation stage has been studied by an aerobic biological oxidation. The substrate evolution (based on chemical oxygen demand), biomass (measured as volatile suspended solids) and total polyphenolic contents were followed during each experiment. A kinetic study is performed by using the Contois model, which applied to the experimental data, provides the specific kinetic parameters of this model. The deduced kinetic equation for the consume of substrate is q=17.0 S/(18.2 X + So X) g COD/ gVSS day. Moreover, others interesting biological parameters like the cellular yied coefficient and the kinetic rate constant for the endogenous metabolism were determined, obtaining a values of 0.214 g VSS/g COD and 0.167 day''-1, respectively. (Author) 29 refs.

  16. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  17. Uranium mill tailings: nuclear waste and natural laboratory for geochemical and radioecological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings (UMT) are a high volume, low specific activity radioactive waste typically disposed in surface impoundments. This review focuses on research on UMT and related earth materials during the past decade relevant to the assessment of: (1) mineral hosts of radionuclides; (2) the use of soil analogs in predicting long-term fate of radionuclides; (3) microbial and diagenetic processes that may alter radionuclide mobility in the surficial environment; (4) waste-management technologies to limit radionuclide migration; and (5) the impact of UMT on biota.

  18. Uranium mill tailings: nuclear waste and natural laboratory for geochemical and radioecological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R

    2004-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings (UMT) are a high volume, low specific activity radioactive waste typically disposed in surface impoundments. This review focuses on research on UMT and related earth materials during the past decade relevant to the assessment of: (1) mineral hosts of radionuclides; (2) the use of soil analogs in predicting long-term fate of radionuclides; (3) microbial and diagenetic processes that may alter radionuclide mobility in the surficial environment; (4) waste-management technologies to limit radionuclide migration; and (5) the impact of UMT on biota.

  19. Pilot-plant treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by solar TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis and solar photo-Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gernjak, W.; Maldonado, M.I.; Malato, S.; Caceres, J. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT) (Spain); Krutzler, T.; Glaser, A.; Bauer, R. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Materials Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW), a highly polluted wastewater from the olive oil industry, was treated by solar photocatalysis and solar photo-Fenton. Among the tested systems the application of titanium dioxide alone was not successful. The addition of peroxydisulphate as an electron acceptor had only limited effect on degradation performance and led to high salt concentrations (30 g/l sulphate generated) and a pH value near zero. The photo-Fenton method successfully removed up to 85% COD and up to 100% of phenol index of OMW with different initial concentrations and from different sources. Two solar photocatalytic pilot-plant reactors were used; one of conventional CPC type and an open non-concentrating Falling Film Reactor. The latter, newly designed reactor worked properly and yielded comparable results to the CPC in terms of degradation rate referred to incident UV radiation energy per solution volume. The suspended solids in the OMW hinder light from entering the reactor. Therefore, flocculation induced by a commercial flocculation agent was successfully applied to remove suspended solids. Application of this pre-treatment led to considerable increase of degradation rates and decrease of hydrogen peroxide consumption. (Author)

  20. Effects of Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Microarthropods and Soil Chemistry in Two Different Cultivation Scenarios in Israel and Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Peter Kurtz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although olive mill wastewater (OMW is often applied onto soil and is known to be phytotoxic, its impact on soil fauna is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate how OMW spreading in olive orchards affects Oribatida and Collembola communities, physicochemical soil properties and their interdependency. For this, we treated plots in two study sites (Gilat, Bait Reema with OMW. Among others, the sites differed in irrigation practice, soil type and climate. We observed that soil acidity and water repellency developed to a lower extent in Gilat than in Bait Reema. This may be explained by irrigation-induced dilution and leaching of OMW compounds in Gilat. In Bait Reema, OMW application suppressed emergence of Oribatida and induced a community shift, but the abundance of Collembola increased in OMW and water-treated plots. In Gilat, Oribatida abundance increased after OMW application. The effects of OMW application on soil biota result from an interaction between stimulation of biological activity and suppression of sensitive species by toxic compounds. Environmental and management conditions are relevant for the degree and persistence of the effects. Moreover, this study underlines the need for detailed research on the ecotoxicological effects of OMW at different application rates.

  1. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  2. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae.

  3. Olive pomace extract (OPE as corrosion inhibitor for steel in HCl medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Bouknana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the possibility of reuse olive pomace extract as a corrosion inhibition of steel in an acidic medium (HCL, 1 mol/L, and to compare the inhibitory effect of olive pomace (OP samples collected from three extraction process of olive oil: press process, continuous process three-phase and continuous process two-phase and olive pomace continuous process two-phase without stone and stone of olive (both fractions were separated by mill in the eastern region of Morocco. Methods: The electrochemical behavior of the C38 steel in HCl medium in the absence and presence olive pomace was studied by gravimetric and electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization and impedance spectroscopy. The effect of temperature was also studied. The experimental data with several adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were tested to determine the standard free energy of adsorption process and the adsorption mode of inhibitor on the surface of the steel were studied. Results: The samples of the olive pomace tested in the corrosion experiment have a very complex and heterogeneous physicochemical composition. They contain a variety of organic and inorganic compounds of very different nature and concentration, allowing the olive pomace play a very important role in anti-corrosion activity. The inhibition efficiency increased with increased olive pomace concentration to attain a maximum value of 92.1% at 1.4伊10-5 with small differences among the other samples of olive pomace. Conclusions: The use of solid waste (pomace of crushing olives (oil mills as green inhibitors in the fight of corrosion plays a dual function, firstly, destituting the pollution of the receiving environments (soil, water, etc. and on the other hand, a recovery of components (bioactive such as phenolic compounds.

  4. Waste heat potentials in the drying section of the paper machine in Umka Cardboard Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper production is one of the most energy intensive industrial processes. The use of waste heat is very important for energy efficiency improvement in paper industry. This paper deals with methods for calculation of potentials of waste heat generated in paper/board production process. For that purpose, the material and heat balance of the cardboard machine at Umka Cardboard Mill has been determined. Field measurements were conducted in order to define the unknown values of process parameters used for calculation in the balance equations and modelling. The focus was given to the cardboard drying section, which consumes most of the energy supplied to the machine. Additional aim of the work presented in the paper was to evaluate the specific energy consumption and the thermal efficiency of all individual energy units within the machine’s drying section. The results indicate two main sources of waste heat: waste heat released to the atmosphere with the discharge air from the present waste heat recovery system (14,380 kW; and waste heat released into the hall from the machine and extracted by the hall ventilation system (4,430 kW. Waste heat from both sources is characterized by fairly low temperatures 58-75ºС and fairly high moisture content (30-40 g/kg. The waste heat can be partly utilized for preheating the fresh air in cardboard drying process, saving up to 13% of steam consumption. The specific heat consumption and specific steam consumption (consumption per tonne of produced cardboard of the machine was 1,490 kWh/t and 1.4 t/t, respectively. The thermal efficiency of drying section and coating drying section was 55.6% and 33.6%, respectively. All these figures imply necessity for further waste heat utilization with the aim of improving the efficiency of energy use.

  5. Removal of Cu(II Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Onto Activated Carbon Derived From Olive Waste Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham G. Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the ability of using local activated carbon (LAC derived from olive waste cakes as an adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II ions from aqueous solution by batch operation. Various operating parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ions concentration, and equilibrium contact time have been studied. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cu(II increased with the increasing pH, and the optimum solution pH for the adsorption of Cu(II was found to be 5. The adsorption process increases with increasing dosage of LAC, also the amount of Cu(II removed changes with Cu(II initial concentration and contact time. Adsorption was rapid and occurred within 25 min. for Cu(II concentration range from 60 to 120 mg/l isothermally at 30±1 oC. Maximum adsorption occurs at Cu(II initial concentration lesser than 100 mg/l by using adsorbent dosage (1.2 g/l. The equilibrium adsorption data for Cu(II were fitted well with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of LAC was found to be 106.383 mg/g. So, the results indicated the suitability use of the activated carbon derived from olive waste cakes (LAC as low cost and natural material for reliable removal of Cu(II from water and wastewater effluents.

  6. Adsorption characteristics of adsorbent resins and antioxidant capacity for enrichment of phenolics from two-phase olive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Chengzhang; Yuan, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Changwei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption properties of nine resins including polyamide resin (30-60), polyamide resin (60-100) AB-8, S-8, D-101, NKA-9, NKA-II, XDA-1 and XDA-4 for enrichment phenolics of the olive waste were investigated. XDA-1 and NKA-II were chosen for further study due to their outstanding adsorption and desorption capacity. XDA-1 and NKA-II had similar adsorption and desorption behaviors for phenolics of olive waste. The adsorption mechanism could be better explained by pseudo second-order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model, and the adsorption processes were spontaneously and exothermic. The experiment of gradient elution were carried out through treated XDA-1 resins column, the result indicated the total phenolics were mainly obtained from the 40% and 60% ethanol fraction. The order of antioxidant capacity by DPPH  , ABTS(+) radical and FRAP assay was similar with the content of phenolics from fraction elution. The compositions of phenolics from different elution fractions were determined by reversed phase-HPLC-DAD method. Gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and ferulic acid were the major constituent in the fraction elute, and the content of hydroxytyrosol reached to the 41.69mg/g. The above results revealed the synergistic effects of the different phenolics contribute to the antioxidant capacity.

  7. Biotechnological conversion of waste cooking olive oil into lipid-rich biomass using Aspergillus and Penicillium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, S; Dimou, A; Fakas, S; Diamantopoulou, P; Philippoussis, A; Galiotou-Panayotou, M; Aggelis, G

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated the biochemical behaviour of Aspergillus sp. (five strains) and Penicillium expansum (one strain) fungi cultivated on waste cooking olive oil. The production of lipid-rich biomass was the main target of the work. In parallel, the biosynthesis of other extracellular metabolites (organic acids) and enzyme (lipase) and the substrate fatty acid specificity of the strains were studied. Carbon-limited cultures were performed on waste oil, added in the growth medium at 15g l(-1) , and high biomass quantities were produced (up to c.18g l(-1) , conversion yield of c. 1·0 g of dry biomass formed per g of fat consumed or higher). Cellular lipids were accumulated in notable quantities in almost all cultures. Aspergillus sp. ATHUM 3482 accumulated lipid up to 64·0% (w/w) in dry fungal mass. In parallel, extracellular lipase activity was quantified, and it was revealed to be strain and fermentation time dependent, with a maximum quantity of 645 U ml(-1) being obtained by Aspergillus niger NRRL 363. Storage lipid content significantly decreased at the stationary growth phase. Some differences in the fatty acid composition of both cellular and residual lipids when compared with the initial substrate fat used were observed; in various cases, cellular lipids more saturated and enriched with arachidic acid were produced. Aspergillus strains produced oxalic acid up to 5·0 g l(-1) . Aspergillus and Penicillium strains are able to convert waste cooking olive oil into high-added-value products.   Increasing fatty wastes amounts are annually produced. The current study provided an alternative way of biovalourization of these materials, by using them as substrates, to produce added-value compounds. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Investigation of olive mill wastewater (OMW) ozonation efficiency with the use of a battery of selected ecotoxicity and human toxicity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siorou, Sofia [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vgenis, Theodoros T.; Dareioti, Margarita A. [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Efthimiou, Ioanna [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Kornaros, Michael [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vlastos, Dimitris [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Raw- and ozonated-olive mill wastewater (OMW) toxic effects were investigated. • A battery of biological assays and toxic endpoints were used. • Ozonation for up to 300 min attenuates OMW toxicity, following phenols’ reduction. • Further OMW ozonation (>300 min) could enhance OMW toxicity. • OMW ozonation efficacy depends on OMW-derived intermediates and high NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N levels. - Abstract: The effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on a battery of biological assays, before and during the ozonation process, were investigated in order to assess ozone’s efficiency in removing phenolic compounds from OMW and decreasing the concomitant OMW toxicity. Specifically, ozonated-OMW held for 0, 60, 120, 300, 420, 540 min in a glass bubble reactor, showed a drastic reduction of OMW total phenols (almost 50%) after 300 min of ozonation with a concomitant decrease of OMW toxicity. In particular, the acute toxicity test primarily performed in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Thamnotoxkit F™ screening toxicity test) showed a significant attenuation of OMW-induced toxic effects, after ozonation for a period of 120 and in a lesser extent 300 min, while further treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of ozonated-OMW toxic effects. Furthermore, ozonated-OMW-treated mussel hemocytes showed a significant attenuation of the ability of OMW to cause cytotoxic (obtained by the use of NRRT assay) effects already after an ozonation period of 120 and to a lesser extent 300 min. In accordance with the latter, OMW-mediated oxidative (enhanced levels of superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation by-products) and genotoxic (induction of DNA damage) effects were diminished after OMW ozonation for the aforementioned periods of time. The latter was also revealed by the use of cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes exposed to different concentrations of both raw- and ozonated-OMW for 60, 120 and 300 min. Those findings

  9. The Effects of Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaf and Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Extracts on Shelf Life of Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Fillets during Refrigerated Storage (4±1°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla MUTLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of olive (Olea europaea L. leaf and oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena Mill. extracts on shelf life of hot smoked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fillets during refrigerated storage (4±1°C were investigated in terms of chemical (pH, TBA, TVB-N, microbiological (TMA, TPA, LAB and ENT and sensory characteristics. Proximate compositions (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash of fresh and hotsmoked trouts were also determined. The results showed that significant differences were observed in TVB-N and TBA levels (p<0.05 between the control group and the treatment groups. Significant differences (p<0.05. were also observed in total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and the enterobacteria numbers during storage between the control group and the treatment groups. Shelf life of control group was found as 21 days and 28 days for the treatment groups (except for olive leaf group according to microbiological assessment. The microbiological values exceeded limit on 42 days for the olive leaf group. According to sensory evaluation, samples with oil-bearing rose extracts were not appreciated by panelists while samples with the olive leaf extract were appreciated by panelists. As a result, application of herbal extracts influenced positively shelf life of trout, especially olive leave extracts.

  10. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  11. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  12. Problems and agricultural solutions in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    assessment based on carbon stratification index in different olive grove management practices in Mediterranean areas. Catena 137, 449-458. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., del Toro Carrillo de Albornoz, M. 2011. Effects of oil mill wastes on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in traditional olive groves in southern Spain. Catena 85 (3), 187-193. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L. 2013. Short-term effects of olive mill by-products on soil organic carbon, total N, C: N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 165, 68-73. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L. 2014. Variation in soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks along a toposequence in a traditional mediterranean olive grove. Land Degradation and Development 25 (3), 297-304. Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B. 2014. Conventional tillage versus organic farming in relation to soil organic carbon stock in olive groves in Mediterranean rangelands (southern Spain). Solid Earth 5 (1), 299-311.

  13. Sporobacterium olearium gen. nov., sp. nov., a new methanethiol-producing bacterium that degrades aromatic compounds, isolated from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechichi, T; Labat, M; Garcia, J L; Thomas, P; Patel, B K

    1999-10-01

    A strictly chemo-organotrophic, anaerobic bacterium was isolated from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester on syringate and designated strain SR1T. The cells were slightly curved rods, stained Gram-positive and possessed terminal spores. Strain SR1T utilized crotonate, methanol and a wide range of aromatic compounds including 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB), 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (TMC), syringate, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetate (TMPA), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylpropionate (TMPP), ferulate, sinapate, vanillate, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, 2,3-dimethoxybenzoate, gallate, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate (THB), pyrogallol, phloroglucinol and quercetin as carbon and energy sources. Acetate and butyrate were produced from aromatic compounds, methanol and crotonate whereas methanethiol (MT) was produced from methoxylated aromatic compounds and methanol. Strain SR1T had a G + C content of 38 mol% and grew optimally between 37 and 40 degrees C at pH 7.2 on a crotonate-containing medium. Phylogenetically, strain SR1T was a member of cluster XIVa of the Clostridiales group and shared a sequence similarity of 90% with Clostridum aminovalericum and Eubacterium fissicatena. Consequently, its precise neighbourliness to any one of them depended on the selection of strains of the cluster. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented in this paper, the designation of strain SR1T as Sporobacterium olearium gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR1T (= DSM 12504T).

  14. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rincón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a microwave (MW pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW1, 4830 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW2, 7170 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW3 and 7660 kJ·kg TS-1 (MW4. The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded-1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR.

  15. Solid state fermentation of olive mill residues by wood- and dung-dwelling Agaricomycetes: effects on peroxidase production, biomass development and phenol phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Rocío; Liers, Christiane; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2013-10-01

    The in vivo conversion of dry olive mill residue (DOR) by wood- and dung-dwelling fungi - Auricularia auricula-judae, Bjerkandera adusta and Coprinellus radians - increases peroxidase secretion up to 3.2-3.5-fold (∼1.3, 3.5 and 7.0 Ug(-1) DOR for dye-decolorizing peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and aromatic peroxygenases, respectively). The incubation of DOR with these fungi produced a sharp decrease in total phenolic content (100% within 4 wk), a reduction in phytotoxicity as well as a certain degree of plant growth caused by the stimulating effect of fungal-treated DOR. These findings correlate with a characteristic shift in the fragmentation pattern of water-soluble aromatics (detected at 280 nm) from low (0.2, 1.5 and 2.2 kDa, respectively) to high molecular mass (35 to >200 kDa), which demonstrates the presence of a polymerization process. Phenol-rich agricultural residues are a useful tool for enzyme expression and production studies of peroxidase-producing Agaricomycetes which could make DOR a valuable organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Olive-oil mill wastewater transport under unsaturated and saturated laboratory conditions using the geoelectrical resistivity tomography method and the FEFLOW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferou, P.; Soupios, P.; Kourgialas, N. N.; Dokou, Z.; Karatzas, G. P.; Candasayar, E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Dimitriou, V.; Sarris, A.; Sauter, M.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated approach for monitoring the vertical transport of a solute into the subsurface by using a geophysical method and a simulation model is proposed and evaluated. A medium-scale (1 m3) laboratory tank experiment was constructed to represent a real subsurface system, where an olive-oil mill wastewater (OOMW) spill might occur. High-resolution cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed to monitor the OOMW transport. Time-lapse ERT images defined the spatial geometry of the interface between the contaminated and uncontaminated soil into the unsaturated and saturated zones. Knowing the subsurface characteristics, the finite element flow and transport model FEFLOW was used for simulating the contaminant movement, utilizing the ERT results as a surrogate for concentration measurements for the calibration process. A statistical analysis of the ERT measurements and the corresponding transport model results for various time steps showed a good agreement between them. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the most important parameters of the simulation model (unsaturated flow, saturated flow and transport) was performed. This laboratory-scale study emphasizes that the combined use of geophysical and transport-modeling approaches can be useful for small-scale field applications where contaminant concentration measurements are scarce, provided that its transferability from laboratory to field conditions is investigated thoroughly.

  17. Seasonal bacteriological analysis of Gola river water contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in Uttaranchal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Singh, Shail; Raj, Abhay

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal physico-chemical and microbial quality of Gola river water has been analyzed after confluence of pulp paper mill waste. The study revealed that it has enhanced 20-30 times pollution load of BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, sulphate, chloride, sodium, nitrate, potassium, lignin and phenol after mixing of pulp paper mill waste with river water in all season. Further, it induced the bacterial growth by increasing most probable number value of E. coli was 1.57 x 10(4), 1.6 x 10(4), 1.37 x 10(4) and SPC count was 1.68 x 10(4), 1.64 x 10(4), 1.67 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter respectively. While the most probable number value in river water before mixing of pulp paper mill waste was 1.4 x 10(2), 1.82 x 10(2), 1.5 x 10(2) and SPC count was 2.8 x 10(3), 2.89 x 10(3), 2.78 x 10(3)/100 ml during summer, monsoon and winter respectively. This indicated from 88-114 fold increase in most probable number value of E. coli and 56.55-60.0 times increase in SPC count of river water after mixing of effluent in summer, monsoon and winter. Moreover, the most probable number value in effluent itself before mixing was 3.4 x 10(2), 3.3 x 10(2), 2.8 x 10(2) and SPC count was 6 x 10(4), 6.5 x 10(4), 6 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that the seasonal variation also regulated the bacterial population dynamics as per the physico-chemical quality, in which E. coli was found highest at the rate of (5.9 x 10(4)), E. aerogenes (5.3 x 10(4)), P. aeruginosa (1.3 x 10(4)), S. aureus (3.2 x 10(3)), K. pneumoniae (2.6 x 10(4)), Enteritidis (1.1 x 10(4)) on monsoon season and V. cholerae (7.4 x 10(2)), V. vulnificus (9.2 x 10(2))/100 ml in river water when contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in monsoon season. Thus, the monsoon season showed presence of FC and TC indicated the thermo-tolerant and disease causing group of bacterial population in effluent and its sequence was observed as monsoon>summer>winter. This indicated the

  18. Detection of olive oil adulteration with waste cooking oil via Raman spectroscopy combined with iPLS and SiPLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Siqi; Huang, Furong; Chen, Zhenqiang; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-15

    Olive oil adulteration with waste cooking oil was detected and quantified by combining optical Raman scattering spectroscopy and chemometrics. Spectra of 96 olive oil samples with waste cooking oil (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) were collected by the portable Raman spectroscopy system. iPLS and SiPLS quantitative analysis models were established. The results revealed that spectral data after SNV processing are the best for synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) modeling and forecast. The root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 0.0503 and the root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) is 0.0485. The lower limit of application (LLA) of the proposed method is c[WCO]=0.5%. According to linear regression calculation, the theoretical limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed method is about c[WCO]=0.475%. The established model could make effective quantitative analysis on adulteration of waste cooking oil. It provides a quick accurate method for adulteration detection of waste cooking oil in olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  20. Composting of a solid olive-mill by-product ("alperujo") and the potential of the resulting compost for cultivating pepper under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburquerque, J A; Gonzálvez, J; García, D; Cegarra, J

    2006-01-01

    A pollutant solid material called "alperujo" (AL), which is the main by-product from the Spanish olive oil industry, was composted with a cotton waste as bulking agent, and the compost obtained (ALC) was compared with a cattle manure (CM) and a sewage sludge compost (SSC) for use as organic amendment on a calcareous soil. The experiment was conducted with a commercial pepper crop in a greenhouse using fertigation. Composting AL involved a relatively low level of organic matter biodegradation, an increase in pH and clear decreases in the C/N and the fat, water-soluble organic carbon and phenol contents. The resulting compost, which was rich in organic matter and free of phytotoxicity, had a high potassium and organic nitrogen content but was low in phosphorus and micronutrients. The marketable yields of pepper obtained with all three organic amendments were similar, thus confirming the composting performance of the raw AL. When CM and SSC were used for soil amendment, the soil organic matter content was significantly reduced after cultivation, while it remained almost unchanged in the ALC-amended plots.

  1. Vermicomposting of organic wastes from olive oil, winery and alcohol industries; Vermicompostaje de residuos organicos generados por industrias oleicolas, vitivinicolas y alcoholeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogales, R.; Melgar, R.; Cifuentes, C.; Romero, E.; Benitez, E.

    2004-07-01

    The olive oil, winery and alcohol industries produce large amounts of organic waste that need suitable management in order to reduce their potential impact on the environment. This paper briefly describes the use of vermicomposting, at microcosm, laboratory and pilot scale, as an efficient and low-cost biotechnological process to obtain safe,mature and stabilised organic amendments, which can be feasibly used in conventional, integrated and organic agriculture. (Author) 26 refs.

  2. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  3. Appleton Papers Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste (Paper machine at Appleton's West Carrollton paper mill)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Plant-wide energy survey at the Appleton Papers, Inc. West Carrollton paper mill resulted in 21 recommendations for projects to reduce energy consumption and waste production and improve process efficiency.

  4. Enrichment of the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical separation process using a stamp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Min; Jeong, Jinki; Yoo, Kyoungkeun; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kim, Wonbaek

    2009-03-01

    Printed circuit boards incorporated in most electrical and electronic equipment contain valuable metals such as Cu, Ni, Au, Ag, Pd, Fe, Sn, and Pb. In order to employ a hydrometallurgical route for the recycling of valuable metals from printed circuit boards, a mechanical pre-treatment step is needed. In this study, the metallic components from waste printed circuit boards have been enriched using a mechanical separation process. Waste printed circuit boards shredded to milled using a stamp mill to liberate the various metallic components, and then the milled printed circuit boards were classified into fractions of 5.0mm. The fractions of milled printed circuit boards of size zig-zag classifier. The >5.0mm fraction and the heavy fraction were subjected to two-step magnetic separation. Through the first magnetic separation at 700 Gauss, 83% of the nickel and iron, based on the whole printed circuit boards, was recovered in the magnetic fraction, and 92% of the copper was recovered in the non-magnetic fraction. The cumulative recovery of nickel-iron concentrate was increased by a second magnetic separation at 3000 Gauss, but the grade of the concentrate decreased remarkably from 76% to 56%. The cumulative recovery of copper concentrate decreased, but the grade increased slightly from 71.6% to 75.4%. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the mechanical separation process consisting of milling/size classification/gravity separation/two-step magnetic separation for enriching metallic components such as Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe from waste printed circuit boards.

  5. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2014-10-23

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water-a "green" extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  6. Effect of cell immobilization on the treatment of olive mill wastewater by a total phenols, acetic acid and formic acid degrading bacterium strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errami, Mohamed

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW is a pure vegetative by-product, containing a high organic and polyphenol content and is resistant to biodegradation. Its disposal lead to major environmental pollution problems in the Mediterranean basin. An aerobic bacterium was isolated from OMW. During three consecutive diluted and supplemented OMW treatment cycles, significant abatement of its phytotoxic substances was observed. In fact, total phenols, acetic and formic acids were reduced between 33 and 64 % when cells of the isolated bacterium were grown free; and between 62 and 78 % when cells of the same isolated bacterium were grown immobilized in a polyurethane sponge. These results suggest that the bacterium culture of the new isolate would decrease the OMW phytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA showed that all the related sequences are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and revealed that the isolated bacterium was characterized as a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.El alpechín (OMW es un residuo puro de la extracción del aceite de oliva, que contiene una elevada carga orgánica y de polifenoles por lo que es resistente a la degradación. Su descarga produce graves problemas de contaminación medioambiental en toda el área mediterránea. Se ha aislado una bacteria anaerobia del OMW, que , durante tres ciclos consecutivos de tratamiento del OMW diluido y suplementado, produjo una disminución significativa de las sustancias fitotóxicas del residuo. De hecho, la concentración en fenoles totales, ácido acético y ácido fórmico se redujeron entre 33 y 64 % cuando las células no estaban inmovilizadas y entre el 62 y 78 % cuando las células bacterianas se inmovilizaron en una esponja de poliuretano. Estos resultados indican que el cultivo de la nueva bacteria aislada puede disminuir la fototoxicidad del alpechín. Análisis filogenético del ribosoma 16S de DNA demostró que todas las secuencias eran miembros de la familia

  7. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3).

  8. Evaluation of the methanogenic step of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process of acidified olive mill solid residue from a previous hydrolytic-acidogenic step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, B; Borja, R; Martín, M A; Martín, A

    2009-09-01

    A study of the second step or methanogenic stage of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process treating two-phase olive oil mill solid residue (OMSR) was conducted at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). The substrate fed to the methanogenic step was the effluent from a hydrolytic-acidogenic reactor operating at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 12.9 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1) and at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.4 days; these OLR and HRT were found to be the best values to achieve the maximum total volatile fatty acid concentration (14.5 g L(-1) expressed as acetic acid) with a high concentration in acetic acid (57.5% of the total concentration) as the principal precursor of methane. The methanogenic stage was carried out in an anaerobic stirred tank reactor containing saponite as support media for the immobilization of microorganisms. OLRs of between 0.8 and 22.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1) were studied. These OLRs corresponded to HRTs of between 142.9 and 4.6 days. The methanogenic reactor operated with high stability for OLRs lower than 20.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1). This behaviour was shown by the total volatile fatty acids/total alkalinity ratio, whose values were always kept 0.12 for HRTs>4.6 days. The total COD (T-COD) removed was in the range of 94.3-61.3% and the volatile solids (VS) removed between 92.8% and 56.1% for OLRs between 0.8 and 20.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1). In the same way, a reduction of 43.8% was achieved for phenolic content. The low concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed (below 1 g L(-1) expressed as CH(3)COOH) in the methanogenic reactor effluents showed the high percentage of consumption and conversion of these acids to methane. A methane yield of 0.268+/-0.003 L CH(4) at standard temperature and pressure conditions (STP) g(-1) COD eliminated was achieved.

  9. Effect of the organic loading rate on the performance of anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of two-phase olive mill solid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, B; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Borja, R; Travieso, L; Martín, M A; Martín, A

    2008-01-01

    A study of the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the anaerobic acidogenic fermentation of two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) derived from fruits with a low ripening index was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Eight experimental runs were carried out at OLRs of 3.2, 5.6, 7.4, 9.6, 11.0, 12.9, 14.0 and 15.1g T-COD/ld, which were equivalent to hydraulic retention times of 50.0, 28.8, 21.8, 16.9, 14.7, 12.4, 11.5 and 10.7d, respectively. The experimental results obtained demonstrated that the optimum value of OLR for the acidogenic fermentation process was 12.9 g T-COD/ld, for which a maximum production of acetic acid was achieved. It was found that inhibition of the process occurred at OLRs higher than 12.9 g T-COD/ld. This was characterized by a significant decrease in the acetic acid concentration in the effluent and an increase in the concentration of other volatile acids that may affect the methanogenic step. The process inhibition was also characterized by the plateau in the curves of the effluent substrate concentration versus the OLR applied. It was found that a first-order kinetics satisfactorily described the influence of non-acetic acid soluble organic matter concentration (S-COD( *)) on the rate of soluble organic matter conversion to acetic acid (R(S-COD)( *)), and the influence of acetic acid concentration (AcH) on the rate of acetic acid production (R(AcH)), while a potential equation type adequately described the influence of acetic acid concentration on the volumetric hydrogen production (R(ACH) ). The kinetic constant for soluble organic matter removal was 0.145 d(-1), while the constant for acetic acid formation was found to be 0.075 d(-1).

  10. Hydrogeological evaluation of a prototype in-situ leach cell in unsaturated lead-zinc mine and mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roy E.; Kirschner, Frederick E.

    1992-12-01

    An abandoned waste impoundment located within a portion of the Bunker Hill Superfund Site constitutes a field research area for studying the feasibility of recovering heavy metals in-situ from unsaturated mine and mill wastes. A prototype in-situ leaching cell has been evaluated using liquid-phase tracer tests and other hydrogeologic tests prior to introducing a lixiviant. The results of the tests suggest that: 1) the cell can be operated excursion-free with a low-density lixiviant at an injection/withdrawal rate of approximately 0.32 Vs; and (2) each hydrogeologic unit is highly heterogeneous at the different scales studied.

  11. Degradation of EDTA and novel complexing agents in pulp and paper mill process and waste waters by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkanniemi, Kari; Metsärinne, Sirpa; Sillanpää, Mika

    2007-08-17

    Fenton's process was used in oxidative degradation of ethylediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and novel complexing agents, namely BCA5 and BCA6, in distilled water and spiked samples of integrated pulp and paper mill waste water and ECF-pulp bleaching effluent. In waste water, over 90% of EDTA was degraded within 3 min when temperature was 60 degrees C, pH 4, and molecular ratio of H2O2:Fe2+:EDTA was 70:2:1 (0.26 mM EDTA) or higher. In spiked ECF bleaching effluent up to 42% of EDTA was degraded in similar reaction conditions, still higher than published results indicate biological waste water treatment of pulp and paper mill waste water being capable of. In pH 3, EDTA proved readily degradable by Fenton's process in otherwise similar conditions. According to these results, Fenton's process could be used as a pre-treatment method for EDTA-containing bleaching effluents prior to the biological waste water treatment. In addition, BCA5 and BCA6 proved their superiority in terms of degradability also by Fenton's process in both pH 3 and 4.

  12. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject...... was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive...

  14. Assay of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol in olive oil by tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Di Donna, Leonardo; Maiuolo, Loredana; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the strong antioxidant present in large amount in virgin olive oil have been assayed by LC-MS/MS under MRM condition and isotope dilution method, using d(2)-labelled internal standards obtained by simple synthetic procedures. The assay has been performed under MRM condition monitoring two transitions for each analyte to improve the specificity. This paper deals with a modern approach for assaying the content of this polyphenols in virgin olive oil down to a limit of a few hundreds of parts per billion. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol ranged from 10 to 47ppm and from 5 to 25ppm in commercial olive oil, respectively. The accuracy (98-107%) and analytical parameters values confirm the reliability of the proposed approach. The method can be extended to any natural matrices, including mill wastes, after a simple step of sample preparation.

  15. [Concentrations, distribution characteristics and electron beam radiolysis degradation of PCDD/Fs in waste water from a paper mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xian; Huang, Jin-Qiong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Su-Kun; Yang, Yan-Yan; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Wen, Yu-Long

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in waste water from a paper mill. And concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in waste water before and after electron beam irradiation with different doses were compared. The feasibility, mechanism and rates of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs degradation were discussed. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were 239 pg x L(-1) and 41.0 pg x L(-1), respectively, in the waste water. The concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs decreased after electron beam radiolysis at a dose of 30 kGy and 60 kGy with degradation rates of 5.27% and 23.6%, respectively.

  16. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando-Pulido, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW. Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065, which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF.En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF y ósmosis inversa (OI poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  18. Development and optimisation of a non conventional extraction process of natural dye from olive solid waste using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elksibi, Imen; Haddar, Wafa; Ben Ticha, Manel; Gharbi, Rafik; Mhenni, Mohamed F

    2014-10-15

    Dyes obtained from different natural sources have emerged as an important alternative to synthetic dyes. In this study, optimisation of natural colorant non-conventional extraction technique from olive waste was investigated using response surface methodology. The combined effects of extraction conditions on total phenolic content (TPC) and relative color strength (K/S) were studied using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for dye extraction were found to be 0.14mol/L, 62.11min, 71.23°C and 4.5g for sodium hydroxide concentration, extraction time, temperature, and mass of the waste, respectively. The efficiency of extraction under these optimum conditions was found to be 1133.86mg/L of phenolics and relative colour strength (K/S) equal to 23.22. Further, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was used to identify the major chemical groups in the extracted dye.

  19. Levulinic acid production from waste biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,; Claudia Antonetti; Valentina De Luise,; Domenico Licursi,; Nicoletta Nassi

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning) were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic perform...

  20. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  1. Evaluation of Phytotoxicity for Compost from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Paper & Pulp Mill Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Gopinathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The compost obtained from composting organic fraction of Municipal solid waste, Paper & Pulp mill sludge and saw dust using different initial mix ratios (1:3, 1:6, 1:9 was used to evaluate phytotoxicity of green gram (Vigna radiata using a seed germination method. The tests were repeated for the compost obtained from organic fraction of MSW and saw dust without the addition of sludge. The control germination test was carried out using deionised water. The results showed that composting generally reduced the phytotoxicity of the mixtures. A germination index was the highest in the mix ratio of 1:9 in the compost obtained from the addition of paper & pulp mill sludge and a germination index was the highest in the mix ratio of 1:6 in the compost obtained without the addition of sludge. The germination percentage, germination index and vigour index values were relatively higher in the compost obtained with the addition of paper & pulp mill sludge. The vigour index was found to be maximal in the mix ratio of 1:3 from the compost obtained with the addition of sludge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.922

  2. Ligninolytic enzymes activities of Oyster mushrooms cultivated on OMW (olive mill waste) supplemented media, spawn and substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodrigues, A.; Polonia, I.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ligninolytic enzymes activities (laccases, peroxidases (total, MnP and MiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO)) were measured during the cultivation of six commercial Pleurotus sp. strains on MMP media, on cereal grains (spawn) and on straw substrates (the three commonly utilized cultivation steps to ob

  3. Olive-pomace harbors bacteria with the potential for hydrocarbon-biodegradation, nitrogen-fixation and mercury-resistance: promising material for waste-oil-bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Khanafer, Majida; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2015-05-15

    Olive-pomace, a waste by-product of olive oil industry, took up >40% of its weight crude oil. Meanwhile, this material harbored a rich and diverse hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial population in the magnitude of 10(6) to 10(7) cells g(-1). Using this material for bioaugmentation of batch cultures in crude oil-containing mineral medium, resulted in the consumption of 12.9, 21.5, 28.3, and 43% oil after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months, respectively. Similar oil-consumption values, namely 11.0, 29.3, 34.7 and 43.9%, respectively, were recorded when a NaNO3-free medium was used instead of the complete medium. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria involved in those bioremediation processes, as characterized by their 16S rRNA-gene sequences, belonged to the genera Agrococcus, Pseudomonas, Cellulosimicrobium, Streptococcus, Sinorhizobium, Olivibacter, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Pleomorphomonas, Azoarcus, Starkeya and others. Many of the bacterial species belonging to those genera were diazotrophic; they proved to contain the nifH-genes in their genomes. Still other bacterial species could tolerate the heavy metal mercury. The dynamic changes of the proportions of various species during 8 months of incubation were recorded. The culture-independent, phylogenetic analysis of the bacterioflora gave lists different from those recorded by the culture-dependent method. Nevertheless, those lists comprised among others, several genera known for their hydrocarbonoclastic potential, e.g. Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Sphingobium, and Citrobacter. It was concluded that olive-pomace could be applied in oil-remediation, not only as a physical sorbent, but also for bioaugmentation purposes as a biological source of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

  4. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  5. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and explo

  6. Treatment of waste water from textile Finishing mills (Part 7). Comparison and combination of treatment methods on actual waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widayat; Winiati, W.; Indarto; Amirdin; Kusno, P.; Jufri, R.; Higashi, Kunishige; Hagiwara, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Toshihide; Honda, Shigeru

    1987-03-25

    Comparison of coagulative precipitation treatment, activated sludge treatment, and active carbon adsorption treatment was studied on the actual waste water from two dyeing factories (A and B) located in Bandung City, Indonesia. Quality of waste waters was evaluated by the measurement of pH, COD, BOD, and absorption spectrum. The waste water A had COD value of 180 mg/l, and the ratio of BOD to COD was 1.2. Biological oxidation, therefore, looks effective for this waste water. The COD removals became 67% and 83% by coagulative precipitation method and activated sludge respectively. The coagulative precipitation treatment followed by the activated sludge treatment made COD removal to 100%. The waste water B had COD value of 1005 mg/l, and the ratio of BOD to COD was 0.20. THe COD removal became 58% and 72% by coagulative method and the coagulation method followed by the activated sludge method respectively. For removing dyestuff in the waste water, both coagulative precipitation method and activated carbon absorption treatment were effective. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  7. Thermal degradation of paper industry wastes from a recovered paper mill using TGA. Characterization and gasification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenales Rivera, Jorge; Pérez López, Virginia; Ramos Casado, Raquel; Sánchez Hervás, José-María

    2016-01-01

    In this survey, a refuse derived fuel (RDF) was produced from paper industry wastes through a mechanical treatment (MT). The two main wastes generated from a recovered paper mill were rejects and de-inking sludge, which were produced principally in the pulping and de-inking processes, respectively. This work presents raw wastes characterization, fuel preparation and gasification tests performed in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier pilot plant. The characterization was carried out by proximate and ultimate analysis. Several blends of pre-conditioned rejects and de-inking sludge were densified by means of pelletizing, studying the energy consumption and its quality properties. Besides, thermal degradation of blends was studied under thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental runs were made from 30 to 900°C in nitrogen atmosphere at three heating ranges, β=5, 10 and 20°C/min. Two thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation, which are linked to cellulose and plastic degradation. In addition, kinetics parameters were estimated by the application of non-isothermal methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Ozawa-Wall (FOW) and Coats and Redfern. The activation energy values were about 140-160 kJ/mol and 60-80 kJ/mol for plastic and cellulosic materials, respectively. Regarding waste valorisation, a blend composed of 95% of rejects and 5% of de-inking sludge was selected for gasification tests. The energy consumption during the preparation was recorded and a gasification tests were done to prove the usability of these pellets in a CFB gasifier. The main results were a net calorific value (NCV) of 5 MJ/Nm(3) and a total tar content of 11.44 g/Nm(3) at an equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.3.

  8. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jie Li; Michael Hitch

    2015-01-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, in-creasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  9. Study of the inhibitory phenomena during the anaerobic digestion of sugar cane mill mud waste; Estudio del fenomeno de inhibicion durante la digestion anaerobia de cachaza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Montalvo, S.; Escobedo, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas . Ciudad de la Habana. Cuba (Cuba); Garcia-Morales, J. L. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Sugar cane mill mud waste is one of the effluents obtained during the process of sugar production, specifically, in the stage of clarification and filtration of the cane's juice. This effluent can be treated anaerobically in order to reduce its contamination and use the biogas like a resource. This work shows the study of the inhibition originated along the anaerobic digestion of sugar mill mud waste and evaluates the influence of waste pre-treatment on this process. Th inhibitory effect was verified and quantified. The quantification was carried out applying the Levenspiel model, using the evolution of the constant kinetic of the apparent rate (K{sub {omicron}}). Author 5 refs.

  10. Sediment quality in Rivers and their estuaries of an olive oil production area, Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its

  11. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  12. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, CNRS-OSUG-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Maison des Geosciences, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es; Montes-Hernandez, G. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, CNRS-OSUG-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Maison des Geosciences, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071 Huelva (Spain); Renard, F. [Laboratoire de Geodynamique des Chaines Alpines, CNRS-OSUG-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Maison des Geosciences, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo (Norway); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, CNRS-OSUG-UJF, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Maison des Geosciences, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2008-08-15

    The global warming of Earth's near-surface, air and oceans in recent decades is a direct consequence of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and CFCs. The CO{sub 2} emissions contribute approximately 60% to this climate change. This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper mill waste containing about 55 wt% portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}) as a possible mineralogical CO{sub 2} sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1) Ca release from portlandite dissolution, (2) CO{sub 2} dissolution in water and (3) CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. This CO{sub 2} sequestration mechanism was supported by geochemical modelling of final solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of final reaction products. According to the experimental protocol, the system proposed would favour the total capture of approx. 218 kg of CO{sub 2} into stable calcite/ton of paper waste, independently of initial CO{sub 2} pressure. The final product from the carbonation process is a calcite (ca. 100 wt%)-water dispersion. Indeed, the total captured CO{sub 2} mineralized as calcite could be stored in degraded soils or even used for diverse industrial applications. This result demonstrates the possibility of using the alkaline liquid-solid waste for CO{sub 2} mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere.

  13. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: kspark@iae.re.kr; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon, E-mail: hshong@iae.re.kr

    2015-04-15

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 20 g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching. - Highlights: • Simplest process for treatment of GaN an LED industry waste developed. • The process developed recovers gallium from waste LED waste dust. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process reported. • Quantitative leaching of the GaN was achieved.

  14. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  15. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  16. Waste production and disposal in mining, milling, and metallurgical industries. (Production de matieres steriles et evacuation de celles-ci dans les mines, le moulin et les industries metallurgiques)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, R. E

    ... be implemented when it becomes effective in July 1977. Three succeeding chapters discuss the general nature of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes generated by mining, milling, and metallurgical industries...

  17. Agronomic by-products use from olive oil extraction: legislative, technological aspects and experimental results; Utilizzazione agronomica dei sottoprodotti dell`estrazione olearia: aspetti legislativi, tecnologici e risultati sperimentali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R. [Campobasso, Univ. del Molise (Italy). Dipt. Scienze Animali, Vegetali e dell`Ambiente

    1998-01-01

    The state of the art in the olive oil extraction plants is presented in this paper. These plants allow the removal or reduction of water emission by extraction process with decanter, changing the by-products characteristics of the olive oil industry. The different waste water re-use possibilities are analyzed, in relation to the new Italian law about the discharge of the olive mills effluents. Then, new technologies for the substances-mix composting from agronomic industries and some different lay-out for the specific plants in the by-products transformation are presented. Experimental test of olive pomace composting, depleted olive pomace, waste water concentrate, and directed in field distribution of the olive pomace, are given in this paper. At last, interesting results can be achieved composting the waste waters and/or their concentrate, or the olive pomace or depleted olive pomace with organic and nitrogen products, obtaining good fertilizers. [Italiano] In questa memoria si illustra lo stato attuale della evoluzione degli impianti per l`estrazione olearia che tendono ad eliminare o comunque a ridurre l`immissione di acqua di processo nella estrazione centrifuga, modificando cosi` le caratteristiche dei sottoprodotti della industria olearia. Vengono, di seguito, analizzate le possibili destinazioni d`uso delle acque di vegetazione (A.V.) alla luce della nuova legislazione italiana in materia della possibile utilizzazione degli scarichi dei frantoi oleari. Si illustrano, quindi, nuove tecnologie per il compostaggio di sostanze derivate dall`agroindustria miscelate con altre matrici organiche e alcuni criteri costruttivi di impianti specifici per il trattamento dei suddetti sottoprodotti. Si riferisce, infine, su prove sperimentali di compostaggio di sanse vergini, sanse esauste e di concentrati delle A.V., nonche` sulla distribuzione diretta in campo delle sanse vergini. L`autore conclude affermando che sia le acque di vegetazione e i relativi concentrati di

  18. Detoxification of a Lignocellulosic Waste from a Pulp Mill to Enhance Its Fermentation Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification is required for sugar bioconversion and hydrolyzate valorization within the biorefining concept for biofuel or bio-product production. In this work, the spent sulfite liquor, which is the main residue provided from a pulp mill, has been detoxified. Evaporation, overliming, ionic exchange resins, and adsorption with activated carbon or black carbon were considered to separate the sugars from the inhibitors in the lignocellulosic residue. Effectiveness in terms of total and individual inhibitor removals, sugar losses and sugar-to-inhibitor removal ratio was determined. The best results were found using the cation exchange Dowex 50WX2 resin in series with the anion exchange Amberlite IRA-96 resin, which resulted in sugar losses of 24.2% with inhibitor removal of 71.3% of lignosulfonates, 84.8% of phenolics, 82.2% acetic acid, and 100% of furfurals. Apart from exchange resins, the results of evaporation, overliming, adsorption with activated carbon and adsorption with black carbon led to total inhibitor removals of 8.6%, 44.9%, 33.6% and 47.6%, respectively. Finally, some fermentation scenarios were proposed in order to evaluate the most suitable technique or combination of techniques that should be implemented in every case.

  19. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.

  20. Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Irene; Viladomat, Francesc; Bastida, Jaume; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Burillo, Jesús; Codina, Carles

    2004-04-07

    A bioguided isolation of an aqueous extract of fennel waste led to the isolation of 12 major phenolic compounds. Liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/UV/APCI-MS) combined with spectroscopic methods (NMR) was used for compound identification. Radical scavenging activity was tested using three methods: DPPH*, superoxide nitro-blue tetrazolium hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence. In addition to products described in the literature, eight antioxidant compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in fennel: 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rosmarinic acid, eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. The structures of eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were completely elucidated by two-dimensional NMR experiments. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong antiradical scavenging activity, which may contribute to the interpretation of the pharmacological effects of fennel.

  1. The reclamation plan for uranium mine facilities in Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC. Mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ningyo Toge Environmental Engineering Center, Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The JNC conducted R and D projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-Toge after the projects ended. Thus, JNC's Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. Although the plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, it also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first such case in Japan. This plan was evaluated and validated from the technological viewpoint by the Technological Advisory Board on the Reclamation of the Ningyo-Toge uranium mining and milling facilities, in the 4th Meeting on April 11, 2002. The Board was established on January 29, 2001 and composes 10 experts regarding nuclear energy, radiology, mining, civil engineering, etc.; its chairperson is Dr. M. Nakano, a professor emeritus of Univ. of Tokyo. This report illustrates the reclamation plan mainly concerning waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond. (author)

  2. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1979-06-14

    The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

  3. Energy and protein production from pulp mill wastes. Final report, 15 Jun 1976-14 Jun 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgensen, M.F.; Patton, J.T.

    1979-06-14

    The goal of this research was to convert the organics and sulfur in sulfite spent liquor (SSL) now classified as pollutants from sulfite pulp mills, into synthetic methane and protein by means of a combination chemical-biological process. Ozonization was used to break the high molecular weight lignosulfonate molecules present in SSL into lower weight fractions which could be metabolized by methane-producing bacteria and protein-producing yeast. Ozonization experiments showed that this treatment is effective in partially oxidizing and fragmenting lignosulfonates into fermentable substrates. This process is initiated at low ozone concentrations and proceeds rapidly until nearly 30% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has been consumed. The conditions under which ozonization is conducted greatly affect the degree of oxidation and the molecular weight of the cleaved fragments. In spite of the appreciable oxidative cleavage of the lignosulfonate molecules, continuous-flow fermentation studies showed rather low yields of methane and yeast from ozonated SSL. Under optimum conditions, methane production averaged only 1.7 1/1 of SSL or approximately 3% of the total organics present. Protein production was somewhat more favorable with 6% of the organics being converted to yeast biomass. (6g/1). Neither fermentation fully used all of the oxygenated fragments produced by ozonization, and thus, a two-stage process might yield better results. Although it appears that ozonization is not a viable treatment of SSL under present economic conditions, with increased demand for energy and protein, it could become more competitive in the future. However, of possibly greater importance is the potential use of partial oxidation treatments to improve the biodegradability of organic wastes.

  4. 漂白硫酸盐苇浆制浆废水的处理%Treatment of the Waste Water from a Mill Producing Bleached Kraft Reed Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马乐凡; 李晓林; 王跃泉

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory results of the treatment of pulping black liquor,washing and bleaching waste wate of a mill producing bleached kraft reed pulp were presented. Process and installation of reed BKP pulping waste water treatment were designed, operation parameters and running results of treatment stages were discussed. Black liquor after anaerobic treatment and acid precipitating of lignin could be mixed with washing and bleaching waste water based on the discharged ratio of the mill to discharge, the pollution load of the mixed effluent will meet the national regulation requirement after further treatment by active sludge.%讨论了漂白硫酸盐苇浆厂制浆黑液和中段废水的实验室处理结果。设计了芦苇BKP制浆废水的处理工艺流程和装置,并重点讨论了各处理段的运行参数和运行结果。BKP苇浆蒸煮黑液首先经厌氧和酸析木素处理,然后再与制浆中段水按工厂排放比例混合,混合废水经活性污泥法处理后,可达到国家标准排放。

  5. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  6. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  7. A Survey on the Usage of Biomass Wastes from Palm Oil Mills on Sustainable Development of Oil Palm Plantations in Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, K. Y.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    As one of the world’s largest palm oil producers and exporters, Malaysia is committed to sustainable management of this industry to address the emerging environmental challenges. This descriptive study aims to evaluate the oil palm planters’ opinions regarding the usage of biomass wastes from palm oil mills and its impact on sustainable development of oil palm plantations in Sarawak. 253 planters across Sarawak were approached for their opinions about the usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), mesocarp fibre (MF), and palm kernel shell (PKS). This study revealed that the planters had generally higher agreement on the beneficial application of EFB and POME in oil palm plantations. This could be seen from the higher means of agreement rating of 3.64 - 4.22 for EFB and POME, compared with the rating of 3.19 - 3.41 for MF and PKS in the 5-point Likert scale (with 5 being the strongest agreement). Besides, 94.7 percent of the planters’ companies were found to comply with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) requirements where nearly 38 percent carried out the EIA practice twice a year. Therefore high means of agreement were correlated to the compliance of environmental regulations, recording a Likert rating of 3.89 to 4.31. Lastly, the usage of EFB and POME also gained higher Likert scale point of 3.76 to 4.17 against MF and PKS of 3.34 to 3.49 in the evaluation of the impact of sustainability in oil palm plantations. The planters agreed that the usage of EFB and POME has reduced the environmental impact and improved the sustainable development, and its application has been improved and increased by research and development. However the planters were uncertain of the impact of usage of biomass wastes with respect to the contribution to social responsibility and company image in terms of transparency in waste management.

  8. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  10. The fate of EDTA and DTPA in aquatic environments receiving waste water from two pulp and paper mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remberger, M.; Svenson, Anders

    1997-10-01

    To evaluate the fate of the complexing agents in receiving waters, two basic questions have been addressed: (i) are EDTA and DTPA found in the aquatic environment after discharge into receiving waters and (ii) are they photolytically converted. Two mills, one pulp mill localized at a fresh water lake and one pulp and paper mill at a brackish water were investigated, both mills using bleaching technologies with EDTA and DTPA as complexing agents. Samples were collected at the discharge point and along a gradient in the receiving waters at two occasions: summer at solstice and winter with low light intensity. Samples were taken from surface water, an intermediate depth, and bottom water. A new analytical method was applied, which made it possible to quantify the analytes at sub-{mu}g/l level. The complexing agents EDTA and DTPA and their primary degradation products were detected in the effluent and the receiving waters in the vicinity of the mills. DTPA and the degradation products could be detected a few kilometers from the effluent point while EDTA could be detected in more remote locations at fairly constant concentrations. The absorption of light in the sun spectrum in the water columns of the receiving waters was studied at different localities and during summer and winter conditions. The theoretical photochemical half-life of the ferric complex of EDTA in the surface layer of a central Swedish lake was confirmed. Analysis of EDTA in samples of receiving waters after photolytic treatment showed however, that a large portion of the complexing agent was unaffected by the treatment, indicating that most of the EDTA was complexed with other metals. EDTA in brackish water samples was unaffected by the photolytic treatment upon addition of excess ferric ions, except in winter close to the discharge point. The ease by which the ferric complexes are photochemically converted in ideal conditions seems to be hampered in receiving waters. 42 refs, 16 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion efficiency of wastewater sludge and olive waste: Synergistic effect of co-digestion and ultrasonic/microwave sludge pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, B Aylin; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatment on biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of olive pomace and wastewater sludges. It was found that co-digestion of wastewater sludge with olive pomace yielded around 0.21 L CH4/g VS added, whereas the maximum methane yields from the mono-digestion of olive pomace and un-pretreated wastewater sludges were 0.18 and 0.16L CH4/g VS added. In the same way, compared to mono-digestion of these substrates, co-digestion increased methane production by 17-31%. The microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatments applied to sludge samples prior to co-digestion process led to further increase in the methane production by 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to co-digestion with un-pretreated wastewater sludge. The highest biogas and methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of 30 min microwave pre-treated wastewater sludges and olive pomace to be 0.46 L/g VS added and 0.32 L CH4/g VS added, respectively.

  12. Neutralization of acid mine drainage using the final product from CO{sub 2} emissions capture with alkaline paper mill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.perez@dgeo.uhu.es [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA - CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain); Castillo, Julio; Quispe, Dino; Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of low-cost alkaline paper mill wastes as acidity neutralizing agents for treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Paper wastes include a calcium mud by-product from kraft pulping, and a calcite powder from a previous study focused on sequestering CO{sub 2} by carbonation of calcium mud. The neutralization process consisted of increase of pH by alkaline additive dissolution, decrease of metals solubility and precipitation of gypsum and poorly crystallized Fe-Al oxy-hydroxides/oxy-hydroxysulphates, which acted as a sink for trace elements to that extent that solutions reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption. This improvement was supported by geochemical modelling of solutions using PHREEQC software, and observations by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction of reaction products. According to PHREEQC simulations, the annual amount of alkaline additive is able to treat AMD (pH 3.63, sulphate 3800 mg L{sup -1}, iron 348 mg L{sup -1}) with an average discharge of about 114 and 40 L s{sup -1} for calcium mud and calcite powder, respectively. Likewise, given the high potential of calcium mud to sequester CO{sub 2} and of resulting calcite powder to neutralize AMD, paper wastes could be a promising solution for facing this double environmental problem.

  13. 焚烧法处理制浆厂固体废弃物%Cineration is a Good Treatment for the Solid Waste of the Pulp Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 韩颖; 刘秉钺

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the boiler burning solid waste in pulp mill and the flow of waste and ash, air and flue gas, water and steam in the boiler were introduced in detail. In addition, the energy balance of the solid waste boiler was calculated. The result showed that the thermal efficiency of the boiler reaches to 67.17% and return time of investment is only in 55 days. At the same time, the economic and social benefits of the boiler were analyzed.%介绍了制浆厂用于焚烧固体废弃物的锅炉结构,以及锅炉工作时废弃物、灰渣、空气、烟气、水、饱和蒸汽等物质的流程.对固体废弃物锅炉的能量进行了衡算,锅炉的热效率可达到67.17%.同时阐述了锅炉焚烧固体废弃物的经济效益和社会效益.

  14. Oliver Sacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renowned neurologist and author Dr Oliver Sacks is a visiting professor at the University of Warwick as part of the Institute of Advanced Study. Dr Sacks was born in London. He earned his medical degree at the University of Oxford (Queen’s College and the Middlesex Hospital (now UCL, followed by residencies and fellowships at Mt. Zion Hospital in San Francisco and at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA. As well as authoring best-selling books such as Awakenings and The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he is clinical professor of neurology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York. Warwick is part of a consortium led by New York University which is building an applied science research institute, the Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP. Dr Sacks recently completed a five-year residency at Columbia University in New York, where he was professor of neurology and psychiatry. He also held the title of Columbia University Artist, in recognition of his contributions to the arts as well as to medicine. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and the Association of British Neurologists, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and has been a fellow of the New York Institute for the Humanities at NYU for more than 25 years. In 2008, he was appointed CBE.

  15. A test of usefulness of a commercially available mill "waste product" (AB-84 as feed for starving reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Three Norwegian reindeer were first fed lichen ad libitum for 40 days, then they were starved for 3 days, and thereafter offered a commercially available mill «waste product» (AB-84 ad libitum. One animal refused to eat AB-84 and was excluded. When eating lichen average daily dry matter intake was 1.1 ± 0.4 kg, while when eating AB-84 after the starvation period it averaged 1.1 kg at day 1, increasing to 2.5 kg at day 7. After 12 days daily dry matter intake varied between 2 and 4 kg. The rumen dry matter percentage was 16 when eating lichen, 6 after 2 days of starvation, and 17 after eating AB-84 for 5 days. Ruminal pH was 6.4 ± 0.3 when eating lichen, increasing to 7.4 after 3 days of starvation and dropping to an all time low of 6.1, 12 hours after refeeding. The viable bacterial count was 4.7 x 1010 ± 2.7, 5.5 x 108 ± 2.0 and 3.1 x 1010 ± 1.7/ml rumen fluid when the animals were eating lichen, had starved for 3 days and had been eating AB-84 for 5 days, respectively. The rumen ciliate protozoa numbered 17.1 x 105 ± 2.7/ml rumen fluid, when eating lichen, dropping to 4.3 x 105 ± 0.6./ml after 3 days of starvation. A further drop to 1.8 x 10s ± 0.5/ml was observed 1 day after refeeding, but the rumen ciliate number was normalized at 15 x 105 ± 1/ml already 8 days after refeeding. These results indicate that the mill «waste product» (AB-84 is very well tolerated even by reindeer suffering from starvation. Since it is moreover commercially available at a favourable price it could be of interest to reindeer herders. In any case, it deserves to be tested under controlled conditions on a larger number of animals.En test på anvendeligheten av kornavrens (AB-84 som for til utsultet rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tre norske rein ble gitt lav ad libitum i 40 dager, sultet i 3 dager og deretter gitt kornavrens (AB-84 ad libitum. Ett av dyrene nektet å spise AB-84 og ble satt ut av forsøket. Daglig foropptak i kg tørrstoff var

  16. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  17. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T; Majstrenko, T; Geras'kin, S; Brown, J E; Belykh, E

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and (226)Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles=5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  18. The use of olive-mill waste compost to promote the plant vegetation cover in a trace-element-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of a mature compost as a soil amendment to promote the growth of native species for the phytorestoration of a mine-affected soil from a semi-arid area (SE Spain), contaminated with trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn), was evaluated in a 2-year field experiment. The effects of an inorganic fertiliser were also determined for comparison. Bituminaria bituminosa was the selected native plant since it is a leguminous species adapted to the particular local pedoclimatic conditions. Compost addition increased total organic-C concentrations in soil with respect to the control and fertiliser treatments, maintained elevated available P concentrations throughout the duration of the experiment and stimulated soil microbial biomass, while trace elements extractability in the soil was rather low due to the calcareous nature of the soil and almost unaltered in the different treatments. Tissue concentrations of P and K in B. bituminosa increased after the addition of compost, associated with growth stimulation. Leaf Cu concentration was also increased by the amendments, although overall the trace elements concentrations can be considered non-toxic. In addition, the spontaneous colonisation of the plots by a total of 29 species of 15 different families at the end of the experiment produced a greater vegetation cover, especially in plots amended with compost. Therefore, the use of compost as a soil amendment appears to be useful for the promotion of a vegetation cover and the phytostabilisation of moderately contaminated soils under semi-arid conditions.

  19. Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation conditions on soil quality in olive groves in the region of Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Repas, Spiros; Koubouris, Georgos; Psaras, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cultivation practices are associated to soil degradation mainly due to low soil organic matter content. The application of organic materials to land is a common practice in sustainable agriculture in the last years. However, its implementation in olive groves under different irrigation regimes has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of alternative carbon input techniques (i.e. wood shredded, pruning residues, returning of olive mill wastes the field with compost) and irrigation conditions (irrigated and rainfed olive orchards) on spatial distribution of soil chemical (pH, EC, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, available P, and exchangeable K) and microbial properties (soil basal microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-40 cm). The study took place in the region of Messinia, South western Peloponnese, Greece during three year soil campaigns. Forty soil plots of olive groves were selected (20 rainfed and 20 irrigated) and carbon input practices were applied on the half of the irrigated and rainfed soil parcels (10 rainfed and 10 irrigated), while the remaining ones were used as controls. The results showed significant changes of chemical and biological properties of soil in olive orchards due to carbon treatments. However, these changes were depended on irrigation conditions. Microbial parameters appeared to be reliable indicators of changes in soil management. Proper management of alternative soil carbon inputs in olive orchards can positively affect soil fertility.

  20. Oliver Jeffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家代表作品:《This Moose Belongs to Me》、《How to Catch a Star》、《Lost and found》、《Up and Down》、《The Way Back Home》、《The Great Paper Caper》、《The Heart and the Bottle》、Oliver Jeffers生于1977年,是一位故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家。他生于爱尔兰,现在在美国纽约的布鲁克林生活。他的创作领域从具象绘画、插图、独立书籍制作到装置艺术,涉猎很广。他的作品被纽约布鲁克林博物馆收入。另外在都柏林、柏林、伦敦、悉尼、华盛顿和贝尔法斯特都有他的艺术品展出。他是家喻户晓的儿童书籍作者。哈伯柯林斯和企鹅出版社都出版过他的书。2004年的《How to Catch a Star》是他第一本儿童书,大受好评。之后他

  1. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  2. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  3. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  4. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of olives had been processed, which is less than the annual production of the mill in question. Similarly, in economic terms, the machine covered its costs after about a quarter of its technical life.

  5. Active ingredients of olive oil processing wastes and their comprehensive utilization technique:a review%橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    在橄榄油的生产加工过程中产生了大量的富含生物活性物质的废弃物,这些废弃物均未得到有效的开发利用,造成了极大的资源浪费和环境污染.实现橄榄油加工废弃物的高值化综合开发利用是实现油橄榄产业可持续发展的重要保障之一.结合国内外研究报道,总结了橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术的研究现状,旨在为橄榄油加工废弃物的综合开发利用提供可行思路和技术参考.%Abundant wastes with bioactive compounds are produced during olive oil production. Those wastes are not utilized reasonably and lead to the problems of resource waste and environmental pollution. Comprehensive exploitation and utilization of olive oil processing wastes ( OPW) with high value is one of the most important strategies for olive industry achieving sustainable development. The active ingredients in OPW and their comprehensive utilization techniques were summarized so as to provide a feasible solu-tion and technical reference for OPW.

  6. A simple method to evaluate the short-term biogas yield in anaerobic codigestion of WAS and organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, D; Caffaz, S; Ficara, E; Malpei, F; Lubello, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at setting and applying a procedure to measure the anaerobic degradability of different organic substrates by short-term tests (2-7 days) carried out at lab-scale with a low food to biomass (F/M) ratio. All tests were carried out using an acclimated sludge taken from a pilot-plant anaerobic digester (200 L). Trials were performed with a manometric system. The experimental reliability of the device in measuring the anaerobic degradability was assessed by several preliminary tests carried out using acetate and glucose as reference substrates. The average conversion to methane was 99% for acetate and of 83% for glucose. The results of tests in triplicate showed the high repeatability of the method with an average coefficient of variation lower than 2%. Then, the lab-scale procedure was applied to study the short-term anaerobic degradability of complex organic substrates: thickened waste activated sludge, two kinds of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (a kitchen waste and a fruit and vegetable waste collected at the wholesale market of Florence), olive mill wastewater and freshly harvested grass. Results indicated that organic fraction of municipal solid waste, olive mill wastewater and grass were characterized by a much higher anaerobic degradability if compared to the thickened activated sludge, well in agreement with literature data.

  7. Composted organic wastes from the pharmaceutical and agro-food industries induce soil bioactivity and nodulation in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Fernando; Jaramillo, Claudia X; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Belda, Rosa M; Lidón, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    Environmentally friendly agriculture needs to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers and to reclaim nutrients from organic wastes. In this study the effect of five doses (0, 12, 24, 48 and 96 t ha(-1) ) of two two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)-based composts on the bioactivity and chemical characteristics of an agricultural soil and their potential to fertilize alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and stimulate nodulation were assessed during a two-year incubation experiment. The two composts were prepared either with the olive mill waste alone (compost A), which served as control, or mixed with a liquid fatty-proteinaceous hydrolyzate waste (FPH) from the pharmaceutical industry (compost AH). Compost AH resulted in greater N immobilization than compost A because the former supplied the soil with easily degradable C and N, which increased microbial biomass and activity. Both compost mineralizations during the first year of incubation supplied the soil with more nutrients (mainly N), more so with A than with AH. Nevertheless, plant growth was similar in soils amended with either A or AH. Both composts induced nodulation similarly and the highest dose (96 t ha(-1) ) increased the formation of nodules by a factor of 11 compared with the four lower doses. TPOMW serves as an effective ground material for co-composting with liquid wastes such as FPH. TPOMW supplies key nutrients and stimulates nodulation in alfalfa. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. 纸厂废弃塑料焚烧过程中HCl的排放特性%Emission characters of HCl during paper mill plastic waste incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑圣欢; 段钰锋; 陈惠超; 冒咏秋; 张平平

    2013-01-01

    Plastic waste from a paper mill with chlorine incineration was investigated in a small tube furnace. Factors such as temperature, particle size, and detention time in the process of waste plastic incineration were considered. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled with Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze emission characters of HCl. Results show that conversion rate of Cl to HCl increased with the temperature, particle size and detention time; TG-FTIR shows HC1 was generated at about 200 t, reached maximum at about 300 ℃. and declined gradually after 400 ℃. XRD indicates that residual chlorine resided in the ash in the form of inorganic chloride.%在小型管式炉中进行了纸厂含氯废弃塑料焚烧过程中HCl析出特性实验,研究了温度、粒径、停留时间对HCl析出的影响;同时借助热重-傅里叶红外光谱联用技术(TG-FTIR)研究了HCl在焚烧过程中的析出规律.结果发现,燃烧过程中Cl→HCl的转化率随温度、粒径和停留时间的增大而显著增加;TG-FTIR结果表明,HCl在200℃左右开始析出,300℃左右达到最大值,400℃后析出峰逐渐消失.XRD结果可知,残余氯以无机氯盐的形式存在灰样中.

  9. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400-2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45-55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15-17 nm) and large diameter (0.2-1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g-1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98-99.8%).

  10. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-02-20

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400-2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45-55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15-17 nm) and large diameter (0.2-1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g(-1), the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98-99.8%).

  11. Beads-Milling of Waste Si Sawdust into High-Performance Nanoflakes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, Takatoshi; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Kimura, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Okai, Makoto; Kyotani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, ca. 176,640 tons/year of silicon (Si) (>4N) is manufactured for Si wafers used for semiconductor industry. The production of the highly pure Si wafers inevitably includes very high-temperature steps at 1400–2000 °C, which is energy-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Inefficiently, ca. 45–55% of such costly Si is lost simply as sawdust in the cutting process. In this work, we develop a cost-effective way to recycle Si sawdust as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. By a beads-milling process, nanoflakes with extremely small thickness (15–17 nm) and large diameter (0.2–1 μm) are obtained. The nanoflake framework is transformed into a high-performance porous structure, named wrinkled structure, through a self-organization induced by lithiation/delithiation cycling. Under capacity restriction up to 1200 mAh g−1, the best sample can retain the constant capacity over 800 cycles with a reasonably high coulombic efficiency (98–99.8%). PMID:28218271

  12. Development of a nanofiltration process for flotation treated paper mill waste water; Nanosuodatusprosessin kehittaeminen flotaatiokaesitellylle paperitehtaan jaetevedelle - EKT 08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenttaeri, M.; Nuortila-Jokinen, J.; Nystroem, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Nanofiltration was studied as a purification method of paper mill effluents so that the permeates could be used as press section shower water. The quality of ultrafiltered water was not assessed to be sufficiently high for that purpose. The low flux of nanofiltration membranes has restricted their use in the pulp and paper industry. This study showed that the performance of nanofiltration membranes can be improved by controlling the filtration conditions, like pH, flow velocity and pressure. It was demonstrated that a critical flux exists also for nanofiltration membranes. By adjusting the permeate flux below this critical value fouling should be low. The experiments with a spiral wound element showed its sensitivity to plugging by fibers and also the unsuitability of cartridge filters as safety filters for it. Better pretreatment methods are needed. A multilayer filter seemed to decrease the fouling of the nanofiltration element somewhat. However, a simple and cleanable pretreatment method still needs to be developed. Fouling experiments with model components pointed out the importance of pH and cross-flow velocity in minimizing fouling. (orig.) 8 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  13. Study on anaerobic treatment of hazardous steel-mill waste rolling oil (SmWRO) for multi-benefit disposal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huanhuan; Li, Zifu; Yin, Fubin; Kao, William; Yin, Yi; Bai, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Steel-mill waste rolling oil (SmWRO) is considered as hazardous substance with high treatment and disposal fees. Anaerobic process could not only transform the hazardous substance into activated sludge, but also generate valuable biogas. This study aimed at studying the biochemical methane potential of SmWRO under inoculum to substrate VS ratios (ISRs) of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 using septic tank sludge as inoculum in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with blank tests for control. Specific biogas yield (mL/g VS(added)), net biogas yield (mL/g VS(removed)) and VS removal were analyzed. The ANOVA results indicated great influence of ISR and temperature on studied parameters. ISR of 1.5 at 55°C and ISR of 1.5 and 2 at 35°C were suggested with the highest specific biogas yield (262-265 and 303mL/g VS(added)). Kinetic analysis showed that Gompertz model fit the experimental data best with the least RMSE and largest R(2). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemically coupled microwave and ultrasonic pre-hydrolysis of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge: effect on sludge solubilisation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Lo, Shang-Lien; Rajpal, Ankur

    2014-05-01

    The effects of alkali-enhanced microwave (MW; 50-175 °C) and ultrasonic (US) (0.75 W/mL, 15-60 min) pretreatments, on solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion efficiency of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge, were investigated. Improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilisation were limited to 33 and 39 % in MW pretreatment only (175 °C). It reached 78 and 66 % in combined MW-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 175 °C), respectively. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand and VSS solubilisation were 58 and 37 % in US pretreatment alone (60 min) and it improved by 66 and 49 % after US-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 60 min), respectively. The biogas yield for US 60 min-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was significantly improved by 47 and 20 % over the control and US 60 reactors, respectively. The biogas generation for MW (150 °C)-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was only 6.3 % higher than control; however, it was 8.3 % lower than the MW (150 °C) reactor, which was due to the inhibition of anaerobic activity under harsh thermal-alkali treatment condition.

  15. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  16. Overregularity in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥曼

    2015-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of the earliest works of Charles Dickens. In this novel, the author uses many writing skills which impress the readers a lot. This paper gives a brief description of overregularity in Oliver Twist at the phonological and syntactical levels.

  17. Sludge from paper mill effluent treatment as raw material to produce carbon adsorbents: An alternative waste management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaria, Guilaine; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Ferreira, Catarina I A; Otero, Marta; Calisto, Vânia

    2017-03-01

    Pulp and paper industry produces massive amounts of sludge from wastewater treatment, which constitute an enormous environmental challenge. A possible management option is the conversion of sludge into carbon-based adsorbents to be applied in water remediation. For such utilization it is important to investigate if sludge is a consistent raw material originating reproducible final materials (either over time or from different manufacturing processes), which is the main goal of this work. For that purpose, different primary (PS) and biological sludge (BS) batches from two factories with different operation modes were sampled and subjected to pyrolysis (P materials) and to pyrolysis followed by acid washing (PW materials). All the materials were characterized by proximate analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic carbon (IC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and N2 adsorption isotherms (specific surface area (SBET)and porosity determination). Sludge from the two factories proved to have distinct physicochemical properties, mainly in what concerns IC. After pyrolysis, the washing step was essential to reduce IC and to considerably increase SBET, yet with high impact in the final production yield. Among the materials here produced, PW materials from PS were those having the highest SBET values (387-488 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, it was found that precursors from different factories might originate final materials with distinct characteristics, being essential to take into account this source of variability when considering paper mill sludge as a raw material. Nevertheless, for PS, low variability was found between batches, which points out to the reliability of such residues to be used as precursors of carbon adsorbents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of Silicon Nitride and Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites through High Energy Milling of Waste Silica Fume for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Jyothi

    Nanocomposites have been widely used in a multitude of applications in electronics and structural components because of their improved mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties. Silicon nitride/Silicon carbide (Si 3N4/SiC) nanocomposites have been studied intensively for low and high temperature structural applications, such as turbine and automobile engine components, ball bearings, turbochargers, as well as energy applications due to their superior wear resistance, high temperature strength, high oxidation resistance and good creep resistance. Silica fume is the waste material produced during the manufacture of silicon and ferro-silicon alloys, and contains 94 to 97 wt.% SiO2. In the present dissertation, the feasibility of using waste silica fume as the raw material was investigated to synthesize (I) advanced nanocomposites of Si3N4/SiC, and (2) porous silicon carbide (SiC) for membrane applications. The processing approach used to convert the waste material to advanced ceramic materials was based on a novel process called, integrated mechanical and thermal activation process (IMTA) process. In the first part of the dissertation, the effect of parameters such as carbothermic nitridation and reduction temperature and the graphite concentration in the starting silica fume plus graphite mixture, were explored to synthesize nanocomposite powders with tailored amounts of Si3N4 and SiC phases. An effective way to synthesize carbon-free Si3N 4/SiC composite powders was studied to provide a clear pathway and fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanisms. Si3N4/SiC nanocomposite powders were then sintered using two different approaches, based on liquid phase sintering and spark plasma sintering processes, with Al 2O3 and Y2O3 as the sintering aids. The nanocomposites were investigated for their densification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Si3N4/SiC nanocomposites thus obtained were found to possess superior mechanical properties at much

  19. Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayğılı, Hasan; Güzel, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon (TAC) prepared under optimized conditions with ZnCl2 activation from a new precursor; tomato industrial processing waste (TW), was applied as an adsorbent to remove tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The factors (TAC dosage, initial TC concentration, contact time, ionic strength and solution temperature) affecting the adsorption process were examined at natural pH (5.7) of TAC-TC system in aqueous solution. Kinetic data was found to be best complied by the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the equilibrium data could be represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity was identified as 500.0mgg(-1) at 308K.

  20. Dark fermentation of complex waste biomass for biohydrogen production by pretreated thermophilic anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Frunzo, Luigi; Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The Biohydrogen Potential (BHP) of six different types of waste biomass typical for the Campania Region (Italy) was investigated. Anaerobic sludge pre-treated with the specific methanogenic inhibitor sodium 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BESA) was used as seed inoculum. The BESA pre-treatment yielded the highest BHP in BHP tests carried out with pre-treated anaerobic sludge using potato and pumpkin waste as the substrates, in comparison with aeration or heat shock pre-treatment. The BHP tests carried out with different complex waste biomass showed average BHP values in a decreasing order from potato and pumpkin wastes (171.1 ± 7.3 ml H2/g VS) to buffalo manure (135.6 ± 4.1 ml H2/g VS), dried blood (slaughter house waste, 87.6 ± 4.1 ml H2/g VS), fennel waste (58.1 ± 29.8 ml H2/g VS), olive pomace (54.9 ± 5.4 ml H2/g VS) and olive mill wastewater (46.0 ± 15.6 ml H2/g VS). The digestate was analyzed for major soluble metabolites to elucidate the different biochemical pathways in the BHP tests. These showed the H2 was produced via mixed type fermentation pathways.

  1. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of Fenton's reagent in treating waste waters from the table olive producing industry; Aplicacion del reactivo de Fenton para la depuracion de las aguas residuales de la industria productora de aceituna de mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Dominguez, J. R.

    2001-07-01

    A study was made of the chemical oxidation by means of Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe''24) on the lye used in pickling black olives. The aim of this process is to eliminate the organic materials from the waste water. It was monitored by tracking several overall reaction parameters such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total polyphenols, the aromaticity of the sample and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the reactor. The elimination rate obtained for the chemical oxygen demand after 90 minutes of reaction varied between 28 and 73% (depending on the conditions of the operation). Polyphenols were reduced by between 26 and 90%, while aromaticity was reduced by between 36 and 94%. In addition, the stechiometric coefficient of the reaction was determined for different operating conditions and was found to range from 0.11 to 1.82 g COD/gH{sub 2}O{sub 2}. An analysis of the results shows that the higher the dose of hydrogen peroxide, the greater the reduction of COD, but also the lower the stechiometric coefficient and, therefore, the less efficient the use made of the hydrogen peroxide. (Author) 19 refs.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Sulfonated Carbon-Based Catalysts Derived From Rubber Tree Leaves and Pulp and Paper Mill Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Sinin, E.; Hiew, S. F.; Kong, A. M. T.; Lahin, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts derived from rubber tree leaves, and pulp and paper mill waste were synthesized and characterized. Three types of catalyst synthesized were sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL), pyrolysed sludge char (P-SC) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC). Sulfonated rubber tree leaves (S-RTL) and sulfonated sludge char (S-SC) were prepared through pyrolysis followed by functionalization via sulfonation process whereas, P- SC was only pyrolyzed without sulfonation. The characterization results indicated sulfonic acids, hydroxyl, and carboxyl moieties were detected in S-RTL and S-SC, but no sulfonic acid was detected in P-SC. Total acidity test showed S-RTL had the highest value followed by S-SC and P-SC. The thermal stability of S-RTL and S-SC were up to 230oC as the loss was associated with the decomposition of sulfonic acid group, whereas, P-SC showed higher stability than the S-RTL and S-SC. Morphology analysis showed that S-RTL consisted of an amorphous carbon structure, and a crystalline structure for P-SC and S-SC. Furthermore, traces of metal components were also detected on all of the catalysts. The catalyst catalytic activity was tested through esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The results showed that the reaction using S-RTL catalyst produced the highest conversion (99.9%) followed by P-SC (88.4%) and lastly S-SC (82.7%). The synthesized catalysts showed high potential to be used in biodiesel production.

  4. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in batch reactor with digested biodiesel waste as starter and natural zeolite for microbial immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Paulina Adina Hari; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the wastewater discharged from sludge separation, sterilization, and clarification process of palm oil industries. Each ton of palm oil produces about half ton of high organic load wastewater. Up to now, POME treatment is done in lagoon, leaving major problems in land requirement and greenhouse gasses release. The increasing of palm oil production provokes the urgency of appropriate technology application in treating POME to prevent the greenhouse gasses emission while exploit POME as renewable energy source. The purposes of this study were firstly to test the effectiveness of using the digested biodiesel waste as the inoculum and secondly to evaluate the effectiveness of natural zeolite addition in minimizing the inhibitory effect in digesting POME. It was expected that the oil-degrading bacteria in the inoculum would shorten the adaptation period in digesting POME. Furthermore, the consortium formation of anaerobic bacteria accelerated by natural zeolite powder addition would increase the microbial resistance to the inhibitors contained in the POME. The batch digesters, containing 0 (control); 17; 38; and 63 g natural zeolite/g sCOD substrate were observed for 43 days. The result showed that zeolite addition did not give significant effect on sCOD reduction (97.3-98.6% of initial sCOD). Moreover, addition of immobilization media up to 17 g natural zeolite/g stimulated the acidification and biogas production up to 10% higher than control. The purity of methane produced with various amount of immobilization media did not differ for each variation, i.e. 50-54% v/v methane. The increasing amount of natural zeolite up to 63 g/g sCOD did not significantly enhance biogas product rate nor methane content.

  5. Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.

  6. LEVULINIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal conversion of waste biomass to levulinic acid was investigated in the presence of homogeneous acid catalysts. Different cheap raw materials (poplar sawdust, paper mill sludge, tobacco chops, wheat straw, olive tree pruning were employed as substrates. The yields of levulinic acid were improved by optimization of the main reaction parameters, such as type and amount of acid catalyst, temperature, duration, biomass concentration, and electrolyte addition. The catalytic performances were also improved by the adoption of microwave irradiation as an efficient heating method, allowing significant energy and time savings. The hydrothermal conversions of inulin and wheat straw were carried out in the presence of niobium phosphate, which up to now have never been employed in these reactions. The preliminary results appeared to be in need of further optimization.

  7. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2017-07-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  10. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  11. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  12. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  13. Effect of malaxation conditions on phenol and volatile profiles in olive paste and the corresponding virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Salvador, M Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2009-05-13

    Malaxation of olive paste must be considered to be much more than a simple physical separation, because a complex bioprocess takes place that is very relevant to the quality and composition of the final product. A combined study of the effect of kneading temperature and time on the minor composition of olive paste and its corresponding virgin olive oil, processed in an experimental oil mill (Pieralisi, Fattoria) with a working capacity of 200 kg/h, is reported. A large drop in the oleuropein content in the olive paste with respect to its initial content in the olive fruit (between 92 and 96%) was observed, which suggested its almost total degradation during the crushing operation. The major phenolic compound found in the olive paste during kneading was the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA, always higher than 60% of the total phenols). This greatly decreased during malaxation (from 5505 to 2317 mg/kg, on average). The content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil was much more affected by the malaxation temperature than the kneading time. For instance, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content increased by 220-630% in the two batches when the temperature was increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. A reduction in the C6 aldehydes was found in virgin olive oil as the malaxation temperature increased, especially in E-2-hexenal (30% reduction). In contrast, C6 aldehydes in the oils from the oil mill plant significantly increased as the malaxation time increased from 30 to 90 min, chiefly E-2-hexenal (about a 70% increase).

  14. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.

  15. [Impact of olive oil wastewater on the physicochemical and biological quality of groundwater in the Haouz plain, south of Marrakesh (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhoubza, F; Ait Boughrous, A; Yacoubi-Khebiza, M; Jail, A; Hassani, L; Loukili Idrissi, L; Nejmeddine, A

    2008-09-01

    Olive Oil Waste Water (OOWW) is acidic water known for its antibacterial and phytotoxic effects. In Morocco, these effluents are generally drained into the surrounding environment without any treatment or are collected and retained in large evaporation basins, which can constitute a source of potential pollution of groundwater. The analysis of water from 14 wells, in an agricultural zone, where there are four storage basins of OOWW coming from various types of oil mills, showed that their physicochemical and biological quality is largely influenced by the presence of these basins. Indeed, high values of COD (400 mg O2 L(-1)), polyphenols (180 mg l(-1)) and electrical conductivity (1.89 mS cm-') were recorded in P5 water. This well is located only 5 m from a storage basin of OOWW coming from the H4 oil mill which rejects OOWW charged with organic matter (more than 290 g of O2 L(-1) of COD, on average). However, the settlement of a basin, dug close to a modern oil mill (H3), which produces large OOWW volumes but is loaded with low organic pollutant concentration (100 g of O2L(-1) of COD), reduced notably the effect of the OOWW infiltration on groundwater. This resulted in the improvement of the groundwater physicochemical quality near this basin (P7 and P8); the organic matter contents expressed by COD vary from 26.7 mg l(-1) to 30 mg l(-1) and the polyphenol contents are on average between 41 mg l(-1) and 47.6 mg l(-1). The analysis of the total well water fauna showed a great taxonomic richness with variations in time and space. The biodiversity decreases in groundwater polluted by the oil mill waste and the underground fauna disappears completely if the degree of contamination of groundwater is high.

  16. Enhanced methane and hydrogen production from municipal solid waste and agro-industrial by-products co-digested with crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Manios, T

    2009-06-01

    The effects of crude glycerol on the performance of single-stage anaerobic reactors treating different types of organic waste were examined. A reactor treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste produced 1400 mL CH(4)/d before the addition of glycerol and 2094 mL CH(4)/d after the addition of glycerol. An enhanced methane production rate was also observed when a 1:4 mixture of olive mill wastewater and slaughterhouse wastewater was supplemented with crude glycerol. Specifically, by adding 1% v/v crude glycerol to the feed, the methane production rate increased from 479 mL/d to 1210 mL/d. The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on the reactor performance in either case. Supplementation of the feed with crude glycerol also had a significant positive effect on anaerobic fermentation reactors. Hydrogen yield was 26 mmole H(2)/g VS added and 15 mmole H(2)/g VS added in a reactor treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and a 1:4 mixture of olive mill and slaughterhouse wastewater. The addition of crude glycerol to the feed enhanced hydrogen yield at 2.9 mmole H(2)/g glycerol added and 0.7 mmole H(2)/g glycerol added.

  17. Tyrosol degradation via the homogentisic acid pathway in a newly isolated Halomonas strain from olive processing effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Labat, Marc; Amouric, Agnès; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Lorquin, Jean

    2008-01-01

    To isolate a new Halomonas sp. strain capable of degrading tyrosol, a toxic compound present in olive mill wastewater, through the homogentisic acid (HGA) pathway. A moderately halophilic Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Halomonas genus and designated strain TYRC17 was isolated from olive processing effluents. This strain was able to completely degrade tyrosol (2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol), a toxic compound found in such effluent. Tyrosol degradation begins by an oxidation to 4-hydrox...

  18. Anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production: in fluence of harvest time on the kinetics of the process. Digestion anaerobia de las aguas de lavado de aceitunas de almazara: influencia del periodo de recoleccion sobre la cinetica del proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Padilla, R.; Alba-Mendoza, J.; Hidalgo-Casado, F.

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic study was carried out of anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production, collected at three different harvest times (December 1992, January and February 1993). A 1-litre mixed batch bioreactor operated at 35 degree centigree and containing a sepiolite-immobilized biomass was used. Assuming that the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to a first-order kinetics, experimental data pairs, namely methane volume yield (G) and time (t), fit Roediger's equation, from which the rate coefficient values, k[sub o], were determined in each of the situations studied. The rate coefficient considerably decreased with the harvest time, over the substrate concentration range studied (0.5-2.5 g COD/1). The average values obtained were [sub 1.67],[sub 1.13] and [sub 0.75] days for the waste waters corresponding to the three harvest times considered. Also, the methanogenic activity decreased with the ripening of the olives; the observed differences increased when the substrate concentration in the digester increased. The coefficients of methane yield, Yp ranged between 0.263 (first harvest time) and 0.298 I CH[sub 4]/g COD removed (third harvest time). The elimination of COD exceeded 64% in all cases. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Thermal destruction of organic waste hydrophobicity for agricultural soils application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Francisco; Aranda, Víctor; Domínguez-Vidal, Ana; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2017-11-01

    Use of organic amendments is a good strategy for combating the growing problem of soil degradation due to deterioration of organic matter content, particularly severe in semi-arid European Mediterranean regions, while at the same time providing an opportunity for recycling organic wastes. Olive mill pomace (OMP), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is being used increasingly in olive grove soils for this purpose. Although the positive effects of OMP amendments have been widely studied, they also have some negative effects on soil. One of the most critical is that they increase water repellency (WR) due to the presence of poorly evolved, strongly aliphatic compounds. This detrimental effect has received very little attention, although it may impair plant water availability and infiltration rates, increase erosion and lower long-term soil quality. This study proposed, for the first time, thermal treatment as an effective way of reducing WR in organic amendments (i.e. mixtures of OMP, olive tree pruning, chicken manure and spent coffee grounds) prior to their application to soil. Thermal treatment at 275 °C proved effective in removing WR, while lower temperatures (175 or 225 °C) can even increase it. Changes by thermal treatment in the characteristics of the organic amendments studied with FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that it strongly reduced the aliphatic compounds mainly responsible for their hydrophobicity, concentrated aromatic compounds and increased thermostability. Heating also reduced phytotoxicity, making all of the organic amendments usable in the field (germination index over 100%). Therefore, heating at 275 °C could be an acceptable option for removing WR from organic amendments, enhancing their quality with more stable evolved characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  2. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising the United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil. This... the grades of olive oil and olive-pomace oil commonly accepted in the United States and abroad....

  4. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  5. Feasibility analysis of steam waste heat of a steel mill for cooling in summer%某钢铁厂蒸汽余热用于夏季制冷的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃玲; 寿业亭; 李会龙; 朱伟峰

    2014-01-01

    Presents the principle of single-effect LiBr absorption refrigerating machines,and makes thermal calculation based on daily steam discharge rate in a certain steel mill.The result shows that the LiBr absorption refrigerating machine using steam waste heat as the heat source has a significant energy saving and emission reduction effect compared with other cooling methods,and also has better economical efficiency.This method is worthy to apply in area with rich waste heat resources.%介绍了单效溴化锂吸收式制冷机的工作原理,以某钢铁厂日排放蒸汽量为基础数据进行了热力计算。与其他制冷方法的比较结果表明,以蒸汽余热为热源的溴化锂制冷机节能减排效果明显,同时具有较好的经济性,在余热资源丰富的地区有较好的推广价值。

  6. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekiari, S. A.; Oreopoulou, V.; Kourkaoutas, Y.; Kamoun, N.; Msallem, M.; Psimouli, V.; Arapoglou, D.

    2010-07-01

    Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rhytmaton in the Greek island of Crete named Throumbolia, and Koroneiki. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30 degree centigrade. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of {beta}-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation. (Author) 41 refs.

  7. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  8. Refining of wood waste from saw mills - a feasibility study for Alex sawmill; Foeraedling av saagverkens biprodukter - en oevergripande energi- och exergistudie oever Alex saag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Ryden, A. [SEP Scandinavian Energy Project AB (Sweden); Renstroem, R. [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-03-01

    An overall energy balance has been made for the Alex sawmill, with separate balances for the boiler and the timber dryer. Parallel to this energy balance, an exergy study has been compiled for the same systems. A heat demand has been identified from these balances and three different systems has been studied. Two of these imply a refinement of the by-products produced in the mill. System I: Hot water boiler as the present system; System II: Hot water boiler integrated with a back pressure dryer; System IIb: Hot water boiler integrated with a back pressure dryer and a plant for pelletizing the biofuel; System III: Steam boiler followed by power production integrated with a back pressure dryer; and System IIIb: Steam boiler followed by power production integrated with a back pressure dryer and a plant for pelletizing the biofuel. The study shows that System II seems to be the most interesting system from an energy and economical point of view with an additional revenue of about 15 MSEK/year. The dryer for this system is a newly developed not yet commercial atmospheric back pressure dryer especially suited for saw mills and small district heating companies. Other types of dryers could also be considered. Other types have not been evaluated here. The exergy study shows that the back pressure dryer almost double the yield of exergy, compared to the present situation. In addition to this, one has to take the fictitious 'profit in exergy' from the following combustion into account. If a steam boiler is installed instead of the hot water boiler, and power generation is added, then the exergy conservation will be improved even more compared to the system with the back pressure dryer. From an exergy point of view a system with power generation and back pressure drying will give an exergy yield of more than four times of that of todays system.

  9. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  10. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  11. Study of calendula and Gaillardia growth in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, O Nouri; Akbari, B

    2007-05-01

    Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree pruning and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a Commercial Substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilizers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physicochemical properties such as total pore space and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive Gaillardia hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. The best results were found in substrates prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat, or at up to 50% with CS, or by mixing C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS, for calendula. For salt-sensitive species such as Gaillardia, adequate substrates for plant development were found for C1 at up to 50% with peat or CS, but the use of C2 should be limited to 25% in mixtures with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants, provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS.

  12. Olive oil for tuna canning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucurachi, A

    1967-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the phenomenon of contamination of the preserving oil by contact with the tunnyfish, and attempts to discover a method for guaranteeing the genuineness of the olive oil...

  13. Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康艺凡

    2016-01-01

    Dickens, with his adeptness with language, applies semantic deviation skillfully in his realistic novel Oliver Twist. However, most studies and comments home and abroad on it mainly focus on such aspects as humanity, society, and characters. Therefore, this thesis will take a stylistic approach to Oliver Twist from the perspective of semantic deviation, which is achieved by the use of irony, hyperbole, and pun and analyze how the application of the technique makes the novel attractive.

  14. Impact des conditions d’hygiène et de fabrication sur la dégradation de la qualité potentielle des huiles d’olive produites dans la zone de Moulay Driss Zerhoun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham ROUAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is very appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its biological and nutritional value. These characteristics are strongly bound to the quality which, itself, is influenced by several parameters such as the cultivar, the maturity of olives, the systems of oil extraction, etc. The objective of this work is to study the impact of the various stages of olive storage and oil extraction on the final quality of olive oil. Considering its historic anchoring, its high reputation and the importance of its production, Moulay Driss Zerhoun's virgin olive oil was chosen for the realization of this study. A sampling of olives from 20 olive orchards, scattered all over the rural communities of Moulay Driss Zerhoun, was made. The harvested olives were handled by two different methods for the oil extraction: the Abencor (laboratory method and the systems of extraction adopted by olive mills (press, 2 and 3 phases systems. The obtained results show that there is a wide gap between the qualities of oil produced by both methods of extraction. Oil produced in the local mills does not reflect the big potential which offers the territory regarding quality, in particular the wealth in polyphenols; which are natural antioxidants. It was also shown that there is a significant difference between the extraction systems adopted by olive mills. The mode of olive storage impacts enormously on the physicochemical and organoleptic quality of the oil. Affording the pre requisite programs (good hygiene and manufacturing practices turns out very important to improve the quality and obtain an extra virgin oil recognized not only at the national level, but also at the international scale and pretender to obtain a Protected Designation of Origin.

  15. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jiménez Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O, poultry litter (P, or sewage sludge (S was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4 was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6 g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7 g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and NOx vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and NOx reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and NOx from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse.

  16. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  17. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  18. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  19. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  20. Avaliação da produção de Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. singer utilizando resíduo do beneficiamento têxtil do algodão como substrato Evaluation of the production of Pleurotus sajor-caju in cotton textille mill waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Aguiar de Castro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um ensaio objetivando investigar a viabilidade da produção do cogumelo comestível Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Singer em substratos cuja principal fonte de carbono fosse o resíduo do beneficiamento têxtil do algodão. Foram avaliadas duas composições de substrato: C1 (resíduo do beneficiamento têxtil do algodão, farelo de trigo, gesso e calcário e C2 (resíduo do beneficiamento têxtil do algodão, farelo de trigo, palha de feijão, gesso e calcário. O experimento foi estabelecido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com nove repetições por tratamento e os dados de produção e eficiência biológica foram analisados utilizando-se o procedimento ANOVAG do pacote estatístico SAEG. O resíduo do beneficiamento têxtil do algodão, como principal ingrediente do substrato, mostrou-se eficiente para a produção do cogumelo P. sajor-caju, apresentando valores satisfatórios de produtividade (0,56 e 0,55 kg/kg substrato e eficiência biológica (55,76 e 55,39 %, respectivamente para C1 e C2, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa menos onerosa de substrato comercial para a espécie Pleurotus sajor-caju.The experiment was conducted to investigate the viability of the production of the edible fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Singer in substrates in which main source of carbon was the cotton textille mill waste. Two substrates compositions were tested: C1 (cotton textille mill waste, wheat bran, plaster and limestone and C2 (cotton textille mill waste, wheat bran, bean straw, plaster and limestone. A DIC experimental design was used, with nine repetitions for treatment and the production data and biological efficiency were analyzed being used the procedure ANOVAG of the statistical package SAEG. The cotton textille mill waste improvement, as the main ingredient of the substrate, was shown efficient for the production of the mushroom P. sajor-caju, presenting satisfactory values of productivity (0,56 and 0,55 kg

  1. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  2. Olive ingredient good for the eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although olives were used for medical purposes as early as more than 150 years ago, modem studies of various olive extracts have revealed them to be powerful antioxidants that can treat a range of health problems.

  3. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  4. The use of treated wastewater for chemlali olive tree irrigation: effects on soil properties, growth and oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rouina, B.; Bedbabis, S.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    Olive tree (Olea european L.) cultivation, the major tree crops in Mediterranean countries is being extended to irrigated lands. However, the limited water availability, the severe climatic conditions and the increased need for good water quality for urban and industrial sector uses are leading to the urgent use of less water qualities (brackish water and recycled wastewater) for olive tree irrigation. The aim of this work was to asses the effects of long term irrigation with treated waste water (TWW) on the soil chemical properties, on olive tree growth and on oil quality characteristics. (Author)

  5. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow....... These results indicate that the quality of the olive oil depends both on the olive cultivar and geographical region. Keywords: Olive oil, Yellow cultivar, Oil-grade cultivar, Shiraz, Kazeroon...

  6. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  7. Working towards the development of innovative ultrasound equipment for the extraction of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Durante, Viviana; La Notte, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Malaxation has been recognized as one of the most critical points in the mechanical extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO). It is a low and continuous kneading of olive paste at a carefully monitored temperature. Through this essential technological operation the small droplets of the oil formed during the milling merge into large drops that can be easily separated with a decanter centrifuge. During this technological phase, a complex and necessary bioprocess takes place in order to determine the quality and composition of the final product. The malaxer is a heat exchanger characterized by a low overall heat transfer coefficient because the ratio of surface area to volume is disadvantageous, so it is important to find an innovative technology to improve heat-exchange. As matter of fact, the malaxing step is the only discontinuous phase in a continuous extraction process. In the next future, the essential challenge of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In order to reduce the malaxing time enhancing the quality of the product, two ultrasound-assisted virgin olive oil extraction processes were tested against the traditional method. The sonication treatment was applied on olives submerged in a water bath (before the crushing) and on olive paste (after the crushing). The ultrasound technology provides a reduction of the malaxing duration improving VOO yields and its minor compounds content. Better extractibility and higher minor compounds contents were obtained by sonicating the olives submerged in a water bath than olive paste. After experimental trials the results were employed to suggest innovative scaling up solutions of the process and new applications of ultrasounds in the VOO industry.

  8. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  9. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  10. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance... yarn produced by Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina Woodland Mills...

  11. Purification and recycling of the waste water of a paper mill using mechanical pulp; Mekaanista massaa kaeyttaevaen paperitehtaan jaeteveden puhdistus ja uudelleenkaeyttoe - EKY 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattelemaeki, R. [Enso Oyj, Imatra (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the project was to study which levels of organic and inorganic substances could be obtained by treatment of waste waters of mechanical pulper and paper machine biologically and after that with solid matter removal. Another target was also to test the utilisation of the purified water in pulp and paper manufacture, and to study the properties of purified water. The three months test runs with PK 4 and TMP plant clarified waters were carried out using a pilot-scale plant, which also consisted of two serial aerobic bioreactors and a parallel anaerobic line as a reference. The solid matter was removed by chemical flocculation, flotation and sand filtration. The purification efficiencies of both waters were similar both in aerobic and anaerobic lines. The reduction of soluble COD in biological stage was about 75 % and that of the whole line about 85 %. The solid matter reduction was 60-70 %. Solid fines, including bacteria, could not be removed sufficiently from the water by flotation and sand filtration so the water cannot be recommended to be used to replace fresh water. Circulating water sheets were produced, and pulp washing tests, retention tests and microbiological tests were carried out in order to estimate the recyclability of the water. Minor lowering of whiteness of the sheets were observed when a part of the fresh water was replaced with recycled water. Microscopic analysis shoved that after the sand filter there were a lot of free bacteria in the water. Further research will be concentrated to recycling of purified water, e.g. To research on how the colour of the water effects on the quality of the product. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Pretreatment on Mixed Fermentation of Paper Mill Sludge and Food Waste%预处理对造纸污泥和餐厨垃圾混合发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林云琴; 武书彬; 梁嘉晋

    2012-01-01

    为揭示联产氢气和甲烷复合工艺中预处理对物料液化水解率及系统产气性能的影响,利用不同浓度的酸( H2 SO4)、碱(NaOH)预处理造纸污泥和餐厨垃圾混合物,在中温-高温条件下将预处理后的物料进行混合发酵联产氢气和甲烷,研究了不同浓度的酸/碱预处理后,造纸污泥和餐厨垃圾混合发酵联产氢气和甲烷性能.结果表明:酸/碱顸处理对物料产生了明显的水解作用,物料中的大分子物质被降解为小分子颗粒;预处理对混合发酵产氢阶段具有明显的促进作用,其中以添加10% NaOH(以物料总固体计)的碱预处理效果最佳,其氢气产率较未经预处理的对照(CK)提高了50.20%,挥发性固体(VS)去除率达到了16.06%;预处理在产氢后的产甲烷阶段对甲烷产率没有明显的促进作用,各反应器的甲烷产率与CK相近或低于CK,VS总去除率也以CK为最高.%In order to reveal the effed of pretreatment on the organics hydrolysis and biogas production in the hydrogen-methane co-production process, a mesophilic-thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of paper mill sludge (PS) and food waste (FW) pretreated with H2SO4 or NaOH in batch reactors was carried out, and the mixed fermentation performances of paper mill sludge and food waste pretreated with H2SO4 or NaOH at different concentralions were investigated. The results show that the pretreatment enhances the hydrolysis of organics and makes the macro-molecular organic compounds degrade into micromolecular particles, and thai the pretreatment obviously increases the hydrogen yield, especially the pretreatment with NaOH at the dosage of 10% (calculated on the basis of the mass of total solid) , which results in a hydrogen yield increment of 50.20% (as compared with the check reactor) and a VS (Volatile Solids) removal of 16.06%. However, the pretreatment has no obvious effect on the methane production after the hydrogen fermentation, concretely, both

  13. Efeito dos tratamentos físicos e químicos no resíduo de lixadeira do algodão Effects of physical and chemical treatments in cotton textile mill waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Zootecnia (UFLA e no Laboratório de Alimentos (UNIFENAS, com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo do resíduo de lixadeira do algodão pela composição bromatológica (PB, FDN, FDA e pela degradabilidade da MS e da FDN. Os tratamentos foram: T1 - in natura (IN; T2 - pressão e vapor (127ºC/1,5 kgf/cm²/35min; PV; T3 - 4% hidróxido de sódio (por 24 horas; NaOH; T4 - 3% uréia (por 28 dias; U; T5 - 4% NaOH + 3% uréia (NaOH/U; T6 - PV + 4% NaOH (PV/NaOH; T7 - PV + 3% uréia (PV/U. Pelos resultados referentes à composição química, conclui-se que os tratamentos associados foram mais eficientes em aumentar o valor nutritivo do resíduo, sendo o tratamento NaOH/U o que apresentou os melhores resultados para PB, FDN e FDA. Os maiores valores para a degradabilidade efetiva da MS foram verificados para o resíduo tratado com PV, U, NaOH/U, PV/NaOH, PV/U, que também apresentaram maior fração solúvel e menor fração insolúvel potencialmente degradável (b. Os tratamentos U, PV/NaOH e PV/U apresentaram as maiores de degradabilidade efetiva da FDN e maior fração solúvel. Os tratamentos associados aumentaram a degradabilidade e o valor nutritivo do resíduo de lixadeira do algodão.The experiment was carried out at the Department of Animal Science of the Universidade Federal de Lavras and at the Food Laboratory at the Universidade José do Rosário Vellano (UNIFENAS, with the objective to evaluate the nutritive value of cotton textile mill waste using chemical composition (DM, CP, NDF, ADF and ruminal degradability of the dry matter and NDF. The treatments were: T1 - in natura residue (IN; T2 - residue submitted to the pressure and steam treated (127ºC/1,5 kgf/cm²/35"; PS; T3 - 4% sodium hydroxide treated residue (four 24 hours; NaOH; T4 - 3% urea treated residue (for 28 days; U; T5 - 4% NaOH +3% urea treated residue (NaOH/U; T6 - pressure and steam + 4% NaOH treated residue (PS/NaOH; T7

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, D; Duek, L; Berdicevsky, I

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.

  15. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  17. Olive oil in food spreads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los...

  18. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  19. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles