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Sample records for olive mill solid

  1. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Padilla, Rafael; Raposo Bejines, Francisco; Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three ident...

  2. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Bárbara; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiabl...

  3. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  4. Production of biochar from olive mill solid waste for heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Samya O; Dosoretz, Carlos G; Rytwo, Giora; Gerchman, Yoram; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Commercial activated carbon (CAC) and biochar are useful adsorbents for removing heavy metals (HM) from water, but their production is costly. Biochar production from olive solid waste from two olive cultivars (Picual and Souri) and two oil production process (two- or three-phase) and two temperatures (350 and 450°C) was tested. The biochar yield was 24-35% of the biomass, with a surface area of 1.65-8.12m 2 g -1 , as compared to 1100m 2 g -1 for CAC. Picual residue from the two-phase milling technique, pyrolysed at 350°C, had the best cumulative removal capacity for Cu +2 , Pb +2 , Cd +2 , Ni +2 and Zn +2 with more than 85% compared to other biochar types and CAC. These results suggest that surface area cannot be used as a sole predictor of HM removal capacity. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups in the different biochar types, which may be related to the differences in absorbing capacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiable and separate waste streams. These are: 1 the wash waters from the initial cleansing of the fruit; 2 the wash waters from the secondary centrifuge and 3 the aqueous solid residues from the primary centrifugation. As well as offering process advantages they also reduce the water consumption of the mill. The introduction of this technology was carried out in 90% of Spanish olive oil factories. Therefore, the new twophase olive mill effluents (TPOME are made up of the mixture of effluents (1 and (2, the total volume of TPOME generated being around 0.25 l/kg of olives processed. In addition, the solid residue (two-phase olive pomace, TPOP has a high organic matter concentration giving an elevated polluting load and it cannot be easily handled by traditional technology which deals with the conventional three-phase olive cake.So, this paper aims to report the main features and characteristics of TPOME, and of TPOP, as compared to the classical olive mill wastewater (OMW and olive cake derived from the three-phase manufacturing process. The advantages and disadvantages of the two-phase decanting process will be summarized. Among the treatments reported for TPOME, aerobic processes in completely mixed and activated sludge reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies. Kinetic constants of the aerobic processes were also compared at different operational conditions. The report also includes the following findings: assays of anaerobic digestion of wastewaters from the

  6. Integrated use of residues from olive mill and winery for lipase production by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-02-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is presently the major waste produced by the olive mill industry. This waste has potential to be used as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) despite of its high concentration of phenolic compounds and low nitrogen content. In this work, it is demonstrated that mixtures of TPOMW with winery wastes support the production of lipase by Aspergillus spp. By agar plate screening, Aspergillus niger MUM 03.58, Aspergillus ibericus MUM 03.49, and Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01 were chosen for lipase production by SSF. Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to evaluate the effect of substrate composition and time on lipase production. The highest amounts of lipase were produced by A. ibericus on a mixture of TPOMW, urea, and exhausted grape mark (EGM). Urea was found to be the most influent factor for the lipase production. Further optimization of lipase production by A. ibericus using a full factorial design (3(2)) conducted to optimal conditions of substrate composition (0.073 g urea/g and 25 % of EGM) achieve 18.67 U/g of lipolytic activity.

  7. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  8. Phenols recovery after steam explosion of Olive Mill Solid Waste and its influence on a subsequent biomethanization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Fermoso, Fernando G; Alonso-Fariñas, Bernabé; Rodríguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernandez-Bolaños, Juan; Borja, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    A promising source of high added value compounds is the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW). The aim of this research was to evaluate the viability of a biorefinery approach to valorize OMSW through the combination of steam explosion, phenols extraction, and anaerobic digestion. Steam explosion treatment increased the total phenol content in the steam exploited OMSW, which was twice than that the total phenol content in raw OMSW, although some undesirable compounds were also formed. Phenol extraction allowed the recovery of 2098mg hydroxytyrosol per kg of OMSW. Anaerobic digestion allowed the partial stabilization of the different substrates, although it was not improved by the steam explosion treatment. The economic suitability of the proposed biorefinery approach is favorable up to a phenol extract price 90.7% lower than the referenced actual price of 520€/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  10. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  11. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  13. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [es

  14. A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste during its storage in an evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Jiménez, A M; Martín, A

    2006-01-01

    A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) during its storage in an evaporation pond was carried out. This system is traditionally used as the final disposal of this waste or constitutes a previous stage before being processed by cogeneration or anaerobic digestion processes. A laboratory-scale pond with a total volume of 520 l was used. The experiment was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003 covering a total period of 269 days. During the experiment, the variations of temperature (outside and inside the pond), the effective volume of the OMSW in the pond, moisture content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total volatile acids (TVA), pH and cumulative methane production as a function of the operation time were evaluated. The experimental results obtained showed that the characteristics of the two-phase OMSW in the pond were dependent on the time of operation and temperature. During the experiment, three periods were clearly observed and differentiated: (a) An initial period with a rapid reduction of moisture content and effective volume, with an increase of TS, VS and TCOD removals, a decrease of pH and an increase of TVA and methane production until day 21. (b) A second period of slow decrease of moisture content and effective volume, due to the decrease of the ambient temperature. This period took place between day 21 and days 120-150 of assay, and it was characterised by a slight change in the OMSW properties. (c) A third period where the characteristics of the waste in the pond changed considerably due to the increase of the temperature outside the pond. The methane gas production also showed an increase due to the increase of methanogenic activity with the increase of temperature. An empirical model to describe the changes of two-phase OMSW characteristics and methane production with the operation time was developed. The proposed model, based on the use of

  15. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  16. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  17. An automated medium scale prototype for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bernardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil production constitutes one of the most important agro-industrial business for Mediterranean countries, where 97% of the international production is focused. Such an activity, mainly carried out through three phase olive oil mill plants, generates huge amounts of solid and liquid by-products further than olive oil. Physico-chemical features of these by-products depend on various factors such as soil and climatic conditions, agricultural practices and processing. As currently carried out, the disposal of these by-products may lead to numerous problems taking into account management, economic and particularly environmental aspects. Indeed, olive mill wastewater is not easily biodegradable due to its high chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, its high content in phenolic compounds, high ratio C/N and low pH, leading consequently to soil and water source pollution. Considering, the above-mentioned statements, olive mill waste disposal constitutes nowadays a challenge for oil industry stakeholders. It becomes necessary to look for alternative solutions in order to overcome environmental problems and ensure the sustainability of oil industry. Anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with other agro-industrial matrices could be one of these solutions; since it offers the possibility to produce green energy and break down toxicological compounds contained in these wastewater for a better disposal of the digested matrices as soil conditioner. In this contest, this note reports the functioning principle of an automated medium scale plant for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater. Keywords: Medium scale prototype, Olive mill wastewater (OMWW, Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD, Automatic process

  18. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  19. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  20. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  2. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  3. Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

  4. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  5. Combined effect of diuron and simazine on photosystem II photochemistry in a sandy soil and soil amended with solid olive-mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea) and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of these herbicides on Photosystem II photochemistry of Olea europaea L., and whether the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from olive oil production industry modifies this effect. For this purpose, herbicide soil adsorption studies, with unamended and OW-amended soil, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in adult olive leaves, after one, two and three weeks of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment, were performed. Soil application of these herbicides reduced the efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry of olive trees due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect is counterbalanced by the addition of OW to the soil. OW reduces herbicide uptake by the plant due to an increase in herbicide adsorption.

  6. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  7. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  8. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m 3 ) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  9. Impact of repeated two-phase olive mill waste application on phosphorus fractionation in a degraded olive grove soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Flores, S.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Cabrera, D.; Pena, D.; Fernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of organic matter is one of the main forms of soil degradation in Mediterranean agricultural soils, and external sources of organic matter are required to improve soil properties. the two-phase centrifugation system in the olive-oil extraction industry produces a large amount of olive mill waste sludge (TPOMW) which can be used to add organic C to degraded soils. (Author)

  10. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  11. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  12. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  13. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  14. Ultrasounds pretreatment of olive pomace to improve xylanase and cellulase production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paulina; Salgado, José Manuel; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Olive mills generate a large amount of waste that can be revaluated. This work aim to improve the production lignocellulolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation using ultrasounds pretreated olive mill wastes. The composition of olive mill wastes (crude and exhausted olive pomace) was compared and several physicochemical characteristics were significantly different. The use of both wastes in SSF was evaluated and a screening of fungi for xylanase and cellulase production was carried out. After screening, the use of exhausted olive pomace and Aspergillus niger led to the highest enzyme activities, so that they were used in the study of ultrasounds pre-treatment. The results showed that the sonication led to a 3-fold increase of xylanase activity and a decrease of cellulase activity. Moreover, the liquid fraction obtained from ultrasounds treatment was used to adjust the moisture of solid and a positive effect on xylanase (3.6-fold increase) and cellulase (1.2-fold increase) production was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  16. Olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Ghannam, Noor; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A.; Alshawawreh, Fida'a.; Odeh, Fadwa; Abu-Dalo, Muna A.

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollution is a public concern. OMW contains high levels of phenols, organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), microorganisms, nutrients, and toxic compounds. The treatment of OMW has been investigated by many researchers in the Mediterranean region, using several treatment techniques to remove contaminants from OMW. These techniques include chemical, biological, physiochemical, and biophysical techniques. Surfactants and some adsorbents were used in chemical techniques, anaerobic and aerobic in biological techniques, while the combined treatment methods used Electroosmosis, ozonation and electrocoagulation processes as physiochemical methods, and ultrasonic irradiation combined with aerobic biodegradation as biophysical method. The effects of OMW, whether treated or untreated, have been evaluated on both plants’ growth and soil properties. The treatment methods as well as the environmental impact of OMW in Jordan were summarized in this review.

  17. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytwo, Giora, E-mail: rytwo@telhai.ac.il [Tel Hai College, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel); Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Dultz, Stefan [Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Koenig, Tom N. [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel)

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several cycles of

  18. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay–polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N.

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation—neutralizing the colloids, flocculation—aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay–polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: ► Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). ► In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. ► In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. ► Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. ► Several cycles of effluents might be added to an initial dose of nanocomposites.

  19. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE and the olive cake extracts (OCE. Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90±0.728 g/L versus 0.95±0.017 mg/g. The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS. With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH and emulsion (BCBT systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50=12.1±5.6 μg/mL; EC50=157.7±34.9 μg/mL, resp.. However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis.

  20. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.; Lounici, Hakim; Abdi, Nadia; Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Pauss, André ; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER

  2. Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Garcia-Rosado, A.; Polonia, I.; Junca-Blanch, G.; Marin, F.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    When olive mill wastes (OMWs) and vegetation waters (VWs) obtained during the manufacture of olive oil were added as substrate supplements for the cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius the material modified growth of the mushroom and the endemic microbiota of the substrate, in particular the

  3. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  4. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  6. Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Kapellakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS, planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW

  7. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  8. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW. Two free water surface (FWS constructed wetlands, one without (CW1 and one with effluent recirculation (CW2, were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10 and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.

  9. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnai, A.; Venturi, F.; Quartacci, V.F.; Sanmartin, C.; Favati, F.; Andrich, G.

    2016-07-01

    The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation), and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred. (Author)

  11. Olive oil mill wastewater for remediation of slag contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively.

  12. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabaza, Ovidio; Contreras-Montes, José; García-Ruiz, María; Delgado-Ramos, Fernando; Gómez-Lorente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where t...

  13. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these h...

  14. Olive mill wastewater characteristics: modelling and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins-Dias, Susete

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of the work carried out on Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW characterisation is given, covering articles published over the last 50 years. Data on OMW characterisation found in the literature are summarised and correlations between them and with phenolic compounds content are sought. This permits the characteristics of an OMW to be estimated from one simple measurement: the phenolic compounds concentration. A model based on OMW characterisations accounting 6 countries was developed along with a model for Portuguese OMW. The statistical analysis of the correlations obtained indicates that Chemical Oxygen Demand of a given OMW is a second-degree polynomial function of its phenolic compounds concentration. Tests to evaluate the regressions significance were carried out, based on multivariable ANOVA analysis, on visual standardised residuals distribution and their means for confidence levels of 95 and 99 %, validating clearly these models. This modelling work will help in the future planning, operation and monitoring of an OMW treatment plant.Presentamos una síntesis de los trabajos realizados en los últimos 50 años relacionados con la caracterización del alpechín. Realizamos una recopilación de los datos publicados, buscando correlaciones entre los datos relativos al alpechín y los compuestos fenólicos. Esto permite la determinación de las características del alpechín a partir de una sola medida: La concentración de compuestos fenólicos. Proponemos dos modelos, uno basado en datos relativos a seis países y un segundo aplicado únicamente a Portugal. El análisis estadístico de las correlaciones obtenidas indica que la demanda química de oxígeno de un determinado alpechín es una función polinómica de segundo grado de su concentración de compuestos fenólicos. Se comprobó la significancia de esta correlación mediante la aplicación del análisis multivariable ANOVA, y además se evaluó la distribución de residuos y sus

  15. Does wastewater from olive mills induce toxicity and water repellency in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikert, B.; Bandow, N.; Schaumann, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater is the effluent generated by the olive oil extraction process. It is the main waste product of this industry mainly being produced in the Mediterranean Basin. Because proper treatment options are rare it is often disposed into the environment, e.g. fields or wadies. Due to its high concentration of fatty acids and phytotoxic phenolic compounds and its high chemical and biological oxygen demand, olive oil mill wastewater becomes a serious environmental problem. In this screening study we investigated long-term effects of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil properties in several locations in the West Bank and Israel. We determined wettability via water drop penetration time and the contact angle as well as general soil properties including pH, EC, carbon content, and we conducted thermogravimetrical analyses in order to characterize the impact of the waste water on the quality of soil organic matter. Our results show that application of olive oil mill wastewater has various effects. We determined contact angles between 110 and 120° and water drop penetration times up to 1367 s indicating significant reduction in wettability. Furthermore, soil carbon and nitrogen content and water extractable organic matter increased as well as electric conductivity, which could be pointed out as a fertilizing effect. In contrast soil pH was significantly reduced. Conducting thermal analyses we observed an increase in the labile and refractory carbon fraction. Probably first one is responsible for induced water repellency. As a consequence the reduced wettability negatively affects soil quality. It would therefore be promising to minimize the hydrophobizing impacts without losing fertilizing effects of the olive oil mill wastewater.

  16. Organic matter transformation and detoxification in dry olive mill residue by the saprophytic fungus Paecilomyces farinosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Grego, S.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 216-225 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Phenols * Paecilomyces farinosus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2009

  17. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  18. Short-term impact of dry olive mill residue addition to soil on the resident microbiota

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Giubilei, M. A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Federici, E.; Federici, F.; Petruccioli, M.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 23 (2009), s. 6098-6106 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Microbial community profiling * Toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2009

  19. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  20. A review on the use of membrane technology and fouling control for olive mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Javier Miguel Ochando

    2016-09-01

    Olive mill effluents (OME) by-produced have significantly increased in the last decades as a result of the boost of the olive oil agro-industrial sector and due to the conversion into continuous operation centrifugation technologies. In these effluents, the presence of phytotoxic recalcitrant pollutants makes them resistant to biological degradation and thus inhibits the efficiency of biological and conventional processes. Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for OME have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory and cost-effective results. Olive oil industries in its current status, typically small mills dispersed, cannot afford such high treatment costs. Furthermore, conventional treatments are not able to abate the significant dissolved monovalent and divalent ions concentration present in OME. Within this framework, membrane technology offers high efficiency and moderate investment and maintenance expenses. Wastewater treatment by membrane technologies is growing in the recent years. This trend is owed to the fact of the availability of new membrane materials, membrane designs, membrane module concepts and general know-how, which have promoted credibility among investors. However, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time and leads to premature substitution of the membrane modules, and this is a problem of cost efficiency since wastewater treatment must imply low operating costs. Appropriate fouling inhibition methods should assure this result, thus making membrane processes for wastewater stream treatment both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the treatment of the effluents by-produced in olive mills, generally called olive mill wastewaters, will be addressed. Within this context, the state of the art of the different pretreatments and integral membrane processes proposed up to today will be gathered and discussed, with an insight in the problem of fouling. Copyright © 2015

  1. Spatial and temporal effects of olive mill wastewaters to stream macroinvertebrates and aquatic ecosystems status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos T; Giannakou, Urania; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2011-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the spatial and temporal effects of OMW to stream macroinvertebrates and to ecological status of stream ecosystems. Biotic (macroinvertebrates) and abiotic (physicochemical, hydromorphological) data were monitored for two years thus following the biennial cycle of olive growth and production and hydrological variation (drought-wet years). The results of this study revealed the spatial and temporal structural deterioration of the aquatic community due to OMW pollution with consequent reduction of the river capacity for reducing the effects of polluting substances through internal mechanisms of self-purification. OMW, even highly diluted, had dramatic impacts on the aquatic fauna and to the ecological status of the receiving stream ecosystems. The organic load of the wastewater expressed as BOD(5), COD and TSS, substrate contamination (sewage bacteria) and distance from the mill outlet, were the most important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages while the typology (i.e. slope, altitude) and hydrology of the stream site (i.e. mountainous-lowland) and the intensity and volume of the wastewater were the most important determinants of self-purification processes. As OMW are usually being discharged in small size streams that are not considered in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, there is a need for including such systems into monitoring and assessment schemes as they may significantly contribute to the pollution load of the river basin. Furthermore, guidelines to manage these wastes through technologies that minimise their environmental impact and lead to a sustainable use

  2. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinda, Ángeles

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  3. Enhancement of olive mill wastewater biodegradation by homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, M.I.; Gohary, F.El. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 11312 (Egypt); Ghaly, M.Y., E-mail: ghalynrc@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Ali, M.E.M. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 11312 (Egypt)

    2009-09-30

    Olive mills wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic content and refractory compounds. In this study, an advanced technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW has been investigated. The technique used was either photo-Fenton as homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation or UV/semi-conductor catalyst (such as TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and FAZA) as heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation for treatment of OMW. For both the processes, the effect of irradiation time, amounts of photocatalysts and semi-conductors, and initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been studied. At the optimum conditions, photo-Fenton process achieved COD, TOC, lignin (total phenolic compounds) and total suspended solids (TSSs) removal values of 87%, 84%, 97.44% and 98.31%, respectively. The corresponding values for UV/TiO{sub 2} were 68.8%, 67.3%, 40.19% and 48.9%, respectively, after 80 min irradiation time. The biodegradability expressed by BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio for treated wastewater was ranged from 0.66 to 0.8 compared to 0.19 for raw wastewater indicating enhancement of biodegradation.

  4. Olive mill wastewater stabilization in open-air ponds: impact on clay-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Kharroubi, Adel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the natural biodegradation of the stored olive mill wastewater (OMW) in ponds and the infiltration as well as the impact on soil of the effluent in the evaporation pond used for the storage over the past eight years. For this, two approaches were considered. First, a laboratory-scale column was used for the infiltration of OMW through soil (clay and sand) to predict the effect of the clayey soil in reducing OMW pollution. Second, the ponds including the effluent annually stored and having this clayey structure were investigated. At the laboratory-scale, a modification of OMW contents was noticed, with the elimination of 95% of total suspended solids (TSS), 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), 50% of total P, 50% of phenols and 40% of minerals (K+, Mg++ and Na+). The experimented soil was able to restrain the considerable effects of OMW pollution. In the ponds, the granulometric characteristics, the physico-chemical and the biological parameters of the soil profile from the contaminated pond were compared to those of a control soil, located near the contaminated pond. Property modifications of the contaminated soil were noted, especially pH, electrical conductivity, COD and microflora. These changes can be explained by the infiltration of OMW constituents, which were noticed in the soil layers, especially phenolic compounds that have a negative effect on the ground water.

  5. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  6. Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, Nuri; Keskin, Tugba; Yuruyen, Aysegul [Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey (CW) and laying hen litter (LHL) in order to enhance the methane production of OME was investigated. For this purpose, biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was carried out for both raw OME alone and OME mixed with varying amount of other substrates such as LHL and CW in the serum bottles, respectively. Corresponding methane production values for various mixtures of the organic residue streams used in this study were determined. It was demonstrated that co-digestion of OME with LHL significantly enhanced the biodegradability of OME which was too low if it was digested alone. Over 90% increase in biogas production was obtained when digesting OME with LHL. The biogas production increased only 22%, when CW was used for the same purpose. It was demonstrated that the biodegradability of OME could be significantly enhanced by co-digestion and thereby integrated management of OME using anaerobic degradation could be proposed as an economically viable and ecologically acceptable solution for the safe disposal of OME. (author)

  7. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio Rabaza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where there is a great opportunity to reduce electricity consumption, increase additional profits related to the reduction of technologies that are harmful to the environment, and to cut back maintenance costs. For this reason, a feasibility study of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV systems has been carried out for different types of olive mills in Andalusia (southern Spain. This region is highly energy dependent, but has an abundance of “green” resources to be exploited. The results of this study contemplate a reduction in spending on electrical power of between 2% and 37%, and an increase in the use of renewable energy of between 2% and 26%. These results are according to the self-consumption or net metering policy and the production capacity of olive oil.

  8. Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, B.; Pontecorvo, G.; Carfagna, M. [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Inst. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    Waste water from olive oil processing may cause severe pollution in the Mediterranean area, since they have a high level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (100-200 g/l) and contain other organic and inorganic compounds. In all olive oil producing countries, the reduction of pollution in olive oil mill waste waters at reasonable costs and using techniques suitable for most industrial applications is an unsolved problem. For this paper, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 was grown on waste waters from an olive oil mill in a 3.5 l fermenter under batch culture conditions. The results showed that the yeast was capable of reducing the COD value by 80% in 24 h. In this way, a useful biomass of 22.45 g/l as single cell protein (SCP) and enzyme lipase were produced. During this process, most of the organic and inorganic substances were consumed, only aromatic pollutants were still present in the fermentation effluents. Therefore, we used a phenol degrader, namely Pseudomonas putida, to reduce phenolic compounds in the fermentation effluents after removing Yarrowia lipolytica cells. P. putida was effective in reducing phenols in only 12 h. (orig.)

  9. Chemical characterization and effects on Lepidium sativum of the native and bioremediated components of dry olive mill residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Mari, A; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R

    2007-09-01

    Dry olive mill residue (DOR) from the olive oil production by two phase centrifugation system was fractionated by a consecutive continuous solid-liquid extraction obtaining the EAF, PF, MF and WF fractions with ethyl acetate, n-propanol, methanol and water, respectively. The chemical, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed EAF, PF and MF to be mainly composed of simple phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and glycosilated phenols (glycosides of phenols, secoiridoids and flavonoids), whereas WF was mainly consisting of polymerin, the metal organic polymeric mixture previously identified in olive oil mill waste waters and composed of carbohydrates, melanin, proteins and metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe). The identification in DOR of oleoside, 6'-beta-glucopyranosyl-oleoside and 6'-beta-rhamnopyranosyl-oleoside, and of its organic polymeric component, known as polymerin, are reported for the first time in this paper. The inoculation of the previously mentioned fractions with saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cynnabarinus or Trametes versicolor indicated these fungi to be able to metabolize both the phenols and glycosilated phenols, but not polymerin. In correspondence, EAF, PF, MF and WF, which proved to be toxic on Lepidium sativum, decreased their toxicity after incubation with the selected fungi, WF showing to be also able to stimulate the growth of the selected seeds. The phytotoxicity appeared mainly correlated to the monomeric phenols and, to a lesser extent, to the glycosilated phenols, whereas polymerin proved to be non toxic. However, the laccase activity was not associated with the decrease of phytotoxicity. The valorization of DOR as a producer of high added value substances of industrial and agricultural interest in native form and after their bioremediation for a final objective of the total DOR recycling is also discussed.

  10. Enrichment of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater and In Vitro Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abu-Lafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil generates massive quantities of by-product called olive mill wastewater (OMWW. The uncontrolled disposal of OMWW poses serious environmental problems. The OMWW effluent is rich in several polyphenolic compounds. Liquid-liquid extraction of OMWW using ethyl acetate solvent was used to enrich phenolic compounds under investigation. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the extract were determined. HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA detector was used to analyze the main three phenolic compounds of OMWW, namely, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was also investigated. Additionally, the OMWW extract was used as natural preservative and antioxidants for olive oil. Results showed that OMWW is very rich in phenolic compounds and has strong antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol but no oleuropein. The OMWW extract showed also positive activities as antibacterial (gram positive and gram negative and antifungal as well as activities against yeast. The addition of OMWW extract to olive oil samples has an effect on the stability of olive oil as reflected by its acid value, peroxide value, K232 and K270, and total phenolic content.

  11. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  12. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  13. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater and the Use of Polyphenols Obtained After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastes are signicant environmental problem especially in Mediterranean areas where they are generated in huge quantities in a short period of time. They are phytotoxic materials because of their high phenol, lipid and organic acid concentrations, but these wastes also contain valuable resources that could be recycled such as a large proportion of organic matter and a wide range of nutrients. The effluent from olive oil mills contains a large amount of polyphenols that have antioxidant properties. The market value of these antioxidants is high and they are commonly used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and chemical industries. For the management of olive mill wastewater (OMW and other olive residues, various treatment methods can be used. Many scientists work on more efficient and cheaper treatment alternatives. Due to the great variety of compounds in the waste, several technologies to remove the harmful compounds for the environment should be used single or together. Some of the most used OMW treatments are drying / evaporation, forced evaporation, thermal treatment, centrifugation-ultraltration, electrocoagulation, composting, lagooning, adsorption, powdered activated carbon, filtration, sand filtration, membrane filtration, ultrafiltration, precipitation / flocculation, distillation, electrolysis, co-composting, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as ozonation, hydrogen peroxide / ferrous iron oxidation (the so-called Fentons reagent. Several OMW treatment technologies have been developed aiming at the removal of the main toxic organic compounds. A lot of factors must be considered to choose the treatment methods among them the investment, required area, specic training of the workers, noise and odour emissions and seasonality of production.

  14. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  15. Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater, by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelegenis, John; Georgakakis, Dimitris; Angelidaki, Irini; Christopoulou, Nicholetta; Goumenaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of biogas production from olive-mill wastewater (OMW) was attempted by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure (DPM) at mesophilic conditions. A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors, fed with mixtures of OMW and DPM at various concentrations. It was concluded that codigestion of OMW with DPM is possible without any dilution of OMW or addition of any chemicals. Biogas production was slightly higher when OMW was added to DPM up to a critical concentration (about 40%, expressed as contribution of OMW to the volatile solids of the mixture), after which production is decreased. The results were further verified by scaling up to a continuously-operating pilot-plant reactor digesting DPM, and confirmed that no negative impact was imposed by adding OMW up to the above critical value

  16. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  17. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  18. Box-Behnken Design Application to Study Leaching of Pyrolusite from Manganese Mining Residue Using Olive Mill Wastewater as Reductant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; El Kacemi, K.; El Ass, K.; Kitane, S.; El Bouzidi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The leaching capacity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) for pyrolusite mine tailings (MnO2) was evaluated using the Box-Behnken experimental design of response surface methodology. The selected test parameters include the concentration of sulfuric acid, the OMW dosage chemical oxygen demand (COD), the solid/liquid ratio S/ L, and particle size. It was determined that the MnO2 dissolution increased with an increase in the sulfuric acid concentration and the OMW dosage, and with a decrease in the solid/liquid ratio. The particle size does not have significant influence on the manganese recovery. A quadratic polynomial model has been developed to predict the amount of manganese extraction from pyrolusite for other operating conditions that were not directly tested. The leaching ability was evaluated based on manganese recovery (Mn%) and the removal capability of chemical oxygen demand (COD%). The predicted values for the responses agreed well with experimental values; R 2 (correlation coefficient) values for Mn% and COD% were 0.9602 and 0.9687, respectively. Within the design space, the optimum conditions for the lixiviation of MnO2 in terms of manganese recovery and COD removal were established and include [H2SO4] of 3 mol L-1, OMW in range of 23 g L-1 to 25 g L-1 COD, and pulp density in range of 90 g L-1 to 100 g L-1. Under these conditions, the response values generated by the model are Mn% ˜49% and COD% >40%. These values show good agreement with those obtained in the validation test. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to use the olive mill wastewater as a reductant agent to recover manganese from a pyrolusite mining residue.

  19. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  20. Olive pomace valorization by Aspergillus species: lipase production using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Moreira, Cláudia; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Pollution by olive mill wastes is an important problem in the Mediterranean area and novel solutions for their proper management and valorization are needed. The aim of this work was to optimize a solid-state fermentation (SSF) process to produce lipase using olive pomace (OP) as the main source of nutrients by several Aspergillus spp. Optimized variables in two different designs were: ratio between olive pomace and wheat bran (OP:WB), NaNO3 , Czapek nutrients, fermentation time, moisture content (MC) and temperature. Results showed that the mixture OP:WB and MC were the most significant factors affecting lipase production for all fungi strains tested. With MC and temperature optimization, a 4.4-fold increase in A. ibericus lipase was achieved (90.5 ± 1.5 U g(-1) ), using a mixture of OP and WB at 1:1 ratio, 0.02 g NaNO3 g(-1) dry substrate, absence of Czapek nutrients, 60% of MC and incubation at 30 °C for 7 days. For A. niger and A. tubingensis, highest lipase activity obtained was 56.6 ± 5.4 and 7.6 ± 0.6 U g(-1) , respectively. Aspergillus ibericus was found to be the most promising microorganism for lipase production using mixtures of OP and WB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Review of the Drying Kinetics of Olive Oil Mill Wastes: Biomass Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Gómez-de la Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of olive oil mill wastes was analyzed based on experiments carried out by various researchers utilizing different drying systems. A critical review of the literature was done, and mathematical models of drying curves proposed by investigators were evaluated. A comparison between the best mathematical models of fit in the drying curves used in past experiments and a two-term Gaussian model was performed. This model improved all the results of fit in each experiment. Drying rates and drying stages were obtained and discussed. An average drying rate for each experiment from the two-term Gaussian model was calculated. This value allowed for visualizing and comparing the average speed of evaporated water in each experiment for the different dryers. Finally, and after having verified that almost all drying occurs mainly by a diffusion phenomenon, an analysis on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy values was performed. The results indicated that there was no dependency of these quantities on independent variables such as the drying air temperature, the drying air velocity, and the sample thickness. It follows that drying of olive oil mill wastes is a very complex physical process that depends heavily on aspects such as pieces of pit, pulp, skin, vegetation water, olive oil content, sugars and organics compounds of different nature.

  2. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  3. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [es

  4. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M A; Hayek, B O; Al-Hmoud, N; Al-Gogazeh, L

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  5. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-07-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  7. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-01-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  8. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  9. Impact of industrial hammer mill rotor speed on extraction efficiency and quality of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polari, Juan J; Garcí-Aguirre, David; Olmo-García, Lucía; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Wang, Selina C

    2018-03-01

    Crushing is a key step during olive oil extraction. Among commercial crushers, the hammer mill is the most widely used due to its robustness and high throughput. In the present work, the impact of hammer mill rotor speed on extraction yield and overall quality of super-high-density Arbosana olive oils were assessed in an industrial facility. Our results show that increasing the rotor speed from 2400rpm to 3600rpm led to a rise in oil yield of 1.2%, while conserving quality parameters. Sensory analysis showed more pungency with increased rotation speed, while others attributes were unaffected. Volatile compounds showed little variation with the differences in crusher speed; however, total phenols content, two relevant secoiridoids, and triterpenoids levels increased with rotor speed. Hammer mill rotor speed is a processing variable that can be tuned to increase the extraction efficiency and modulate the chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Johnson, Anbu Clemensis, E-mail: acj265@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Bachmann, Robert T. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 1988 Vendor City, 7800 Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka (Malaysia); Williams, Ceri J. [Yorkshire-Forward, Victoria House, Victoria Place, LS11 5AE Leeds (United Kingdom); Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L{sub biogas}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  11. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio; Johnson, Anbu Clemensis; Bachmann, Robert T.; Williams, Ceri J.; Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m -3 day -1 during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L biogas L reactor -1 day -1 , respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  13. A process for the treatment of olive mill waste waters by immobilized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElYachioui, M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mould strains were immobilized on sawdust from woods as a solid material for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters. Assays were carried out in flasks. The treatment process was monitored by physico-chemical determinations including pH, polyphenols and COD, which were followed up during the incubation time. In parallel the chemical inhibitory activity of OMW was confirmed biologically by the determination of some microorganisms in the medium including the plate count, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Results indicated that the polyphenol degradation level was 87 %. The COD was also reduced by 60 %. The pH of the effluent increased from 4.5 to 6.6. The microbial profiles showed their best growth during the treatment period indicating a removal of the inhibitory activities from the OMW waters. The growth patterns of all microorganism groups were similar and could reach high levels in the effluent.Cepas de moho fueron inmovilizadas sobre serrín de madera como material sólido para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de un molino de aceituna (OMW. Los ensayos se realizaron en matraces. El proceso de tratamiento se monitorizó mediante determinaciones físico-químicas incluyendo pH, polifenoles y DQO, que también se analizaron durante el tiempo de incubación. En paralelo, la actividad inhibidora química de las OMW se confirma biológicamente mediante su efecto sobre algunos microorganismos incluyendo levaduras y bactérias ácido lácticas. Los resultados indicaron que los polifenoles se degradan hasta un nivel del 87 %. La DQO se redujo también al 60 %. El pH del efluente aumentó de 4.5 a 6.6. Los perfiles microbiológicos mostraron un mejor crecimiento a medida que avanzaba el tratamiento indicando una supresión de las actividades inhibidoras de las aguas (OMW. El comportamiento del crecimiento de todos los grupos de microorganismos fue similar y puede alcanzar altos niveles en el efluente

  14. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufida Aggoun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to vetch-oat hay, using in vitro gas production technique coupled with NH3-N and protozoa measurements. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. The determination of gazes produced (carbon dioxide and methane was recorded at 6, 9, 24, 48 and 96 hours. However, Ammonia and protozoa number were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. Fermentation profile was fitted to the exponential model y = a + b (1 – e-kt. The OMWW are characterized by their high sugars content (39.91% and their low content in ash (1.99% and crude protein (2.70%. This by-product is also characterized by its high concentration in total phenols (7.2% and tannins (4.5%. However, they contain a very small amount of condensed tannins (0.89%. Comparatively to vetch-oat hay, OMWW produced low amount of gas (-23.6 units. Furthermore, its in vitro fermentation generates low volume of methane (9.83%, V/V, suggesting that the OMWW nature enhanced the efficiency of ruminale microbiota towards microbial biomass production and inhibition of ruminale methanogenesis pathway. This result is reinforced by the reduction of ammonia production (-0.35 units and protozoa proliferation (-1 unit comparatively to vetch-oat hay. The anaerobic biodegradation of OMWW reveal their significant use by the rumen microbiota, allowing us to strongly recommend its use as a supplement in feed ruminant. In addition, it allows considering using this residue as a feed additive in

  15. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Liveri, Maria Liria Turco; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Sciascia, Luciana; Rytwo, Giora

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied

  16. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Rytwo, Giora; Sciascia, Luciana; Liria Turco Liveri, Maria

    2013-12-01

    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied.

  17. Ozone treatment of olive mill wastewater; Tratamiento con ozono de las aguas residuales de almazara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia Alonso, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, J. R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the ozonization of olive mill wastewater has been studied. The evolution process was followed by measuring the chemical oxygen demand, the aromaticity and the contents of phenolic compounds. The aromaticity conversion ranged between 4.85 and 21% chemical oxygen demand degradation varied from 3.25 to 19.4% and the total polyphenolic reduction varied between 6.86 and 43.7%. The ozone consumption in the reduction of each variable was determined, being the average values of 57.2 g COD/mol O{sub 3} 2.9 un. Abs/mol O{sub 2} and 3.3 g poly phen./mol O{sub 3}. Finally, considering a first order kinetic equation with respect to each reactant, the apparent kinetic constants are evaluated for the studied variables. (Author) 19 refs.

  18. Parameters and kinetics of olive mill wastewater dephenolization by immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkoyunlu, Gaye; Takaç, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) with total phenol (TP) concentration range of 300-1200 mg/L was treated with alginate-immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells in batch system. The effects of pellet properties (diameter, alginate concentration and cell loading (CL)) and operational parameters (initial TP concentration, agitation rate and reusability of pellets) on dephenolization of OMW were studied. Up to 87% dephenolization was obtained after 120 h biodegradations. The utilization number of pellets increased with the addition of calcium ions into the biodegradation medium. The overall effectiveness factors calculated for different conditions showed that diffusional limitations arising from pellet size and pellet composition could be neglected. Mass transfer limitations appeared to be more effective at high substrate concentrations and low agitation rates. The parameters of logistic model for growth kinetics of R. glutinis in OMW were estimated at different initial phenol concentrations of OMW by curve-fitting of experimental data with the model.

  19. Membrane filtration of olive mill wastewater and exploitation of its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, C A; Papadakis, V G; Kanellopoulou, D G; Koutsoukos, P G; Angelopoulos, K C

    2007-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) produced from small units scattered in rural areas of Southern Europe is a major source of pollution of surface and subsurface water. In the present work, a treatment scheme based on physical separation methods is presented. The investigation was carried out using a pilot-plant unit equipped with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. Approximately 80% of the total volume of wastewater treated by the membrane units was sufficiently cleaned to meet the standards for irrigation water. The concentrated fractions collected in the treatment concentrates were characterized by high organic load and high content of phenolic compounds. The concentrates were tested in hydroponic systems to examine their toxicity towards undesired herbs. The calculations of the cost of the overall process showed that fixed and operational costs could be recovered from the exploitation of OMW byproducts as water for irrigation and/or as bioherbicides.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  1. Bioremediation of olive mill waste water and its use as a bio fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetaia, Y. M. [Microbiology Department, Ain Shams University, Cario (Egypt); Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O. M.; Wageeh, L. [Microbiology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-12-15

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major environmental problem especially for mediterranean countries, where most of the world's olive oil production. Treatment of the OMW is highly demanded due to the hazards of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolic content (TP), turbidity and color. In the present study, penicillium chrysogen um was selected as the predominant grown fungus in the presence of phenolic compounds (13 g/l). Bio stimulation was tried to assist, TP removal, decolorization, turbidity and COD reduction before disposal to the environment. Separate addition of glucose and urea resulted in 62% removal of the phenol, while the addition of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} resulted in 70% removal with lower effect on both turbidity and coloration. Consecutive use of the filtration prior or post to the bio stimulation revealed that the use 4 kGy enhanced phenolic degradation while the use of filtration post bio stimulation was the most effective treatment for phenolic removal (70%). Turbidity was also decreased from 9.81 to 2.72, and the decolorisation was increased from 28.5% (in control samples) to 77.6% and COD was decreased by only 21%. Analysis of the treated OMW revealed the presence of trace amounts of phenolic compounds, sugars and some minerals, suggesting its potential use as a bio fertilizer. Ocimum basilicum cultivated with the treated OMW showed the highest germination percentage (60%) in comparison with that irrigated with tap water and untreated OMW (50%, 20%) respectively. (Author)

  2. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  3. Bioremediation of olive mill waste water and its use as a bio fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetaia, Y. M.; Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O. M.; Wageeh, L.

    2012-12-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major environmental problem especially for mediterranean countries, where most of the world's olive oil production. Treatment of the OMW is highly demanded due to the hazards of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolic content (TP), turbidity and color. In the present study, penicillium chrysogen um was selected as the predominant grown fungus in the presence of phenolic compounds (13 g/l). Bio stimulation was tried to assist, TP removal, decolorization, turbidity and COD reduction before disposal to the environment. Separate addition of glucose and urea resulted in 62% removal of the phenol, while the addition of KH 2 PO 4 resulted in 70% removal with lower effect on both turbidity and coloration. Consecutive use of the filtration prior or post to the bio stimulation revealed that the use 4 kGy enhanced phenolic degradation while the use of filtration post bio stimulation was the most effective treatment for phenolic removal (70%). Turbidity was also decreased from 9.81 to 2.72, and the decolorisation was increased from 28.5% (in control samples) to 77.6% and COD was decreased by only 21%. Analysis of the treated OMW revealed the presence of trace amounts of phenolic compounds, sugars and some minerals, suggesting its potential use as a bio fertilizer. Ocimum basilicum cultivated with the treated OMW showed the highest germination percentage (60%) in comparison with that irrigated with tap water and untreated OMW (50%, 20%) respectively. (Author)

  4. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF, ultrafiltration (UF, nanofiltration (NF, and reverse osmosis (RO, as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD, osmotic distillation (OD and forward osmosis (FO. Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided.

  5. Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco. Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents.

  6. Assesing the effect of an olive mill wastewater evaporation pond in Sousse, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'habou, Rakia; Zairi, Moncef; Kallel, Amjed; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2009-08-01

    Olive oil is a typical and valuable agro-industrial product in Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia, olive mill wastewaters (OMW) reach an amount of about 1,000,000 t year-1 and constitute a serious organic pollution risk because of the high chemical oxygen demand values and the presence of phytotoxic and antibacterial polyphenols. OMW have been generally stored in pond sites to be eliminated by natural evaporation or valorised by spreading on cultivated soils or by composting. Many researches on the interactions of OMW with soils at laboratory scale (columns) have been reported, but less attention have been paid to the effect of OMW on soils at field scale. The aim of this work is to investigate an area used for >15 years as an uncontrolled OMW pond site. The transformations of soil properties and groundwater occurring during OMW storage were characterised by the pH, phenolic contents, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content and organic contents. The soil samples were taken from two borings and compared to those of a control one located near the pond site. Groundwater samples were taken on the accessible and nearest water wells to the evaporation ponds. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site support the infiltration of OMW near the evaporation ponds. This infiltration has reached a depth of 6 m at a distance of almost 50 m laterally. The results show that the OMW infiltration in the subsoil has affected the pH, EC, organic content, phenolic compounds and the moisture.

  7. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutrotsios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent’s decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64% followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW’s phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  8. Synthetic olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's process in batch and continuous reactors operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M

    2017-11-04

    Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe 2+ dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature. On the assessment of the process efficiency, > 99% of TPh and > 56% of TOC removal were attained when [Fe 2+ ] = 100 ppm, [H 2 O 2 ] = 2.0 g/L, T = 30 °C, and initial pH = 5.0, after 300 min of reaction. Under those operational conditions, experiments on a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) were performed for different space-time values (τ). TOC and TPh removals of 47.5 and 96.9%, respectively, were reached at steady-state (for τ = 120 min). High removal of COD (> 75%) and BOD 5 (> 70%) was achieved for both batch and CSTR optimum conditions; analysis of the BOD 5 /COD ratio also revealed an increase in the effluent's biodegradability. Despite the high removal of lumped parameters, the treated effluent did not met the Portuguese legal limits for direct discharge of wastewaters into water bodies, which indicates that coupled chemical-biological process may be the best solution for real olive mill wastewater treatment.

  9. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach; Impacto del pretratamiento con microondas sobre la digestión anaerobia en régimen discontinuo de residuos sólidos de almazaras de dos fases: un enfoque cinético

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [Spanish] El efecto del pretratamiento con microondas (MW) sobre el residuo semisólido procedente de la elaboración del aceite de oliva por el sistema de dos fases o alperujo fue estudiado con el objeto de aumentar su digestibilidad anaerobia. El pretratamiento fue llevado a cabo a una potencia de 800W y a una temperatura de 50 °C empleándose distintas velocidades de calentamiento así como diferentes tiempos de espera para obtener dichas condiciones. Las siguientes energías específicas fueron aplicadas: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) y 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). El máximo rendimiento 395±1 mL CH4·g SVañadidos −1 se obtuvo para MW4. El efecto del pretratamiento en la cinética del proceso también fue estudiado. Las curvas de producción de metano durante los ensayos mostraron una etapa exponencial y una sigmoidal en todos los casos. En la primera etapa, la constante cinética para MW1 fue 54.8% mayor que la obtenida para el alperujo sin pretratar.

  10. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  11. Antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater obtained from different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMWW is considered a by-product because of the presence of biostatic compounds with a high polluting rate, in particular phenols. Moreover, during olive oil processing, a large amount of this by-product constitutes an ecological and economical problem for the producers. To reevaluate this by-product, the reuse of this wastewater to obtain useful compounds appears to be very important. In order to purify the wastewater, the development of operations that modify its organic content seems necessary for obtaining of eventual fertilizing agents and/or to recover substances with a high added value such as phenolic compounds, which are currently recognized scientifically as molecules with a high antioxidant activity. A chromatographic analysis of these compounds was conducted to characterize different concentrations of wastewater and the reducing power of the extracts was measured. The thermal treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in a rotary evaporator and in an oven involved an increase in radical scavenging efficiency. These results could be correlated with the possibility of recovering and reusing this type of waste for its antioxidant properties.

    En la industria alimentaria, el alpechín se considera un subproducto debido a la presencia de compuestos bioestáticos, con una alta tasa de contaminación, particularmente los fenoles. Además, durante el procesado de la aceituna, la generación de una gran cantidad de este subproducto supone un problema ecológico y económico para los productores. Es importante la reutilización de este agua de desecho para obtener compuestos útiles. Para purificar el agua de desecho es necesario el desarrollo de operaciones que modifiquen su contenido orgánico, para poder obtener agentes fertilizantes y/o recuperar sustancias con un alto valor añadido como los compuestos fenólicos, que actualmente están reconocidos científicamente como moléculas con una

  12. Disposal of olive oil mill wastes in evaporation ponds: effects on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Doula, M K; Komnitsas, K; Liakopoulou, N

    2010-10-15

    The most common practice followed in the Med countries for the management of olive oil mill wastes (OMW) involves disposal in evaporation ponds or direct disposal on soil. So far there is lack of reliable information regarding the long-term effects of OMW application on soils. This study assesses the effects of OMW disposal in evaporation ponds on underlying soil properties in the wider disposal site as well as the impacts of untreated OMW application on agricultural soils. In case of active disposal sites, the carbonate content in most soils was decreased, whereas soil EC, as well as Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), NH(4)(+) and particularly K(+) concentrations were substantially increased. Soil pH was only marginally affected. Phenol, total N, available P and PO(4)(3-) concentrations were considerably higher in the upper soil layers in areas adjacent to the ponds. Available B as well as DTPA extractable Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe increased substantially. Most surface soil parameters exhibited increased values at the inactive site 6 years after mill closure and cease of OMW disposal activities but differences were diminished in deeper layers. It is therefore concluded that long-term uncontrolled disposal of raw OMW on soils may affect soil properties and subsequently enhance the risk for groundwater contamination. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  14. Olive mill wastewater evaporation management using PCA method Case study of natural degradation in stabilization ponds (Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-04-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) evaporation ponds management was investigated in five serial evaporation open-air multiponds of 50 ha located in Sfax (Tunisia). Physico-chemical parameters and microbial flora evolution were considered. Empirical models describing the OMW characteristic changes with the operation time were established and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) described the correlation between physico-chemical and biological parameters. COD, BOD, total solids, polyphenols and electrical conductivity exhibited first-order models. Four groups exhibited high correlations. The first included temperature, density, COD, TSS, TS, BOD, VS, TOC, TKN, polyphenols and minerals. The second group was made up of yeasts and moulds. The third group was established with phenolic compounds, total sugars, fats, total phosphorous, NH(4)(+) and pH. The fourth group was constituted by exclusively aerobic bacteria. Bacterial-growth toxic effect was exhibited by high organic load, ash content and polyphenols, whereas moulds and yeasts were more adapted to OMW. During the storage, all the third group parameter values decreased and were inversely related to the others. In the last pond, COD, BOD, TS and TSS rates were reduced by 40%, 50%, 50% and 75% respectively. The evaporation and the biological activity were the main processes acting, predicting the OMW behavior during evaporation in air-open ponds. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some people. Metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, excess ... Up to 1 liter per week of extra-virgin olive oil has been used safely as part ...

  16. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Olive mill wastewater sludge from evaporation ponds: evolution of physico-chemical parameters during storage and composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Aloui, F; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-02-01

    The evolution of analytical parameters of olive mill waste water sludge stored in evaporation ponds was investigated after one year and two years of storage. It was observed that some of the phenolic monomer compounds resisted removal and the fraction of water soluble phenols was only slightly polymerised. Co-composting of the sludge was carried out with yard trimming as bulking agent ratio and poultry manure to balance the C/N. Three turned piles with three proportions of 35%, 65% and 80% of olive mill waste water sludge were prepared. Co-composting of the sludge was possible in all the cases. Best results were obtained, however, at a proportion of 35% which permitted a shorter composting time, a higher degree of nitrification and a higher rate of total phenols decreasing. A high polymerisation of the fraction of water soluble phenols was observed at the end of composting in all the piles.

  18. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis to monitor the co-composting process of olive oil mill wastes and organic household refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Barje , F.; Amir , S.; Winterton , Peter; Pinelli , Eric; Merlina , Georges; Cegarra , J.; Revel , Jean-Claude; Hafidi , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The co-composting of olive oil mill wastes and household refuse was followed for 5 months. During the thermophilic phase of composting, the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) count, showed a significant rise with a slight regression of fungal biomass. In the same way, phospholipid fatty acids PLFAs common in bacteria, showed a significant increase of hydroxyl and branched PLFAs. The evaluation of the ratio of octadecenoic PLFAs to stearic acid (C18:1/C18:0) revealed ...

  19. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  20. Optimizing Degradation of Olive Oil Mill Waste Water Using Paecilomyces variotii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatab, O.K.; El-Nasr, A.A.; Hassan, A.A.; Abdel El- Aziz, A.B.; Zaki, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty six microbial isolates (ten fungal, nine yeast and seven bacterial isolates) were isolated from the Olive Oil Mill Waste Water (OOMW) which was extracted from effluent of olive oil industry factory. All isolates were tested for its growth on media containing 10% OOMW as sole carbon source. It was found that (three fungal, two yeast and two bacterial isolates) had the ability to grow on this concentration. These isolates were identified as Paecilomyces variotii, Ascopus stercoraris, Aspergillus terrus, Yarowia lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus curvatus and Bacillus brevis. The identified isolates were tested for the biodegradation of phenolic compounds at high concentration of OOMW (25%). Paecilomyces variotii was the best isolate as it degraded 10.40 % of the phenolic compounds. The maximum degradation of phenolic compounds and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease percentage was (68.14 and 59.12, respectively) obtained at 50% dilution of OOMW for 12 days at 37±1 degree C, ph 6, supplement the degradation media with 150 mg/l sucrose, 2.5 g/l yeast extract and 0.070 mmol/l CuSO 4 concentration in aerobic conditions with aeration rate 4:1 (v air: v media), shaking at 150 rpm and 6 g/l inoculums size. In addition, 0.25 kGy was the best dose as it led to increase the phenolic compounds biodegradation percent 8.7% than the optimum conditions previously mentioned. Finally, the bio treated OOMW was lower toxicity to environment than untreated one.

  1. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinnai, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation, and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred.El uso de dióxido de carbono sólido (hielo seco como criogénico está muy extendido en la industria alimentaria para producir vinos de alta calidad, ricos en color y perfumes. La adición directa de dióxido de carbono en estado sólido a las aceitunas antes de la molienda representa el paso fundamental que caracteriza este innovador sistema de extracción. En condiciones ambientales el dióxido de carbono sólido evoluciona directamente en la fase de aire (sublimación, y el contacto directo entre el criógeno y las aceitunas induce una solidificación parcial del agua celular dentro de los frutos. Dado que el volumen ocupado por el agua en el estado sólido es mayor que en el

  2. Time-dependent evolution of olive mill wastewater sludge organic and inorganic components and resident microbiota in multi-pond evaporation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Chtourou, Mohamed; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-08-01

    The physico-chemical and microbiological characterizations of olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) were investigated in five OMW evaporation ponds of the open-pond system in Sfax (Tunisia), during the olive oil production period in 2004. Time-dependent changes in both physico-chemical parameters and the microbiota were investigated. Mathematical models and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to establish the correlations between the studied parameters. During the effluent time-dependent changes in the ponds, the result of OMWS analysis showed an increase of sludge index (SI), ash content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), ethyl acetate extractive (EAE) and total phosphorus (Total P), as well as microbial flora especially the yeasts and moulds. The SI, TS, VS and Total P changes with time fit a simple linear equation, while EAE, phenols and NH(4)(+) fit a second-degree polynomial model. The PCA analysis exhibited three correlated groups. The first group included temperature, ash content, evaporation, SI, TS, VS, Total P, EAE, yeasts and moulds. The second group was made by bacteria and moisture; and the third group by NH(4)(+), oil and phenol. Such modelling might be of help in the prediction of OMW changes in natural evaporation ponds. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication and application of boron doped diamond BDD electrode in olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan

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    Inshad Jum'h

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A boron doped diamond (BDD electrode was employed in an electrochemical reactor to oxidize the phenolic content of Jordanian olive mill wastewater. The BDD anode was fabricated using hot filament chemical vapor deposition on niobium and the morphology of the BDD electrode was characterized using an atomic force microscope. Then, electrolysis batch runs were carried out at laboratory scale to test the effect of different process parameters, namely, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD load (72.9, 33.8, and 0.18 g/L, the addition of Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte, and adding NaCl along with Na2SO4, on the efficiency of the treatment process. The results were reported in terms of COD, color and turbidity removal, and pH variation. The experiments revealed that electrochemical oxidation using BDD significantly reduced the COD by 85% with no supporting electrolytes. It was observed that adding Na2SO4 with NaCl brought the COD removal to higher than 90% after 7 hours of treatment for COD loads of 72.9 and 33.8 g/L, and after 2 hours for a COD load of 0.18 g/L. Likewise, color was completely removed regardless of the initial COD load. The turbidity for samples with 72.9 and 33.8 g/L as COD load reached a minimal value of 2.5 and 1 NTU respectively.

  4. Key process parameters involved in the treatment of olive mill wastewater by membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouad, Y; Villain-Gambier, M; Mandi, L; Marrot, B; Ouazzani, N

    2018-04-18

    The Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) biodegradation in an external ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated with a starting acclimation step with a Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (150 kDa) and no sludge discharge in order to develop a specific biomass adapted to OMWW biodegradation. After acclimation step, UF was replaced by an Microfiltration (MF) membrane (0.1 µm). Sludge Retention Time (SRT) was set around 25 days and Food to Microorganisms ratio (F/M) was fixed at 0.2 kg COD  kg MLVSS -1  d -1 . At stable state, removal of the main phenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were successfully reached (95% both). Considered as a predominant fouling factor, but never quantified in MBR treated OMWW, Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) proteins, polysaccharides and humic substances concentrations were determined (80, 110 and 360 mg L -1 respectively). At the same time, fouling was easily managed due to favourable hydraulic conditions of external ceramic MBR. Therefore, OMWW could be efficiently and durably treated by an MF MBR process under adapted operating parameters.

  5. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating Fenton's process and ion exchange for olive mill wastewater treatment and iron recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patrícia M; Martins, Pedro J M; Martins, Rui C; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    A novel integrated methodology involving Fenton's process followed by ion exchange (IE) was proposed for the treatment of olive mill wastewater. Fenton's process was optimized and it was able to remove up to 81% of chemical oxygen demand when pH 3.5, reaction time 1 h, [Fe 2+ ] = 50 mg L -1 and [Fe 2+ ]/[H 2 O 2 ] = 0.002 were applied. In spite of the potential of this treatment approach, final iron removal from the liquid typically entails pH increase and iron sludge production. The integration of an IE procedure using Lewatit TP 207 resin was found to be able to overcome this important environmental shortcoming. The resin showed higher affinity toward Fe 3+ than to Fe 2+ . However, the iron removal efficiency of an effluent coming from Fenton's was independent of the type of the initial iron used in the process. The presence of organic matter had no significant effect over the resin iron removal efficiency. Even if some efficiency decrease was observed when a high initial iron load was applied, the adsorbent mass quantity can be easily adapted to reach the desired iron removal. The use of IE is an interesting industrial approach able to surpass Fenton's peroxidation drawback and will surely boost its full-scale application in the treatment of bio-refractory effluents.

  7. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I.; El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Kalliny, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H 2 O 2 dose, Fe +2 , COD:H 2 O 2 ratio and Fe +2 :H 2 O 2 ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l -1 for ρ-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l -1 for cinnamic acid

  8. Extracellular laccase production and phenolic degradation by an olive mill wastewater isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMWW presents a challenge to the control of effluents due to the presence of a high organic load, antimicrobial agents (monomeric-polymeric phenols, volatile acids, polyalcohols, and tannins, salinity and acidity. In this study, the production of extracellular laccase, monomeric or polymeric phenol, from an OMWW isolate based on its ability to biodegrade phenols and gallic acid as a model of phenolic compounds in OMWW was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA gene sequences identified the bacterial isolate (Acinetobacter REY as being closest to Acinetobacter pittii. This isolate exhibited a constitutive production of extracellular laccase with an activity of 1.5 and 1.3 U ml/L when supplemented with the inducers CuSO4 and CuSO4+phenols, respectively. Batch experiments containing minimal media supplemented with phenols or gallic acid as the sole carbon and energy source were performed in order to characterize their phenolic biodegradability. Acinetobacter REY was capable of biodegrading up to 200 mg/L of phenols and gallic acid both after 10 h and 72 h, respectively.

  9. Fate of Potential Contaminants Due to Disposal of Olive Mill Wastewaters in Unprotected Evaporation Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Elaiopoulos, K; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Soupios, P

    2017-03-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) in shallow and unprotected evaporation ponds is a common, low-cost management practice, followed in Mediterranean countries. So far, the fate of potential soil pollutants in areas located near evaporation ponds is not adequately documented. This study investigates the extent in which the long-term disposal of OMW in evaporation ponds can affect the soil properties of the area located outside the evaporation pond and assesses the fate of the pollution loads of OMW. Four soil profiles situated outside and around the down slope side of the disposal area were excavated. The results showed considerable changes in concentration of soil phenols at the down-site soil profiles, due to the subsurface transport of the OMW. In addition, excessive concentrations of NH 4 + , PO 4 3- and phenols were recorded in liquid samples taken from inside at the bottom of the soil profiles. It is concluded that unprotected evaporation ponds located in light texture soils pose a serious threat to favour soil and water pollution.

  10. De-oiled two-phase olive mill waste may reduce water contamination by metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-01-15

    The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER membrane was used as pre-treatment for electrochemical process. The obtained permeate from the ultrafiltration process allowed COD removal efficiency of about 96% from OMW. Obtained permeate with an average COD of about 1.1gdm-3 was treated by electrochemical reactor equipped with a reactor with bipolar iron plate electrodes. The effect of the experimental parameters such as current density, pH, surface electrode/reactor volume ratio and NaCl concentration on COD removal was assessed. The results showed that the optimum COD removal rate was obtained at a current density of 93.3Am-2 and pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5. At the optimum operational parameters for the experiments, electrocoagulation process could reduce COD from 1.1gdm-3 to 78mgdm-3, allowing direct discharge of the treated OMW as that meets the Algerian wastewater discharge standards (<125mgdm-3). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microencapsulation by Membrane Emulsification of Biophenols Recovered from Olive Mill Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Piacentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated.

  14. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  15. ESR spectra of the olive phenolics oleuropein and keracyanin in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.R.; Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Hewitt, D.J.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Olives and extra virgin olive oil, are known to be very rich in antioxidants, most of which are phenolics, such as oleuropein, a derivative of catechol: the 'catechol' ring is separated, and effectively isolated electrically from the other (6-sided) ring. The main anthocyanin in olives in keracyanin (cyanidin-3-0-rutinoside). Solid samples of these two phenolics, and of catechol, were examined by ESR using a Varian E-12 spectrometer (x-band: ∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All three samples gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10g. width with g-vales close to 2. The presence of these free radical signal shows the antioxidant action of these phenolics, even in the solid state. We believe this is first observation of free radicals in olive phenolics

  16. ESR spectra of the olive phenolics oleuropein and keracyanin in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Anatomy Department; Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Physics Department; Hewitt, D.J. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemistry Department; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F. [Universita degli Studi, Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Olives and extra virgin olive oil, are known to be very rich in antioxidants, most of which are phenolics, such as oleuropein, a derivative of catechol: the `catechol` ring is separated, and effectively isolated electrically from the other (6-sided) ring. The main anthocyanin in olives in keracyanin (cyanidin-3-0-rutinoside). Solid samples of these two phenolics, and of catechol, were examined by ESR using a Varian E-12 spectrometer (x-band: {approx}9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All three samples gave single unstructured lines of {approx} 10g. width with g-vales close to 2. The presence of these free radical signal shows the antioxidant action of these phenolics, even in the solid state. We believe this is first observation of free radicals in olive phenolics

  17. Low cost biosorbent "banana peel" for the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achak, M; Hafidi, A; Ouazzani, N; Sayadi, S; Mandi, L

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the potential of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for removing phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the increase in the banana peel dosage from 10 to 30 g/L significantly increased the phenolic compounds adsorption rates from 60 to 88%. Increase in the pH to above neutrality resulted in the increase in the phenolic compounds adsorption capacity. The adsorption process was fast, and it reached equilibrium in 3-h contact time. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium and it was found that experimental data fitted very well to both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion mechanism, showed that kinetic data follow closely the pseudo-second-order than the pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion. Desorption studies showed that low pH value was efficient for desorption of phenolic compounds. These results indicate clearly the efficiency of banana peel as a low-cost solution for olive mill wastewaters treatment and give some preliminary elements for the comprehension of the interactions between banana peel as a bioadsorbent and the very polluting compounds from the olive oil industry.

  18. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  19. Production of organic fertilizer from olive mill wastewater by combining solar greenhouse drying and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliou, F; Markakis, N; Fountoulakis, M S; Nikolaidis, N; Manios, T

    2018-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is generated during the production of olive oil. Its disposal is still a major environmental problem in Mediterranean countries, despite the fact that a large number of technologies have been proposed up to date. The present work examines for the first time a novel, simple and low-cost technology for OMW treatment combining solar drying and composting. In the first step, OMW was dried in a chamber inside a solar greenhouse using swine manure as a bulking agent. The mean evaporation rate was found to be 5.2 kg H 2 O/m 2 /d for a drying period of 6 months (February-August). High phenol (75%) and low nitrogen (15%) and carbon (15%) losses were recorded at the end of the solar drying process. The final product after solar drying was rich in nutrients (N: 27.8 g/kg, P: 7.3 g/kg, K: 81.6 g/kg) but still contained significant quantities of phenols (18.4 g/kg). In order to detoxify the final product, a composting process was applied as a second step with or without the use of grape marc as bulking agent. Results showed that the use of grape marc as a bulking agent at a volume ratio of 1:1 achieved a higher compost temperature profile (60 °C) than 2:1 (solar drying product: grape marc) or no use (solar drying product). The end product after the combination of solar drying and composting had the characteristics of an organic fertilizer (57% organic carbon) rich in nutrients (3.5% N, 1% P, 6.5% K) with quite low phenol content (2.9 g/kg). Finally, the use of this product for the cultivation of pepper plants approved its fertility which was found similar with commercial NPK fertilizers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Hayek, B.O.; Al-Hmoud, N.; Al-Gogazeh, L.

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  1. In situ olive mill residual co-composting for soil organic fertility restoration and by-product sustainable reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Casacchia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of organic matter in the form of compost improves overall physical, chemical and biological properties of soils but, to be really sustainable, the composting process should be carried out using the by-products available in situ. Two different soils of a Mediterranean olive orchard, one managed traditionally (NAS and the other amended with compost (AS, were investigated in a two-year experiment. Increases in total organic matter, total nitrogen and pH, were detected in AS if compared to NAS. Significant increases in total and specific microbial counts were observed in AS, with a clear amelioration of microbiological soil quality. The results demonstrated that soil amendment using compost deriving from olive mill by-products can be an important agricultural practice for supporting and stimulating soil microorganisms and, at the same time, for re-using these byproducts, so avoiding their negative environmental impact.

  2. A biotechnological valorization and treatment of olive mill waste waters by selected yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste waters were diluted to 1/10, supplied with 2% urea and inoculated with yeast strains. 20 yeast strains isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW water were screened for their biomass production, GOD reduction and polyphenols bioconversión activities. Pure cultures of yeasts were realized in 100 ml erlen-meyer flasks. 50 ml cultures were used and the flasks were incubated at room temperature (22°G on a shaker. Biomass production, COD (chemical oxygen demand reduction and Polyphenols bioconversión were followed up in the inoculated OMW waters. Results showed that the urea supply improve significantly the biomass production relatively to the control. This reached in some assays 2.06% expressed as g of biomass dry weight per 100 mL of OMW water. Polyphenols removal was estimated to around 50% and the COD was decreased from 54.14 g/Kg to 21.56 g/Kg. This aerobic treatment lead to the biomass production and also to a pretreated efluent by the COD and the removal of the methanization inhibiting polyphenolic compounds.

    Aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna se diluyeron en la proporción 1/10, se le añadió un 2% de urea y se inoculó con cepas de levaduras. 20 cepas de levaduras aisladas de aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna (OMW se seleccionaron por su producción de biomasa, reducción DQO y actividades de bioconversión de polifenoles. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos puros de levaduras en matraces erlenmeyer de 100 mi. Se tomaron 50 ml de cultivos y los matraces se incubaron a temperatura ambiente (22°C en un agitador. Se siguió la producción de biomasa, la reducción de DQO (demanda química de oxígeno y la bioconversión de polifenoles en las aguas residuales de la aceituna. Los resultados mostraron que el suministro de urea mejoró significativamente la producción de biomasa en relación al control. Esta alcanzó en algunos ensayos el 2.06% expresado como g de peso seco de biomasa por 100 ml de

  3. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aeribacillus composti sp. nov., a thermophilic bacillus isolated from olive mill pomace compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finore, Ilaria; Gioiello, Alessia; Leone, Luigi; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacterium, strain N.8 T , was isolated from the curing step of an olive mill pomace compost sample, collected at the Composting Experimental Centre (CESCO, Salerno, Italy). Strain N.8 T , based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, was most closely related to Aeribacillus pallidus strain H12 T (=DSM 3670 T ) (99.8 % similarity value) with a 25 % DNA-DNA relatedness value. Cells were rod-shaped, non-motile and grew optimally at 60 °C and pH 9.0, forming cream colonies. Strain N.8 was able to grow on medium containing up to 9.0 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 6.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The cellular membrane contained MK-7, and C16 : 0 (48.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (19.4 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.6 %) were the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. Based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization values and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain N.8 T represents a novel species of the genus Aeribacillus, for which the name Aeribacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N.8 T (=KCTC 33824 T =JCM 31580 T ).

  5. Assessment of Coriolopsis gallica-treated olive mill wastewater phytotoxicity on tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Sellami, Sahar; Frikha, Fakher; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) after being treated by the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis gallica. For this, the effect of irrigation with treated OMW (TOMW) and untreated OMW (UOMW) on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 3 weeks was studied. The control plants were irrigated with distilled water. Agronomic tests were performed in pot experiments in a greenhouse using the randomized complete block (RCB) experimental design. The relative leaf height (RLH), as a morphological parameter, and the content of total phenols in the roots and total chlorophyll [Cha + Chb] and reducing sugars in the leaves, as physiological parameters, were selected as responses of the experimental design. The results obtained showed that [Cha + Chb] in the leaves of tomato growth under TOMW was enhanced by 36.3 and 19.4 % compared to the plant growth under UOMW and to the controls, respectively. Also, reducing sugar concentrations were closed to those of the control plants, ranging from 0.424 to 0.678 g/L for the different dilutions tested. However, the plants irrigated with UOMW showed lower reducing sugar concentrations ranging from 0.042 to 0.297g/L. The optimum RLH (0.537) was observed in the plants irrigated with TOMW diluted at (1:4), this value being higher than that observed in the controls (0.438). Our study proved that the irrigation with TOMW significantly improved tomato growth and photosynthesis activity over those irrigated with UOMW. Optimization of TOMW as a fertilizer was obtained for a dilution of 1:4. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that OMW treated by C. gallica holds potential to be used as a fertilizer for tomato plants. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Please provide a caption for the graphical abstract.The graphical abstract is improved and sent as attachment Please replace it.

  6. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  7. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: comparison of different olive oil extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2008-07-23

    The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

  8. Depuration of olive oil mill wastewater by an activated sludge system; Depuracion de alpechin mediante us sistema de fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Ramos Viscas, M. P.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of alpechin (olive oil mill wastewaters) have been studied by an activated sludge treatment. The substrate evolution (based on COD and BOD{sub 5}), nitrogen Kjeldahl, phosphorus, biomass, aromaticity and total polyphenolic contents was followed during each experiment. A kinetic study is performed by using the Contois model, which applied to the experimental data, provides the specific kinetic parameters of this model. Moreover, others interesting biological parameters like the cellular yield and the kinetics of endogenous metabolism were determined. (Author) 17 refs.

  9. The Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Soils in Northwest Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahsha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination may influence negatively soil health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies soil biodiversity and decreases plant growth. Soil health is the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system, providing essential ecosystem services. Within soils, all bio-geo-chemical processes of the different ecosystem components are combined. These processes are able to sustain biological productivity of soil, to maintain the quality of surrounding air and water environments, as well as to promote plant, animal, and human health. A common criterion to evaluate long term sustainability of ecosystems is to assess the quality of soil. However, the increased concentration and distribution of toxic substances in soils by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. A major environmental concern in the Mediterranean countries is the production of the large quantities of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW produced during olive oil extraction process. OMW inhibits several groups of bacteria and fungal species, thus affecting soil stability. In the present study, we investigated the effect of OMW on the soil physical, chemical characteristics and the microarthropods structure. All soil samples were collected from an olive mill garden in Northwest Jordan. Biological soil quality index (QBS-ar values appeared to decrease with respect to soil pollution by OMW. All investigated parameters were significantly different depending on the levels of OMW contamination in soil. Anthropogenic activities influenced the microarthropod community, altering both quantity and quality of soil chemical and physical structure of the microhabitats. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the application of QBS-ar index could be a useful tool for evaluating surface soils health status.

  10. Effect of olive mill wastewater phenol compounds on reactive carbonyl species and Maillard reaction end-products in ultrahigh-temperature-treated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fiore, A.; Colantuono, A.; Kokkinidou, S.; Peterson, D.G.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at

  11. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  12. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  13. Kinetic and Isotherm Modelling of the Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro A. Casazza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive oil wastewater by commercial activated carbon was studied as a function of adsorbent quantity and temperature. The sorption kinetics and the equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (8 g of activated carbon per 100 mL, the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon expressed as mg of caff eic acid equivalent per g of activated carbon was 35.8 at 10 °C, 35.4 at 25 °C and 36.1 at 40 °C. The pseudo-second-order model was considered as the most suitable for kinetic results, and Langmuir isotherm was chosen to bett er describe the sorption system. The results confi rmed the effi ciency of activated carbon to remove almost all phenolic compound fractions from olive mill effl uent. The preliminary results obtained will be used in future studies. The carbohydrate fraction of this upgraded residue could be employed to produce bioethanol, and adsorbed phenolic compounds can be recovered and used in different industries.

  14. Degradation of olive mill wastewater by the induced extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of two wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerva, Anastasia; Zervakis, Georgios I; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a major problem in olive oil - producing countries, due to its high organic load and concentration in phenols that are toxic for marine life, plants and soil microorganisms. In the present study, two mushroom species were tested in regard to their OMWW's oxidative capacity, Pleurotus citrinopileatus LGAM 28684 and Irpex lacteus LGAM 238. OMWW (25% v/v) degradation was investigated for several culture conditions, namely pH, agitation speed, nitrogen-based supplements and their concentration. The selected values were pH 6, agitation rate 150 rpm, 30 g L -1 corn steep liquor as nitrogen source for P. citrinopileatus and 20 g L -1 diammonium tartrate for I. lacteus. The two strains performed well in cultures supplemented with OMWW, generating very high titers of oxidative enzymes and achieving more than 90% color and phenols reduction within a 24 days cultivation period. In addition, the amount of glucans present in the fungal biomass was assessed. Hence, P. citrinopileatus and I. lacteus appear as potent degraders of OMWW with the ability to use the effluent as a substrate for the production of biotechnologically important enzymes and valuable fungal glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  16. Impact of spreading olive mill waste water on agricultural soils for leaching of metal micronutrients and cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonov-Nadborny, R; Tsechansky, L; Raviv, M; Graber, E R

    2017-07-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is an acidic (pH 4-5), saline (EC ∼ 5-10 mS cm -1 ), blackish-red aqueous byproduct of the three phase olive oil production process, with a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 220,000 mg L -1 . OMWW is conventionally disposed of by uncontrolled dumping into the environment or by semi-controlled spreading on agricultural soils. It was hypothesized that spreading such liquids on agricultural soils could result in the release and mobilization of indigenous soil metals. The effect of OMWW spreading on leaching of metal cations (Na, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) was tested in four non-contaminated agricultural soils having different textures (sand, clay loam, clay, and loam) and chemical properties. While the OMWW contributed metals to the soil solution, it also mobilized indigenous soil metals as a function of soil clay content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and soil pH-buffer capacity. Leaching of soil-originated metals from the sandy soil was substantially greater than from the loam and clay soils, while the clay loam was enriched with metals derived from the OMWW. These trends were attributed to cation exchange and organic-metal complex formation. The organic matter fraction of OMWW forms complexes with metal cations; these complexes may be mobile or precipitate, depending on the soil chemical and physical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of hydraulic retention time on biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids production during acidogenic digestion of dephenolized olive mill wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoma, Alberto; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The influence of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) on the performances of a recently developed biotechnological anaerobic acidogenic process fed with dephenolized Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) was investigated. The study was carried out under mesophilic conditions in Packed Bed Biofilm Reactors (PBBRs), filled with ceramic cubes and inoculated with a characterized and acclimated acidogenic microbial consortium. The PBBRs were fed with a HRT of 7, 5, 3 or 1 day, which corresponded to Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) of about 5.5, 7.8, 12.9 and 38.8 g L −1 d −1 , respectively. A significant production of a H 2 -rich biogas was observed when shorter HRTs were applied: in particular, H 2 relative amount and productivity increased from 3% to 32% and from 0.20 to 6.10 dm 3 m −3 h −1 , respectively, by decreasing the HRT from 7 to 1 day. On the contrary, shorter HRTs turned into a lower accumulation of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), whose highest amounts were found with HRTs of 7 and 5 days (about 18.4 and 19.7 g L −1 COD equivalents, respectively). The highest conversion yield of COD into VFAs (36%) was obtained with a HRT of 5 days, when VFAs represented about 78% of the effluent COD. HRT also influenced the composition of the VFA mixture: acetic, propionic and butyric acid were the most prominent VFAs, being their relative amounts higher when PBBRs were operated with shorter HRTs (up to 19, 12 and 42% of the whole mixture, respectively, when HRT was 1 day). -- Highlights: ► HRT affects the acidogenic digestion of dephenolized olive mill wastewater. ► A significant production of bioH 2 can be coupled to that of volatile fatty acids. ► Higher H 2 and lower VFA productions were obtained by shortening the HRT

  18. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A; Cox, Lucia; Velarde, P; Koskinen, William C; Cornejo, Juan

    2007-06-13

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (alperujo) on soil sorption-desorption, degradation, and leaching of diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] and terbuthylazine [N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine], two herbicides widely used in olive crops. The soils used in this study were a sandy soil and a silty clay soil from two different olive groves. The sandy soil was amended in the laboratory with fresh (uncomposted) alperujo at the rate of 10% w/w, and the silty clay soil was amended in the field with fresh alperujo at the rate of 256 kg per tree during 4 years and in the laboratory with fresh or composted alperujo. Sorption of both herbicides increased in laboratory-amended soils as compared to unamended or field-amended soils, and this process was less reversible in laboratory-amended soils, except for diuron in amended sandy soil. Addition of alperujo to soils increased half-lives of the herbicides in most of the soils. Diuron and terbuthylazine leached through unamended sandy soil, but no herbicide was detected in laboratory-amended soil. Diuron did not leach through amended or unamended silty clay soil, whereas small amounts of terbuthylazine were detected in leachates from unamended soil. Despite their higher sorption capacity, greater amounts of terbuthylazine were found in the leachates from amended silty clay soils. The amounts of dissolved organic matter from alperujo and the degree of humification can affect sorption, degradation, and leaching of these two classes of herbicides in soils. It appears that adding alperujo to soil would not have adverse impacts on the behavior of herbicides in olive production.

  19. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular imprinting solid phase extraction for selective detection of methidathion in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Oujji, Najwa Ben; Moczko, Ewa; Istamboulie, Georges; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Ait-Ichou, Ihya; Ait-Addi, Elhabib; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2012-07-13

    A specific adsorbent for extraction of methidathion from olive oil was developed. The design of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was based on the results of the computational screening of the library of polymerisable functional monomers. MIP was prepared by thermal polymerisation using N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as a functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker. The polymers based on the itaconic acid (IA), methacrylic acid (MAA) and 2-(trifluoromethyl)acryl acid (TFMAA) functional monomers and one control polymer which was made without functional monomers with cross-linker EGDMA were also synthesised and tested. The performance of each polymer was compared using corresponding imprinting factor. As it was predicted by molecular modelling the best results were obtained for the MIP prepared with MBAA. The obtained MIP was optimised in solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (MISPE-HPLC-UV) and tested for the rapid screening of methidathion in olive oil. The proposed method allowed the efficient extraction of methidathion for concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 9 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.996). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) in olive oil were 0.02 mg L(-1) and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively. MIPs extraction was much more effective than traditional C18 reverse-phase solid phase extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  2. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  3. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: uu_gg_oo@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, C.U. Del. Coyoacan (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. {yields} During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. {yields} Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  5. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, H.; Reyes-Carmona, F.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. → During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. → Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  6. Chemical properties and hydrolytic enzyme activities for the characterisation of two-phase olive mill wastes composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, M L; Mondini, C; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A

    2008-07-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated during the extraction of olive oil by the two-phase centrifugation system. Among all the available disposal options, composting is gaining interest as a sustainable strategy to recycle TPOMW for agricultural purposes. The quality of compost for agronomical use depends on the degree of organic matter stabilization, but despite several studies on the topic, there is not a single method available which alone can give a certain indication of compost stability. In addition, information on the biological and biochemical properties, including the enzymatic activity (EA) of compost, is rare. The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of some enzymatic activities (beta-glucosidase, arylsulphatase, acid-phosphatase, alkaline-phosphatase, urease and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA)) as parameters to evaluate organic matter stability during the composting of TPOMW. These enzymatic indices were also compared to conventional stability indices. For this purpose two composting piles were prepared by mixing TPOMW with sheep manure and grape stalks in different proportions, with forced aeration and occasional turnings. The composting of TPOMW followed the common pattern reported previously for this kind of material with a reduction of 40-50% of organic matter, a gradual increase in pH, disappearance of phytotoxicity and formation of humic-like C. All EA increased during composting except acid-phosphatase. Significant correlations were found between EA and some important conventional stability indices indicating that EA can be a simple and reliable tool to determine the degree of stability of TPOMW composts.

  7. Solid-solid and gas-solid interactions induced during high-energy milling to produce PbTe nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: rojas_hugo@ittlahuac2.edu.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Tlahuac - II (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica de Ultra Alta Resolucion (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    Transformations from precursors to nanoparticles by high-energy milling are promoted by two major driving forces, namely physical and/or chemical. While the former has been difficult to trace since stress, strain and recovery may occur almost simultaneously during milling, the latter has been sequentially followed as an evolution from precursors to intermediate phases and thereof to high purity nanocrystals. The specific objective of this work is to discern how solid-solid and partially solid-gas reactions manifest themselves correspondingly as a short-range diffusion through an interface or how vapor species, as a subliming phenomenon, grows as a different phase on an active local surface. These series of changes were traced by sub-cooling the as-milled powders extracted during a milling cycle. Through this experimental technique, samples were electron microscopically analyzed and where it was required, selected area electron diffraction images were obtained. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy results, unambiguously, confirm that nanocrystals in the last stage show a cubic morphology which average size distributions are around 17 nm.

  8. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  9. Application of Acid Cracking and Fenton Processes inTreating Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Aliabadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the growth in the industries of olive oil extraction has brought about a number of environmental problems. The waste water resulting from olive oil extraction can not be naturally degraded due to the presence of phenol, volatile fatty acids, catchin, and other recalcitrants.In recent years advanced oxidation processes based on hydroxyl radical are paid special attention by scientific, research and industrial centers to degrade the pollutants. In this study, a combination of acid cracking and advanced oxidation process in terms of Fenton process have been studied. Results showed that acid cracking can remove 97, 47, 30, 63 and 57 percent of Turbidity, COD, Total Phenols, Color and Aromaticity, respectively. Fenton process in pH=3 at optimal conditions can remove 57, 97, 18 and 32 percent of COD, Total Phenols, Color and Aromaticity, respectively. Necessary time of reaction was 4 hrs and optimum concentration of H2O2 and Fe2+ ions was determined 0. 5 M and 0.02 M, respectively. Increasing temperature in the range of 25-35°C and type of iron used(ferric or ferrous has no considerable effect in  the efficiency of the process.

  10. Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2013-10-15

    The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ≤4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. KINETIC STUDIES ON BIODEGRADATION OF LIPIDS FROM OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS WITH FREE AND IMMOBILIZED Bacillus sp. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Irina Galaction

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the biodegradation of lipids from olive oil mill wastewater with free and immobilized Bacillus sp. cells indicated that the maximum specific rate of the process is reached at pH = 8. The use of immobilized cells allows to increasing the number of biodegradation process cycles, but reduces the rate of the process. In this case, the process rate depends on the biocatalysts size and cells concentration inside them. Thus, at bacterial cells concentration of 9 g d.w./100 mL biocatalyst, the apparent specific rate varied from 4.65 to 1.46×10-2 h-1 by increasing the biocatalyst particles diameter from 3 to 4.2 mm.The cumulated influences of the particles size and cells concentration have been included in a mathematical model for the apparent specific rate of lipids biodegradation. The model offers a good concordance with the experimental data, the average deviation being of +/- 7.38%.

  12. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  13. Fungal bioremediation of olive mill wastewater: using a multi-step approach to model inhibition or stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Cibelli, Francesca; Raimondo, Maria Luisa; Carlucci, Antonia; Lops, Francesco; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) possess a strong environmental impact; the use of fungi as tools for bioremediation could be a promising method. Twenty-nine fungi were grown on minimal media supplemented with five different kinds of OMWWs (5-15%). Radial growth was assessed for 21 days and the data were modelled through the Dantigny-logistic like function to estimate τ, i.e. the time to attain half of the maximum diameter. Growth on potato dextrose agar and water agar (WA, minimal medium without supplementation) was used as reference. The differences in τ between PDA/WA and minimal media with OMWWs were modelled through a multi-factorial ANOVA, using the concentration of OMWW, the kind of wastes and fungi as categorical predictors. Finally, a principal component analysis was run to group and divide resistant and sensitive fungi. Some fungi experienced a positive Δτ, thus suggesting an inhibition by OMWW, whereas other isolates were enhanced. Some isolates (for example Aspergillus ochraceus) showed a promising trend and could be possible candidates for a validation on a real scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Phenolic compounds removal from mimosa tannin model water and olive mill wastewater by energy-efficient electrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kraljić Roković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of NaCl concentration, time, and current density on the removal efficiency of phenolic compounds by electrocoagulation process, as well as to compare the specific energy consumption (SEC of these processes under different experimental conditions. Electrocoagulation was carried out on two different samples of water: model water of mimosa tannin and olive mill wastewater (OMW. Low carbon steel electrodes were used in the experiments. The properties of the treated effluent were determined using UV/Vis spectroscopy and by measuring total organic carbon (TOC. Percentage of removal increased with time, current density, and NaCl concentration. SEC value increased with increased time and current density but it was decreased significantly by NaCl additions (0-29 g L-1. It was found that electro­coagulation treatment of effluents containing phenolic compounds involves complex formation between ferrous/ferric and phenolic compounds present in treated effluent, which has significant impact on the efficiency of the process.

  15. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Khateeb, M.A. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: elkhateebcairo@yahoo.com; El-Kalliny, A.S. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose, Fe{sup +2}, COD:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio and Fe{sup +2}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l{sup -1} for {rho}-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l{sup -1} for cinnamic acid.

  16. Evaluation of Fungal Growth on Olive-Mill Wastewaters Treated at High Temperature and by High-Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cibelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs in agriculture represents a significant challenge for health and safety of our planet. Phytotoxic compounds in OMWW generally prohibit use of untreated OMWWs for agricultural irrigation or direct discharge into surface waters. However, pretreated OMWW can have positive effects on chemical and microbiological soil characteristics, to fight against fungal soil-borne pathogens. Low amounts of OMWW following thermal (TT-OMWW and high-pressure homogenization (HPH-OMWW pretreatments counteracted growth of some of 12 soil-borne and/or pathogenic fungi examined. With fungal growth measured as standardized change in time to half maximum colony diameter, Δτ, overall, HPH-OMWW showed increased bioactivity, as increased mean Δτ from 3.0 to 4.8 days. Principal component analysis highlighted two fungal groups: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Rosellinia necatrix, with growth strongly inhibited by the treated OMWWs; and Aspergillus ochraceus and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, with stimulated growth by the treated OMWWs. As a non-thermal treatment, HPH-OMWW generally shows improved positive effects, which potentially arise from preservation of the phenols.

  17. Odor control in evaporation ponds treating olive mill wastewater through the use of Ca(OH)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoudianaki, E; Manios, T; Geniatakis, M; Frantzeskaki, N; Manios, V

    2003-01-01

    Different amounts of Ca(OH)2 were added in 2 L beakers containing 1 L of olive mill wastewater (OMW). The mixture was stirred for 45 min and left to settle. Wastewater analysis was used in order to determine the effect of the different amounts of calcium hydroxide in the treating process, three days after the application. The Odor Detection Threshold was used for determining the effect of the treatment in the odors produced in the beakers, three and 30 days after. Both sets of measurements indicated an important reduction in wastewater pollutants and odor emission when 10 g/L of Ca(OH)2 were added. In order to evaluate these results in more realistic conditions. 10 L plastic containers were filled with 6 L of OMW, relevant amounts of Ca(OH)2 were added, the mixture was stirred manually and left to settle in the open. Again, 10 g/L of calcium hydroxide produced the best results in odor reduction and wastewater treatment.

  18. Anaerobic acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters in biofilm reactors packed with ceramic filters or granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Lampis, Silvia; Todaro, Daniela; Scoma, Alberto; Vallini, Giovanni; Marchetti, Leonardo; Majone, Mauro; Fava, Fabio

    2010-08-01

    Four identically configured anaerobic packed bed biofilm reactors were developed and employed in the continuous acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be exploited in the biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ceramic porous cubes or granular activated carbon were used as biofilm supports. Aside packing material, the role of temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA production yield and mixture composition were also studied. The process was monitored through a chemical, microbiological and molecular biology integrated procedure. The highest wastewater acidification yield was achieved with the ceramic-based technology at 25 degrees C, with an inlet COD and an OLR of about 17 g/L and 13 g/L/day, respectively. Under these conditions, about the 66% of the influent COD (not including its VFA content) was converted into VFAs, whose final amount represented more than 82% of the influent COD. In particular, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were the main VFAs by composing the 55.7, 21.5 and 14.4%, respectively, of the whole VFA mixture. Importantly, the relative concentrations of acetate and propionate were affected by the OLR parameter. The nature of the packing material remarkable influenced the process performances, by greatly affecting the biofilm bacterial community structure. In particular, ceramic cubes favoured the immobilization of Firmicutes of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium, which were probably involved in the VFA producing process. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  20. Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hanandeh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar.

  1. The importance of pretreatment tailoring on the performance of ultrafiltration membranes to treat two-phase olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando Pulido, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of an ultrafiltration (UF membrane in the treatment of the effluents by-produced by olive mills is addressed by applying different pretreatments on the raw effluents. By conducting a photo-catalytic process (UV/TiO2 PC after pH-temperature flocculation (pH-T F higher threshold flux values were observed for all feed stocks than by applying solely the pH-T F process, with an 18.8–34.2% increment. In addition, the performance of the UF membrane was also improved in terms of rejection efficiency, such that higher rejection values were yielded by the membrane for the organic pollutants (RCOD by 48.5 vs. 39.9% and 53.4 vs. 42.0%. The UF membrane performance was also improved in terms of the volume feed recovery factor (VFR, achieving up to 88.2 vs. 87.2% and 90.7 vs. 89.3%. Results in the same line were also observed when the highly polluted olives oil washing wastewater raw stream was previously mixed with the effluent stream coming from the washing of the olives. This permits the UF to permeate, achieving the standard limits to reuse the purified effluent for irrigation purposes (COD values below 1000 mg·L−1, which makes the treatment process cost-effective and results in making the olive oil production process environmentally friendly.En este estudio se aborda el rendimiento de una membrana de ultrafiltración (UF para el tratamiento de los efluentes generados por la industria oleícola, mediante la aplicación de distintos pretratamientos. Tras aplicar un proceso fotocatalítico (UV/TiO2 PC después de una floculación pH-temperatura (pH-T F se observaron flujos límite para todos los efluentes mayores que tras la aplicación únicamente del proceso pH-T F, con incrementos del 18.8–34.2 %. Además, el rendimiento de la membrana de UF mejoró en términos de eficiencia de rechazo, con mayores valores de rechazo respecto de los contaminantes orgánicos (RCOD, 48.5 vs. 39.9 % y 53.4 vs. 42.0 %. El rendimiento de

  2. Energetic Valorization of Wet Olive Mill Wastes through a Suitable Integrated Treatment: H2O2 with Lime and Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Siciliano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the disposal of residues of olive oil industries represents an important environmental issue. In recent years, many techniques were proposed to improve the characteristics of these wastes with the aim to use them for methane generation in anaerobic digestion processes. Nevertheless, these techniques, in many cases, result costly as well as difficult to perform. In the present work, a simple and useful process that exploits H2O2 in conjunction with lime is developed to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability of wet olive mill wastes (WMOW. Several tests were performed to investigate the influence of lime amount and H2O2 addition modality. The treatment efficiency was positively affected by the increase of lime dosage and by the sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide. The developed process allows reaching phenols abatements up to 80% and volatile fatty acids productions up to 90% by using H2O2 and Ca(OH2 amounts of 0.05 gH2O2/gCOD and 35 g/L, respectively. The results of many batch anaerobic digestion tests, carried out by means of laboratory equipment, proved that the biogas production from fresh wet olive mill wastes is hardly achievable. On the contrary, organic matter abatements, around to 78%, and great methane yields, up to 0.34–0.35 LCH4/gCODremoved, were obtained on pretreated wastes.

  3. Pesticide interactions with soil affected by olive mill wastewater (OMW): how strong and long-lasting is the OMW effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Diehl, Dörte; Tamimi, Nisreen; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2017-04-01

    Sorption interactions with soils are well known to control the environmental fate of multiple organic compounds including pesticides. Pesticide-soil interactions may be affected by organic amendments or organic matter (OM)-containing wastewater brought to the field. Specifically, land spreading of olive mill wastewater (OMW), occurring intentionally or not, may also influence pesticide-soil interactions. The effects of the OMW disposed in the field on soil properties, including their ability to interact with pesticides, become of great interest due to the increasing demand for olive oil and a constant growth of world oil production. This paper summarizes some recent findings related to the effect of prior OMW land application on the ability of soils to interact with the organic compounds including pesticides, diuron and simazine. The major findings are as following: (1) bringing OMW to the field increases the potential of soils to sorb non-ionized pesticides; (2) this sorption increase may not be related solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content but it can reflect also the changes in the soil sorption mechanisms; (3) increased pesticide interactions with OMW-affected soils may become irreversible, due, assumedly, to the swelling of some components of the OMW-treated soil; (4) enhanced pesticide-soil interactions mitigate with the time passed after the OMW application, however, in the case of diuron, the remaining effect could be envisioned at least 600 days after the normal OMW application; (5) the enhancement effect of OMW application on soil sorption may increase with soil depth, in the 0-10 cm interval; (6) at higher pesticide (diuron) concentrations, larger extents of sorption enhancement, following the prior OMW-soil interactions, may be expected; (7) disposal of OMW in the field may be seasonal-dependent, and, in the case studied, it led to more distinct impacts on sorption when carried out in spring and winter, as compared with summer. It appears

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  5. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  6. On Operating a Nanofiltration Membrane for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification at Sub- and Super-Boundary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Marco; Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Field, Robert

    2017-07-14

    In the last decades, membrane processes have gained a significant share of the market for wastewater purification. Although the product (i.e., purified water) is not of high added value, these processes are feasible both technically and from an economic point of view, provided the flux is relatively high and that membrane fouling is strongly inhibited. By controlling membrane fouling, the membrane may work for years without service, thus dramatically reducing operating costs and the need for membrane substitution. There is tension between operating at high permeate fluxes, which enhances fouling but reduces capital costs, and operating at lower fluxes which increases capital costs. Operating batch membrane processes leads to increased difficulties, since the feed fed to the membrane changes as a function of the recovery value. This paper is concerned with the operation of such a process. Membrane process designers should therefore avoid membrane fouling by operating membranes away from the permeate flux point where severe fouling is triggered. The design and operation of membrane purification plants is a difficult task, and the precision to properly describe the evolution of the fouling phenomenon as a function of the operating conditions is a key to success. Many reported works have reported on the control of fouling by operating below the boundary flux. On the other hand, only a few works have successfully sought to exploit super-boundary operating conditions; most super-boundary operations are reported to have led to process failures. In this work, both sub- and super-boundary operating conditions for a batch nanofiltration membrane process used for olive mill wastewater treatment were investigated. A model to identify a priori the point of transition from a sub-boundary to a super-boundary operation during a batch operation was developed, and this will provide membrane designers with a helpful tool to carefully avoid process failures.

  7. Olive mill wastewater disposal in evaporation ponds in Sfax (Tunisia): moisture content effect on microbiological and physical chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Hadrich, Bilel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2009-11-01

    The study of the isotherms desorption of olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated to describe its water activity under different saturated environments. The microbial biodegradation of OMW during its storage in 5 evaporation ponds located in Agareb (Sfax-Tunisia) was carried out during the oil-harvesting year held 105 days in 2004. Gravimetric static method using saturated salt solutions was used and OMW as placed at 30 degrees C and under different water activities ranging from 0.11 to 0.90. Eight models were taken from the literature to describe experimental desorption isotherms. During storage, the evolution of physico-chemical parameters including pH, temperature, evaporation, humidity, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phenols and three microbiological flora (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds) were considered. At 30 degrees C, when relative humidity increased in the experimented ponds of 69, 84 and 90%, the evaporation speed decreased from 1.24 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1), from 6 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) and from 5 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) respectively. The desorption isotherm exhibited a sigmoidal curve corresponding to type II, typical of many organic material. The GAB and Peleg models gave the best fit for describing the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and water activity in OMW (R (2) = 0.998). During the storage period, the analysis showed an increase of all the physico-chemical parameters studied, except phenols and total phosphorus concentrations. The microbiological study showed the predominance of yeasts and moulds and the decrease of bacteria population after 75 days reflecting both effect of recalcitrant compounds and the water activity on microbial growth.

  8. Effect of feedstock composition and organic loading rate during the mesophilic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Kotsopoulos, T.A.; Martzopoulos, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the optimisation of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) together with swine manure (SM) was investigated. Batch and continuous mode experiments were performed in order to define the most efficient mixing ratio and to determine...... yield of the reactors fed with 40% OMW reached 373mL CH4/gVS (78% of the theoretical yield). The findings of the present study proved that the co-digestion of OMW together with SM is a sustainable solution, capable to efficiently treat simultaneously these residual residues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  9. Valorization of Olive Mill Wastewater by Membrane Processes to Recover Natural Antioxidant Compounds for Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Applications or Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Alberto; Corsuto, Luisana; Finamore, Rosario; Savarese, Maria; Ferrara, Filomena; Falco, Salvatore; Santabarbara, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2018-05-23

    Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts of metabolism. The objective of this research project was to recover the biologically active components rich in polyphenols, which include treatment of olive oil mills wastewater, and, at the same time, to remove the pollutant waste component resulting from the olive oil manufacturing processes. With specific focus on using technologies based on the application of ultra and nanofiltration membranes, the polyphenols fraction was extracted after an initial flocculation step. The nano-filtration permeate showed a reduction of about 95% of the organic load. The polyphenols recovery after two filtration steps was about 65% w / v . The nanofiltration retentate, dried using the spray dryer technique, was tested for cell viability after oxidative stress induction on human keratinocytes model in vitro and an improved cell reparation in the presence of this polyphenolic compound was demonstrated in scratch assays assisted through time lapse video-microscopy. The polyphenols recovered from these treatments may be suitable ingredients in cosmeceuticals and possibly nutraceutical preparations or functional foods.

  10. Ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols from olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi, Angelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biofiltration ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove polyphenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD from olive mill wastewater (OMWw collected from the traditional (TS and continuous (CS extraction systems. Azolla biomass was packed into five sequential Imhoff cones and five sequential columns. In both experiments, the filtrates collected from the 5th biofilter showed a decrease in polyphenol contents: from 7650 mg l–1 to 3610 mg l–1 in TS OMWw and from 3852 mg l–1 to 1351 mg l–1 in CS OMWw. The COD contents decreased from 110200 mg L–1 to 52400 mg L–1 in TS OMWw and from 41600 mg L–1 to 2300 mg L–1 in CS OMWw. A 5:1 OMWw to Azolla-fresh-weight ratio was optimal for both polyphenol and COD removal. The biofiltration ability of alfalfa was compared with that of Azolla, but the treatment with alfalfa did not result in the reduction of COD or polyphenols.La eficacia del helecho de agua azolla para eliminar polifenoles y reducir la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de los alpechines obtenidos en el proceso de obtención tradicional y continuo del aceite de oliva, fue investigado mediante ensayos de filtración. Cinco conos secuenciales de Imhoff y cinco columnas secuenciales se rellenaron de biomasa de Azolla. En ambos experimentos, el filtrado procedente de la quinta extracción mostró una disminución en el contenido de polifenoles de 7650 mg L–1 a 3610 mg L–1en el alpechín obtenido mediante el sistema tradicional y de 3852 mg L–1 a 1351 mg L–1en el alpechín del sistema continuo. La demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín del sistema tradicional disminuyó de 110200 mg L–1 a 52400 mg L–1 en y de 41600 mg L–1a 2300 mg L–1en el procedente del sistema continuo. Una proporción en peso 5:1 de alpechín: Azolla fue la óptima tanto para la reducción de los polifenoles como para la de la DQO. La eficiencia del tratamiento biológico con alfalfa se comparó con la obtenida con Azolla. Los

  11. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid-state reactions during mechanical milling of Fe-Al under nitrogen atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Čížek, J.; Jančík, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 568, AUG (2013), s. 106-111 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : milling * mechanical alloying * Mössbauer phase analysis * Fe-Al alloy * microstructure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2013

  13. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  14. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of OMW. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46–51% in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials. PMID:24790964

  15. Recovery of soil properties after seedlings Inoculation with AM fungi and addition of composted olive mill waste in the regeneration of a heavy metal polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) on the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal polluted soil. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96% and 60% respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soils properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided G-mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs; because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy-metal contaminated soils derived from mining process, and also can be a good way for olive mill wastes disposal.

  16. Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1).

  17. Effects of Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Microarthropods and Soil Chemistry in Two Different Cultivation Scenarios in Israel and Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Peter Kurtz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although olive mill wastewater (OMW is often applied onto soil and is known to be phytotoxic, its impact on soil fauna is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate how OMW spreading in olive orchards affects Oribatida and Collembola communities, physicochemical soil properties and their interdependency. For this, we treated plots in two study sites (Gilat, Bait Reema with OMW. Among others, the sites differed in irrigation practice, soil type and climate. We observed that soil acidity and water repellency developed to a lower extent in Gilat than in Bait Reema. This may be explained by irrigation-induced dilution and leaching of OMW compounds in Gilat. In Bait Reema, OMW application suppressed emergence of Oribatida and induced a community shift, but the abundance of Collembola increased in OMW and water-treated plots. In Gilat, Oribatida abundance increased after OMW application. The effects of OMW application on soil biota result from an interaction between stimulation of biological activity and suppression of sensitive species by toxic compounds. Environmental and management conditions are relevant for the degree and persistence of the effects. Moreover, this study underlines the need for detailed research on the ecotoxicological effects of OMW at different application rates.

  18. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  19. A new framework proposal, towards a common EU agricultural policy, with the best sustainable practices for the re-use of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsos, T M; Chatzistathis, T; Balampekou, E I

    2018-05-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a serious environmental issue for the Mediterranean countries. However, there is still no common European legislation on the management and the re-use of OMW in agriculture, in the frame of sustainable crop management and the standards for the safe OMW disposal and re-use are left to be set by each EU country, individually. This review paper presents the most effective and sustainable practices for OMW, (treatment, application and management), which can maximize the benefits of OMW on crops and soils, while minimizing the potential hazards for public health, thus promoting environmental sustainability. The findings of this synthetic work suggest that there is enough information and proven sustainable practices to go ahead with the initial formulation of a new consensual framework, environmentally acceptable, socially bearable and economically viable, that could hopefully help to set the standards for the re-use of olive mil wastewater and can lead to a common EU policy on the management and re-use of OMW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Composted versus Raw Olive Mill Waste as Substrates for the Production of Medicinal Mushrooms: An Assessment of Selected Cultivation and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios I. Zervakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, “alperujo” is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota, that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120–135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20–40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium. Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  1. Composted versus raw olive mill waste as substrates for the production of medicinal mushrooms: an assessment of selected cultivation and quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Katsaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, "alperujo") is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota), that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120-135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea) and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20-40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium). Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  2. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  3. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Structural Relaxations and Thermodynamic Properties of Molecular Amorphous Solids by Mechanical Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukushi, I.; Yamamuro, O.; Matsuo, T.

    The organic crystals of tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TMCD) and its three clathrate compounds containing benzoic acid (BA), p-nitrobenzoic acid (NBA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), sucrose (SUC), salicin (SAL), phenolphthalein (PP), 1,3,5-tri-α-naphthylbenzene (TNB) were amorphized by milling with a vibrating mill for 2 ˜ 16 hours at room temperature. The amorphization was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction. The heat capacities of crystals, liquid quenched glasses (LQG), and mechanically-milled amorphous solid (MMAS) of TMCD and TNB were measured with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range between 12 and 375 K. For both compounds, the enthalpy relaxation of MMAS appeared in the wide temperature range below Tg and the released configurational enthalpy was much larger than that of LQG, indicating that MMAS is more disordered and strained than LQG.

  5. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  6. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  7. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; D'Antuono, Isabella; Durante, Miriana; Conte, Amalia; Cardinali, Angela; Linsalata, Vito; Mita, Giovanni; Logrieco, Antonio F; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2018-04-16

    During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% ( w / w ). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  8. Substrate milling pretreatment as a key parameter for Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Hamelin, J; Steyer, J-P; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Dumas, C

    2014-12-01

    The effect of milling pretreatment on performances of Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) of raw lignocellulosic residue is still controverted. Three batch reactors treating different straw particle sizes (milled 0.25 mm, 1 mm and 10 mm) were followed during 62 days (6 sampling dates). Although a fine milling improves substrate accessibility and conversion rate (up to 30% compared to coarse milling), it also increases the risk of media acidification because of rapid and high acids production during fermentation of the substrate soluble fraction. Meanwhile, a gradual adaptation of microbial communities, were observed according to both reaction progress and methanogenic performances. The study concluded that particle size reduction affected strongly the performances of the reaction due to an increase of substrate bioaccessibility. An optimization of SS-AD processes thanks to particle size reduction could therefore be applied at farm or industrial scale only if a specific management of the soluble compounds is established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of olive mill wastewater (OMW) ozonation efficiency with the use of a battery of selected ecotoxicity and human toxicity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siorou, Sofia [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vgenis, Theodoros T.; Dareioti, Margarita A. [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Efthimiou, Ioanna [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Kornaros, Michael [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vlastos, Dimitris [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Raw- and ozonated-olive mill wastewater (OMW) toxic effects were investigated. • A battery of biological assays and toxic endpoints were used. • Ozonation for up to 300 min attenuates OMW toxicity, following phenols’ reduction. • Further OMW ozonation (>300 min) could enhance OMW toxicity. • OMW ozonation efficacy depends on OMW-derived intermediates and high NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N levels. - Abstract: The effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on a battery of biological assays, before and during the ozonation process, were investigated in order to assess ozone’s efficiency in removing phenolic compounds from OMW and decreasing the concomitant OMW toxicity. Specifically, ozonated-OMW held for 0, 60, 120, 300, 420, 540 min in a glass bubble reactor, showed a drastic reduction of OMW total phenols (almost 50%) after 300 min of ozonation with a concomitant decrease of OMW toxicity. In particular, the acute toxicity test primarily performed in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Thamnotoxkit F™ screening toxicity test) showed a significant attenuation of OMW-induced toxic effects, after ozonation for a period of 120 and in a lesser extent 300 min, while further treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of ozonated-OMW toxic effects. Furthermore, ozonated-OMW-treated mussel hemocytes showed a significant attenuation of the ability of OMW to cause cytotoxic (obtained by the use of NRRT assay) effects already after an ozonation period of 120 and to a lesser extent 300 min. In accordance with the latter, OMW-mediated oxidative (enhanced levels of superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation by-products) and genotoxic (induction of DNA damage) effects were diminished after OMW ozonation for the aforementioned periods of time. The latter was also revealed by the use of cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes exposed to different concentrations of both raw- and ozonated-OMW for 60, 120 and 300 min. Those findings

  10. Thermogravimetric analysis of the co-combustion of paper mill sludge and municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Shanchao; Ma, Xiaoqian; Lin, Yousheng; Yu, Zhaosheng; Fang, Shiwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermogravimetric analysis of paper mill sludge and municipal solid waste were studied. • The combustion of paper mill sludge could be improved by blending municipal solid waste. • There existed significant interaction during co-combustion of the blends. • The OFW and Starink methods were used to obtain the activation energy. • The average activation energy was the lowest by blending 20% municipal solid waste. - Abstract: The thermal characteristics and kinetics of paper mill sludge (PMS), municipal solid waste (MSW) and their blends in the combustion process were investigated in this study. The mass percentages of PMS in the blends were 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%, respectively. The experiments were carried out at different heating rates (10 °C/min, 20 °C/min and 30 °C/min) and the temperature ranged from room temperature to 1000 °C in a thermogravimetric simultaneous thermal analyzer. The results suggested that the ignition temperature and burnout temperature of MSW were lower than that of PMS, and the mass loss rate of MSW was larger especially at low temperatures. There were only two mass loss peaks in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve, while three mass loss peaks were observed when the blending ratios of PMS were 30%, 50%, 70%. The value of the comprehensive combustion characteristic index of the blends indicated a good combustibility when the percentage of PMS (PPMS) in the blends was less than 30%. There existed certain interaction between the combustion process of PMS and MSW, especially at high temperature stage. Activation energy (E) value obtained by the Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW) method and the Starink method were very consistent. When the mass percentage of PMS in the blends was 80%, the E average value attained the minimum

  11. Settling of virgin olive oil from horizontal screw solid bowl in static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gila, Abraham M; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Beltrán, Gabriel; Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to study the clarification efficiency of natural decantation in settling tank on virgin olive oil obtained from a two-ways continuous process. For this purpose, the impurities content of the virgin olive oil were monitored during settling process in settling tank at two different depths. Efficiency of purging system was determined for two days. The experiments were performed at industrial scale during three crop years. During the first minutes of settling was observed an ascent of the smaller organic particles of the oil. Then, most of the virgin olive oil impurities were settled at 300 min, independently of the initial content of virgin olive oil. Finally, oil decantation showed slower rate. Higher clarification values were obtained for those decanter oils with higher impurities content, achieving clarification percentages between of 62.69 and 95.91% at 48 h of settling. The highest settling efficiency was observed for those decanter oils with initial higher impurities content. The purging system used in the settling tanks was not able to remove the most of settled impurities since a considerable amount of the impurities remained in the tank after 48 h, between 13.6 and 71.41% for the studied oils. In the tank purges was observed important oil losses. Therefore, decantation was not an efficient system for oil clarification since its settling capacity varied depending on the initial impurities content and due to the settled impurities can not be removed fully by purging system.

  12. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Papadopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW administered through drinking water, on chickens’ redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50 μg/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, protein carbonyls (CARB, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD in plasma, and glutathione (GSH and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  14. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Victor-Ortega, M.D.; Martinez-Ferez, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF) and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane) in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065), which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF). [es

  15. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  16. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Aliki; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Maimaris, Antonios; Makris, Haralampos; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Makri, Sotiria; Kerasioti, Efthalia; Halabalaki, Maria; Brieudes, Vincent; Ntasi, Georgia; Kokkas, Stylianos; Tzimas, Pavlos; Goulas, Panagiotis; Zakharenko, Alexander M; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) administered through drinking water, on chickens' redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50  μ g/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in plasma, and glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  17. Regarding the rejection performance of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane for the final purification of two-phase olive mill effluents previously treated by an advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Férez, A.

    2017-01-01

    In previous works on olive mill wastewater (OMW), secondary advanced oxidation treatment solved the problem related to the presence of phenolic compounds and considerable chemical oxygen demand. However, the effluent presented a significant salinity after this treatment. In this work, an adequate operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is addressed to ensure constant performance over a long period of time. In this paper, the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic membrane rejection performance towards the target species was examined and discussed. Rejection efficiencies of all species were observed to follow a similar pattern, which consisted of slight initial improvement that further decreased over time. Rejection of both divalent ions remained constant at over 99% regardless of the operating conditions. Rejections were noticed to follow the order SO42−> Cl−> NO3− and Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+, as a rule. Divalent species were moderately more highly rejected than monovalent ones, in accordance with their higher charge and molecular size, and sulfate anions were consistently rejected by over 99%. Finally, the RO membrane exiting treated effluent was depleted of the high electro conductivity initially present (above 97% rejection), permitting its re-use as good quality irrigation water (below 1 mS/cm). [es

  18. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  19. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Leonardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter

  1. Photo-Fenton treatment of saccharin in a solar pilot compound parabolic collector: Use of olive mill wastewater as iron chelating agent, preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davididou, K; Chatzisymeon, E; Perez-Estrada, L; Oller, I; Malato, S

    2018-03-14

    The aim of this work was to investigate the treatment of the artificial sweetener saccharin (SAC) in a solar compound parabolic collector pilot plant by means of the photo-Fenton process at pH 2.8. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) was used as iron chelating agent to avoid acidification of water at pH 2.8. For comparative purposes, Ethylenediamine-N, N-disuccinic acid (EDDS), a well-studied iron chelator, was also employed at circumneutral pH. Degradation products formed along treatment were identified by LC-QTOF-MS analysis. Their degradation was associated with toxicity removal, evaluated by monitoring changes in the bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Results showed that conventional photo-Fenton at pH 2.8 could easily degrade SAC and its intermediates yielding k, apparent reaction rate constant, in the range of 0.64-0.82 L kJ -1 , as well as, eliminate effluent's chronic toxicity. Both OMW and EDDS formed iron-complexes able to catalyse H 2 O 2 decomposition and generate HO. OMW yielded lower SAC oxidation rates (k = 0.05-0.1 L kJ -1 ) than EDDS (k = 2.21-7.88 L kJ -1 ) possibly due to its higher TOC contribution. However, the degradation rates were improved (k = 0.13 L kJ -1 ) by increasing OMW dilution in the reactant mixture. All in all, encouraging results were obtained by using OMW as iron chelating agent, thus rendering this approach promising towards the increase of process sustainability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  3. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Steam jet mill-a prospective solution to industrial exhaust steam and solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingxing; Chen, Haiyan

    2018-04-20

    Bulk industrial solid wastes occupy a lot of our resources and release large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances to the surrounding environment, demanding innovative strategies for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling for economically ultrafine powder. A new technology for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling solid waste is proposed, using the superheated steam produced from the industrial exhaust steam to disperse, grind, classify, and collect the industrial solid waste. A large-scale steam jet mill was designed to operate at an inlet steam temperature 230-300 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.2-0.6 MPa. A kind of industrial solid waste fluidized-bed combustion ashes was used to grinding tests at different steam temperatures and inlet pressures. The total process for grinding, classification, and collection is drying. Two kinds of particle sizes are obtained. One particle size is d 50  = 4.785 μm, and another particle size is d 50  = 8.999 μm. For particle size d 50  = 8.999 μm, the inlet temperature is 296 °C and an inlet pressure is 0.54 MPa for the grinding chamber. The steam flow is 21.7 t/h. The yield of superfine powder is 73 t/h. The power consumption is 3.76 kW h/t. The obtained superfine powder meets the national standard S95 slag. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to solid waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, large-scale, low-cost, promising, and green method for both solid waste recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of oil mill waste water from Tunisian olive varieties (Chetoui and Chemlali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Khemakhem Sellami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil mill waste water (OMWW is of great interest due to the presence of valuable resources such as biophenols that can be recovered as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of physicochemical composition of OMWW from Chetoui and Chemlali varieties, to evaluate phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of OMWW extracts under native and acidified conditions. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed for the extraction of polyphenols. Antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP tests. Phenolic compounds content was determined by HPLC-DAD method. OMWW from Chetoui variety has been shown to contain an important amount of K, Ca and Na whereas Chemlali cultivar was rich in Mg. Phenolic extract from Chetoui fruit (COCt has been  shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols (2.48 ± 0.21 g L-1 as well as an appreciable content of flavonoids (9.39 ± 0.32 g L-1. However, phenolic extract from Chemlali fruit (COCm has been shown to have the highest content of proanthocyanidins (0.39 ± 0.00 g L-1. Acidification treatment improved polyphenol recovery of extracts from both varieties. COCt was more active using DPPH (EC50 of 7.5 mg L-1 and FRAP tests. However, COCt and COCm exhibited the same activity using ABTS test. In general, acidification treatment decreased antioxidant activity of extracts. COCt has been shown to contain higher amount of hydroxytyrosol when compared to COCm (157.16 ± 0.820 and 23.440 ± 0.440 mg g-1 D.W. of extract, respectively as revealed by HPLC-DAD analysis. 

  6. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Coriolopsis rigida laccases involved in transformation of the solid waste from olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rosario; Saparrat, Mario C N; Jurado, Miguel; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Martínez, María Jesús

    2010-09-01

    Two laccase isoenzymes were purified and characterized from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis rigida during transformation of the water-soluble fraction of "alpeorujo" (WSFA), a solid residue derived from the olive oil production containing high levels of toxic compounds. Zymogram assays of laccases secreted by the fungus growing on WSFA and WSFA supplemented with glucose showed two bands with isoelectric points of 3.3 and 3.4. The kinetic studies of the two purified isoenzymes showed similar affinity on 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), used as phenolic and non-phenolic model substrate, respectively. The molecular mass of both proteins was 66 kDa with 9% N-linked carbohydrate. Physico-chemical properties of the purified laccases from media containing WSFA were similar to those obtained from medium with glucose as the main carbon source. In-vitro studies performed with the purified laccases revealed a 42% phenol reduction of WSFA, as well as changes in the molecular mass distribution. These findings indicate that these laccases are involved in the process of transformation, via polymerization by the oxidation of phenolic compounds present in WSFA. A single laccase gene, containing an open reading frame of 1,488 bp, was obtained in PCR amplifications performed with cDNA extracted from mycelia grown on WSFA. The product of the gene shares 90% identity (95% similarity) with a laccase from Trametes trogii and 89% identity (95% similarity) with a laccase from Coriolopsis gallica. This is the first report on purification and molecular characterization of laccases directly involved in the transformation of olive oil residues.

  7. Appropriate conditions for applying NaOH-pretreated two-phase olive milling waste for codigestion with food waste to enhance biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallahi, Jumana; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2016-02-01

    The high methane gas production potential of two phase olive milling waste (2POMW) makes its application to biogas plants in business an economical process to increase the productivity of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate conditions for the codigestion of NaOH-pretreated 2POMW with food waste. NaOH pretreatment can increase the methane production by increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), but it may cause inhibition because of higher levels of alkalinity, sodium ion, volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Therefore, the first experimental phase of this study aimed to investigate the effect of different mixing ratios of 2POMW to food waste. A continuous stirred tank reactor experiment with different mixing ratios of 3%, 4.3%, 5.7% and 8.3% (2POMW: food waste) was conducted. NaOH pretreatment in the range of 6-20% was used. A mixing ratio up to 4.3%, when 10% NaOH pretreatment was used, caused no inhibition and increased methane production by 445.9mL/g-VS(2POMW). For this mixing ratio an additional experimental phase was conducted with the 20% NaOH pretreatment as the 20% NaOH pretreatment had the highest sCOD. The methane gas production was increased by 503.6mL/g-VS(2POMW). However, pH adjustment was required for applying this concentration of the high alkalinity 20% NaOH-pretreated 2POMW. Therefore, we consider using 10% NaOH pretreatment in a mixing ratio of 4.3% to be more applicable. The increase in methane gas production was correlated to the oleic acid concentration inside the reactors. The high oleic acid concentration of 61.8mg/L for the 8.3% mixing ratio was responsible for the strong inhibition. This study showed that adjusting the appropriate mixing ratio of the NaOH-pretreated 2POMW could increase the electricity production of a reactor that regularly receives food waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of cell immobilization on the treatment of olive mill wastewater by a total phenols, acetic acid and formic acid degrading bacterium strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errami, Mohamed

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW is a pure vegetative by-product, containing a high organic and polyphenol content and is resistant to biodegradation. Its disposal lead to major environmental pollution problems in the Mediterranean basin. An aerobic bacterium was isolated from OMW. During three consecutive diluted and supplemented OMW treatment cycles, significant abatement of its phytotoxic substances was observed. In fact, total phenols, acetic and formic acids were reduced between 33 and 64 % when cells of the isolated bacterium were grown free; and between 62 and 78 % when cells of the same isolated bacterium were grown immobilized in a polyurethane sponge. These results suggest that the bacterium culture of the new isolate would decrease the OMW phytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA showed that all the related sequences are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and revealed that the isolated bacterium was characterized as a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.El alpechín (OMW es un residuo puro de la extracción del aceite de oliva, que contiene una elevada carga orgánica y de polifenoles por lo que es resistente a la degradación. Su descarga produce graves problemas de contaminación medioambiental en toda el área mediterránea. Se ha aislado una bacteria anaerobia del OMW, que , durante tres ciclos consecutivos de tratamiento del OMW diluido y suplementado, produjo una disminución significativa de las sustancias fitotóxicas del residuo. De hecho, la concentración en fenoles totales, ácido acético y ácido fórmico se redujeron entre 33 y 64 % cuando las células no estaban inmovilizadas y entre el 62 y 78 % cuando las células bacterianas se inmovilizaron en una esponja de poliuretano. Estos resultados indican que el cultivo de la nueva bacteria aislada puede disminuir la fototoxicidad del alpechín. Análisis filogenético del ribosoma 16S de DNA demostró que todas las secuencias eran miembros de la familia

  9. Treatment of mine water and solid residues (RS) in San Rafael mining and milling complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.; Perrino, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    San Rafael Mining and Milling Complex is located in Mendoza Province, in San Rafael Department, 38 km West from San Rafael city and 240 km south from Mendoza city, capital of the province. Activities related with yellow cake production were performed from 1979 to 1999. Nowadays the mine and the plant are in stand by. At the moment technical, economic and environmental studies are being done in order to restart the activities. Different kind of residues are accumulated in the site: a) Tailing; b) Sludges; c) Low grade ores; e) Waste rock; f) Mine water; g) Solid residues (RS). In this paper methodology to treat mine water and solid residues (RS) will be informed. a) Mine water: 800.000 m 3 of mine water are accumulated in different open pit. Uranium, radium and arsenic are the main ions to take into account to treat the water. Several laboratory and pilot test have been performed in order to define the treatment of the water, according with the regulatory requirement. A methodology using anion exchange resin to fix uranium and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulfate to separate radium and arsenic has been developed. b) Solid residues (RS): these residues (precipitates) have been produced by neutralization of effluents in a nuclear purification process (TBP process). They are accumulated in drums. These residues come from Cordoba plant, a factory which produces UO 2 powder. The total content of uranium in the precipitate is 14.249 kg with an average uranium concentration of 1,33%. A methodology using sulfuric acid dissolution of the precipitates and anion exchange resin to recovery the uranium has been developed. (author) [es

  10. Fate and Prediction of Phenolic Secoiridoid Compounds throughout the Different Stages of the Virgin Olive Oil Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados

    2017-08-03

    The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process-crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation-is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed. During malaxation, the content of the main phenolic secoiridoids is reduced, especially in the case of the hydroxytyrosol derivatives, in which a variety-dependent behaviour is observed. The prediction of the concentration of phenolic secoiridoids finally transferred from the kneaded paste to the virgin olive oil is also feasible, and depends on the phenolic content and amount of water in the olive paste. The determination of the phenolic compounds in the olive fruit, olive paste and olive oil has been carried out by LC-MS (Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry). This improved knowledge could help in the use of more adequate processing conditions for the production of virgin olive oil with desired properties; for example, higher or lower phenolic content, as the amount of these minor components is directly related to its sensory, antioxidant and healthy properties.

  11. Paper sludge (PS) to bioethanol: Evaluation of virgin and recycle mill sludge for low enzyme, high-solids fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshoff, Sonja; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Paper sludge (PS) from the paper and pulp industry consists primarily of cellulose and ash and has significant potential for ethanol production. Thirty-seven PS samples from 11 South African paper and pulp mills exhibited large variation in chemical composition and resulting ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of PS in fed-batch culture was investigated at high solid loadings and low enzyme dosages. Water holding capacity and viscosity of the PS influenced ethanol production at elevated solid loadings of PS. High viscosity of PS from virgin pulp mills restricted the solid loading to 18% (w/w) at an enzyme dosage of 20 FPU/gram dry PS (gdPS), whereas an optimal solid loading of 27% (w/w) was achieved with corrugated recycle mill PS at 11 FPU/gdPS. Ethanol concentration and yield of virgin pulp and corrugated recycle PS were 34.2g/L at 66.9% and 45.5 g/L at 78.2%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions of phenols from virgin olive oil and their separation by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Bonoli, Matteo; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Biguzzi, Barbara; Lercker, Giovanni; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2003-01-24

    The high oxidative stability of virgin olive oil is related to its high monounsaturated/polyunsaturated ratio and to the presence of antioxidant compounds, such as tocopherols and phenols. In this paper, the isolation of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil, by different methods, was tested and discussed. Particularly liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction methods were compared, assaying, for the latter, three stationary phases (C8, C18 and Diol) and several elution mixtures. Quantification of phenolic and o-diphenolic substances in the extracts was performed by the traditional Folin-Ciocalteau method and the sodium molybdate reaction, respectively. Furthermore, the quantification of phenolic compounds in the extracts and in a standard mixture was carried out both with diode array and mass spectrometric detection and capillary zone electrophoresis.

  13. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando-Pulido, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW. Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065, which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF.En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF y ósmosis inversa (OI poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  14. Thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3-Bi2Se3 solid solutions prepared by attrition milling and hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Lim, Young-Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Park, Jae-Soung; Yang, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Bi 2 Te 3-y Se y (y = 0.15 - 0.6) solid solutions were prepared by attrition milling and hot pressing. The lattice constants decreased with increasing Se content, indicating that the Se atoms were successfully substituted into the Te sites. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction, and their electrical resistivities increased slightly with increasing temperature. With increasing Se content, the Seebeck coefficients increased while the thermal conductivity decreased due to the increase in phonon scattering. The maximum figure of merit obtained was 0.63 at 440 K for the undoped Bi 2 Te 2.4 Se 0.6 solid solution.

  15. Influence of solid loading on D-xylose production through dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of olive stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The selective hydrolysis of hemicellulose from olive stones was attempted in order to achieve a maximum D-xylose yield. For this aim, batch hydrolysis was conducted under different operating conditions of temperature, acid concentration and solid loading. Firstly, distilled water, sulphuric acid and nitric acid were assessed as hydrolytic agents at different temperatures (200, 205, 210 and 220 °C and at a fixed acid concentration (0.025 M. Sulphuric acid and 200 °C were selected for the subsequent dilute acid hydrolysis optimization based on the obtained D-xylose yields. The combined influence of solid loading (from 29.3 to 170.7 g olive stones into 300 mL acid solution and sulphuric acid concentration (0.006–0.034 M on the release of D-xylose was then estimated by response surface methodology. According to a statistical analysis, both parameters had significant interaction effects on D-xylose production. The results illustrated that the higher the solid loading, the higher the required acid concentration. The decrease in the solid/liquid ratio in the reactor had a positive effect on D-xylose extraction and on the amount of acid used. The optimum solid loading and sulphuric acid concentration were determined to be 50 g (solid/liquid ratio 1/6 and 0.016 M, respectively. Under these conditions, the predicted D-xylose yield (expressed as g of sugar per 100 g of dry matter fed was 20.4 (87.2% of maximum attainable.Se ha desarrollado una hidrólisis selectiva de la fracción hemicelulósica del hueso de aceituna con el fin de obtener el máximo rendimiento de D-xilosa. Para ello las hidrólisis se llevaron a cabo en un reactor discontinuo a distintas condiciones de temperatura, concentración de ácido y carga de sólidos. En primer lugar se evaluó la capacidad hidrolítica del agua destilada y de los ácidos nítrico y sulfúrico a distintas temperaturas (200, 205, 210 y 220°C manteniendo fija la concentración de ácido (0,025 M. A partir de

  16. Effect of glucosamine HCl on dissolution and solid state behaviours of piroxicam upon milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Edwards, Alison A; Douroumis, Dionysis; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Nayebi, Alireza Mohajjel; Reyhani-Rad, Siamak; Mahmoudi, Javad; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is characterised by low solubility and high permeability. In order to improve the drug dissolution rate, the co-grinding method was used as an approach to prepare piroxicam co-ground in the carriers such as glucosamine hydrochloride. As, this amino sugar (glucosamine HCl) has been shown to decrease pain and improve mobility in osteoarthritis in joints, therefore, the incorporation of glucosamine in piroxicam formulations would be expected to offer additional benefits to patients. The effect of the order of grinding on the dissolution of piroxicam was also investigated. Co-ground drug and glucosamine were prepared in different ratios using a ball mill. The samples were then subjected to different grinding times. In order to investigate the effect of the grinding process on the dissolution behaviour of piroxicam, the drug was ground separately in the absence of glucosamine. Mixtures of ground piroxicam and unground D-glucosamine HCl were prepared. Physical mixtures of piroxicam and glucosamine were also prepared for comparison. The properties of prepared co-ground systems and physical mixtures were studied using a dissolution tester, FTIR, SEM, XRPD and DSC. These results showed that the presence of glucosamine HCl can increase dissolution rate of piroxicam compared to pure piroxicam. Generally, all dissolution profiles showed the fastest dissolution rate when ground piroxicam was mixed with unground glucosamine. This was closely followed by the co-grinding of piroxicam with glucosamine where lower grinding times showed the fastest dissolution. The solid state studies showed that the grinding of piroxicam for longer times had no effect on polymorphic form of piroxicam, whereas mixtures of piroxicam-glucosamine ground for longer times (60 min) converted piroxicam polymorph II to polymorph I. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on microbiology of olive oil extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zanoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of approx. 200 kg olives from Frantoio and Moraiolo cultivars were processed in an oil mill at two dates of harvesting. Samples were collected in several steps of extraction process for sensory, chemical and microbial analyses.All extracted olive oil from the second olive harvesting date was affected by sensory defects and hence classified as being “non-extra virgin”. A distinction between extra virgin olive oil and nonextra virgin olive oil obtained from both harvesting dates was explained by the volatile compounds content of olive oil samples and by yeast and mould counts collected at different processing steps.

  18. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  19. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  20. Simulation of solid-liquid flows in a stirred bead mill based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winardi, S.; Widiyastuti, W.; Septiani, E. L.; Nurtono, T.

    2018-05-01

    The selection of simulation model is an important step in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain an agreement with experimental work. In addition, computational time and processor speed also influence the performance of the simulation results. Here, we report the simulation of solid-liquid flow in a bead mill using Eulerian model. Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) was also used to model the interaction between moving (shaft and disk) and stationary (chamber exclude shaft and disk) zones. Bead mill dimension was based on the experimental work of Yamada and Sakai (2013). The effect of shaft rotation speed of 1200 and 1800 rpm on the particle distribution and the flow field was discussed. For rotation speed of 1200 rpm, the particles spread evenly throughout the bead mill chamber. On the other hand, for the rotation speed of 1800 rpm, the particles tend to be thrown to the near wall region resulting in the dead zone and found no particle in the center region. The selected model agreed well to the experimental data with average discrepancies less than 10%. Furthermore, the simulation was run without excessive computational cost.

  1. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  2. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  3. Physicochemical properties of direct compression tablets with spray dried and ball milled solid dispersions of tadalafil in PVP-VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, K; Tajber, L; Sawicki, W

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop immediate release tablets comprising solid dispersion (IRSDTs) of tadalafil (Td) in a vinylpyrrolidone and vinyl acetate block copolymer (PVP-VA), characterized by improved dissolution profiles. The solid dispersion of Td in PVP-VA (Td/PVP-VA) in a weight ratio of 1:1 (w/w) was prepared using two different processes i.e. spray drying and ball milling. While the former process has been well established in the formulation of IRSDTs the latter has not been exploited in these systems yet. Regardless of the preparation method, both Td/PVP-VA solid dispersions were amorphous as confirmed by PXRD, DSC and FTIR. However, different morphology of particles (SEM) resulted in differences in water apparent solubility and disk intrinsic dissolution rate (DIDR). Both solid dispersions and crystalline Td were successfully made into directly compressible tablets at three doses of Td, i.e. 2.5mg, 10mgand20mg, yielding nine different formulations (D 1 -D 9 ). Each of the lots met the requirements set by Ph.Eur. and was evaluated with respect to appearance, diameter, thickness, mass, hardness, friability, disintegration time and content of Td. IRSDTs performed as supersaturable formulations and had significantly improved water dissolution profiles in comparison with equivalent tablets containing crystalline Td and the marketed formulations. Tablets with both spray dried and ball milled Td/PVP-VA revealed the greatest improvement in dissolution depending on the investigated doses, i.e. 2.5mgand20mg, respectively. Also, dissolution of Td from Td/PVP-VA delivered in different forms occurred in the following order: powders>tablets>capsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the origin of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Morchio, G

    1995-04-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and styrene were determined in olives and the oils produced thereof, as well as at various intermediate steps during production. Concentrations were compared to those found in samples of air taken from the olive grove and the olive mills. In an exposition experiment in the laboratory, olives absorbed aromatic compounds, approaching saturation corresponding to the partition coefficient between air and oil. However, concentrations in olives delivered to the mills were 4-10 times higher than expected from the analysis of the air in the olive grove. In the olive mills, concentrations were increased further by a factor of up to 2 because of uptake from air which contained high concentrations of aromatics. Styrene concentrations strongly increased during storage of crushed olives at ambient temperature, which confirms the hypothesis that styrene is a product of metabolism.

  5. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893

  6. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  7. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  8. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  9. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps

  10. 226Ra and 210Pb relationship in solid wastes and plants at Uranium mill tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madruga, M.J.; Faria, I.; Brogueira, A.

    2002-01-01

    After the uranium extraction from the ore, the waste residues (tailings) contain several radionuclides in elevated levels comparing to normal soils. Nearly all of the uranium progenies (2 30T h, 2 26R a, 2 10P b and 2 10P o) and the unextracted uranium fraction are present in tailings. These large quantities of tailings may provide a significant source of environmental and food chain contamination. The transfer of radioisotopes between different ecological compartments is frequently evaluated using ratios which relate the radionuclide content in one ecosystem compartment to that of another. For instance, the concentration ratio (CR), i.e., the ratio between radionuclide concentrations in tailings and plants can be evaluated. Radium-226, a long-lived alfa emitter, is a chemical analog of calcium. The 2 26R a uptake is similar to calcium in biological and ecological systems. The uptake of 2 10P b will follow the same pattern as natural lead. Plants do not require lead but in contrast they require the Ra/Ca group elements. The uptake of lead is mainly a function of the lead tolerance of the plant and the hydrogen ion concentration of the soil. Kalin and Sharma (1982) reported that 2 26R a and 2 10P b uptake by indigenous species from inactive uranium mill tailings in Canada differ from the uptake of the elements by the same plants growing in soil. Ibrahim and Whicker (1992) reported that tailing acidity tends to enhance radionuclide availability for plant uptake. The transport of radionuclides to foliage and subsequent retention and absorption may play a role in plant contamination. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the 2 26R a and 2 10P b relationship in tailings and plants growing at uranium mill tailings

  11. Optimization of lipase production by solid-state fermentation of olive pomace: from flask to laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José M; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Lipases are versatile catalysts with many applications and can be produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes. The aim of this work was to maximize the production of Aspergillus ibericus lipase under SSF of olive pomace (OP) and wheat bran (WB), evaluating the effect on lipase production of C/N ratio, lipids, phenols, content of sugars of substrates and nitrogen source addition. Moreover, the implementation of the SSF process in a packed-bed bioreactor and the improvement of lipase extraction conditions were assessed. Low C/N ratios and high content of lipids led to maximum lipase production. Optimum SSF conditions were achieved with a C/N mass ratio of 25.2 and 10.2% (w/w) lipids in substrate, by the mixture of OP:WB (1:1) and supplemented with 1.33% (w/w) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Studies in a packed-bed bioreactor showed that the lower aeration rates tested prevented substrate dehydration, improving lipase production. In this work, the important role of Triton X-100 on lipase extraction from the fermented solid substrate has been shown. A final lipase activity of 223 ± 5 U g -1 (dry basis) was obtained after 7 days of fermentation.

  12. Estudio del efecto de la adición de alperujo sobre la persis­tencia de diuron en el cultivo del olivar Study of the effect of olive mill waste "alperujo" addition on the persis­tence of diuron in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estu­diar el efecto de la aplicación de alperujo (residuo de almazara sobre la persisten­cia y el movimiento del herbicida diuron [3-(3,4-diclorofenil-1,1-dimetilurea] en un olivar en Mengíbar (Jaén, España. La parcela se dividió en 2 subparcelas, un en la que no se aplicó enmienda al suelo y otra donde se aplicó alperujo (18000 kg ha-1. Tras la aplicación del herbicida a una dosis de 2 kg/ha se tomaron muestras de suelo por triplicado en cada subparce­la, a distintas profundidades y distintos días desde la aplicación de diuron. Des­pués de secar, limpiar las muestras de sue-lo y tamizarlas, se procedió a la extrac­ción de diuron con metanol y se analizó por HPLC. Se observó una mayor canti­dad de diurón en el suelo enmendado que en el suelo no enmendado en todas las muestras. Sin embargo, la movilidad de diuron no aumentó con el tiempo en el suelo enmendado.The aim of this work was to study the ef­fect of "alperujo" (olive mill waste on the persistence and the mobility of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dime­thylurea] in an olive grove from Mengíbar (Jaén, Spain. The plot was divided in two subplots, one where no amendement was applied and another one where "alperujo" was applied to the soil (18.000 kg ha-1. Af­ter herbicide application at a rate of 2 kg/ha, three replicates of soil were sampled at each subplot, at different depths and different days after diuron application. After drying, cleaning and sieving samples diuron was extracted with methanol and the extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Higher amounts of diuron were recovered from amended soil than from non amended soil in every sam­ple. However, diuron mobility in amen-ded soil did not increase with time.

  13. The ionic conductivity and dielectric properties of Ba{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}F{sub 2} solid solutions prepared by mechanochemical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mohamad M., E-mail: mmohamad@kfu.edu.sa [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsaa 31982 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Science and Mathematics, Faculty of Education in The New Valley, Assiut University, El-Kharga 72511 (Egypt); Yamane, Yohei; Yamada, Koji [Department of Applied Molecular Chemistry, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba 275-8575 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • New Ba{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}F{sub 2} compositions have been synthesized by the mechanochemical milling. • Considerably higher ionic conductivity is obtained when increasing SnF{sub 2} content. • The increased conductivity is due to the enhanced mobility of fluoride ions -- Abstract: Solid solutions of Ba{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}F{sub 2} fluoride ion conductors, with x = 0.1–0.4, have been synthesized by the mechanochemical milling technique for the first time. All of the prepared materials crystallize in the cubic fluorite-type structure, which indicates that the solid solution can be synthesized in the studied composition range by the mechanochemical milling technique at ambient temperature and pressure. The ionic conduction of the investigated materials has been studied by impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity increased considerably, by up to six orders of magnitude compared to pure un-milled BaF{sub 2}, with increasing SnF{sub 2} content. From the analysis of the conductivity spectra of the investigated materials it is found that the concentration of mobile fluoride ions is independent of temperature with almost the same values for the investigated materials. The present results suggest that the enhanced mobility of mobile ions is the origin of the higher ionic conductivity. The dielectric properties and the associated relaxation phenomena of the current materials are also described.

  14. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system; Comparación entre métodos de extracción líquido-líquido y en fase sólida previos a la identificación de la fracción fenólica presente en las aguas residuales procedentes del lavado del aceite de oliva obtenido mediante el sistema de extracción de aceite de oliva en dos fases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-07-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [Spanish] Los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las aguas residuales de la industria oleícola (OMW) se caracterizan por una gran actividad antioxidante. Por otra parte, suponen un problema medioambiental debido a que son difíciles de degradar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de estos compuestos biológicamente activos que se encuentran en las OMW generadas del proceso de obtención del aceite de oliva por el sistema de dos fases, para así convertir un residuo contaminante en una fuente de antioxidantes naturales. Tras optimizar el proceso de extracción de los compuestos fenólicos utilizando extracción líquido-líquido (LLE) y extracción en fase sólida (SPE), se obtuvo que la secuencia más apropiada comprendió una centrifugación previa para eliminar la fracción lipídica, seguida de una extracción líquida con acetato de etilo o una SPE. Los compuestos más importantes identificados en las aguas residuales del lavado del aceite

  15. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [ 3 H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [ 14 C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [ 14 C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [ 14 C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F 2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  16. Lignocellulose fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum in the presence and absence of continuous in situ ball-milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, Michael L.; Holwerda, Evert K.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Happs, Renee M.; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2017-04-12

    Milling during lignocellulosic fermentation, henceforth referred to as cotreatment, is investigated as an alternative to thermochemical pretreatment as a means of enhancing biological solubilization of lignocellulose. We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum with comparison to yeast, document solubilization for fermentation of senescent switchgrass with and without ball milling, and characterize residual solids. Soluble substrate fermentation by C. thermocellum proceeded readily in the presence of continuous ball milling but was completely arrested for yeast. Total fractional carbohydrate solubilization achieved after fermentation of senescent switchgrass by C. thermocellum for 5 days was 0.45 without cotreatment or pretreatment, 0.81 with hydrothermal pretreatment (200 degrees C, 15 minutes, severity 4.2), and 0.88 with cotreatment. Acetate and ethanol were the main fermentation products, and were produced at similar ratios with and without cotreatment. Analysis of solid residues was undertaken using molecular beam mass spectrometry (PyMBMS) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in order to provide insight into changes in plant cell walls during processing via various modes. The structure of lignin present in residual solids remaining after fermentation with cotreatment appeared to change little, with substantially greater changes observed for hydrothermal pretreatment - particularly with respect to formation of C-C bonds. The observation of high solubilization with little apparent modification of the residue is consistent with cotreatment enhancing solubilization primarily by increasing the access of saccharolytic enzymes to the feedstock, and C. thermocellum being able to attack all the major linkages in cellulosic biomass provided that these linkages are accessible.

  17. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and characterization of a novel tannase produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus using olive pomace as solid support, and its promising role in gallic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abeer E; Fathy, Shadia A; Rashad, Mona M; Ezz, Magda K; Mohammed, Amira T

    2018-02-01

    Tannase is considered one of the most important industrial enzymes that find great applications in various sectors. Production of tannases through solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes is an eco-friendly and cheap technology. Tannase was produced by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus using olive pomace as a solid support under SSF. It was purified using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation followed by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration resulting in 64.6% enzyme yield with 1026.12U/mg specific activity and 24.21 purification fold. Pure tannase had molecular weight of 65 KDa and 66.62 KDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. It showed a maximal activity at 35°C having two different pH optima, one of which is acidic (4.5) and the other one is alkaline (8.5). The enzyme was stable in the acidic range of pH (4.0-5.5) for 30min, and thermostable within the temperature range 30-70°C. Using tannic acid, the enzyme had a Km value of 0.77mM and Vmax of 263.20μmolemin -1 ml -1 . The effect of different metal ions on enzymatic activity was evaluated. HPLC analysis data indicated that the purified enzyme could carry out 24.65% tannic acid conversion with 5.25 folds increase in gallic acid concentration within 30min only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of NaCo(1-x)MnxO2 solid electrolyte using sol-gel method: the effect of milling speed variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyati, L.; Widyayanti, O. A.; Qushoyyi, M.; Darmawan, A.; Nuryanto, R.

    2018-04-01

    Battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy through electrochemical process. Further research on the synthesis of cathode of Na-ion battery that has good conductivity to maximize the battery performance needs to be conducted. One of the production steps of the NaCo(1-x)NaCo cathode synthesis in the Na-Ion battery was a ball-milling process, in which by the ball-milling process, the crystal size of NaCo(1-x)MnxO2 cathode can be minimized. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of variation of ball-milling speed to the characteristics of resulting product including the oxide types composing NaCo(1-x)MnxO2 cathode, surface morphology, and conductivity. The main ingredients used were sodium acetate, manganese acetate, cobalt acetate with molar ratio of 0.7: 0.66: 0.22, respectively and citric acid as chelating agent with the M/CA ratio of 1: 1. The variations of milling speed were 0, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 rpm. Characterization of the product was conducted using XRD, SEM-EDS, and conductivity meter (LCR-meter). The result showed that a solid electrolyte of NaCo(1-x)MnxO2 consisting of NaMnO2, NaO2, CoO, Co2O3, MnO2 components was successfully synthesized. The observation on the milling speed at 400 rpm showed that the solid electrolyte produced had the highest conductivity i.e. 4.08 x 10-6 Scm-1 with a homogeneous surface morphology and had a spinel formula NaCo0,65Mn0,35O2.

  20. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  1. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  3. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  4. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  5. Traitement de la margine brute d'huile d'olive par distillation suivi de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2014 ... Research on optimization of the distillate and residue are in progress. Keywords: olive oil ... des composés phénoliques de ce distillat avant et après sa ..... Ranalli A. (1991a) the effluent from olive mills: Proposals for re-use ...

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  7. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  8. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  9. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic byproducts of olive oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Saez, F; Ballesteros, M

    2001-01-01

    The recent implementation of a new two-step centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby eliminating oil mill wastewater. However, a new high sugar content residue is still generated. In this work the two fractions present in the residue (olive pulp and fragmented stones) were assayed as substrate for ethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Pretreatment of fragmented olive stones by sulfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion was the most effective treatment for increasing enzymatic digestibility; however, a pretreatment step was not necessary to bioconvert the olive pulp into ethanol. The olive pulp and fragmented olive stones were tested by the SSF process using a fed-batch procedure. By adding the pulp three times at 24-h intervals, 76% of the theoretical SSF yield was obtained. Experiments with fed-batch pretreated olive stones provided SSF yields significantly lower than those obtained at standard SSF procedure. The preferred SSF conditions to obtain ethanol from olives stones (61% of theoretical yield) were 10% substrate and addition of cellulases at 15 filter paper units/g of substrate.

  10. Nanoscale Chemical Characterization of Solid-State Microbattery Stacks by Means of Auger Spectroscopy and Ion-Milling Cross Section Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhart, A; Ledeuil, J B; Pecquenard, B; Le Cras, F; Proust, M; Martinez, H

    2017-09-27

    The current sustained demand for "smart" and connected devices has created a need for more miniaturized power sources, hence for microbatteries. Lithium-ion or "lithium-free" all-solid-state thin-film batteries are adapted solutions to this issue. The capability to carry out spatially resolved chemical analysis is fundamental for the understanding of the operation in an all-solid-state microbattery. Classically cumbersome and not straightforward techniques as TEM/STEM/EELS and FIB preparation methods could be used to address this issue. The challenge in this work is to make the characterization of Li-based material possible by coupling ion-milling cross section preparation method and AES techniques to characterize the behavior of a LiCoO 2 positive electrode in an all solid state microbattery. The surface chemistry of LiCoO 2 has been studied before and after LiPON deposition. Modifications of the chemical environments characteristic of the positive electrode have been reported at different steps of the electrochemical process. An original qualitative and a semiquantitative analysis has been used in this work with the peak deconvolution method based on real, certified reference spectra to better understand the lithiation/delithiation process. This original coupling has demonstrated that a full study of the pristine, cycled, and post mortem positive electrode in a microbattery is also possible. The ion-milling preparation method allows access to a large area, and the resolution of Auger analysis is highly resolved in energy to separate the lithium and the cobalt signals in an accurate way.

  11. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  12. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery contex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.; Ruiz, E.; Ballesteros, M.; Negro, M.J.; Gallego, F.J.; López-Linares, J.C.; Castro, E.

    2017-07-01

    Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB), extracted olive pomace (EOP) and olive leaves (OL) that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  13. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  14. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  15. Pectinase production by Aspergillus giganteus in solid-state fermentation: optimization, scale-up, biochemical characterization and its application in olive-oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gastón E; Ponce-Mora, María C; Noseda, Diego G; Cazabat, Gabriela; Saravalli, Celina; López, María C; Gil, Guillermo P; Blasco, Martín; Albertó, Edgardo O

    2017-02-01

    The application of pectinases in industrial olive-oil processes is restricted by its production cost. Consequently, new fungal strains able to produce higher pectinase titers are required. The aim of this work was to study the capability of Aspergillus giganteus NRRL10 to produce pectinolytic enzymes by SSF and evaluate the application of these in olive-oil extraction. A. giganteus was selected among 12 strains on the basis of high pectinolytic activity and stability. A mixture composed by wheat bran, orange, and lemon peels was selected as the best substrate for enzyme production. Statistical analyses of the experimental design indicated that pH, temperature, and CaCl 2 are the main factors that affect the production. Subsequently, different aeration flows were tested in a tray reactor; the highest activity was achieved at 20 L min -1 per kilogram of dry substrate (kgds). Finally, the pectinolytic enzymes from A. giganteus improved the oil yield and rheological characteristics without affecting oil chemical properties.

  16. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  17. Advances in Solid-State Transformations of Coordination Bonds: From the Ball Mill to the Aging Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mottillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the formation of coordination bonds is pivotal to the development of a plethora of functional metal-organic materials, ranging from coordination polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs to metallodrugs. The interest in and commercialization of such materials has created a need for more efficient, environmentally-friendly routes for making coordination bonds. Solid-state coordination chemistry is a versatile greener alternative to conventional synthesis, offering quantitative yields, enhanced stoichiometric and topological selectivity, access to a wider range of precursors, as well as to molecules and materials not readily accessible in solution or solvothermally. With a focus on mechanochemical, thermochemical and “accelerated aging” approaches to coordination polymers, including pharmaceutically-relevant materials and microporous MOFs, this review highlights the recent advances in solid-state coordination chemistry and techniques for understanding the underlying reaction mechanisms.

  18. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  19. Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indeed, the use of this compost as biofertilizer allowed an increase of the yield to 30.61% and an improvement of wheat growth, spikes' number (5.25±0.3 per plant in comparison with 1±0.09 for control) and seeds (57.12±0.99 per plant in comparison with 14.87±1.88 for control). Keywords: Compost, Olive husks, olive mill ...

  20. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Protein enrichment of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus - indica Mill using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Fátima Araújo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial protein bioconversion of cactus pear by yeast in solid medium was studied. Three cultivation variables used were: inoculum's concentrations (5, 10 and 15 %, substrate layer thickness (2, 4 and 6 cm and temperature (30, 34 and 38 ºC. The rate of dry matter production and total protein were determined. Results obtained were variance analysis, gross energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The maximum protein amount achieved for the conditions studied in the present work was higher than 26 %, which was compatible or greater than those of conventional concentrates of protein supplements used for animal feed. The protein concentrate of cactus pear had a higher in vitro digestibility index (95.8 % and did not show any changes in the gross energy value when compared to that of the cactus pear in natura.A bioconversão da proteína microbiana através da levedura em meio sólido, foi estudada em palma forrageira cultivada em condições laboratoriais, sob três níveis de concentração do inóculo (5, 10 e 15%, espessuras distintas das camadas dos substratos (2, 4 e 6cm e temperaturas (30, 34 e 38ºC. Foram analisadas as taxas de produção de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, energia bruta (EB e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O valor máximo de teor protéico, alcançado nas condições estudadas nesse trabalho, foi superior a 26%, sendo esse teor compatível ou maior do que os concentrados convencionais utilizados como suplemento protéico para a ração animal. O concentrado protéico da palma obteve um alto índice de digestibilidade in vitro (95,8% e não apresentou grande alteração no valor da energia bruta se comparada com a palma in natura.

  2. Improvements in the malaxation process to enhance the aroma quality of extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-09-01

    The influence of olive paste preparation conditions on the standard quality parameters, as well as volatile profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla cultivars produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain and processed in an oil mill plant were investigated. For this purpose, two malaxation temperatures (20/30 °C), and two malaxation times (30/90 min) selected in accordance with the customs of the area producers were tested. The volatile profile of the oils underwent a substantial change in terms of odorant series when different malaxation parameters were applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  4. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Erbaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill. using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and other paraffinic substances. Scent compounds of all these products detected by gas chromatography (GC-FID/GC-MS were compared with the natural scent compounds of fresh rose flower detected by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 46 compounds analysis were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS in the fresh flower, and a total of 15 compounds were identified by GC-MS in the hydrodistilled rose oil. While main compounds in rose oil were geraniol (35.4%, citronellol (31.6%, and nerol (15.3%, major compound in fresh rose flower, rose water and residue water was phenylethyl alcohol (43.2, 35.6 and 98.2%, respectively. While the highest concrete yield (0.7% was obtained from diethyl ether extraction, the highest absolute yield (70.9% was obtained from the n-hexane concrete. The diethyl ether concrete gave the highest productivity of absolute, as 249.7 kg of fresh rose flowers was needed to produce 1 kg of absolute.

  5. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  6. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    evaluating observing conditions at in the visible region of the spectrum. In his last two years Oliver embarked on another unique project. In the North Irish town of Armagh, home of the Armagh Observatory, now stands a large, two-meter diameter "Celestial Sphere" made from solid polished grey granite. This impressive and beautiful star ball rests on one of four large base stones engraved to depict the story of the development of astronomy through the ages. On its surface, artist Brian Connolly has etched the brightest stars and other features of the sky in gold. The sphere is aligned north with the stars and correctly oriented toward the pole star. Although this artwork is the vision of the artist, Oliver provided the templates for the precise positions of stars and other heavenly features on the sphere. Oliver had a long interest in public programming and public schools. He actively worked with middle school science teachers, was a creator of "Conversations About Science and Mathematics" and was an innovator in large classroom teaching. He volunteered as a science- and engineering-fair judge for more than twenty years, finally stopping only about a year before his death. Members of the Alachua Astronomy Club, Inc., favorably knew him for his interesting, absorbing and clear presentations. Few could converse as well on the wide spectrum of knowledge that modern astronomy now entails. Predeceased by a son, Michael, he leaves behind his wife Barbara of forty-seven years, three children, Jennifer, Keith and Rebecca, two grandchildren, Elspeth and Moira, and a great granddaughter, Dorothy. Oliver also left behind dear friends, colleagues, students and a legacy difficult to match. He was proud of the department that he had helped shape during his long tenure at UF. Oliver was unique among many astronomers due to his abilities and flair as an excellent speaker and teacher, a superb instrumentalist and programmer, and as a talented research scientist with an unequaled passion and

  7. Direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to fast gas chromatography mass spectrometry as a purification step for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Picardo, Massimo; Barp, Laura; Moret, Sabrina; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-09-13

    The aim of the present work was to optimize a preparation step for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a fatty extract. Solid-phase microextraction is an easy preparation technique, which allows to minimize solvent consumption and reduce sample manipulation. A Carbopack Z/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, particularly suitable for extraction of planar compounds, was employed to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a hexane solution obtained after a previous extraction with acetonitrile from oil, followed by a liquid-liquid partition between acetonitrile and hexane. The proposed method was a rapid and sensitive solution to reduce the interference of triglycerides saving the column life and avoiding frequent cleaning of the mass spectrometer ion source. Despite the non-quantitative extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from oil using acetonitrile, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly improved obtaining a limit of detection largely below the performance criteria required by the European Union legislation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.

  9. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  10. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  11. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  14. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  15. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  16. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  17. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekiari, S. A.; Oreopoulou, V.; Kourkaoutas, Y.; Kamoun, N.; Msallem, M.; Psimouli, V.; Arapoglou, D.

    2010-07-01

    Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rhytmaton in the Greek island of Crete named Throumbolia, and Koroneiki. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30 degree centigrade. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of {beta}-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation. (Author) 41 refs.

  18. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  19. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  20. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes; Recuperación de hierro tras tratamiento secundario tipo Fenton de agua residual de la industria oleícola por membranas de nanofiltración y ósmosis inversa de baja presión

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Victor-Ortega, M.D.; Martinez-Ferez, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF) and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane) in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065), which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF). [Spanish] En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF) y ósmosis inversa (OI) poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW) basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones) en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  1. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  2. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  3. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Pereira Cunill, J. L.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Ortiz-Leyba, C.; Martínez-Brocca, M.; Mangas-Cruz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic ...

  4. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  5. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  7. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, Luigi [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  8. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  9. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  10. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  11. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  12. Feeding olive cake to ewes improves fatty acid profile of milk and cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil extraction yields a residual cake rich in oil that can be used in animal diets as a source of monounsaturated fat. Milk and cheese from sheep are high in saturated fatty acids (FA) thus, it was hypothesized that supplementing olive cake to lactating ewes would result in naturally enhanced...... milk and cheese with healthier FA profiles for human consumption. Nine lactating ewes were randomly assigned to a replicated (n= s3) 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Diets were supplemented with 0, 10 or 25% of dry olive cake. Except for total solids, dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were...... not affected by dietary treatments. Oleic acid, n-6/. n-3 ratio and monounsaturated FA gradually increased (P. olive cake was increased in dietary treatments. Overall, FA profile of milk and cheese...

  13. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  14. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  15. MILLING MECHANICS OF MATERIALS ROLLED IN THICK LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Lojechnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder rolling conditions are systematized with the purpose of their compacting and milling. The generalized  condition of solid and free-flowing bulk material deformation is proposed in the  paper. The analytical solution of a stressed state of powder being shaped mechanically that ensures milling of its particles has been obtained.

  16. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  17. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  19. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  20. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  2. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  3. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  4. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  5. Final environmental statement related to the United Nuclear Corporation, Morton Ranch, Wyoming Uranium Mill (Converse County, Wyoming)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Impacts from Morton Ranch Uranium Mill will result in: alterations of up to 270 acres occupied by the mill facilities; increase in the existing background radiation levels; socioeconomic effects on Glenrock and Douglas, Wyoming. Solid waste material (tailings solids) from the mill will be deposited onsite in exhausted surface mine pits. Any license issued for the Morton Ranch mill will be subject to conditions for the protection of the environment.

  6. Final environmental statement related to the United Nuclear Corporation, Morton Ranch, Wyoming Uranium Mill (Converse County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Impacts from Morton Ranch Uranium Mill will result in: alterations of up to 270 acres occupied by the mill facilities; increase in the existing background radiation levels; socioeconomic effects on Glenrock and Douglas, Wyoming. Solid waste material (tailings solids) from the mill will be deposited onsite in exhausted surface mine pits. Any license issued for the Morton Ranch mill will be subject to conditions for the protection of the environment

  7. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  9. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  10. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  11. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species ( Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  12. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  13. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... ... and Microbial Activity, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University - ... A total of 24 lipolytic yeasts were isolated from the spent olive derived from olive fruits of ... isolated during process of fermentation of olive table, can.

  14. Review and Analysis of Alternatives for the Valorisation of Agro-Industrial Olive Oil By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By-products and waste from olive production (agriculture and the olive oil industry (mills and refineries are an important environmental issue in Mediterranean areas. Industrial waste and by-products contain highly valuable components that can also be phytotoxic. This article reviews recent research on the valorisation of olive by-products under the bioeconomy strategy. The alternatives are classified according to the ‘bioeconomy value pyramid’, which prioritises higher value uses over the current energy and compost valorisation. Special attention is paid to the use of these by-products for animal feed that can be improved by reducing the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and increase the polyunsaturated fatty acids amount considered beneficial in response to their use; this makes the food healthier for humans while simultaneously reducing feeding costs and the environmental impact of livestock.

  15. Interaction of Olive Oil and Metals

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKGÖK, Elif Burçin; ÖTLEŞ, Semih

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil, obtained only from the fruits of olive trees, is a food item consumed in natural form without any chemical process and is liquid at room temperature. In addition to its flavor, oxidative stability is the unique property of it. Oxidative stability of olive oil is so powerful is due to its major components which are fatty acids and minor components which are phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, sterols, phospholipids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, etc. All edible oils, including ol...

  16. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  17. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject...... was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive...

  19. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  20. Assessment of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different olive processing wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Belaqziz

    Full Text Available Olive processing wastewaters (OPW, namely olive mill wastewater (OMW and table-olive wastewaters (TOW were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria using the standard disc diffusion and thin layer chromatography (TLC-bioautography assays. Disc diffusion screening and bioautography of OMW were compared to the phenolic extracts of table-olive brines. Positive activity against S. aureus was demonstrated. The optimization of chromatographic separation revealed that hexane/acetone in the ratio of 4:6 was the most effective for phenolic compounds separation. A HPLC-MS analysis was performed showing that only two compounds, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were the predominant phenolic compounds in all OPW. The phenolic extract of OMW generated by a semi-modern process showed the highest free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH assay compared to the other phenolic extracts. It is apparent from the present study that OPW are a rich source of antioxidants suitable for use in food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications.

  1. Natural Variation of Volatile Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil Analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is unique among plant oils for its high levels of oleic acid, and the presence of a wide range of minor components, which are responsible for both its health-promoting properties and characteristic aroma, and only produced when olives are crushed during the industrial process used for oil production. The genetic variability of the major volatile compounds comprising the oil aroma was studied in a representative sample of olive cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA, Cordoba, Spain, by means of the headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID. The analytical data demonstrated that a high variability is found for the content of volatile compounds in olive species, and that most of the volatile compounds found in the oils were synthesized by the enzymes included in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway. Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of cultivars that are particularly interesting, in terms of volatile composition and presumed organoleptic quality, which can be used both to identify old olive cultivars that give rise to oils with a high organoleptic quality, and in parent selection for olive breeding programs.

  2. Production and immobilization of enzymes by solid-state fermentation of agroindustrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo Sánchez, Sheila; Gil Sánchez, Irene; Arévalo-Villena, María; Briones Pérez, Ana

    2015-03-01

    The recovery of by-products from agri-food industry is currently one of the major challenges of biotechnology. Castilla-La Mancha produces around three million tons of waste coming from olive oil and wine industries, both of which have a pivotal role in the economy of this region. For this reason, this study reports on the exploitation of grape skins and olive pomaces for the production of lignocellulosic enzymes, which are able to deconstruct the agroindustrial waste and, therefore, reuse them in future industrial processes. To this end, solid-state fermentation was carried out using two local fungal strains (Aspergillus niger-113 N and Aspergillus fumigatus-3). In some trials, a wheat supplementation with a 1:1 ratio was used to improve the growth conditions, and the particle size of the substrates was altered through milling. Separate fermentations were run and collected after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 days to monitor enzymatic activity (xylanase, cellulase, β-glucosidase, pectinase). The highest values were recorded after 10 and 15 days of fermentation. The use of A. niger on unmilled grape skin yielded the best outcomes (47.05 U xylanase/g by-product). The multi-enzymatic extracts obtained were purified, freeze dried, and immobilized on chitosan by adsorption to assess the possible advantages provided by the different techniques.

  3. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  4. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  5. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  6. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  7. Phytosanitary evaluation of olive germplasm in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on viruses was carried out in 2008 in the main olive-growing areas of Albania (Kruja, Sauk and Vlora. Fifty samples from 14 local and 2 exotic olive cultivars were collected from 10 commercial orchards and one collection field and inspected for Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV, Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1, Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus (OLYaV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D by a one-step RT-PCR assay using virus-specifi c primers. None of these viruses were found in the source plants except SLRSV and OLYaV, which were detected in a ‘K. M. Berat’ olive tree grown in the collection field. These findings are important because the incidence of olive virus diseases is low in Albania but high in other Mediterranean countries. Thus, all efforts should be to directed to maintaining the Albanian olive germplasm pathogen-free and in the best agronomical and phytosanitary condition possible.

  8. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  9. Oliver Stone : "Bush oli paadialune!" / Oliver Stone ; interv. Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stone, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Kreekas, Thessaloniki filmifestivalil antud intervjuu. Festivalil linastus režissööri mängufilm "W", mille peaosas George Bush jun. (mängib Josh Brolin). Lisaks filmist : ""W" - ümbersündinud mehe kentsakas portree"

  10. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  11. Regarding the rejection performance of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane for the final purification of two-phase olive mill effluents previously treated by an advanced oxidation process; Sobre la eficiencia del rechazo de una membrana polimérica de ósmosis inversa para la purificación del agua residual de almazara de dos fases, previamente tratada mediante un proceso avanzado de oxidación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Férez, A.

    2017-07-01

    In previous works on olive mill wastewater (OMW), secondary advanced oxidation treatment solved the problem related to the presence of phenolic compounds and considerable chemical oxygen demand. However, the effluent presented a significant salinity after this treatment. In this work, an adequate operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is addressed to ensure constant performance over a long period of time. In this paper, the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic membrane rejection performance towards the target species was examined and discussed. Rejection efficiencies of all species were observed to follow a similar pattern, which consisted of slight initial improvement that further decreased over time. Rejection of both divalent ions remained constant at over 99% regardless of the operating conditions. Rejections were noticed to follow the order SO42−> Cl−> NO3− and Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+, as a rule. Divalent species were moderately more highly rejected than monovalent ones, in accordance with their higher charge and molecular size, and sulfate anions were consistently rejected by over 99%. Finally, the RO membrane exiting treated effluent was depleted of the high electro conductivity initially present (above 97% rejection), permitting its re-use as good quality irrigation water (below 1 mS/cm). [Spanish] En trabajos previos con agua residual de almazara, se solucionó el problema en relación a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos y la considerable concentración de material orgánico. Sin embargo, el efluente presentaba una salinidad significativa tras éste. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar la adecuada operación de una membrana de ósmosis inversa (OI) para asegurar rendimientos constantes por largos períodos de tiempo de operación. Se examina y discute el efecto de los parámetros de operación en el rendimiento dinámico del rechazo de especies diana. Se observó que la eficiencia de rechazo de todas las especies siguió un

  12. Influence of sustainable irrigation regimes and agricultural practices on the soil CO2 fluxes from olive groves in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Serrano-Ortíz, Penelope; Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; Chamizo, Sonia; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2017-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is the dominant agriculture plantation in Spain and its main product, olive oil, is vital to the economy of Mediterranean countries. Given the extensive surface dedicated to olive plantations, olive groves can potentially sequester large amounts of carbon and contribute to mitigate climate change. Their potential for carbon sequestration will, however, largely depend on the management and irrigation practices in the olive grove. Although soil respiration is the main path of C release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and a suitable indicator of soil health and fertility, the interaction of agricultural management practices with irrigation regimes on soil CO2 fluxes have not been assessed yet. Here we investigate the influence of the presence of herbaceous cover, use of artificial fertilizers and their interaction with the irrigation regime on the CO2 emission from the soil to the atmosphere. For this, the three agricultural management treatments were established in replicated plots in an olive grove in the SE of Spain: presence of herbaceous cover ("H"), exclusion of herbaceous cover by using herbicides ("NH"), and exclusion of herbaceous cover along with addition of artificial fertilizers (0.55 kg m-2 year-1 of N, P, K solid fertilizer in the proportion 20:10:10, "NHF"). Within each management treatment, three irrigation regimes were also implemented in a randomized design: no-irrigation ("NO") or rain fed, full irrigation (224 l week-1 per olive tree, "MAX"), and a 50% restriction (112 l week-1 per olive tree, "MED"). Soil respiration was measured every 2-3 weeks at 1, 3, and 5 meters from each olive tree together with soil temperature and soil moisture in order to account for the spatial and seasonal variability over the year. Soil respiration was higher when herbaceous cover was present compared to the herbaceous exclusion, whereas the addition of fertilizer did not exert any significant effect. Although the different

  13. Oil Characteristics of Four Palestinian Olive Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolini, Enrico Maria; Polverigiani, Serena; Ali, Saed; Mutawea, Mohammed; Qutub, Mayyada; Arabasi, Taysir; Pierini, Fabio; Abed, Mohammed; Neri, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Olive oil represents an important source of income for Palestinian farmers in local, national and international markets. Sometimes, olive oil produced in local climatic conditions, does not achieve the International Olive Council (IOC) trade standards so that international markets are precluded. The oil chemical composition and sensory profile of four Palestinian olive varieties (Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Souri and K18) were characterized in 2010 throughout an in situ evaluation. Most of the physicchemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition of the varieties met the International Olive Council trade standards (IOC-TS) for extra virgin olive oils. Values of K 270 for Nabali Baladi and linolenic acid for Souri slightly exceeded the limit. Eicosanoic acid exceeded the IOC-TS limits in the oils of all considered varieties. Among the sterols, the Δ-7-stigmastenol resulted too high for Nabali Baladi and Souri. Sensory profile for the tested varieties showed a reminiscence of tomato or artichoke and light to medium bitter and pungent sensations. Results represent an important baseline reference for further studies about oil composition and quality of the main Palestinian olive germplasm and provide indication of potential critical points to be controlled in order to ensure the full achievement of IOC-TS and access international markets.

  14. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  15. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Izman, Sudin; Rahman Kassim, Abdullah Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established.

  16. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  18. Unravelling the relationship between degree of disorder and the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Laaksonen, Timo; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Milling is an attractive method to prepare amorphous formulations as it does not require the use of solvents and is suitable for thermolabile drugs. One of the key critical quality attributes of milled amorphous formulations is their dissolution behavior. However, there are limited studies...... that have investigated the relationship between degree of disorder induced by milling and dissolution behavior. The main aim of this study was to identify the analytical technique used to characterize degree of disorder that correlates best with the recrystallization behavior during dissolution of milled...... glibenclamide samples. Solid state and surface changes during dissolution of milled glibenclamide samples were monitored in order to elucidate the processes that influence the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide samples. Glibenclamide was ball milled for different durations and analyzed using X...

  19. A study on thermal and mechanical properties of mechanically milled HDPE and PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S.; Tan, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, mechanical mixing of HDPE and PP was performed via ball milling. Prepared compositions were 75/25 , 50/50 , 25/75 w/w HDPE/PP. Milling time and ball to powder ratio (B/P) were kept constant and system was cooled by adding solid CO 2 to improve the milling efficiency. To compare these systems with traditional methods, mixtures were also melt mixed by Brabender Plasti-Corder. Both milled and melt mixed systems were examined with DSC for thermal properties and tensile testing for mechanical properties Results are discussed by comparing milled , melt mixed and as-received polymers. It is observed that, unlike ball milled systems' in melt mixed systems mechanical properties are composition dependent. In addition , ball milling results in amorphization of both polymers and very high amounts of PP (75wt %) creates very amorphous HDPE structure. (Original)

  20. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  1. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  2. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Angeloni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  4. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  5. Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system for the olive oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, D.; Jurado, F.; Mena, B. de; Schories, G.

    2011-01-01

    The olive oil industry generates during the extraction process several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings, exhausted pomace and olive pits. These renewable wastes could be used for power and heat applications. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of two small-scale CHP systems: a gasification- gas turbine system and an EFGT (externally fired gas turbine system). For this reason, several parameters have been calculated: generated heat and power, electric and overall efficiencies, biomass consumption, exergy efficiency, optimum pressure ratio, etc. These systems provide 30 kW e and about 60kW th . Simulation results show that the electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in EFGT system (19.1% and 59.3%, respectively) are significantly higher than those obtained in the gasification plant (12.3% and 45.4%). The proposed CHP systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. -- Highlights: ► Comparison between externally fired gas turbine and gasifier-gas turbine system. ► Olive oil industry generates several solid wastes as olive tree leaves and prunings. ► Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. ► Systems have been modeled using Cycle-Tempo ® software. ► Simulation results show electrical and overall efficiencies achieved in the systems.

  6. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  7. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  8. Degree of Milling Effect on Cold Water Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwol Subedi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of degree of milling on various rice parameters such as proximate composition, and cooking properties using mathematical model. The experiments were performed in the laboratory of Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council. The three different medium type rice varieties of Nepal (Lumle-2, Chhomrong and Machhapuchre-3 were exposed to five different degrees of milling (0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%. The degree of milling (DM level significantly (P≤0.05 affected the milling recovery; head rice yield, nutrient content as well as cooking properties of the rice. Increase in DM resulted in further reduction of protein content, fat content, minerals, milled rice and head rice yield after bran layer was further removed. A positive correlation between DM used in present model, amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss was observed, however, with an increase in DM; amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss were found to be increased. Adopting 6 to 8% DM for commercial milling of rice might help to prevent quantitative, qualitative and nutritional loss along with retention of good cooking characteristics.

  9. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  10. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  11. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  12. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  13. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  14. Study of the effect of olive mill waste >Alperujo> addition on the persistence of diuron in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Mesa, Alegría; Fernández Hernández, A.; García-Ortiz Civantos, C.; Cox, L.; Velarde Muñoz, Pilar; Cornejo, J.

    2010-01-01

    [ES]: El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar el efecto de la aplicación de alperujo (residuo de almazara) sobre la persistencia y el movimiento del herbicida diuron [3-(3,4-diclorofenil)-1,1-dimetilurea] en un olivar en Mengíbar (Jaén, España). La parcela se dividió en 2 subparcelas, un en la que no se aplicó enmienda al suelo y otra donde se aplicó alperujo (18000 kg ha -1 ). Tras la aplicación del herbicida a una dosis de 2 kg/ha se tomaron muestras de suelo por triplicado en cada sub...

  15. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation of high doses of commercial pesticide products in pilot-scale biobeds using olive-oil agroindustry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E

    2017-12-15

    Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mäekalda kortermaja : Lucca küla, Tabasalu = Mäekalda Apartment Building : Lucca küla, Tabasalu / Oliver Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Oliver, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Elamu kergust rõhutavad galeriid teepoolsel fassaadil, treppe katavad varikatused, pankranniku poolses küljes on avatav klaassein, mille taga on igal korteril veranda. Üldpind: 1071 mø, korterite arv: 8. Projekteerija: HTMd. Autor Oliver Alver. Konstruktor Eino Hint (Ehitusekspertiisibüroo). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I, II ja III korruse plaan, 3 värv. välisvaadet

  18. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  19. Source terms for airborne radioactivity arising from uranium mill wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; Downing, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems in assessing the radiological impact of uranium milling is to determine the rates of release to the air of material from the various sources of radioactivity. Such source terms are required for modelling the transport of radioactive material in the atmosphere. Activity arises from various point and area sources in the mill itself and from the mill tailings. The state of the tailings changes in time from slurry to solid. A layer of water may be maintained over the solids during the life of the mine, and the tailings may be covered with inert material on abandonment. Releases may be both gaseous and particulate. This paper indicates ways in which radon emanation and the suspension of long-lived particulate activity might be quantified, and areas requiring further exploration are identified

  20. Vibration and noise characteristics of hook type olive harvesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... The homeland of olive upper Mesopotamia including south-eastern ... Turkey where 81% of olive trees are grown in slopped and terraced .... effectively, it has been established the minimal security level at the equivalent noise ...

  1. Pile composting of two-phase centrifuged olive husk residues: technical solutions and quality of cured compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, G; Belli, C; Lustrato, G; Ranalli, G

    2008-07-01

    The present work proposed an economically sustainable solution for composting olive humid husks (OHH) and leaves (OL) at a small/medium sized olive oil mill. We planned and set up a composting plant, the prototype taking the form of a simplified low-cost turning machine, and evaluated the use of an inoculum of one year-old composted humid husks (CHH) and sheep manure (SM) to facilitate the starting phase of the process. Trials were carried out using four piles under different experimental conditions (turnover, static, and type of inoculum). The best results were achieved with turnover and an inoculum that induced fast start-up and a correct evolution of the composting process. The final product was a hygienically clean, cured compost.

  2. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  3. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  4. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  5. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  6. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  7. Alternative rooting induction of semi-hardwood olive cuttings by several auxin-producing bacteria for organic agriculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Montero-Calasanz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Spain is the largest olive oil producer region in the world. In recent years organic agriculture systems have grown exponentially so that new alternative systems to produce organic olive cuttings are needed. Several bacterial isolates, namely Pantoea sp. AG9, Chryseobacterium sp. AG13, Chryseobacterium sp. CT348, Pseudomonas sp. CT364 and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (ATCC 29729, have been used to induce rooting in olive semi-hardwood cuttings of Arbequina, Hojiblanca and Picual cultivars of olive (Olea europea L. The first four strains were previously selected as auxin-producing bacteria and by their ability to promote rooting in model plants. They have been classified on the basis of their 16S rDNA gene sequence. The known auxin producer A. brasilense Cd strain has been used as a reference. The inoculation of olive cuttings was performed in two different ways: (i by dipping cuttings in a liquid bacterial culture or (ii by immersing them in a paste made of solid bacterial inoculant and sterile water. Under nursery conditions all of the tested bacterial strains were able to induce the rooting of olive cuttings to a similar or greater extent than the control cuttings treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The olive cultivars responded differently depending on the bacterial strain and the inoculation method. The strain that consistently gave the best results was Pantoea sp. AG9, the only one of the tested bacterial strains to express the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The results are also discussed in terms of potential commercial interest and nursery feasibility performance of these strains.

  8. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area.

  9. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by origin area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the weight and the influence of the origin area on the analytical and compositional variables of olive oil, an investigation was carried out. Five Italian geographical zones were chosen. They were in the neighbour of the: (i Faculty of Agriculture of University of Perugia (UNI-PG; (ii the Olive Growing Institute-National Research Council of Perugia (NRC-PG; (iii the Experimental Olive Growing Institute of Spoleto (EOI-SPOL; (iv the Agricultural Technical Institute of Pescia (ATI-PES; and (v the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Florence (UNI-FL. From these areas, Frantoio, Leccino and Moraiolo olive variety samples were taken, which were processed by a mini oil-mill. The research results showed that the quality, typicality and shelf-life parameters and the flavour of the oils were largely influenced by the origin zone, i.e., by the climatic and pedologic factors of the production environment. The influence exerted on some oil constituent groups, as phenols, tocopherols, aromatic volatile compounds, and fatty acids, should be emphasized as these components are closely related to the quality and typicality of product. Some oil genuineness parameters were affected as well by the environmental variables.

    Se ha realizado una investigación para evidenciar la importancia y la Influencia que la zona de origen tiene sobre las variables analíticas del aceite de oliva virgen. Han sido seleccionadas cinco zonas geográficas de Italia: (i una cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Perusa (UNI-PG; (ii una cerca del Instituto para la Olivicultura - Consejo Nacional de las Investigaciones de Perusa (CNI-PG; (iii una zona próxima al Instituto Experimental para la Olivicultura de Espoleto (lEO-ESP; (iv una zona cerca Instituto Técnico Agrario de Pescia (ITA-PES; (v una zona cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Florencia (UNI-FL. De estas zonas han sido tomadas muestras de aceitunas de las

  11. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  12. Effect of high-energy ball milling in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Leonel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the process of high-energy ball milling it is possible to obtain solid materials with higher surface area and different particle sizes. These characteristics are very important for some application such as adsorption. Besides, applications of some clays depend on the functionalization which, for kaolinite, takes place in the aluminol groups. Modification in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite by high-energy milling can improve functionalization of kaolinite due to the exposure of aluminol groups. In this work studies were done on the influence of high-energy ball milling on the morphological properties of kaolinite, taking into account parameters such as filling of the miller, number of balls and amount of mass to be milled. Moreover, studies involving milling kinetics of purified kaolinite were carried out to verify modification in the morphology of kaolinite with milling time.

  13. Eestlased sisustamas maailma suurimat laeva / Oliver Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Oliver, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Soome laevaehitusfirma Kvaerner Masa-Yards kaasas Eesti sisustusfirma Lindal Private laevaehitusprojekti, mille tulemusel valmivad viie aasta jooksul kolm maailma suurimat luksusreisilaeva. Tabel: Maailma suurima reisilaeva tehnilised andmed

  14. Radiation hazards of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.

    1975-09-01

    This paper examines each of the radiological problems that arise in these processes and explains their scientific background. The major operational requirement is to ensure that exposure of miners over their working lives to radon and its daughter products does not lead to an unacceptable increase in their chance of contracting lung cancer. Studies on the incidence of lung cancer amongst underground uranium miners indicate that this risk will be small if lifetime exposures are kept below about 120 'working level months', even amongst underground miners who smoke cigarettes. The risk is much smaller again for miners who do not smoke cigarettes. Other hazards that must be controlled are exposure of miners and mill workers to external radiation and to dusts containing long-lived radioactive alpha emitting isotopes. Finally, the solid waste products from the mill (the tailings) which contain most of the naturally occurring radioactivity, must be properly impounded and after closure of the mill, stabilized to ensure long-term containment. Access by the public to the stabilized tailings must be controlled and habitation within the controlled area prohibited. (author)

  15. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  16. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Bova Olive Cultivar and Aroma Fingerprint of Its Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study aims to contribute to the characterization of Istrian (Croatia olive cultivars and oil, giving for the first time the morphological and genetic profile of Bova cultivar, and chemical and sensorial characteristics of its oil. Morphological features of Bova cv. were determined according to the International Olive Council methodology, while molecular characterization was performed using eleven microsatellite markers. Bova cultivar was morphologically and genetically different from other described Istrian olive cultivars. The microsatellite profile of Bova was also unique when compared to more than 200 different Italian genotypes using the same set of markers. In order to characterize the oil from Bova cv., fruits from three trees at the same ripening stage were harvested and processed separately under the same conditions. Volatile composition of the obtained oil samples was determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. About 50 volatiles were detected, mostly hydrocarbons (34.69 % of total peak area, followed by aldehydes (25.80 %, alcohols (22.24 %, ketones (8.76 %, organic acids (4.08 %, terpenes (2.10 %, esters (2.18 % and furans (0.26 %. Bova oil was rich in total C6 (39.87 % and C5 volatiles (13.85 %, biogenerated through the lipoxygenase pathway. The most prevalent volatile compound was C6 aldehyde E-2-hexenal. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of the investigated olive oil samples was carried out by a sensory panel. The sensory profile was characterized by medium intensities of olive fruity, green leaves and grass, light tomato and aromatic herbs flavours with mild apple and other ripe fruit notes. The taste was characterized by medium to strong bitterness, followed by medium pungency and mild sweetness.

  17. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  18. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  19. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  20. Comparative evaluation of maceration and ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junlin; Xu, Zhou; Xiang, Chunrong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Li, Tian; Yang, Zeshen; Ding, Chunbang

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and maceration extraction (ME) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for total phenolic compounds (TPC) from fresh olives. The main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of TPC were also investigated. The optimized result for UAE was 22mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 47°C of extraction temperature and 30min of extraction time, 7.01mg/g of yielding, and for ME was 24mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 50°C of extraction temperature and 4.7h of extraction time, 5.18mg/g of yielding. The HPLC analysis revealed that the extracts by UAE and ME possessed 14 main phenolic compounds, and UAE exhibited more amounts of all phenols than ME. The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive extracts were hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and rutin. Both extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, UAE could effectively increase the yield of phenolic compounds from olives. In addition these phenolic compounds could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, A; Della Zassa, M; Martín-Lara, M A; Calero, M; Canu, P

    2016-05-05

    The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10(2) larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  3. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  4. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Interaction of Olive Oil Phenol Antioxidant Components with Low-density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSA M LAMUELA-RAVENTÓS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have shown to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and ex vivo; however, they are hydrosoluble compounds while LDL is a lipoprotein. Analysis of phenolic compounds in LDLs by HPLC is necessary to demonstrate their binding capacity to lipoproteins. We developed and validated a solid phase extraction method (SPE that allowed us the purification of LDL samples and their analysis by HPLC. This methodology allowed us to demonstrate the in vitro binding capacity of tyrosol, one of the main phenolic compounds in olive oil, to LDL. In the intervention dietary study with volunteers, food rich in phenolic compounds affected LDL composition. Changes in LDL phenolics composition are not observed after the short-term ingestion of food rich in phenolic compounds. However, after one week of olive oil consumption and Mediterranean diet there was an increase in phenolics (p=0.021. An accumulative effect seems necessary to observe significative differences in LDL phenolic composition.

  6. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora-Ioanna Lafka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model. As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm.

  7. Comparison of Manzanilla and wild type olives by RAPD-PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... In this study, the cultivated type olive Manzanilla was supplied from Olive ... America and Australia continents (MOARA, 2006). Olive ... reserved as table olives and 52.869 tons for oil produc- .... phism rate indicates a high genetic diversity in varieties. ... olive germplasm bank by means of RAPD markers.

  8. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  9. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  10. Influence of the milling time in the microstructural parameters of TA2O5-Al powder refined by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, R.A.; Mendes, M.W.D.; Alves Junior, C.; Costa, F.A. da; Gomes, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated welding, fracturing, and re-welding of powder particles in a high energy mill. This process is used for producing of fine powders containing unique microstructures. The process starts with mixing of the powders in the desired proportion. Then, the mixture is milled using the established time in the high-energy mill. The powder particles are submitted to repeated cycles of cold working and fracture, and the final product correspond to a composite powder, containing characteristics different of the initial constituents. Ta 2 O 5 -Al powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for different times in order to evaluate the influence of the milling time in their microstructural parameters like crystallite size and micro deformation. The microstructural parameters were obtained by the Rietveld Method. The results showed that the microstructural parameters were influenced by the increase of the milling time. (author)

  11. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  12. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  13. Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

    The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

  14. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from southern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekiari, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rethymnon in the Greek island of Crete named “Throumbolia”, and “Koroneiki”. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30ºC. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of β-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6 in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation.

    Aceite de oliva virgen extra fue producida con aceitunas de las dos principales variedades cultivadas en la región de Rethymnon en la isla de Creta denominadas “Throumbolia” y “Koroneiki”. La primera es una variedad muy famosa debido a la falta de amargor natural de su fruto, mientras que la última es la variedad más común de aceitunas cultivada en el norte de Grecia. La aceitunas fueron cosechadas en tres estados sucesivos de maduración de acuerdo al

  15. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  16. Micro structrual characterization and analysis of ball milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan, B. M.; Raju, H. P.; Ghanaraja., S.

    2018-04-01

    Mechanical alloying has been one of the prominent methods of powder synthesis technique in solid state involving cyclic deformation, cold welding and fracturing of powder particles. Powder particles in this method are subjected to greater mechanical deformation due to the impact of ball-powder-ball and ball-powder-container collisions that occurs during mechanical alloying. Strain hardening and fracture of particles decreases the size of the particles and creates new surfaces. The objective of this Present work is to use ball milling of SiC powder for different duration of 5, 10, 15 and 20 hours by High energy planetary ball milling machine and to evaluate the effect of ball milling on SiC powder. Micro structural Studies using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and EDAX has been investigated.

  17. Power Spectral Density Evaluation of Laser Milled Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ablating surfaces with a pulsed laser system in milling processes often leads to surface changes depending on the milling depth. Especially if a constant surface roughness and evenness is essential to the process, structural degradation may advance until the process fails. The process investigated is the generation of precise thrust by laser ablation. Here, it is essential to predict or rather control the evolution of the surfaces roughness. Laser ablative milling with a short pulse laser system in vacuum (≈1 Pa were performed over depths of several 10 µm documenting the evolution of surface roughness and unevenness with a white light interference microscope. Power spectral density analysis of the generated surface data reveals a strong influence of the crystalline structure of the solid. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate that this effect could be suppressed for gold.

  18. Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation conditions on soil quality in olive groves in the region of Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Repas, Spiros; Koubouris, Georgos; Psaras, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cultivation practices are associated to soil degradation mainly due to low soil organic matter content. The application of organic materials to land is a common practice in sustainable agriculture in the last years. However, its implementation in olive groves under different irrigation regimes has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of alternative carbon input techniques (i.e. wood shredded, pruning residues, returning of olive mill wastes the field with compost) and irrigation conditions (irrigated and rainfed olive orchards) on spatial distribution of soil chemical (pH, EC, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, available P, and exchangeable K) and microbial properties (soil basal microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-40 cm). The study took place in the region of Messinia, South western Peloponnese, Greece during three year soil campaigns. Forty soil plots of olive groves were selected (20 rainfed and 20 irrigated) and carbon input practices were applied on the half of the irrigated and rainfed soil parcels (10 rainfed and 10 irrigated), while the remaining ones were used as controls. The results showed significant changes of chemical and biological properties of soil in olive orchards due to carbon treatments. However, these changes were depended on irrigation conditions. Microbial parameters appeared to be reliable indicators of changes in soil management. Proper management of alternative soil carbon inputs in olive orchards can positively affect soil fertility.

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  20. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nano-sized crystalline drug production by milling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Ueda, Keisuke; Limwikrant, Waree; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Nano-formulation of poorly water-soluble drugs has been developed to enhance drug dissolution. In this review, we introduce nano-milling technology described in recently published papers. Factors affecting the size of drug crystals are compared based on the preparation methods and drug and excipient types. A top-down approach using the comminution process is a method conventionally used to prepare crystalline drug nanoparticles. Wet milling using media is well studied and several wet-milled drug formulations are now on the market. Several trials on drug nanosuspension preparation using different apparatuses, materials, and conditions have been reported. Wet milling using a high-pressure homogenizer is another alternative to preparing production-scale drug nanosuspensions. Dry milling is a simple method of preparing a solid-state drug nano-formulation. The effect of size on the dissolution of a drug from nanoparticles is an area of fundamental research, but it is sometimes incorrectly evaluated. Here, we discuss evaluation procedures and the associated problems. Lastly, the importance of quality control, process optimization, and physicochemical characterization are briefly discussed.

  2. Preparation of tungsten-iron carbide by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.M.; Campbell, S.J.; Calka, A.; Kaczmarek, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Several sets of elemental powder mixtures of Fe-W-C (W 46 Fe 46 C 8 , W 60 Fe 20 C 20 and W 34 Fe 33 C 33 ) were ball milled using Uni-Ball mill for periods of up to 550 h in vacuum with a ball - to - powder ratio of about 35:1. Depending on the milling time, the main component of the as-milled materials was found to be solid solutions of Fe-W-C or Fe-C. Ternary phase W 3 Fe 3 C was obtained on annealing the as-milled materials at about 700 deg C. This product was then found to transfer to (FeW) 6 C on heat treatment at about 800 deg C. The resultant products of the annealing processes were found to depend not only on the annealing temperature, but also the starting composition, especially the initial carbon concentration. Detailed information on the structural and phase evolution during thermal treatment as measured using x-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal analysis is presented. Special interest is focused on the competition for formation in this system between the Fe-C, W-Fe and W-C phases

  3. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  4. La filière huile d’olive en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi Ines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier a façonné, au fil des millénaires, les paysages, l’histoire, la culture et la gastronomie du bassin méditerranéen qui est encore aujourd’hui le cœur productif et commercial de l’huile d’olive. La Tunisie est le pays oléicole le plus important du Sud de la Méditerranée. Si l’on exclut l’Union européenne, la Tunisie est la plus grande puissance mondiale dans le secteur de l’huile d’olive, déployant de grands efforts de restructuration, de modernisation et d’amélioration de la qualité de ses huiles, accompagnés d’une considérable expansion de surfaces. L’enjeu sera pour la Tunisie d’assurer un ajustement permanent de sa politique oléicole et d’élaborer et mettre en œuvre des stratégies concurrentielles lui permettant de profiter de ces nouvelles opportunités et de renforcer sa compétitivité. La présente étude, qui s’insère dans le cadre de cette préoccupation, a pour objectif d’affiner cette connaissance. Elle se propose d’étudier la filière huile d’olive tunisienne et les possibilités d’amélioration de ses performances.

  5. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  6. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  7. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  8. Total recovery of the waste of two-phase olive oil processing: isolation of added-value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Gómez, Esther; Guillén, Rafael; Jiménez, Ana; Heredia, Antonia; Rodríguez, Rocío

    2004-09-22

    A process for the value addition of solid waste from two-phase olive oil extraction or "alperujo" that includes a hydrothermal treatment has been suggested. In this treatment an autohydrolysis process occurs and the solid olive byproduct is partially solubilized. From this water-soluble fraction can be obtained besides the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol several other compounds of high added value. In this paper three different samples of alperujo were characterized and subjected to a hydrothermal treatment with and without acid catalyst. The main soluble compounds after the hydrolysis were represented by monosaccharides xylose, arabinose, and glucose; oligosaccharides, mannitol and products of sugar destruction. Oligosaccharides were separated by size exclusion chromatography. It was possible to get highly purified mannitol by applying a simple purification method.

  9. Centennial Olive trees in Lebanon: a substantial patrimony

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, L.; Malas, F.; Hamadeh, B.; Essalouh, Laila; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the centennial olive trees growing across Lebanon, with the perspective of conservation of the ancient germplasm. The survey indicated the existence of numerous centennial olive trees distributed in different agro-climatic areas, from 80 to 1350 meters altitude across the country. Centennial olives were found in large size orchards and scattered as well as in young orchards, road hedges and gardens for ornamental purposes. Yet, no reliable information...

  10. Milling damage on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer using TiAlN coated End mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konneh, Mohamed; Kassim, Abdullah Abdul Rahman; Izman, Sudin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the damage caused by milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composite (CFRP) with 2-flute 4 mm-diameter solid carbide end mills, coated with titanium aluminium nitride. The machining parameters considered in work are, rotation speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Experiments were designed based on Box-Behnken design and the experiments conducted on a Mikrotool DT-110 CNC micro machine. A laser tachometer was used to ascertain a rotational speed for conducting any machining trial. Optical microscopy examination reveals minimum delamination value of 4.05 mm at the spindle speed of 25,000 rpm, depth of cut of 50μm and feed rate of 3 mm/min and the maximum delamination value of 5.04 mm at the spindle speed of 35000 rpm, depth of cut of 150μm and feed rate of 9 mm/min A mathematical model relating the milling parameters and delamination has been established. (paper)

  11. Radioecological surveillance around an old mining and milling site during environmental remediation works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, Margarida

    2008-01-01

    The main site of historic uranium mining and milling in Portugal, near the town of Canas de Senhorim, contains around 2.5 million tones of solid waste containing radioactivity in various mill tailings and spoil heaps. Approval of an environmental remediation plan for this area was followed by the start of engineering works, including the transportation of milling waste to the main milling pile and re shaping and contouring the waste heap to put a cap layer. These works were mostly performed in 2006 and 2007. During part of this period monitoring of radioactivity, including radon, was performed in the surface air, surface waters from the area, including the monitoring of the small river that receives drainage from the mill tailings area, and agriculture products. This paper presents the results of measurements of the main alpha emitting radionuclides of uranium series and compares them with previous data from the region. Implications for the radiological protection of the population are discussed. (author)

  12. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  13. Effect of olive waste (Husk on behavior of cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Alkheder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is a famous country in terms of olive trees agriculture that resulted in a mass production of olive oil products. The huge amounts of olive waste (husk that resulted from olives processing to produce olive oil represent an environmental challenge in the country. The idea in this paper comes to use olive waste as a partial replacement for Portland cement in cement paste to conserve the environment, reduce cement consumption and increase cost efficiency. The wastes were burned properly in an oven and maintained for 6 h until it was fully transformed into ashes. Then, the oven was turned off and ashes were allowed to cool. After cooling, the material passed sieve #200 were used. The sieved ashes were used in the cement mix as a partial cement replacement for making the mortar and cement paste. Normal consistency and setting time were determined as well as soundness, compressive strength. Results indicated that normal consistency of the cement pastes containing different percentage of olive waste is somehow lower than that of the ordinary cement paste and slightly decreases with increasing the percentage. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of hardened blended cement paste containing different percentages of olive waste slightly decrease with olive waste content at 3, 7, and 28 days.

  14. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  15. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C 6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C 6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Jamie Oliver i den gode smags tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    »Hi guys – I’d like to ask you a favor: I need your help with a food movement I’ve started«. Således starter Jamie Olivers kogebog »Jamie’s Ministry of Food« (2008). Denne åbning understreger, at der ikke er tale om en helt almindelig kogebog. For mange er kogebogen blot en samling opskrifter på ...

  18. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  19. Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-10-14

    The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed.

  20. Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) activity, fruit infestation and temperature in an organic table olive orchard in southern Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Volakakis, Mr N.; Eyre, Dr M.D.; Kabourakis, Dr E.; Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    Olive fly activity and olive fruit infestation was monitored in a table olive orchard in southern Crete throughout most of 2006 using McPhail traps. Flies were trapped weekly for 40 weeks, starting at the beginning of February. The fly data was split into 10 four-week periods. Male, female and total fly activity was significantly related to sampling period, maximum temperature and relative humidity but the pattern of catches was not consistent. Activity increased from February until July but ...

  1. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronda, A., E-mail: alirg@ugr.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Della Zassa, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy); Martín-Lara, M.A.; Calero, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Canu, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The fate of Pb during combustion at two scales of investigation was studied. • Results from combustion in a flow reactor and in the thermobalance were consistent. • The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes. • The Pb does not interfere in the use of OTP as fuel. • The combustion of Pb(II)-loaded OTP does not cause environmental hazards. - Abstract: The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10{sup 2} larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards.

  2. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  3. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of olive fruits (Olea Europaea L. ), and its oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bashir, M.

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on accelerating the debittering steps of olive fruits, oil extractability and the quality of extracted oil. Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 669 Gy/hr., a part of these fruits was debittered in distilled water, the second was processed with NaOH (3.6% concentration) for 3 or 6 hr. Both treated fruits with a control part were kept in brine (5.6% sodium chloride) and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Portions of all these treated fruits were subjected to oil extraction by mechanical means immediately after treatment. During the debittering period (8 days) the total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and ph values were determined in wastewater (daily), whereas the peroxide value, iodine number and the total acidity were measured in the extracted oil. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, a and K in wastewater. The most significant effect was noticed when irradiated fruits were processed with NaOH for 3 hrs. as indicated by the values of total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K concentration in wastewater. All used doses of gamma radiation, increased the extractability of the oil from the treated fruits, the total acidity and the peroxide value of that oil. (Author)

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured chemical hydrides in hydrogen alloying mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, Z.; Varin, R.A.; Chiu, C.; Czujko, T.; Calka, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical alloying of magnesium metal powders with hydrogen in specialized hydrogen ball mills can be used as a direct route for mechanochemical synthesis of emerging chemical hydrides and hydride mixtures for advanced solid-state hydrogen storage. In the 2Mg-Fe system, we have successfully synthesized the ternary complex hydride Mg 2 FeH 6 in a mixture with nanometric Fe particles. The mixture of complex magnesium-iron hydride and nano-iron released 3-4 wt.%H 2 in a thermally programmed desorption experiment at the range 285-295 o C. Milling of the Mg-2Al powder mixture revealed a strong competition between formation of the Al(Mg) solid solution and the β-MgH 2 hydride. The former decomposes upon longer milling as the Mg atoms react with hydrogen to form the hydride phase, and drive the Al out of the solid solution. The mixture of magnesium dihydride and nano-aluminum released 2.1 wt.%H 2 in the temperature range 329-340 o C in the differential scanning calorimetry experiment. The formation of MgH 2 was suppressed in the Mg-B system; instead, a hydrogenated amorphous phase (Mg,B)H x , was formed in a mixture with nanometric MgB 2 . Annealing of the hydrogen-stabilized amorphous mixture produced crystalline MgB 2

  6. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...... temperature in terms of sample volume, mass-scaling seems more physically correct for the self-ignition of solids. Findings also suggest that the transition between self-heating and self-ignition is controlled both by the availability of reactive material and temperature. Comparison of experiments at 20...

  7. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–10%Ni alloy obtained by planetary ball mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Elkedim, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Solid solution formation accompanied by a grain refinement for nanocrystalline Fe-Ni. •The shock mode process (SMP) prevails when Ω > >ω. •The friction mode process (FMP) is stronger when Ω < <ω. •The FMP leads to the formation of alloys exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior. -- Abstract: Planetary ball mill PM 400 from Retsch (with different milling times for Ω = 400 rpm, ω = 800 rpm) and P4 vario ball mill from Fritsch (with different milling conditions (Ω/ω), Ω and ω being the disc and the vial rotation speeds, respectively) are used for obtaining nanocrystalline Fe–10wt% Ni. The structure and magnetic properties are studied by using X-ray diffraction, SEM and hysteresis measurements, respectively. The bcc-Fe(Ni) phase formation is identified by X-ray diffraction. The higher the shock power and the higher milling time are, the larger the bcc lattice parameter and the lower the grain size. The highest value of the coercivity is 1600 A/m for Fe–10 wt.%Ni (with shock mode (424 rpm/100 rpm) after 36 h of milling), while the lowest value is 189 A/m for (400 rpm/800 rpm) after 72 h of milling. The milling performed in the friction mode has been found to lead the formation of alloys exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior for nanocrystalline Fe–10%Ni

  8. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  9. Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...

  10. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  11. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  12. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  13. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    quality olive plants. To study the potential of the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to stimulate the growth of micropropagated olive plants and to compare their ... phosphate, 15% potassium oxide, 2% magnesium oxide, 4.5% sulphur, 0.02% ..... Our results indicate the feasibility of G. mosseae and.

  15. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  16. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  17. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared the genetic profiles of six old olive cultivars from an Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to 15 modern Turkish olive cultivars from different geographical origins. The RAPD profiles successfully clarified the molecular relationships among the genotypes tested. Seventeen RAPD primers generated 153 ...

  18. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  19. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  20. Toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via multiple M2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tai, Ta-Sheng; Terashima, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    We derive 4-dimensional N = 4 U(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory from a 3-dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theory with product gauge group (U(N)) 2n . The latter describes M2-branes probing an orbifold where a torus emerges in a scaling limit. It is expected that the SL(2,Z) duality of the 4-dimensional Yang-Mills theory will be shown in M-theory point of view since it is trivially realized as modular transformations of the torus. Indeed, starting from one single Chern-Simons-matter theory, we find infinitely many equivalent 4-dimensional theories differing up to T-transformation of the SL(2,Z) redefinition of the gauge coupling τ = θ/2π + 4πi/g 2 and a parity transformation in 4 dimensions. Although S-transformation can not be shown in our work, it is important that a part of the SL(2,Z) transformation is realized via the M2-brane action. Thus we think our work can be a step toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via M2-branes.

  1. Toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via multiple M2-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tai, Ta-Sheng; Terashima, Seiji

    2009-04-01

    We derive 4-dimensional Script N = 4 U(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory from a 3-dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theory with product gauge group (U(N))2n. The latter describes M2-branes probing an orbifold where a torus emerges in a scaling limit. It is expected that the SL(2,Z) duality of the 4-dimensional Yang-Mills theory will be shown in M-theory point of view since it is trivially realized as modular transformations of the torus. Indeed, starting from one single Chern-Simons-matter theory, we find infinitely many equivalent 4-dimensional theories differing up to T-transformation of the SL(2,Z) redefinition of the gauge coupling τ = θ/2π + 4πi/g2 and a parity transformation in 4 dimensions. Although S-transformation can not be shown in our work, it is important that a part of the SL(2,Z) transformation is realized via the M2-brane action. Thus we think our work can be a step toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via M2-branes.

  2. Olives: less kilos, more watts; L`olive: moins de kilos, plus de watts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandroy, L [Biofutur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ``lasting development`` concept. 10 refs.

  3. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  4. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  5. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  6. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  7. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  8. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  10. 'Galega Vulgar' - yield indices and quality of elementary olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.; Vitorino, M.C.; Henriques, L.R.; Peres, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows the evolution of two olive yield indexes (humidity and fat) and three olive oil quality parameters (acidity, peroxid value and UV absorbances) for cv. Galega vulgar from the olive grove Quinta Senhora de Mercules, Castelo Branco, during the 1995/96 harvest. It shows also the evolution of fatty acid composition of the same olive oil [pt

  11. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  12. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  13. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  14. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  15. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  16. Crusher isolation to keep Key Lake mill dust free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, Andy.

    1982-01-01

    About a mile of four-inch pipe will virtually eliminate dust in the mill area of the new Key Lake uranium mine when production begins in the summer of 1983. The ore from the pit will be crushed beside the pit, wetground, and piped as a slurry to the mill, which will be isolated from dust-producing processes. The pipeline will carry about 780 tons per day and will replace about one and half haulage trucks. The mill will be able to extract more than 99 percent of the uranium from the ore, which contains about 2.5 to 2.7 percent uranium. The life span of the mine is planned to be about 20 years, with a production of 12 million pounds of yelloscake a year. There will never be a townsite at Key Lake because personnel are to be flown in for seven days of 11-hour shifts, then fly out for seven days off. The tailings pond under construction is designed for sastes which will soon become dry and solid due to the high gypsum content of the ore. Process water from the mine will be held in one of five ponds for a day and released only after monitoring. An ammonium sulfate crystallization plant on the site will use waste from the uranium precipitation process to make fertilizer. The mine and mill are costing about $500 million to develop and bring into production

  17. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  18. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  20. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  1. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  2. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW: an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipori, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW, provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g.g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill.En los modernos olivares, las tecnologías de recogida mecánica han acelerado significativamente la recogida

  3. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  4. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  5. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration By application dated July 22... regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North...

  6. DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Bandelj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites combine several features of an ultimate molecular marker and they are used increasingly in various plant genetic studies and applications. In this work we report on the utilisation of fourteen previously developed olive microsatellite markers for the identification and differentiation of a set of nineteen olive varieties. All analysed microsatellite markers revealed a high level of polymorphism that allowed unique genotyping of the examined varieties. Ninety-six alleles were detected at all 14 loci, which multiplied into a large number of observed genotypes, giving high discrimination value for varietal identification. A minimum number of three microsatellite markers was chosen for the rapid and unambiguous varietal identification of nineteen olive varieties and only two markers were sufficient for differentiation of five local varieties. DNA fingerprints of olive cultivars by means of microsatellites provided meaningful data, which can be extended by additional olive varieties or new microsatellites and used for accurate inter-laboratory comparison. The data obtained can be used for the varietal survey and construction of a database of all olive varieties grown in Slovenia providing also additional genetic information on the agronomic and quality characteristics of the olive varieties.

  7. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3 powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm2O3 was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt % Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O solid solution.

  8. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  9. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  10. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  11. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  12. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  13. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  14. Massive Yang-Mills fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Reiff, J.

    1969-01-01

    Two problems are studied in the paper: (i) the relation between Lagrangian and Feynman rules if the Lagrangian contains derivative couplings and/or vector meson fields and (ii) the behaviour of certain two closed loop diagrams in the perturbation theory of Yang-Mills fields. With respect to ( i ) .

  15. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  16. Machining NiTi micro-parts by micro-milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinert, K.; Petzoldt, V.

    2008-01-01

    The machinability of NiTi by milling has been examined using solid carbide end milling cutters. First results were obtained from machining simple slots applying TiAlN-coated tools with a diameter of 0.4 mm. The machining process was evaluated in terms of tool wear, cutting forces and machining quality. The tool wear and work piece quality was analysed with a scanning electron microscope and a white-light confocal microscope. Despite the poor machinability of NiTi good results concerning tool wear and shape accuracy of the milled slots were achieved. Essential for a good machining result is the application of minimum quantity lubrication. This clearly reduces NiTi adherences compared to dry machining. Work piece quality is improved and tool life is extended. Based on these results different structures could be produced by micro-milling

  17. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  18. Synthesis of Randomly Substituted Anionic Cyclodextrins in Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Jicsinszky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of influencing factors mean that the random substitution of cyclodextrins (CD in solution is difficult to reproduce. Reaction assembly in mechanochemistry reduces the number of these factors. However, lack of water can improve the reaction outcomes by minimizing the reagent’s hydrolysis. High-energy ball milling is an efficient, green and simple method for one-step reactions and usually reduces degradation and byproduct formation. Anionic CD derivatives have successfully been synthesized in the solid state, using a planetary ball mill. Comparison with solution reactions, the solvent-free conditions strongly reduced the reagent hydrolysis and resulted in products of higher degree of substitution (DS with more homogeneous DS distribution. The synthesis of anionic CD derivatives can be effectively performed under mechanochemical activation without significant changes to the substitution pattern but the DS distributions were considerably different from the products of solution syntheses.

  19. Radium, uranium and metals in acidic or alkaline uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, St.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mill study sites have been chosen in function of their different characteristics: deposits age, treatment nature (alkaline or acid), mill origin. The realization of specific drilling allowed the simultaneous study of the interstitial water and the solid fraction of samples, cut at determined deep. A radiation imbalance between 230 Th and 226 Ra is observed in the acid treatment residues. The trace elements concentration spectrum is directly bound to the nature of the ore. Diamagnetic evolutions are observed in residues. The uranium concentrations are higher in carbonated waters than in calcic sulfated waters. The selective sequential lixiviation showed that the 226 Ra activity of the interstitial water is controlled by the Gypsum in acid treatment residues. In other hand in the alkaline treatment waters, the carbonates occur. The Ra retention is largely bound to the Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. (A.L.B.)

  20. Development of uranium milling and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shingo; Hirono, Shuichiro.

    1983-11-01

    The development and improvement of uranium milling and refining producing uranium tetrafluoride from ores by the wet process, without producing yellowcake as an intermediate product, have been carried out for over ten years with a small pilot plant (50 t-ore/day). In the past several years, a process for converting uranium tetrafluoride into hexafluoride has been developed successfully. To develop the process further, the construction of an integrated milling and conversion pilot plant (200 t-U/year) started in 1979 and was completed in 1981. This new plant has two systems of solvent extraction using tri-noctylamine: one of the systems treats the pregnant solution (uranyl sulphate) by heap-leaching followed by ion exchange, and the other treats the uranyl sulphate solution by dissolving imported yellowcake. The uranium loading solvents from the two systems are stripped with hydrochloric acid solution to obtain the concentrated uranium solution containing 100 g-U/1. Uranyl sulphate solution from the stripping circuit is reduced to a uranous sulphate solution by the electrolytic method. In a reduction cell, uranyl sulphate solution and dilute sulphuric acid are used respectively as catholyte and anolyte, and a cation exchange membrane is used to prevent re-oxidation of the uranous sulphate. In the following hydrofluorination step, uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 .1-1.2H 2 O (particle size: 50-100μ), is produced continuously as the precipitate in an improved reaction vessel, and this makes it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The uranium tetrafluoride is dehydrated by heating to 350 0 C in an inert gas flow. The complete conversion from UF 4 into UF 6 is achieved by a fluidized-bed reactor and a high value of utilization efficiency of fluorine, over 99.9 percent, is attained at about 400 0 C. (author)