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Sample records for olive mill residue

  1. Organic matter transformation and detoxification in dry olive mill residue by the saprophytic fungus Paecilomyces farinosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Grego, S.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 216-225 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Phenols * Paecilomyces farinosus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2009

  2. Short-term impact of dry olive mill residue addition to soil on the resident microbiota

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Giubilei, M. A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Federici, E.; Federici, F.; Petruccioli, M.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 23 (2009), s. 6098-6106 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Microbial community profiling * Toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2009

  3. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  4. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-07-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  5. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-01-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  6. Chemical characterization and effects on Lepidium sativum of the native and bioremediated components of dry olive mill residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, E; García-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A; Carbone, V; Mari, A; Malorni, A; Sannino, F; De Martino, A; Capasso, R

    2007-09-01

    Dry olive mill residue (DOR) from the olive oil production by two phase centrifugation system was fractionated by a consecutive continuous solid-liquid extraction obtaining the EAF, PF, MF and WF fractions with ethyl acetate, n-propanol, methanol and water, respectively. The chemical, chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses showed EAF, PF and MF to be mainly composed of simple phenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids and glycosilated phenols (glycosides of phenols, secoiridoids and flavonoids), whereas WF was mainly consisting of polymerin, the metal organic polymeric mixture previously identified in olive oil mill waste waters and composed of carbohydrates, melanin, proteins and metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe). The identification in DOR of oleoside, 6'-beta-glucopyranosyl-oleoside and 6'-beta-rhamnopyranosyl-oleoside, and of its organic polymeric component, known as polymerin, are reported for the first time in this paper. The inoculation of the previously mentioned fractions with saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida, Pycnoporus cynnabarinus or Trametes versicolor indicated these fungi to be able to metabolize both the phenols and glycosilated phenols, but not polymerin. In correspondence, EAF, PF, MF and WF, which proved to be toxic on Lepidium sativum, decreased their toxicity after incubation with the selected fungi, WF showing to be also able to stimulate the growth of the selected seeds. The phytotoxicity appeared mainly correlated to the monomeric phenols and, to a lesser extent, to the glycosilated phenols, whereas polymerin proved to be non toxic. However, the laccase activity was not associated with the decrease of phytotoxicity. The valorization of DOR as a producer of high added value substances of industrial and agricultural interest in native form and after their bioremediation for a final objective of the total DOR recycling is also discussed.

  7. Box-Behnken Design Application to Study Leaching of Pyrolusite from Manganese Mining Residue Using Olive Mill Wastewater as Reductant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; El Kacemi, K.; El Ass, K.; Kitane, S.; El Bouzidi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The leaching capacity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) for pyrolusite mine tailings (MnO2) was evaluated using the Box-Behnken experimental design of response surface methodology. The selected test parameters include the concentration of sulfuric acid, the OMW dosage chemical oxygen demand (COD), the solid/liquid ratio S/ L, and particle size. It was determined that the MnO2 dissolution increased with an increase in the sulfuric acid concentration and the OMW dosage, and with a decrease in the solid/liquid ratio. The particle size does not have significant influence on the manganese recovery. A quadratic polynomial model has been developed to predict the amount of manganese extraction from pyrolusite for other operating conditions that were not directly tested. The leaching ability was evaluated based on manganese recovery (Mn%) and the removal capability of chemical oxygen demand (COD%). The predicted values for the responses agreed well with experimental values; R 2 (correlation coefficient) values for Mn% and COD% were 0.9602 and 0.9687, respectively. Within the design space, the optimum conditions for the lixiviation of MnO2 in terms of manganese recovery and COD removal were established and include [H2SO4] of 3 mol L-1, OMW in range of 23 g L-1 to 25 g L-1 COD, and pulp density in range of 90 g L-1 to 100 g L-1. Under these conditions, the response values generated by the model are Mn% ˜49% and COD% >40%. These values show good agreement with those obtained in the validation test. This study has demonstrated that it is possible to use the olive mill wastewater as a reductant agent to recover manganese from a pyrolusite mining residue.

  8. In situ olive mill residual co-composting for soil organic fertility restoration and by-product sustainable reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Casacchia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of organic matter in the form of compost improves overall physical, chemical and biological properties of soils but, to be really sustainable, the composting process should be carried out using the by-products available in situ. Two different soils of a Mediterranean olive orchard, one managed traditionally (NAS and the other amended with compost (AS, were investigated in a two-year experiment. Increases in total organic matter, total nitrogen and pH, were detected in AS if compared to NAS. Significant increases in total and specific microbial counts were observed in AS, with a clear amelioration of microbiological soil quality. The results demonstrated that soil amendment using compost deriving from olive mill by-products can be an important agricultural practice for supporting and stimulating soil microorganisms and, at the same time, for re-using these byproducts, so avoiding their negative environmental impact.

  9. Integrated use of residues from olive mill and winery for lipase production by solid state fermentation with Aspergillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2014-02-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is presently the major waste produced by the olive mill industry. This waste has potential to be used as substrate for solid state fermentation (SSF) despite of its high concentration of phenolic compounds and low nitrogen content. In this work, it is demonstrated that mixtures of TPOMW with winery wastes support the production of lipase by Aspergillus spp. By agar plate screening, Aspergillus niger MUM 03.58, Aspergillus ibericus MUM 03.49, and Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01 were chosen for lipase production by SSF. Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to evaluate the effect of substrate composition and time on lipase production. The highest amounts of lipase were produced by A. ibericus on a mixture of TPOMW, urea, and exhausted grape mark (EGM). Urea was found to be the most influent factor for the lipase production. Further optimization of lipase production by A. ibericus using a full factorial design (3(2)) conducted to optimal conditions of substrate composition (0.073 g urea/g and 25 % of EGM) achieve 18.67 U/g of lipolytic activity.

  10. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  11. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  12. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  13. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  14. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [es

  15. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  16. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  17. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  18. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  19. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  20. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  1. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  2. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery contex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.; Ruiz, E.; Ballesteros, M.; Negro, M.J.; Gallego, F.J.; López-Linares, J.C.; Castro, E.

    2017-07-01

    Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB), extracted olive pomace (EOP) and olive leaves (OL) that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  3. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  4. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  5. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

    2001-04-01

    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  6. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  7. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  9. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  10. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  11. Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, Nuri; Keskin, Tugba; Yuruyen, Aysegul [Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey (CW) and laying hen litter (LHL) in order to enhance the methane production of OME was investigated. For this purpose, biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was carried out for both raw OME alone and OME mixed with varying amount of other substrates such as LHL and CW in the serum bottles, respectively. Corresponding methane production values for various mixtures of the organic residue streams used in this study were determined. It was demonstrated that co-digestion of OME with LHL significantly enhanced the biodegradability of OME which was too low if it was digested alone. Over 90% increase in biogas production was obtained when digesting OME with LHL. The biogas production increased only 22%, when CW was used for the same purpose. It was demonstrated that the biodegradability of OME could be significantly enhanced by co-digestion and thereby integrated management of OME using anaerobic degradation could be proposed as an economically viable and ecologically acceptable solution for the safe disposal of OME. (author)

  12. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  13. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m 3 ) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  14. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  15. Impact of repeated two-phase olive mill waste application on phosphorus fractionation in a degraded olive grove soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Flores, S.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Cabrera, D.; Pena, D.; Fernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of organic matter is one of the main forms of soil degradation in Mediterranean agricultural soils, and external sources of organic matter are required to improve soil properties. the two-phase centrifugation system in the olive-oil extraction industry produces a large amount of olive mill waste sludge (TPOMW) which can be used to add organic C to degraded soils. (Author)

  16. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater and the Use of Polyphenols Obtained After Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastes are signicant environmental problem especially in Mediterranean areas where they are generated in huge quantities in a short period of time. They are phytotoxic materials because of their high phenol, lipid and organic acid concentrations, but these wastes also contain valuable resources that could be recycled such as a large proportion of organic matter and a wide range of nutrients. The effluent from olive oil mills contains a large amount of polyphenols that have antioxidant properties. The market value of these antioxidants is high and they are commonly used in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and chemical industries. For the management of olive mill wastewater (OMW and other olive residues, various treatment methods can be used. Many scientists work on more efficient and cheaper treatment alternatives. Due to the great variety of compounds in the waste, several technologies to remove the harmful compounds for the environment should be used single or together. Some of the most used OMW treatments are drying / evaporation, forced evaporation, thermal treatment, centrifugation-ultraltration, electrocoagulation, composting, lagooning, adsorption, powdered activated carbon, filtration, sand filtration, membrane filtration, ultrafiltration, precipitation / flocculation, distillation, electrolysis, co-composting, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs such as ozonation, hydrogen peroxide / ferrous iron oxidation (the so-called Fentons reagent. Several OMW treatment technologies have been developed aiming at the removal of the main toxic organic compounds. A lot of factors must be considered to choose the treatment methods among them the investment, required area, specic training of the workers, noise and odour emissions and seasonality of production.

  17. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Padilla, Rafael; Raposo Bejines, Francisco; Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three ident...

  18. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Bárbara; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiabl...

  19. Olive mill wastewater characteristics: modelling and statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins-Dias, Susete

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of the work carried out on Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW characterisation is given, covering articles published over the last 50 years. Data on OMW characterisation found in the literature are summarised and correlations between them and with phenolic compounds content are sought. This permits the characteristics of an OMW to be estimated from one simple measurement: the phenolic compounds concentration. A model based on OMW characterisations accounting 6 countries was developed along with a model for Portuguese OMW. The statistical analysis of the correlations obtained indicates that Chemical Oxygen Demand of a given OMW is a second-degree polynomial function of its phenolic compounds concentration. Tests to evaluate the regressions significance were carried out, based on multivariable ANOVA analysis, on visual standardised residuals distribution and their means for confidence levels of 95 and 99 %, validating clearly these models. This modelling work will help in the future planning, operation and monitoring of an OMW treatment plant.Presentamos una síntesis de los trabajos realizados en los últimos 50 años relacionados con la caracterización del alpechín. Realizamos una recopilación de los datos publicados, buscando correlaciones entre los datos relativos al alpechín y los compuestos fenólicos. Esto permite la determinación de las características del alpechín a partir de una sola medida: La concentración de compuestos fenólicos. Proponemos dos modelos, uno basado en datos relativos a seis países y un segundo aplicado únicamente a Portugal. El análisis estadístico de las correlaciones obtenidas indica que la demanda química de oxígeno de un determinado alpechín es una función polinómica de segundo grado de su concentración de compuestos fenólicos. Se comprobó la significancia de esta correlación mediante la aplicación del análisis multivariable ANOVA, y además se evaluó la distribución de residuos y sus

  20. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  2. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  3. Olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Ghannam, Noor; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A.; Alshawawreh, Fida'a.; Odeh, Fadwa; Abu-Dalo, Muna A.

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollution is a public concern. OMW contains high levels of phenols, organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), microorganisms, nutrients, and toxic compounds. The treatment of OMW has been investigated by many researchers in the Mediterranean region, using several treatment techniques to remove contaminants from OMW. These techniques include chemical, biological, physiochemical, and biophysical techniques. Surfactants and some adsorbents were used in chemical techniques, anaerobic and aerobic in biological techniques, while the combined treatment methods used Electroosmosis, ozonation and electrocoagulation processes as physiochemical methods, and ultrasonic irradiation combined with aerobic biodegradation as biophysical method. The effects of OMW, whether treated or untreated, have been evaluated on both plants’ growth and soil properties. The treatment methods as well as the environmental impact of OMW in Jordan were summarized in this review.

  4. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE and the olive cake extracts (OCE. Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90±0.728 g/L versus 0.95±0.017 mg/g. The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS. With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH and emulsion (BCBT systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50=12.1±5.6 μg/mL; EC50=157.7±34.9 μg/mL, resp.. However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis.

  5. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.; Lounici, Hakim; Abdi, Nadia; Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Pauss, André ; Mameri, Nabil

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER

  7. Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Garcia-Rosado, A.; Polonia, I.; Junca-Blanch, G.; Marin, F.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    When olive mill wastes (OMWs) and vegetation waters (VWs) obtained during the manufacture of olive oil were added as substrate supplements for the cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius the material modified growth of the mushroom and the endemic microbiota of the substrate, in particular the

  8. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  9. Land Application-Based Olive Mill Wastewater Μanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif Kapellakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of olive mill wastewater (OMW is considered a promising low-cost practice for olive-oil producing countries. The objectives of this work were to investigate: (i OMW treatment potential of a land treatment system (LTS, planted with a E. camaldulensis species, regarding N, P, C, and phenols; (ii the effects of OMW on chemical properties of soil and soil solution characteristics; and (iii the performance of E. camaldulensis in terms of biomass production and N and P recovery. E. camaldulensis received OMW for two growing seasons at rates based on maximum organic loading. These rates were almost equivalent to the reference evapotranspiration of the area. Soil solution and soil samples were collected from three different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm at specified time intervals. -Also, samples of plant tissues were collected at the end of application periods. OMW land application resulted in significant reduction in inorganic and organic constituents of OMW. At 15 cm of soil profile, the average removal of COD, TKN, NH4+-N, TP, In-P, and total phenols approached 93%, 86%, 70%, 86%, 82%, and 85%, respectively, while an increase in soil depth (30 and 60 cm did not improve significantly treatment efficiency. Furthermore, OMW increased soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and available P, particularly in the upper soil layer. In contrast, low inorganic N content was observed in the soil throughout the study period caused probably by increased competition among soil microorganisms induced by the organic substrate supply and high C/N ratio. Also, electrical conductivity (EC and SAR increased by OMW addition, but at levels that may do not pose severe risk for soil texture. Enhancement of soil fertility due to OMW application sustained eucalyptus trees and provided remarkable biomass yield. In conclusion, land application of OMW has a great potential for organic matter and phenol assimilation and can be effectively used for OMW

  10. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinda, Ángeles

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  11. An automated medium scale prototype for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bernardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil production constitutes one of the most important agro-industrial business for Mediterranean countries, where 97% of the international production is focused. Such an activity, mainly carried out through three phase olive oil mill plants, generates huge amounts of solid and liquid by-products further than olive oil. Physico-chemical features of these by-products depend on various factors such as soil and climatic conditions, agricultural practices and processing. As currently carried out, the disposal of these by-products may lead to numerous problems taking into account management, economic and particularly environmental aspects. Indeed, olive mill wastewater is not easily biodegradable due to its high chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, its high content in phenolic compounds, high ratio C/N and low pH, leading consequently to soil and water source pollution. Considering, the above-mentioned statements, olive mill waste disposal constitutes nowadays a challenge for oil industry stakeholders. It becomes necessary to look for alternative solutions in order to overcome environmental problems and ensure the sustainability of oil industry. Anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with other agro-industrial matrices could be one of these solutions; since it offers the possibility to produce green energy and break down toxicological compounds contained in these wastewater for a better disposal of the digested matrices as soil conditioner. In this contest, this note reports the functioning principle of an automated medium scale plant for anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater. Keywords: Medium scale prototype, Olive mill wastewater (OMWW, Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD, Automatic process

  12. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW. Two free water surface (FWS constructed wetlands, one without (CW1 and one with effluent recirculation (CW2, were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10 and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency averaged 80%, 83%, 78%, 80%, and 74% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively, during the operation period. Effluent recirculation further improved the treatment efficiency which approached 90%, 98%, 87%, 85%, and 87% for COD, TSS, TKN, TP, and total phenols, respectively. Constructed wetlands also showed high removal efficiency for NH4+-N. Nitrate concentration maintained low in both CWs basins, probably due to the prevalence of high denitrification rates that efficiently removed the NO3--N produced by NH4+-N oxidation. Despite the increased removal percentages, pollutant concentration in effluent exceeded the allowable limits for discharge in water bodies, suggesting that additional practices, including enhanced pre-application treatment and/or higher dilution rates, are required to make this practice effective for OMW management.

  13. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Production of biochar from olive mill solid waste for heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Samya O; Dosoretz, Carlos G; Rytwo, Giora; Gerchman, Yoram; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Commercial activated carbon (CAC) and biochar are useful adsorbents for removing heavy metals (HM) from water, but their production is costly. Biochar production from olive solid waste from two olive cultivars (Picual and Souri) and two oil production process (two- or three-phase) and two temperatures (350 and 450°C) was tested. The biochar yield was 24-35% of the biomass, with a surface area of 1.65-8.12m 2 g -1 , as compared to 1100m 2 g -1 for CAC. Picual residue from the two-phase milling technique, pyrolysed at 350°C, had the best cumulative removal capacity for Cu +2 , Pb +2 , Cd +2 , Ni +2 and Zn +2 with more than 85% compared to other biochar types and CAC. These results suggest that surface area cannot be used as a sole predictor of HM removal capacity. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups in the different biochar types, which may be related to the differences in absorbing capacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Olive oil mill wastewater for remediation of slag contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

    2013-12-01

    Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively.

  16. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabaza, Ovidio; Contreras-Montes, José; García-Ruiz, María; Delgado-Ramos, Fernando; Gómez-Lorente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where t...

  17. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these h...

  18. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiable and separate waste streams. These are: 1 the wash waters from the initial cleansing of the fruit; 2 the wash waters from the secondary centrifuge and 3 the aqueous solid residues from the primary centrifugation. As well as offering process advantages they also reduce the water consumption of the mill. The introduction of this technology was carried out in 90% of Spanish olive oil factories. Therefore, the new twophase olive mill effluents (TPOME are made up of the mixture of effluents (1 and (2, the total volume of TPOME generated being around 0.25 l/kg of olives processed. In addition, the solid residue (two-phase olive pomace, TPOP has a high organic matter concentration giving an elevated polluting load and it cannot be easily handled by traditional technology which deals with the conventional three-phase olive cake.So, this paper aims to report the main features and characteristics of TPOME, and of TPOP, as compared to the classical olive mill wastewater (OMW and olive cake derived from the three-phase manufacturing process. The advantages and disadvantages of the two-phase decanting process will be summarized. Among the treatments reported for TPOME, aerobic processes in completely mixed and activated sludge reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies. Kinetic constants of the aerobic processes were also compared at different operational conditions. The report also includes the following findings: assays of anaerobic digestion of wastewaters from the

  19. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  20. Does wastewater from olive mills induce toxicity and water repellency in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikert, B.; Bandow, N.; Schaumann, G. E.

    2012-04-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater is the effluent generated by the olive oil extraction process. It is the main waste product of this industry mainly being produced in the Mediterranean Basin. Because proper treatment options are rare it is often disposed into the environment, e.g. fields or wadies. Due to its high concentration of fatty acids and phytotoxic phenolic compounds and its high chemical and biological oxygen demand, olive oil mill wastewater becomes a serious environmental problem. In this screening study we investigated long-term effects of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil properties in several locations in the West Bank and Israel. We determined wettability via water drop penetration time and the contact angle as well as general soil properties including pH, EC, carbon content, and we conducted thermogravimetrical analyses in order to characterize the impact of the waste water on the quality of soil organic matter. Our results show that application of olive oil mill wastewater has various effects. We determined contact angles between 110 and 120° and water drop penetration times up to 1367 s indicating significant reduction in wettability. Furthermore, soil carbon and nitrogen content and water extractable organic matter increased as well as electric conductivity, which could be pointed out as a fertilizing effect. In contrast soil pH was significantly reduced. Conducting thermal analyses we observed an increase in the labile and refractory carbon fraction. Probably first one is responsible for induced water repellency. As a consequence the reduced wettability negatively affects soil quality. It would therefore be promising to minimize the hydrophobizing impacts without losing fertilizing effects of the olive oil mill wastewater.

  1. Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater and solid waste (pomace or olive cake. These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE and dehydrated olive cake (DOC on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05 prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001. These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry.

  2. In vitro fermentation of olive oil mill wastewaters using sheep rumen liquor as inoculum: Olive mill wastewaters an alternative for ruminant's nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moufida Aggoun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWW are the main liquid effluents generated by the olive oil production industry. This liquid, considered pollutant and toxic, is characterised by its high content of organic matter including mainly sugars and fats, and phenols compounds, which can be used in ruminants feeding. The purpose of this study is to valorise this agricultural by-product in ruminant feeding by estimation its in vitro degradability in presence of ovine ruminale microbiota comparatively to vetch-oat hay, using in vitro gas production technique coupled with NH3-N and protozoa measurements. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. The determination of gazes produced (carbon dioxide and methane was recorded at 6, 9, 24, 48 and 96 hours. However, Ammonia and protozoa number were recorded after 24 hours of incubation. Fermentation profile was fitted to the exponential model y = a + b (1 – e-kt. The OMWW are characterized by their high sugars content (39.91% and their low content in ash (1.99% and crude protein (2.70%. This by-product is also characterized by its high concentration in total phenols (7.2% and tannins (4.5%. However, they contain a very small amount of condensed tannins (0.89%. Comparatively to vetch-oat hay, OMWW produced low amount of gas (-23.6 units. Furthermore, its in vitro fermentation generates low volume of methane (9.83%, V/V, suggesting that the OMWW nature enhanced the efficiency of ruminale microbiota towards microbial biomass production and inhibition of ruminale methanogenesis pathway. This result is reinforced by the reduction of ammonia production (-0.35 units and protozoa proliferation (-1 unit comparatively to vetch-oat hay. The anaerobic biodegradation of OMWW reveal their significant use by the rumen microbiota, allowing us to strongly recommend its use as a supplement in feed ruminant. In addition, it allows considering using this residue as a feed additive in

  3. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  4. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  5. Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I.; El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Kalliny, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H 2 O 2 dose, Fe +2 , COD:H 2 O 2 ratio and Fe +2 :H 2 O 2 ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l -1 for ρ-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l -1 for cinnamic acid

  7. A review on the use of membrane technology and fouling control for olive mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Javier Miguel Ochando

    2016-09-01

    Olive mill effluents (OME) by-produced have significantly increased in the last decades as a result of the boost of the olive oil agro-industrial sector and due to the conversion into continuous operation centrifugation technologies. In these effluents, the presence of phytotoxic recalcitrant pollutants makes them resistant to biological degradation and thus inhibits the efficiency of biological and conventional processes. Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for OME have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory and cost-effective results. Olive oil industries in its current status, typically small mills dispersed, cannot afford such high treatment costs. Furthermore, conventional treatments are not able to abate the significant dissolved monovalent and divalent ions concentration present in OME. Within this framework, membrane technology offers high efficiency and moderate investment and maintenance expenses. Wastewater treatment by membrane technologies is growing in the recent years. This trend is owed to the fact of the availability of new membrane materials, membrane designs, membrane module concepts and general know-how, which have promoted credibility among investors. However, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time and leads to premature substitution of the membrane modules, and this is a problem of cost efficiency since wastewater treatment must imply low operating costs. Appropriate fouling inhibition methods should assure this result, thus making membrane processes for wastewater stream treatment both technically and economically feasible. In this paper, the treatment of the effluents by-produced in olive mills, generally called olive mill wastewaters, will be addressed. Within this context, the state of the art of the different pretreatments and integral membrane processes proposed up to today will be gathered and discussed, with an insight in the problem of fouling. Copyright © 2015

  8. Spatial and temporal effects of olive mill wastewaters to stream macroinvertebrates and aquatic ecosystems status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos T; Giannakou, Urania; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2011-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the spatial and temporal effects of OMW to stream macroinvertebrates and to ecological status of stream ecosystems. Biotic (macroinvertebrates) and abiotic (physicochemical, hydromorphological) data were monitored for two years thus following the biennial cycle of olive growth and production and hydrological variation (drought-wet years). The results of this study revealed the spatial and temporal structural deterioration of the aquatic community due to OMW pollution with consequent reduction of the river capacity for reducing the effects of polluting substances through internal mechanisms of self-purification. OMW, even highly diluted, had dramatic impacts on the aquatic fauna and to the ecological status of the receiving stream ecosystems. The organic load of the wastewater expressed as BOD(5), COD and TSS, substrate contamination (sewage bacteria) and distance from the mill outlet, were the most important factors affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages while the typology (i.e. slope, altitude) and hydrology of the stream site (i.e. mountainous-lowland) and the intensity and volume of the wastewater were the most important determinants of self-purification processes. As OMW are usually being discharged in small size streams that are not considered in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, there is a need for including such systems into monitoring and assessment schemes as they may significantly contribute to the pollution load of the river basin. Furthermore, guidelines to manage these wastes through technologies that minimise their environmental impact and lead to a sustainable use

  9. Techno-Economic Performance Evaluation for Olive Mills Powered by Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio Rabaza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the rise in petroleum prices and greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy has been recommended as a power source for different types of facilities. For the period 2010 to 2020 the European Commission has established three key objectives related to climatic change and energy sustainability, such as reductions of CO2 emissions, increases in the use of renewable energy, and improvements in energy efficiency. A key industry is olive oil production in olive mills, where there is a great opportunity to reduce electricity consumption, increase additional profits related to the reduction of technologies that are harmful to the environment, and to cut back maintenance costs. For this reason, a feasibility study of grid-connected photovoltaics (PV systems has been carried out for different types of olive mills in Andalusia (southern Spain. This region is highly energy dependent, but has an abundance of “green” resources to be exploited. The results of this study contemplate a reduction in spending on electrical power of between 2% and 37%, and an increase in the use of renewable energy of between 2% and 26%. These results are according to the self-consumption or net metering policy and the production capacity of olive oil.

  10. Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, B.; Pontecorvo, G.; Carfagna, M. [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Inst. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    Waste water from olive oil processing may cause severe pollution in the Mediterranean area, since they have a high level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (100-200 g/l) and contain other organic and inorganic compounds. In all olive oil producing countries, the reduction of pollution in olive oil mill waste waters at reasonable costs and using techniques suitable for most industrial applications is an unsolved problem. For this paper, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 was grown on waste waters from an olive oil mill in a 3.5 l fermenter under batch culture conditions. The results showed that the yeast was capable of reducing the COD value by 80% in 24 h. In this way, a useful biomass of 22.45 g/l as single cell protein (SCP) and enzyme lipase were produced. During this process, most of the organic and inorganic substances were consumed, only aromatic pollutants were still present in the fermentation effluents. Therefore, we used a phenol degrader, namely Pseudomonas putida, to reduce phenolic compounds in the fermentation effluents after removing Yarrowia lipolytica cells. P. putida was effective in reducing phenols in only 12 h. (orig.)

  11. Integrated biovalorization of wine and olive mill by-products to produce enzymes of industrial interest and soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reina, R.; Ullrich, R.; García-Romera, I.; Liers, C.; Aranda, E.

    2016-11-01

    An integral and affordable strategy for the simultaneous production of lignin-modifying and carbohydrate active enzymes and organic amendment, with the aid of a saprobe fungus was developed by using olive oil and wine extraction by-products. The polyporal fungus Trametes versicolor was cultivated in soy or barley media supplemented with dry olive mill residue (DOR) as well as with grape pomace and stalks (GPS) in solid state fermentation (SSF). This strategy led to a 4-fold increase in the activity of laccase, the principal enzyme produced by SFF, in DOR-soy media as compared to controls. T. versicolor managed to secrete lignin-modifying enzymes in GPS, although no stimulative effect was observed. GPS-barley media turned out to be the appropriate medium to elicit most of the carbohydrate active enzymes. The reuse of exhausted solid by-products as amendments after fermentation was also investigated. The water soluble compound polymerization profile of fermented residues was found to correlate with the effect of phytotoxic depletion. The incubation of DOR and GPS with T. versicolor not only reduced its phytotoxicity but also stimulated the plant growth. This study provides a basis for understanding the stimulation and repression of two groups of enzymes of industrial interest in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources from by-products, possible enzyme recovery and the final reuse as soil amendments. (Author)

  12. Effect of feedstock composition and organic loading rate during the mesophilic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Kotsopoulos, T.A.; Martzopoulos, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the optimisation of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) together with swine manure (SM) was investigated. Batch and continuous mode experiments were performed in order to define the most efficient mixing ratio and to determine...... yield of the reactors fed with 40% OMW reached 373mL CH4/gVS (78% of the theoretical yield). The findings of the present study proved that the co-digestion of OMW together with SM is a sustainable solution, capable to efficiently treat simultaneously these residual residues. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  13. Enrichment of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater and In Vitro Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abu-Lafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil generates massive quantities of by-product called olive mill wastewater (OMWW. The uncontrolled disposal of OMWW poses serious environmental problems. The OMWW effluent is rich in several polyphenolic compounds. Liquid-liquid extraction of OMWW using ethyl acetate solvent was used to enrich phenolic compounds under investigation. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the extract were determined. HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA detector was used to analyze the main three phenolic compounds of OMWW, namely, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was also investigated. Additionally, the OMWW extract was used as natural preservative and antioxidants for olive oil. Results showed that OMWW is very rich in phenolic compounds and has strong antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol but no oleuropein. The OMWW extract showed also positive activities as antibacterial (gram positive and gram negative and antifungal as well as activities against yeast. The addition of OMWW extract to olive oil samples has an effect on the stability of olive oil as reflected by its acid value, peroxide value, K232 and K270, and total phenolic content.

  14. Spray drying of a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of olive mill wastewater: Optimization and dried product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  16. Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in

  17. Review of the Drying Kinetics of Olive Oil Mill Wastes: Biomass Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Gómez-de la Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of olive oil mill wastes was analyzed based on experiments carried out by various researchers utilizing different drying systems. A critical review of the literature was done, and mathematical models of drying curves proposed by investigators were evaluated. A comparison between the best mathematical models of fit in the drying curves used in past experiments and a two-term Gaussian model was performed. This model improved all the results of fit in each experiment. Drying rates and drying stages were obtained and discussed. An average drying rate for each experiment from the two-term Gaussian model was calculated. This value allowed for visualizing and comparing the average speed of evaporated water in each experiment for the different dryers. Finally, and after having verified that almost all drying occurs mainly by a diffusion phenomenon, an analysis on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy values was performed. The results indicated that there was no dependency of these quantities on independent variables such as the drying air temperature, the drying air velocity, and the sample thickness. It follows that drying of olive oil mill wastes is a very complex physical process that depends heavily on aspects such as pieces of pit, pulp, skin, vegetation water, olive oil content, sugars and organics compounds of different nature.

  18. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M A; Hayek, B O; Al-Hmoud, N; Al-Gogazeh, L

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  19. Kinetic and Isotherm Modelling of the Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro A. Casazza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive oil wastewater by commercial activated carbon was studied as a function of adsorbent quantity and temperature. The sorption kinetics and the equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (8 g of activated carbon per 100 mL, the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon expressed as mg of caff eic acid equivalent per g of activated carbon was 35.8 at 10 °C, 35.4 at 25 °C and 36.1 at 40 °C. The pseudo-second-order model was considered as the most suitable for kinetic results, and Langmuir isotherm was chosen to bett er describe the sorption system. The results confi rmed the effi ciency of activated carbon to remove almost all phenolic compound fractions from olive mill effl uent. The preliminary results obtained will be used in future studies. The carbohydrate fraction of this upgraded residue could be employed to produce bioethanol, and adsorbed phenolic compounds can be recovered and used in different industries.

  20. A biotechnological valorization and treatment of olive mill waste waters by selected yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste waters were diluted to 1/10, supplied with 2% urea and inoculated with yeast strains. 20 yeast strains isolated from Olive Mill Waste (OMW water were screened for their biomass production, GOD reduction and polyphenols bioconversión activities. Pure cultures of yeasts were realized in 100 ml erlen-meyer flasks. 50 ml cultures were used and the flasks were incubated at room temperature (22°G on a shaker. Biomass production, COD (chemical oxygen demand reduction and Polyphenols bioconversión were followed up in the inoculated OMW waters. Results showed that the urea supply improve significantly the biomass production relatively to the control. This reached in some assays 2.06% expressed as g of biomass dry weight per 100 mL of OMW water. Polyphenols removal was estimated to around 50% and the COD was decreased from 54.14 g/Kg to 21.56 g/Kg. This aerobic treatment lead to the biomass production and also to a pretreated efluent by the COD and the removal of the methanization inhibiting polyphenolic compounds.

    Aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna se diluyeron en la proporción 1/10, se le añadió un 2% de urea y se inoculó con cepas de levaduras. 20 cepas de levaduras aisladas de aguas residuales de la molturación de la aceituna (OMW se seleccionaron por su producción de biomasa, reducción DQO y actividades de bioconversión de polifenoles. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos puros de levaduras en matraces erlenmeyer de 100 mi. Se tomaron 50 ml de cultivos y los matraces se incubaron a temperatura ambiente (22°C en un agitador. Se siguió la producción de biomasa, la reducción de DQO (demanda química de oxígeno y la bioconversión de polifenoles en las aguas residuales de la aceituna. Los resultados mostraron que el suministro de urea mejoró significativamente la producción de biomasa en relación al control. Esta alcanzó en algunos ensayos el 2.06% expresado como g de peso seco de biomasa por 100 ml de

  1. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach; Impacto del pretratamiento con microondas sobre la digestión anaerobia en régimen discontinuo de residuos sólidos de almazaras de dos fases: un enfoque cinético

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [Spanish] El efecto del pretratamiento con microondas (MW) sobre el residuo semisólido procedente de la elaboración del aceite de oliva por el sistema de dos fases o alperujo fue estudiado con el objeto de aumentar su digestibilidad anaerobia. El pretratamiento fue llevado a cabo a una potencia de 800W y a una temperatura de 50 °C empleándose distintas velocidades de calentamiento así como diferentes tiempos de espera para obtener dichas condiciones. Las siguientes energías específicas fueron aplicadas: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) y 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). El máximo rendimiento 395±1 mL CH4·g SVañadidos −1 se obtuvo para MW4. El efecto del pretratamiento en la cinética del proceso también fue estudiado. Las curvas de producción de metano durante los ensayos mostraron una etapa exponencial y una sigmoidal en todos los casos. En la primera etapa, la constante cinética para MW1 fue 54.8% mayor que la obtenida para el alperujo sin pretratar.

  2. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytwo, Giora, E-mail: rytwo@telhai.ac.il [Tel Hai College, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Upper Galilee 12210 (Israel); Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel); Dultz, Stefan [Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Koenig, Tom N. [Environmental Physical Chemistry Laboratory, MIGAL, Galilee Technological Center, Kiryat Shmona (Israel)

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several cycles of

  3. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay–polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N.

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation—neutralizing the colloids, flocculation—aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay–polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: ► Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). ► In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. ► In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. ► Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. ► Several cycles of effluents might be added to an initial dose of nanocomposites.

  4. Impact of industrial hammer mill rotor speed on extraction efficiency and quality of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polari, Juan J; Garcí-Aguirre, David; Olmo-García, Lucía; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Wang, Selina C

    2018-03-01

    Crushing is a key step during olive oil extraction. Among commercial crushers, the hammer mill is the most widely used due to its robustness and high throughput. In the present work, the impact of hammer mill rotor speed on extraction yield and overall quality of super-high-density Arbosana olive oils were assessed in an industrial facility. Our results show that increasing the rotor speed from 2400rpm to 3600rpm led to a rise in oil yield of 1.2%, while conserving quality parameters. Sensory analysis showed more pungency with increased rotation speed, while others attributes were unaffected. Volatile compounds showed little variation with the differences in crusher speed; however, total phenols content, two relevant secoiridoids, and triterpenoids levels increased with rotor speed. Hammer mill rotor speed is a processing variable that can be tuned to increase the extraction efficiency and modulate the chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energetic Valorization of Wet Olive Mill Wastes through a Suitable Integrated Treatment: H2O2 with Lime and Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Siciliano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the disposal of residues of olive oil industries represents an important environmental issue. In recent years, many techniques were proposed to improve the characteristics of these wastes with the aim to use them for methane generation in anaerobic digestion processes. Nevertheless, these techniques, in many cases, result costly as well as difficult to perform. In the present work, a simple and useful process that exploits H2O2 in conjunction with lime is developed to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability of wet olive mill wastes (WMOW. Several tests were performed to investigate the influence of lime amount and H2O2 addition modality. The treatment efficiency was positively affected by the increase of lime dosage and by the sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide. The developed process allows reaching phenols abatements up to 80% and volatile fatty acids productions up to 90% by using H2O2 and Ca(OH2 amounts of 0.05 gH2O2/gCOD and 35 g/L, respectively. The results of many batch anaerobic digestion tests, carried out by means of laboratory equipment, proved that the biogas production from fresh wet olive mill wastes is hardly achievable. On the contrary, organic matter abatements, around to 78%, and great methane yields, up to 0.34–0.35 LCH4/gCODremoved, were obtained on pretreated wastes.

  6. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Johnson, Anbu Clemensis, E-mail: acj265@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Bachmann, Robert T. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 1988 Vendor City, 7800 Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka (Malaysia); Williams, Ceri J. [Yorkshire-Forward, Victoria House, Victoria Place, LS11 5AE Leeds (United Kingdom); Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L{sub biogas}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  9. Start-up of a free water surface constructed wetland for treating olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michailides Michail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An olive mill's existing evaporation pond was separated into five cells and transformed into a free water surface constructed wetland. The constructed wetland was used as a post-treatment stage for olive mill wastewater (OMW. Wastewater was previously treated by an aerobic trickling filter. The influent concentrations in the constructed wetland were 27400 mg.L-1, 4800 mg.L-1, 105 mg.L-1 and 770 mg.L-1 for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. Despite the rather high influent concentrations, the performance of the constructed wetland was very good since after the 60-day start-up operation period it achieved removal rates of about 94%, 95%, 95% and 98% for COD, phenols, ortho-phosphate and TKN, respectively. The major pollutant removal processes can be attributed to both biological processes occurring in the wetland and photo-oxidation. Laboratory-scale experiments with OMW from fifth cell of the wetland revealed that the net contribution of photo-oxidation after 112 hours of simulated solar radiation at 765 W/m2 (i.e. about 38 days of sunlight irradiation was 18% and 31% removal for COD and phenols, respectively. In the constructed wetland, the total removal reached 81% and 86% for COD and phenols, respectively, for the same time period (38 days.

  10. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio; Johnson, Anbu Clemensis; Bachmann, Robert T.; Williams, Ceri J.; Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m -3 day -1 during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L biogas L reactor -1 day -1 , respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  11. Reuse of drinking water treatment sludge for olive oil mill wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A

    2012-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.

  12. Modelling Of Residual Stresses Induced By High Speed Milling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, Olivier; Mocellin, Katia; Jardin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance processes used in heavy industries often include high speed milling operations. The reliability of the post-process material state has to be studied. Numerical simulation appears to be a very interesting way to supply an efficient residual stresses (RS) distribution prediction.Because the adiabatic shear band and the serrated chip shaping are features of the austenitic stainless steel high speed machining, a 2D high speed orthogonal cutting model is briefly presented. This finite element model, developed on Forge registered software, is based on data taken from Outeiro and al.'s paper [1]. A new behaviour law fully coupling Johnson-Cook's constitutive law and Latham and Cockcroft's damage model is detailed in this paper. It ensures results that fit those found in literature.Then, the numerical tools used on the 2D model are integrated to a 3D high speed milling model. Residual stresses distribution is analysed, on the surface and into the depth of the material. Various revolutions and passes of the two teeth hemispheric mill on the workpiece are simulated. Thus the sensitivity of the residual stresses generation to the cutting conditions can be discussed. In order to validate the 3D model, a comparison of the cutting forces measured by EDF R and D to those given by numerical simulations is achieved.

  13. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes; Recuperación de hierro tras tratamiento secundario tipo Fenton de agua residual de la industria oleícola por membranas de nanofiltración y ósmosis inversa de baja presión

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Victor-Ortega, M.D.; Martinez-Ferez, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF) and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane) in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065), which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF). [Spanish] En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF) y ósmosis inversa (OI) poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW) basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones) en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  14. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  15. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Liveri, Maria Liria Turco; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Sciascia, Luciana; Rytwo, Giora

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied

  16. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Rytwo, Giora; Sciascia, Luciana; Liria Turco Liveri, Maria

    2013-12-01

    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied.

  17. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  18. Ozone treatment of olive mill wastewater; Tratamiento con ozono de las aguas residuales de almazara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia Alonso, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, J. R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the ozonization of olive mill wastewater has been studied. The evolution process was followed by measuring the chemical oxygen demand, the aromaticity and the contents of phenolic compounds. The aromaticity conversion ranged between 4.85 and 21% chemical oxygen demand degradation varied from 3.25 to 19.4% and the total polyphenolic reduction varied between 6.86 and 43.7%. The ozone consumption in the reduction of each variable was determined, being the average values of 57.2 g COD/mol O{sub 3} 2.9 un. Abs/mol O{sub 2} and 3.3 g poly phen./mol O{sub 3}. Finally, considering a first order kinetic equation with respect to each reactant, the apparent kinetic constants are evaluated for the studied variables. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Parameters and kinetics of olive mill wastewater dephenolization by immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkoyunlu, Gaye; Takaç, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) with total phenol (TP) concentration range of 300-1200 mg/L was treated with alginate-immobilized Rhodotorula glutinis cells in batch system. The effects of pellet properties (diameter, alginate concentration and cell loading (CL)) and operational parameters (initial TP concentration, agitation rate and reusability of pellets) on dephenolization of OMW were studied. Up to 87% dephenolization was obtained after 120 h biodegradations. The utilization number of pellets increased with the addition of calcium ions into the biodegradation medium. The overall effectiveness factors calculated for different conditions showed that diffusional limitations arising from pellet size and pellet composition could be neglected. Mass transfer limitations appeared to be more effective at high substrate concentrations and low agitation rates. The parameters of logistic model for growth kinetics of R. glutinis in OMW were estimated at different initial phenol concentrations of OMW by curve-fitting of experimental data with the model.

  20. Membrane filtration of olive mill wastewater and exploitation of its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, C A; Papadakis, V G; Kanellopoulou, D G; Koutsoukos, P G; Angelopoulos, K C

    2007-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) produced from small units scattered in rural areas of Southern Europe is a major source of pollution of surface and subsurface water. In the present work, a treatment scheme based on physical separation methods is presented. The investigation was carried out using a pilot-plant unit equipped with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. Approximately 80% of the total volume of wastewater treated by the membrane units was sufficiently cleaned to meet the standards for irrigation water. The concentrated fractions collected in the treatment concentrates were characterized by high organic load and high content of phenolic compounds. The concentrates were tested in hydroponic systems to examine their toxicity towards undesired herbs. The calculations of the cost of the overall process showed that fixed and operational costs could be recovered from the exploitation of OMW byproducts as water for irrigation and/or as bioherbicides.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluents together with swine manure in UASB reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Deng, H.

    2002-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill effluent (OME) with swine manure, was investigated. In batch experiments was shown that for anaerobic degradation of OME alone nitrogen addition was needed. A COD:N ratio in the range of 65:1 to 126:1 was necessary for the optimal degradation process....... Furthermore, it was found that methane productions rates during digestion of either swine manure alone or OME alone were much lower than the rates achieved when OME and manure were digested together. Admixing OME with manure at a concentration of 5 to 10% OME resulted in the highest methane production rates....... Using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, it was shown that codigestion of OME with swine manure (up to 50% OME) was successful with a COD reduction up to 75%. The process was adapted for degradation of OME with stepwise increase of the OME load to the UASB reactor. The results showed...

  2. Bioremediation of olive mill waste water and its use as a bio fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetaia, Y. M. [Microbiology Department, Ain Shams University, Cario (Egypt); Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O. M.; Wageeh, L. [Microbiology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-12-15

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major environmental problem especially for mediterranean countries, where most of the world's olive oil production. Treatment of the OMW is highly demanded due to the hazards of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolic content (TP), turbidity and color. In the present study, penicillium chrysogen um was selected as the predominant grown fungus in the presence of phenolic compounds (13 g/l). Bio stimulation was tried to assist, TP removal, decolorization, turbidity and COD reduction before disposal to the environment. Separate addition of glucose and urea resulted in 62% removal of the phenol, while the addition of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} resulted in 70% removal with lower effect on both turbidity and coloration. Consecutive use of the filtration prior or post to the bio stimulation revealed that the use 4 kGy enhanced phenolic degradation while the use of filtration post bio stimulation was the most effective treatment for phenolic removal (70%). Turbidity was also decreased from 9.81 to 2.72, and the decolorisation was increased from 28.5% (in control samples) to 77.6% and COD was decreased by only 21%. Analysis of the treated OMW revealed the presence of trace amounts of phenolic compounds, sugars and some minerals, suggesting its potential use as a bio fertilizer. Ocimum basilicum cultivated with the treated OMW showed the highest germination percentage (60%) in comparison with that irrigated with tap water and untreated OMW (50%, 20%) respectively. (Author)

  3. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685

  4. Bioremediation of olive mill waste water and its use as a bio fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetaia, Y. M.; Abd El Kareem, H.; Gomaa, O. M.; Wageeh, L.

    2012-12-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major environmental problem especially for mediterranean countries, where most of the world's olive oil production. Treatment of the OMW is highly demanded due to the hazards of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolic content (TP), turbidity and color. In the present study, penicillium chrysogen um was selected as the predominant grown fungus in the presence of phenolic compounds (13 g/l). Bio stimulation was tried to assist, TP removal, decolorization, turbidity and COD reduction before disposal to the environment. Separate addition of glucose and urea resulted in 62% removal of the phenol, while the addition of KH 2 PO 4 resulted in 70% removal with lower effect on both turbidity and coloration. Consecutive use of the filtration prior or post to the bio stimulation revealed that the use 4 kGy enhanced phenolic degradation while the use of filtration post bio stimulation was the most effective treatment for phenolic removal (70%). Turbidity was also decreased from 9.81 to 2.72, and the decolorisation was increased from 28.5% (in control samples) to 77.6% and COD was decreased by only 21%. Analysis of the treated OMW revealed the presence of trace amounts of phenolic compounds, sugars and some minerals, suggesting its potential use as a bio fertilizer. Ocimum basilicum cultivated with the treated OMW showed the highest germination percentage (60%) in comparison with that irrigated with tap water and untreated OMW (50%, 20%) respectively. (Author)

  5. On the Recent Use of Membrane Technology for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF, ultrafiltration (UF, nanofiltration (NF, and reverse osmosis (RO, as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD, osmotic distillation (OD and forward osmosis (FO. Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided.

  6. Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco. Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents.

  7. Assesing the effect of an olive mill wastewater evaporation pond in Sousse, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'habou, Rakia; Zairi, Moncef; Kallel, Amjed; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2009-08-01

    Olive oil is a typical and valuable agro-industrial product in Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia, olive mill wastewaters (OMW) reach an amount of about 1,000,000 t year-1 and constitute a serious organic pollution risk because of the high chemical oxygen demand values and the presence of phytotoxic and antibacterial polyphenols. OMW have been generally stored in pond sites to be eliminated by natural evaporation or valorised by spreading on cultivated soils or by composting. Many researches on the interactions of OMW with soils at laboratory scale (columns) have been reported, but less attention have been paid to the effect of OMW on soils at field scale. The aim of this work is to investigate an area used for >15 years as an uncontrolled OMW pond site. The transformations of soil properties and groundwater occurring during OMW storage were characterised by the pH, phenolic contents, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content and organic contents. The soil samples were taken from two borings and compared to those of a control one located near the pond site. Groundwater samples were taken on the accessible and nearest water wells to the evaporation ponds. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site support the infiltration of OMW near the evaporation ponds. This infiltration has reached a depth of 6 m at a distance of almost 50 m laterally. The results show that the OMW infiltration in the subsoil has affected the pH, EC, organic content, phenolic compounds and the moisture.

  8. Comparative Examination of the Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation Process by Various Wood-Rot Macrofungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Koutrotsios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent’s decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64% followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW’s phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.

  9. Synthetic olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's process in batch and continuous reactors operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M

    2017-11-04

    Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe 2+ dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature. On the assessment of the process efficiency, > 99% of TPh and > 56% of TOC removal were attained when [Fe 2+ ] = 100 ppm, [H 2 O 2 ] = 2.0 g/L, T = 30 °C, and initial pH = 5.0, after 300 min of reaction. Under those operational conditions, experiments on a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) were performed for different space-time values (τ). TOC and TPh removals of 47.5 and 96.9%, respectively, were reached at steady-state (for τ = 120 min). High removal of COD (> 75%) and BOD 5 (> 70%) was achieved for both batch and CSTR optimum conditions; analysis of the BOD 5 /COD ratio also revealed an increase in the effluent's biodegradability. Despite the high removal of lumped parameters, the treated effluent did not met the Portuguese legal limits for direct discharge of wastewaters into water bodies, which indicates that coupled chemical-biological process may be the best solution for real olive mill wastewater treatment.

  10. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F

    2008-10-30

    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  11. Integrated treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of Fenton's reaction and anaerobic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, F.A.; Badawy, M.I. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Khateeb, M.A. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: elkhateebcairo@yahoo.com; El-Kalliny, A.S. [Water Pollution Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-03-15

    The use of an integrated treatment scheme consisting of wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) followed by two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor (10 l each) for the treatment of olive mill wastewater was the subject of this study. The diluted wastewater (1:1) was pre-treated using Fenton's reaction. Optimum operating conditions namely, pH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose, Fe{sup +2}, COD:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio and Fe{sup +2}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio were determined. The UASB reactor was fed continuously with the pre-treated wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was kept constant at 48 h (24 h for each stage). The conventional parameters such as COD, BOD, TOC, TKN, TP, TSS, oil and grease, and total phenols were determined. The concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in raw wastewater and effluents of each treatment step were measured using HPLC. The results indicated a good quality final effluent. Residual concentrations of individual organic compounds ranged from 0.432 mg l{sup -1} for {rho}-hydroxy-benzaldhyde to 3.273 mg l{sup -1} for cinnamic acid.

  12. Antioxidant activity of olive oil mill wastewater obtained from different thermal treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMWW is considered a by-product because of the presence of biostatic compounds with a high polluting rate, in particular phenols. Moreover, during olive oil processing, a large amount of this by-product constitutes an ecological and economical problem for the producers. To reevaluate this by-product, the reuse of this wastewater to obtain useful compounds appears to be very important. In order to purify the wastewater, the development of operations that modify its organic content seems necessary for obtaining of eventual fertilizing agents and/or to recover substances with a high added value such as phenolic compounds, which are currently recognized scientifically as molecules with a high antioxidant activity. A chromatographic analysis of these compounds was conducted to characterize different concentrations of wastewater and the reducing power of the extracts was measured. The thermal treatment of olive oil mill wastewater in a rotary evaporator and in an oven involved an increase in radical scavenging efficiency. These results could be correlated with the possibility of recovering and reusing this type of waste for its antioxidant properties.

    En la industria alimentaria, el alpechín se considera un subproducto debido a la presencia de compuestos bioestáticos, con una alta tasa de contaminación, particularmente los fenoles. Además, durante el procesado de la aceituna, la generación de una gran cantidad de este subproducto supone un problema ecológico y económico para los productores. Es importante la reutilización de este agua de desecho para obtener compuestos útiles. Para purificar el agua de desecho es necesario el desarrollo de operaciones que modifiquen su contenido orgánico, para poder obtener agentes fertilizantes y/o recuperar sustancias con un alto valor añadido como los compuestos fenólicos, que actualmente están reconocidos científicamente como moléculas con una

  13. Disposal of olive oil mill wastes in evaporation ponds: effects on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Doula, M K; Komnitsas, K; Liakopoulou, N

    2010-10-15

    The most common practice followed in the Med countries for the management of olive oil mill wastes (OMW) involves disposal in evaporation ponds or direct disposal on soil. So far there is lack of reliable information regarding the long-term effects of OMW application on soils. This study assesses the effects of OMW disposal in evaporation ponds on underlying soil properties in the wider disposal site as well as the impacts of untreated OMW application on agricultural soils. In case of active disposal sites, the carbonate content in most soils was decreased, whereas soil EC, as well as Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), NH(4)(+) and particularly K(+) concentrations were substantially increased. Soil pH was only marginally affected. Phenol, total N, available P and PO(4)(3-) concentrations were considerably higher in the upper soil layers in areas adjacent to the ponds. Available B as well as DTPA extractable Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe increased substantially. Most surface soil parameters exhibited increased values at the inactive site 6 years after mill closure and cease of OMW disposal activities but differences were diminished in deeper layers. It is therefore concluded that long-term uncontrolled disposal of raw OMW on soils may affect soil properties and subsequently enhance the risk for groundwater contamination. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some people. Metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, excess ... Up to 1 liter per week of extra-virgin olive oil has been used safely as part ...

  15. A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

    2012-07-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrolysis of olive residue/low density polyethylene mixture:Part I Thermogravimetric kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the thermal pyrolysis of olive residue, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and olive residue/LDPE mixture in an inert atmosphere of N2 using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Measurements were carried out in the temperature range 300K~973K at heating rates of 2K/min, 10K/min, 20K/min and 50K/min. Based on the results obtained, three temperature regimes were selected for studying the non-isothermal kinetics of olive residue/LDPE mixture. The first two were dominated by the olive residue pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the LDPE pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those the individual components;thus an increase in thermal stability was expected. The kinetic parameters associated with thermal degradation were determined using Friedman isoconversional method.

  17. Olive mill wastewater sludge from evaporation ponds: evolution of physico-chemical parameters during storage and composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Aloui, F; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-02-01

    The evolution of analytical parameters of olive mill waste water sludge stored in evaporation ponds was investigated after one year and two years of storage. It was observed that some of the phenolic monomer compounds resisted removal and the fraction of water soluble phenols was only slightly polymerised. Co-composting of the sludge was carried out with yard trimming as bulking agent ratio and poultry manure to balance the C/N. Three turned piles with three proportions of 35%, 65% and 80% of olive mill waste water sludge were prepared. Co-composting of the sludge was possible in all the cases. Best results were obtained, however, at a proportion of 35% which permitted a shorter composting time, a higher degree of nitrification and a higher rate of total phenols decreasing. A high polymerisation of the fraction of water soluble phenols was observed at the end of composting in all the piles.

  18. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis to monitor the co-composting process of olive oil mill wastes and organic household refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Barje , F.; Amir , S.; Winterton , Peter; Pinelli , Eric; Merlina , Georges; Cegarra , J.; Revel , Jean-Claude; Hafidi , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The co-composting of olive oil mill wastes and household refuse was followed for 5 months. During the thermophilic phase of composting, the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) count, showed a significant rise with a slight regression of fungal biomass. In the same way, phospholipid fatty acids PLFAs common in bacteria, showed a significant increase of hydroxyl and branched PLFAs. The evaluation of the ratio of octadecenoic PLFAs to stearic acid (C18:1/C18:0) revealed ...

  19. Degradation and biodegradability improvement of the olive mill wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.

  20. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  1. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  2. Optimizing Degradation of Olive Oil Mill Waste Water Using Paecilomyces variotii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatab, O.K.; El-Nasr, A.A.; Hassan, A.A.; Abdel El- Aziz, A.B.; Zaki, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty six microbial isolates (ten fungal, nine yeast and seven bacterial isolates) were isolated from the Olive Oil Mill Waste Water (OOMW) which was extracted from effluent of olive oil industry factory. All isolates were tested for its growth on media containing 10% OOMW as sole carbon source. It was found that (three fungal, two yeast and two bacterial isolates) had the ability to grow on this concentration. These isolates were identified as Paecilomyces variotii, Ascopus stercoraris, Aspergillus terrus, Yarowia lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, Lactobacillus curvatus and Bacillus brevis. The identified isolates were tested for the biodegradation of phenolic compounds at high concentration of OOMW (25%). Paecilomyces variotii was the best isolate as it degraded 10.40 % of the phenolic compounds. The maximum degradation of phenolic compounds and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease percentage was (68.14 and 59.12, respectively) obtained at 50% dilution of OOMW for 12 days at 37±1 degree C, ph 6, supplement the degradation media with 150 mg/l sucrose, 2.5 g/l yeast extract and 0.070 mmol/l CuSO 4 concentration in aerobic conditions with aeration rate 4:1 (v air: v media), shaking at 150 rpm and 6 g/l inoculums size. In addition, 0.25 kGy was the best dose as it led to increase the phenolic compounds biodegradation percent 8.7% than the optimum conditions previously mentioned. Finally, the bio treated OOMW was lower toxicity to environment than untreated one.

  3. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  4. Fabrication and application of boron doped diamond BDD electrode in olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshad Jum'h

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A boron doped diamond (BDD electrode was employed in an electrochemical reactor to oxidize the phenolic content of Jordanian olive mill wastewater. The BDD anode was fabricated using hot filament chemical vapor deposition on niobium and the morphology of the BDD electrode was characterized using an atomic force microscope. Then, electrolysis batch runs were carried out at laboratory scale to test the effect of different process parameters, namely, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD load (72.9, 33.8, and 0.18 g/L, the addition of Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte, and adding NaCl along with Na2SO4, on the efficiency of the treatment process. The results were reported in terms of COD, color and turbidity removal, and pH variation. The experiments revealed that electrochemical oxidation using BDD significantly reduced the COD by 85% with no supporting electrolytes. It was observed that adding Na2SO4 with NaCl brought the COD removal to higher than 90% after 7 hours of treatment for COD loads of 72.9 and 33.8 g/L, and after 2 hours for a COD load of 0.18 g/L. Likewise, color was completely removed regardless of the initial COD load. The turbidity for samples with 72.9 and 33.8 g/L as COD load reached a minimal value of 2.5 and 1 NTU respectively.

  5. Key process parameters involved in the treatment of olive mill wastewater by membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouad, Y; Villain-Gambier, M; Mandi, L; Marrot, B; Ouazzani, N

    2018-04-18

    The Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) biodegradation in an external ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated with a starting acclimation step with a Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (150 kDa) and no sludge discharge in order to develop a specific biomass adapted to OMWW biodegradation. After acclimation step, UF was replaced by an Microfiltration (MF) membrane (0.1 µm). Sludge Retention Time (SRT) was set around 25 days and Food to Microorganisms ratio (F/M) was fixed at 0.2 kg COD  kg MLVSS -1  d -1 . At stable state, removal of the main phenolic compounds (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were successfully reached (95% both). Considered as a predominant fouling factor, but never quantified in MBR treated OMWW, Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) proteins, polysaccharides and humic substances concentrations were determined (80, 110 and 360 mg L -1 respectively). At the same time, fouling was easily managed due to favourable hydraulic conditions of external ceramic MBR. Therefore, OMWW could be efficiently and durably treated by an MF MBR process under adapted operating parameters.

  6. Integrating Fenton's process and ion exchange for olive mill wastewater treatment and iron recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patrícia M; Martins, Pedro J M; Martins, Rui C; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    A novel integrated methodology involving Fenton's process followed by ion exchange (IE) was proposed for the treatment of olive mill wastewater. Fenton's process was optimized and it was able to remove up to 81% of chemical oxygen demand when pH 3.5, reaction time 1 h, [Fe 2+ ] = 50 mg L -1 and [Fe 2+ ]/[H 2 O 2 ] = 0.002 were applied. In spite of the potential of this treatment approach, final iron removal from the liquid typically entails pH increase and iron sludge production. The integration of an IE procedure using Lewatit TP 207 resin was found to be able to overcome this important environmental shortcoming. The resin showed higher affinity toward Fe 3+ than to Fe 2+ . However, the iron removal efficiency of an effluent coming from Fenton's was independent of the type of the initial iron used in the process. The presence of organic matter had no significant effect over the resin iron removal efficiency. Even if some efficiency decrease was observed when a high initial iron load was applied, the adsorbent mass quantity can be easily adapted to reach the desired iron removal. The use of IE is an interesting industrial approach able to surpass Fenton's peroxidation drawback and will surely boost its full-scale application in the treatment of bio-refractory effluents.

  7. Extracellular laccase production and phenolic degradation by an olive mill wastewater isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMWW presents a challenge to the control of effluents due to the presence of a high organic load, antimicrobial agents (monomeric-polymeric phenols, volatile acids, polyalcohols, and tannins, salinity and acidity. In this study, the production of extracellular laccase, monomeric or polymeric phenol, from an OMWW isolate based on its ability to biodegrade phenols and gallic acid as a model of phenolic compounds in OMWW was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA gene sequences identified the bacterial isolate (Acinetobacter REY as being closest to Acinetobacter pittii. This isolate exhibited a constitutive production of extracellular laccase with an activity of 1.5 and 1.3 U ml/L when supplemented with the inducers CuSO4 and CuSO4+phenols, respectively. Batch experiments containing minimal media supplemented with phenols or gallic acid as the sole carbon and energy source were performed in order to characterize their phenolic biodegradability. Acinetobacter REY was capable of biodegrading up to 200 mg/L of phenols and gallic acid both after 10 h and 72 h, respectively.

  8. Enhancement of olive mill wastewater biodegradation by homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, M.I.; Gohary, F.El. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 11312 (Egypt); Ghaly, M.Y., E-mail: ghalynrc@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Ali, M.E.M. [Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 11312 (Egypt)

    2009-09-30

    Olive mills wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic content and refractory compounds. In this study, an advanced technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW has been investigated. The technique used was either photo-Fenton as homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation or UV/semi-conductor catalyst (such as TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and FAZA) as heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation for treatment of OMW. For both the processes, the effect of irradiation time, amounts of photocatalysts and semi-conductors, and initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been studied. At the optimum conditions, photo-Fenton process achieved COD, TOC, lignin (total phenolic compounds) and total suspended solids (TSSs) removal values of 87%, 84%, 97.44% and 98.31%, respectively. The corresponding values for UV/TiO{sub 2} were 68.8%, 67.3%, 40.19% and 48.9%, respectively, after 80 min irradiation time. The biodegradability expressed by BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio for treated wastewater was ranged from 0.66 to 0.8 compared to 0.19 for raw wastewater indicating enhancement of biodegradation.

  9. Fate of Potential Contaminants Due to Disposal of Olive Mill Wastewaters in Unprotected Evaporation Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Elaiopoulos, K; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Soupios, P

    2017-03-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) in shallow and unprotected evaporation ponds is a common, low-cost management practice, followed in Mediterranean countries. So far, the fate of potential soil pollutants in areas located near evaporation ponds is not adequately documented. This study investigates the extent in which the long-term disposal of OMW in evaporation ponds can affect the soil properties of the area located outside the evaporation pond and assesses the fate of the pollution loads of OMW. Four soil profiles situated outside and around the down slope side of the disposal area were excavated. The results showed considerable changes in concentration of soil phenols at the down-site soil profiles, due to the subsurface transport of the OMW. In addition, excessive concentrations of NH 4 + , PO 4 3- and phenols were recorded in liquid samples taken from inside at the bottom of the soil profiles. It is concluded that unprotected evaporation ponds located in light texture soils pose a serious threat to favour soil and water pollution.

  10. De-oiled two-phase olive mill waste may reduce water contamination by metribuzin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2016-01-15

    The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Olive mill wastewater stabilization in open-air ponds: impact on clay-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Kharroubi, Adel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the natural biodegradation of the stored olive mill wastewater (OMW) in ponds and the infiltration as well as the impact on soil of the effluent in the evaporation pond used for the storage over the past eight years. For this, two approaches were considered. First, a laboratory-scale column was used for the infiltration of OMW through soil (clay and sand) to predict the effect of the clayey soil in reducing OMW pollution. Second, the ponds including the effluent annually stored and having this clayey structure were investigated. At the laboratory-scale, a modification of OMW contents was noticed, with the elimination of 95% of total suspended solids (TSS), 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), 50% of total P, 50% of phenols and 40% of minerals (K+, Mg++ and Na+). The experimented soil was able to restrain the considerable effects of OMW pollution. In the ponds, the granulometric characteristics, the physico-chemical and the biological parameters of the soil profile from the contaminated pond were compared to those of a control soil, located near the contaminated pond. Property modifications of the contaminated soil were noted, especially pH, electrical conductivity, COD and microflora. These changes can be explained by the infiltration of OMW constituents, which were noticed in the soil layers, especially phenolic compounds that have a negative effect on the ground water.

  12. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by the combination of ultrafiltration and bipolar electrochemical reactor processes

    KAUST Repository

    Yahiaoui, O.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewater (OMW) by the combination of ultrafiltration with electrocoagulation process. Ultrafiltration process equipped with CERAVER membrane was used as pre-treatment for electrochemical process. The obtained permeate from the ultrafiltration process allowed COD removal efficiency of about 96% from OMW. Obtained permeate with an average COD of about 1.1gdm-3 was treated by electrochemical reactor equipped with a reactor with bipolar iron plate electrodes. The effect of the experimental parameters such as current density, pH, surface electrode/reactor volume ratio and NaCl concentration on COD removal was assessed. The results showed that the optimum COD removal rate was obtained at a current density of 93.3Am-2 and pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5. At the optimum operational parameters for the experiments, electrocoagulation process could reduce COD from 1.1gdm-3 to 78mgdm-3, allowing direct discharge of the treated OMW as that meets the Algerian wastewater discharge standards (<125mgdm-3). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Microencapsulation by Membrane Emulsification of Biophenols Recovered from Olive Mill Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Piacentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated.

  15. Measuring the Biodegradability of Plastic Polymers in Olive-Mill Waste Compost with an Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable polymers is spreading in agriculture to replace those materials derived from petroleum, thus reducing the environmental concerns. However, to issue a significant assessment, biodegradation rate must be measured in case-specific standardized conditions. In accordance with ISO 14855-1, we designed and used an experimental apparatus to evaluate the biodegradation rate of three biopolymers based on renewable resources, two poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL composites, and a compatibilized polylactic acid and polybutyrate (PLA/PBAT blend. Biodegradation tests were carried out under composting condition using mature olive-mill waste (OMW compost as inoculum. Carbon dioxide emissions were automatically recorded by infrared gas detectors and also trapped in saturated Ba(OH2 solution and evaluated via a standard titration method to check the results. Some of the samples reached more than 80% biodegradation in less than 20 days. Both the experimental apparatus and the OMW compost showed to be suitable for the cases studied.

  16. Non-isothermal kinetic studies on co-processing of olive residue and polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboulkas, A.; El Harfi, K.; El Bouadili, A.

    2008-01-01

    Co-processing of olive residue with polypropylene was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) reaction system in a nitrogen atmosphere with a view to comparing the process of the mixture with those of the individual components. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates of 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min -1 in the temperature range of 300-975 K based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first two were dominated by olive residue pyrolysis, while the third was linked to polypropylene pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperature of each component in the mixture was higher than those of the individual components alone; thus, an increase in thermal stability was expected. The kinetic processing of thermogravimetric data was conducted using the Friedman method

  17. Low cost biosorbent "banana peel" for the removal of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achak, M; Hafidi, A; Ouazzani, N; Sayadi, S; Mandi, L

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the potential of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for removing phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the increase in the banana peel dosage from 10 to 30 g/L significantly increased the phenolic compounds adsorption rates from 60 to 88%. Increase in the pH to above neutrality resulted in the increase in the phenolic compounds adsorption capacity. The adsorption process was fast, and it reached equilibrium in 3-h contact time. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium and it was found that experimental data fitted very well to both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion mechanism, showed that kinetic data follow closely the pseudo-second-order than the pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion. Desorption studies showed that low pH value was efficient for desorption of phenolic compounds. These results indicate clearly the efficiency of banana peel as a low-cost solution for olive mill wastewaters treatment and give some preliminary elements for the comprehension of the interactions between banana peel as a bioadsorbent and the very polluting compounds from the olive oil industry.

  18. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  19. Production of organic fertilizer from olive mill wastewater by combining solar greenhouse drying and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliou, F; Markakis, N; Fountoulakis, M S; Nikolaidis, N; Manios, T

    2018-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is generated during the production of olive oil. Its disposal is still a major environmental problem in Mediterranean countries, despite the fact that a large number of technologies have been proposed up to date. The present work examines for the first time a novel, simple and low-cost technology for OMW treatment combining solar drying and composting. In the first step, OMW was dried in a chamber inside a solar greenhouse using swine manure as a bulking agent. The mean evaporation rate was found to be 5.2 kg H 2 O/m 2 /d for a drying period of 6 months (February-August). High phenol (75%) and low nitrogen (15%) and carbon (15%) losses were recorded at the end of the solar drying process. The final product after solar drying was rich in nutrients (N: 27.8 g/kg, P: 7.3 g/kg, K: 81.6 g/kg) but still contained significant quantities of phenols (18.4 g/kg). In order to detoxify the final product, a composting process was applied as a second step with or without the use of grape marc as bulking agent. Results showed that the use of grape marc as a bulking agent at a volume ratio of 1:1 achieved a higher compost temperature profile (60 °C) than 2:1 (solar drying product: grape marc) or no use (solar drying product). The end product after the combination of solar drying and composting had the characteristics of an organic fertilizer (57% organic carbon) rich in nutrients (3.5% N, 1% P, 6.5% K) with quite low phenol content (2.9 g/kg). Finally, the use of this product for the cultivation of pepper plants approved its fertility which was found similar with commercial NPK fertilizers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrative approach for utilization of olive mill wastewater and lebna's whey for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Hayek, B.O.; Al-Hmoud, N.; Al-Gogazeh, L.

    2009-09-15

    The industry of olive oil extraction in Jordan involves an intensive consumption of water and generates large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This wastewater has a high pollution risk with biological oxygen demand (BOD). The organic fraction of OMW includes sugars, tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. The presence of remarkable amounts of aromatic compounds in OMW is responsible for its phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The environmental problems and potential hazards caused by OMW had led olive oil producing countries to limit their discharge and to propose and develop new technologies for OMW treatments, such as physicochemical and biological treatments. In the present investigation lebna's whey a local byproduct of widely consumed local yogurt was used with OMW for ethanol production. The obtained results showed that the proteins of lebna's whey can remove substantial amounts of aromatic compounds present in OMW. This was reflected on the reduction of the intensity of black color of OMW and removal of 37% polyphenols. Moreover, the production of ethanol was ascertained in fermentation media composed of whey and in presence of various concentrations of OMW up to 20% OMW. The obtained results showed the possibility to develop a process for improvement and enhancement of ethanol production from whey and olive oil waste in mixed yeast cultures. (au)

  1. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: comparison of different olive oil extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2008-07-23

    The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

  2. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aeribacillus composti sp. nov., a thermophilic bacillus isolated from olive mill pomace compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finore, Ilaria; Gioiello, Alessia; Leone, Luigi; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacterium, strain N.8 T , was isolated from the curing step of an olive mill pomace compost sample, collected at the Composting Experimental Centre (CESCO, Salerno, Italy). Strain N.8 T , based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, was most closely related to Aeribacillus pallidus strain H12 T (=DSM 3670 T ) (99.8 % similarity value) with a 25 % DNA-DNA relatedness value. Cells were rod-shaped, non-motile and grew optimally at 60 °C and pH 9.0, forming cream colonies. Strain N.8 was able to grow on medium containing up to 9.0 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 6.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The cellular membrane contained MK-7, and C16 : 0 (48.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (19.4 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.6 %) were the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. Based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization values and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain N.8 T represents a novel species of the genus Aeribacillus, for which the name Aeribacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N.8 T (=KCTC 33824 T =JCM 31580 T ).

  4. Assessment of Coriolopsis gallica-treated olive mill wastewater phytotoxicity on tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Sellami, Sahar; Frikha, Fakher; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Nasri, Moncef; Mechichi, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of olive mill wastewater (OMW) after being treated by the white-rot fungus Coriolopsis gallica. For this, the effect of irrigation with treated OMW (TOMW) and untreated OMW (UOMW) on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) for 3 weeks was studied. The control plants were irrigated with distilled water. Agronomic tests were performed in pot experiments in a greenhouse using the randomized complete block (RCB) experimental design. The relative leaf height (RLH), as a morphological parameter, and the content of total phenols in the roots and total chlorophyll [Cha + Chb] and reducing sugars in the leaves, as physiological parameters, were selected as responses of the experimental design. The results obtained showed that [Cha + Chb] in the leaves of tomato growth under TOMW was enhanced by 36.3 and 19.4 % compared to the plant growth under UOMW and to the controls, respectively. Also, reducing sugar concentrations were closed to those of the control plants, ranging from 0.424 to 0.678 g/L for the different dilutions tested. However, the plants irrigated with UOMW showed lower reducing sugar concentrations ranging from 0.042 to 0.297g/L. The optimum RLH (0.537) was observed in the plants irrigated with TOMW diluted at (1:4), this value being higher than that observed in the controls (0.438). Our study proved that the irrigation with TOMW significantly improved tomato growth and photosynthesis activity over those irrigated with UOMW. Optimization of TOMW as a fertilizer was obtained for a dilution of 1:4. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that OMW treated by C. gallica holds potential to be used as a fertilizer for tomato plants. Graphical Abstract ᅟ Please provide a caption for the graphical abstract.The graphical abstract is improved and sent as attachment Please replace it.

  5. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  6. Depuration of olive oil mill wastewater by an activated sludge system; Depuracion de alpechin mediante us sistema de fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran de Heredia, J.; Torregrosa Anton, J.; Ramos Viscas, M. P.; Garcia Rodriguez, J.; Dominguez Vargas, R. [Universidad de Extremadura. Badajoz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of alpechin (olive oil mill wastewaters) have been studied by an activated sludge treatment. The substrate evolution (based on COD and BOD{sub 5}), nitrogen Kjeldahl, phosphorus, biomass, aromaticity and total polyphenolic contents was followed during each experiment. A kinetic study is performed by using the Contois model, which applied to the experimental data, provides the specific kinetic parameters of this model. Moreover, others interesting biological parameters like the cellular yield and the kinetics of endogenous metabolism were determined. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. A process for the treatment of olive mill waste waters by immobilized cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElYachioui, M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mould strains were immobilized on sawdust from woods as a solid material for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW waters. Assays were carried out in flasks. The treatment process was monitored by physico-chemical determinations including pH, polyphenols and COD, which were followed up during the incubation time. In parallel the chemical inhibitory activity of OMW was confirmed biologically by the determination of some microorganisms in the medium including the plate count, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. Results indicated that the polyphenol degradation level was 87 %. The COD was also reduced by 60 %. The pH of the effluent increased from 4.5 to 6.6. The microbial profiles showed their best growth during the treatment period indicating a removal of the inhibitory activities from the OMW waters. The growth patterns of all microorganism groups were similar and could reach high levels in the effluent.Cepas de moho fueron inmovilizadas sobre serrín de madera como material sólido para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de un molino de aceituna (OMW. Los ensayos se realizaron en matraces. El proceso de tratamiento se monitorizó mediante determinaciones físico-químicas incluyendo pH, polifenoles y DQO, que también se analizaron durante el tiempo de incubación. En paralelo, la actividad inhibidora química de las OMW se confirma biológicamente mediante su efecto sobre algunos microorganismos incluyendo levaduras y bactérias ácido lácticas. Los resultados indicaron que los polifenoles se degradan hasta un nivel del 87 %. La DQO se redujo también al 60 %. El pH del efluente aumentó de 4.5 a 6.6. Los perfiles microbiológicos mostraron un mejor crecimiento a medida que avanzaba el tratamiento indicando una supresión de las actividades inhibidoras de las aguas (OMW. El comportamiento del crecimiento de todos los grupos de microorganismos fue similar y puede alcanzar altos niveles en el efluente

  8. The Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater on the Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Soils in Northwest Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Wahsha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination may influence negatively soil health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies soil biodiversity and decreases plant growth. Soil health is the continued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living system, providing essential ecosystem services. Within soils, all bio-geo-chemical processes of the different ecosystem components are combined. These processes are able to sustain biological productivity of soil, to maintain the quality of surrounding air and water environments, as well as to promote plant, animal, and human health. A common criterion to evaluate long term sustainability of ecosystems is to assess the quality of soil. However, the increased concentration and distribution of toxic substances in soils by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. A major environmental concern in the Mediterranean countries is the production of the large quantities of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW produced during olive oil extraction process. OMW inhibits several groups of bacteria and fungal species, thus affecting soil stability. In the present study, we investigated the effect of OMW on the soil physical, chemical characteristics and the microarthropods structure. All soil samples were collected from an olive mill garden in Northwest Jordan. Biological soil quality index (QBS-ar values appeared to decrease with respect to soil pollution by OMW. All investigated parameters were significantly different depending on the levels of OMW contamination in soil. Anthropogenic activities influenced the microarthropod community, altering both quantity and quality of soil chemical and physical structure of the microhabitats. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the application of QBS-ar index could be a useful tool for evaluating surface soils health status.

  9. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  10. Effect of olive mill wastewater phenol compounds on reactive carbonyl species and Maillard reaction end-products in ultrahigh-temperature-treated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fiore, A.; Colantuono, A.; Kokkinidou, S.; Peterson, D.G.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at

  11. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  12. Pilot scale hybrid processes for olive mill wastewater treatment, energy production and water reuse: comparison between fungal and electro-coagulation pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayadi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) cause disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants such as phenolic compounds. Complete biodegradation or removal of these compounds is hardly achieved by a single treatment method. In this work, we investigated 2 integrated technologies for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW, allowing water recovery and reuse for agricultural purposes. (Author)

  13. Traitement de la margine brute d'huile d'olive par distillation suivi de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2014 ... Research on optimization of the distillate and residue are in progress. Keywords: olive oil ... des composés phénoliques de ce distillat avant et après sa ..... Ranalli A. (1991a) the effluent from olive mills: Proposals for re-use ...

  14. Regarding the rejection performance of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane for the final purification of two-phase olive mill effluents previously treated by an advanced oxidation process; Sobre la eficiencia del rechazo de una membrana polimérica de ósmosis inversa para la purificación del agua residual de almazara de dos fases, previamente tratada mediante un proceso avanzado de oxidación

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Férez, A.

    2017-07-01

    In previous works on olive mill wastewater (OMW), secondary advanced oxidation treatment solved the problem related to the presence of phenolic compounds and considerable chemical oxygen demand. However, the effluent presented a significant salinity after this treatment. In this work, an adequate operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is addressed to ensure constant performance over a long period of time. In this paper, the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic membrane rejection performance towards the target species was examined and discussed. Rejection efficiencies of all species were observed to follow a similar pattern, which consisted of slight initial improvement that further decreased over time. Rejection of both divalent ions remained constant at over 99% regardless of the operating conditions. Rejections were noticed to follow the order SO42−> Cl−> NO3− and Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+, as a rule. Divalent species were moderately more highly rejected than monovalent ones, in accordance with their higher charge and molecular size, and sulfate anions were consistently rejected by over 99%. Finally, the RO membrane exiting treated effluent was depleted of the high electro conductivity initially present (above 97% rejection), permitting its re-use as good quality irrigation water (below 1 mS/cm). [Spanish] En trabajos previos con agua residual de almazara, se solucionó el problema en relación a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos y la considerable concentración de material orgánico. Sin embargo, el efluente presentaba una salinidad significativa tras éste. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar la adecuada operación de una membrana de ósmosis inversa (OI) para asegurar rendimientos constantes por largos períodos de tiempo de operación. Se examina y discute el efecto de los parámetros de operación en el rendimiento dinámico del rechazo de especies diana. Se observó que la eficiencia de rechazo de todas las especies siguió un

  15. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  16. Productivity and cost analysis of a mobile pyrolysis system deployed to convert mill residues into biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Dongyeob Kim; Nathaniel Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Forest and mill residues are a promising source of biomass feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, high costs of transportation and handling of feedstock often make utilization of forest residues, such as logging slash, financially unviable. As a result, these materials are often considered waste and left on site to decompose or...

  17. Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater, by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelegenis, John; Georgakakis, Dimitris; Angelidaki, Irini; Christopoulou, Nicholetta; Goumenaki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of biogas production from olive-mill wastewater (OMW) was attempted by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure (DPM) at mesophilic conditions. A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors, fed with mixtures of OMW and DPM at various concentrations. It was concluded that codigestion of OMW with DPM is possible without any dilution of OMW or addition of any chemicals. Biogas production was slightly higher when OMW was added to DPM up to a critical concentration (about 40%, expressed as contribution of OMW to the volatile solids of the mixture), after which production is decreased. The results were further verified by scaling up to a continuously-operating pilot-plant reactor digesting DPM, and confirmed that no negative impact was imposed by adding OMW up to the above critical value

  18. Phenols recovery after steam explosion of Olive Mill Solid Waste and its influence on a subsequent biomethanization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Fermoso, Fernando G; Alonso-Fariñas, Bernabé; Rodríguez-Gutierrez, Guillermo; Fernandez-Bolaños, Juan; Borja, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    A promising source of high added value compounds is the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW). The aim of this research was to evaluate the viability of a biorefinery approach to valorize OMSW through the combination of steam explosion, phenols extraction, and anaerobic digestion. Steam explosion treatment increased the total phenol content in the steam exploited OMSW, which was twice than that the total phenol content in raw OMSW, although some undesirable compounds were also formed. Phenol extraction allowed the recovery of 2098mg hydroxytyrosol per kg of OMSW. Anaerobic digestion allowed the partial stabilization of the different substrates, although it was not improved by the steam explosion treatment. The economic suitability of the proposed biorefinery approach is favorable up to a phenol extract price 90.7% lower than the referenced actual price of 520€/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradation of olive mill wastewater by the induced extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of two wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerva, Anastasia; Zervakis, Georgios I; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-12-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a major problem in olive oil - producing countries, due to its high organic load and concentration in phenols that are toxic for marine life, plants and soil microorganisms. In the present study, two mushroom species were tested in regard to their OMWW's oxidative capacity, Pleurotus citrinopileatus LGAM 28684 and Irpex lacteus LGAM 238. OMWW (25% v/v) degradation was investigated for several culture conditions, namely pH, agitation speed, nitrogen-based supplements and their concentration. The selected values were pH 6, agitation rate 150 rpm, 30 g L -1 corn steep liquor as nitrogen source for P. citrinopileatus and 20 g L -1 diammonium tartrate for I. lacteus. The two strains performed well in cultures supplemented with OMWW, generating very high titers of oxidative enzymes and achieving more than 90% color and phenols reduction within a 24 days cultivation period. In addition, the amount of glucans present in the fungal biomass was assessed. Hence, P. citrinopileatus and I. lacteus appear as potent degraders of OMWW with the ability to use the effluent as a substrate for the production of biotechnologically important enzymes and valuable fungal glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  1. Impact of spreading olive mill waste water on agricultural soils for leaching of metal micronutrients and cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonov-Nadborny, R; Tsechansky, L; Raviv, M; Graber, E R

    2017-07-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is an acidic (pH 4-5), saline (EC ∼ 5-10 mS cm -1 ), blackish-red aqueous byproduct of the three phase olive oil production process, with a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 220,000 mg L -1 . OMWW is conventionally disposed of by uncontrolled dumping into the environment or by semi-controlled spreading on agricultural soils. It was hypothesized that spreading such liquids on agricultural soils could result in the release and mobilization of indigenous soil metals. The effect of OMWW spreading on leaching of metal cations (Na, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) was tested in four non-contaminated agricultural soils having different textures (sand, clay loam, clay, and loam) and chemical properties. While the OMWW contributed metals to the soil solution, it also mobilized indigenous soil metals as a function of soil clay content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and soil pH-buffer capacity. Leaching of soil-originated metals from the sandy soil was substantially greater than from the loam and clay soils, while the clay loam was enriched with metals derived from the OMWW. These trends were attributed to cation exchange and organic-metal complex formation. The organic matter fraction of OMWW forms complexes with metal cations; these complexes may be mobile or precipitate, depending on the soil chemical and physical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of hydraulic retention time on biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids production during acidogenic digestion of dephenolized olive mill wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoma, Alberto; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The influence of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) on the performances of a recently developed biotechnological anaerobic acidogenic process fed with dephenolized Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) was investigated. The study was carried out under mesophilic conditions in Packed Bed Biofilm Reactors (PBBRs), filled with ceramic cubes and inoculated with a characterized and acclimated acidogenic microbial consortium. The PBBRs were fed with a HRT of 7, 5, 3 or 1 day, which corresponded to Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) of about 5.5, 7.8, 12.9 and 38.8 g L −1 d −1 , respectively. A significant production of a H 2 -rich biogas was observed when shorter HRTs were applied: in particular, H 2 relative amount and productivity increased from 3% to 32% and from 0.20 to 6.10 dm 3 m −3 h −1 , respectively, by decreasing the HRT from 7 to 1 day. On the contrary, shorter HRTs turned into a lower accumulation of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), whose highest amounts were found with HRTs of 7 and 5 days (about 18.4 and 19.7 g L −1 COD equivalents, respectively). The highest conversion yield of COD into VFAs (36%) was obtained with a HRT of 5 days, when VFAs represented about 78% of the effluent COD. HRT also influenced the composition of the VFA mixture: acetic, propionic and butyric acid were the most prominent VFAs, being their relative amounts higher when PBBRs were operated with shorter HRTs (up to 19, 12 and 42% of the whole mixture, respectively, when HRT was 1 day). -- Highlights: ► HRT affects the acidogenic digestion of dephenolized olive mill wastewater. ► A significant production of bioH 2 can be coupled to that of volatile fatty acids. ► Higher H 2 and lower VFA productions were obtained by shortening the HRT

  4. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, J A; Pascual, J; González-Menéndez, V; Sampedro, I; García-Romera, I; Bills, G F

    2014-03-01

    Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  7. Persistence of malathion residues in stored milled rice: Direct and indirect applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out: (i) to study the persistence of malathion residues in stored milled rice following multiple applications of 14 C-malathion to the bagged rice and (ii) to determine the degradation of malathion in stored milled rice and stored paddy following direct and single application of 14 C-malathion. The storage conditions were similar to those found in the local rice godowns. Three applications of malathion to the bagged milled rice resulted in the accumulation of malathion and its metabolites in and/or on the rice grains over the storage period. After 9 months' storage, ca. 4% of the total applied radioactivity, which amounted to 10 μg/g equivalent of 14 C residues, were found in and/or on the grains. About one fourth of the residue remained as the unchanged parent compound. On the other hand, when 14 C-malathion at the 10 ppm level was mixed directly with the milled rice or paddy prior to storage, the amount of malathion (recovered in the chloroform extracts) decreased from 6.2 μg/g at zero time to 2.9 μg/g after 3 months' storage for the milled rice samples. The major metabolite in the milled rice and paddy samples was malathion monocarboxylic acid with trace amounts of malathion dicarboxylic acid and malaoxon. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Fate of diuron and terbuthylazine in soils amended with two-phase olive oil mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A; Cox, Lucia; Velarde, P; Koskinen, William C; Cornejo, Juan

    2007-06-13

    The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (alperujo) on soil sorption-desorption, degradation, and leaching of diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] and terbuthylazine [N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine], two herbicides widely used in olive crops. The soils used in this study were a sandy soil and a silty clay soil from two different olive groves. The sandy soil was amended in the laboratory with fresh (uncomposted) alperujo at the rate of 10% w/w, and the silty clay soil was amended in the field with fresh alperujo at the rate of 256 kg per tree during 4 years and in the laboratory with fresh or composted alperujo. Sorption of both herbicides increased in laboratory-amended soils as compared to unamended or field-amended soils, and this process was less reversible in laboratory-amended soils, except for diuron in amended sandy soil. Addition of alperujo to soils increased half-lives of the herbicides in most of the soils. Diuron and terbuthylazine leached through unamended sandy soil, but no herbicide was detected in laboratory-amended soil. Diuron did not leach through amended or unamended silty clay soil, whereas small amounts of terbuthylazine were detected in leachates from unamended soil. Despite their higher sorption capacity, greater amounts of terbuthylazine were found in the leachates from amended silty clay soils. The amounts of dissolved organic matter from alperujo and the degree of humification can affect sorption, degradation, and leaching of these two classes of herbicides in soils. It appears that adding alperujo to soil would not have adverse impacts on the behavior of herbicides in olive production.

  9. Study on residual stresses in ultrasonic torsional vibration assisted micro-milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zesheng; Hu, Haijun; Sun, Yazhou; Sun, Qing

    2010-10-01

    It is well known that machining induced residual stresses can seriously affect the dimensional accuracy, corrosion and wear resistance, etc., and further influence the longevity and reliability of Micro-Optical Components (MOC). In Ultrasonic Torsional Vibration Assisted Micro-milling (UTVAM), cutting parameters, vibration parameters, mill cutter parameters, the status of wear length of tool flank are the main factors which affect residual stresses. A 2D model of UTVAM was established with FE analysis software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook's flow stress model and shear failure principle are used as the workpiece material model and failure principle, while friction between tool and workpiece uses modified Coulomb's law whose sliding friction area is combined with sticking friction. By means of FEA, the influence rules of cutting parameters, vibration parameters, mill cutter parameters, the status of wear length of tool flank on residual stresses are obtained, which provides a basis for choosing optimal process parameters and improving the longevity and reliability of MOC.

  10. Residual stresses analysis in ball end milling of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junteng; Zhang, Dinghua; Wu, Baohai; Luo, Ming [Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University (China)

    2017-11-15

    Inconel 718 is widely used in the aviation, space, automotive and biomedical industries because of its outstanding properties. Near-surface residual stresses that are induced by ball end milling in Inconel 718 can be crucial for the performance and service time of the machined parts. In this paper, the influences of cutting conditions, including the use of cutting parameters, cutting fluid and spindle angles, on the residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated experimentally. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that residual stress distributions are highly influenced by cutting parameters, especially the depth of cut and cutting speed. The milling operation with cooling induces more compressive stresses trend and the magnitude of the residual stresses increases in the tensile direction with the increase of spindle angles. These cutting induced effects were further discussed with respect to thermal- mechanical coupling theory and some observations made by optical microscopy. From this investigation, it is suggested that the machining process parameters are not the smaller the better for the control of residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718. (author)

  11. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  12. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  13. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  14. Pile composting of two-phase centrifuged olive husk residues: technical solutions and quality of cured compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, G; Belli, C; Lustrato, G; Ranalli, G

    2008-07-01

    The present work proposed an economically sustainable solution for composting olive humid husks (OHH) and leaves (OL) at a small/medium sized olive oil mill. We planned and set up a composting plant, the prototype taking the form of a simplified low-cost turning machine, and evaluated the use of an inoculum of one year-old composted humid husks (CHH) and sheep manure (SM) to facilitate the starting phase of the process. Trials were carried out using four piles under different experimental conditions (turnover, static, and type of inoculum). The best results were achieved with turnover and an inoculum that induced fast start-up and a correct evolution of the composting process. The final product was a hygienically clean, cured compost.

  15. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical properties and hydrolytic enzyme activities for the characterisation of two-phase olive mill wastes composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, M L; Mondini, C; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A

    2008-07-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated during the extraction of olive oil by the two-phase centrifugation system. Among all the available disposal options, composting is gaining interest as a sustainable strategy to recycle TPOMW for agricultural purposes. The quality of compost for agronomical use depends on the degree of organic matter stabilization, but despite several studies on the topic, there is not a single method available which alone can give a certain indication of compost stability. In addition, information on the biological and biochemical properties, including the enzymatic activity (EA) of compost, is rare. The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of some enzymatic activities (beta-glucosidase, arylsulphatase, acid-phosphatase, alkaline-phosphatase, urease and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA)) as parameters to evaluate organic matter stability during the composting of TPOMW. These enzymatic indices were also compared to conventional stability indices. For this purpose two composting piles were prepared by mixing TPOMW with sheep manure and grape stalks in different proportions, with forced aeration and occasional turnings. The composting of TPOMW followed the common pattern reported previously for this kind of material with a reduction of 40-50% of organic matter, a gradual increase in pH, disappearance of phytotoxicity and formation of humic-like C. All EA increased during composting except acid-phosphatase. Significant correlations were found between EA and some important conventional stability indices indicating that EA can be a simple and reliable tool to determine the degree of stability of TPOMW composts.

  17. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  18. Microbial diversity of a Mediterranean soil and its changes after biotransformed dry olive residue amendment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Siles

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean basin has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot, about whose soil microbial diversity little is known. Intensive land use and aggressive management practices are degrading the soil, with a consequent loss of fertility. The use of organic amendments such as dry olive residue (DOR, a waste produced by a two-phase olive-oil extraction system, has been proposed as an effective way to improve soil properties. However, before its application to soil, DOR needs a pre-treatment, such as by a ligninolytic fungal transformation, e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa. The present study aimed to describe the bacterial and fungal diversity in a Mediterranean soil and to assess the impact of raw DOR (DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR (CORDOR on function and phylogeny of soil microbial communities after 0, 30 and 60 days. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that bacterial diversity was dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, while 28S-rRNA gene data revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota accounted for the majority of phyla in the fungal community. A Biolog EcoPlate experiment showed that DOR and CORDOR amendments decreased functional diversity and altered microbial functional structures. These changes in soil functionality occurred in parallel with those in phylogenetic bacterial and fungal community structures. Some bacterial and fungal groups increased while others decreased depending on the relative abundance of beneficial and toxic substances incorporated with each amendment. In general, DOR was observed to be more disruptive than CORDOR.

  19. Application of Acid Cracking and Fenton Processes inTreating Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Aliabadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the growth in the industries of olive oil extraction has brought about a number of environmental problems. The waste water resulting from olive oil extraction can not be naturally degraded due to the presence of phenol, volatile fatty acids, catchin, and other recalcitrants.In recent years advanced oxidation processes based on hydroxyl radical are paid special attention by scientific, research and industrial centers to degrade the pollutants. In this study, a combination of acid cracking and advanced oxidation process in terms of Fenton process have been studied. Results showed that acid cracking can remove 97, 47, 30, 63 and 57 percent of Turbidity, COD, Total Phenols, Color and Aromaticity, respectively. Fenton process in pH=3 at optimal conditions can remove 57, 97, 18 and 32 percent of COD, Total Phenols, Color and Aromaticity, respectively. Necessary time of reaction was 4 hrs and optimum concentration of H2O2 and Fe2+ ions was determined 0. 5 M and 0.02 M, respectively. Increasing temperature in the range of 25-35°C and type of iron used(ferric or ferrous has no considerable effect in  the efficiency of the process.

  20. Wastewater disposal to landfill-sites: a synergistic solution for centralized management of olive mill wastewater and enhanced production of landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Vasileios; Erguder, Tuba H; Aivasidis, Alexandros; Verstraete, Willy; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2013-10-15

    The present paper focuses on a largely unexplored field of landfill-site valorization in combination with the construction and operation of a centralized olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment facility. The latter consists of a wastewater storage lagoon, a compact anaerobic digester operated all year round and a landfill-based final disposal system. Key elements for process design, such as wastewater pre-treatment, application method and rate, and the potential effects on leachate quantity and quality, are discussed based on a comprehensive literature review. Furthermore, a case-study for eight (8) olive mill enterprises generating 8700 m(3) of wastewater per year, was conceptually designed in order to calculate the capital and operational costs of the facility (transportation, storage, treatment, final disposal). The proposed facility was found to be economically self-sufficient, as long as the transportation costs of the OMW were maintained at ≤4.0 €/m(3). Despite that EU Landfill Directive prohibits wastewater disposal to landfills, controlled application, based on appropriately designed pre-treatment system and specific loading rates, may provide improved landfill stabilization and a sustainable (environmentally and economically) solution for effluents generated by numerous small- and medium-size olive mill enterprises dispersed in the Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decommissioning of facilities for mining and milling or radioactive ores and closeout of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to Member States in order to assist in planning and implementing the decommissioning/closeout of uranium mine/mill facilities, mines, tailings impoundments, mining debris piles, leach residues and unprocessed ore stockpiles. The report presents an overview of the factors involved in planning and implementing the decommissioning/closeout of uranium mine/mill facilities. The information applies to mines, mills, tailings piles, mining debris piles and leach residues that are present as operational, mothballed or abandoned projects, as well as to future mining and milling projects. The report identifies the major factors that need to be considered in the decommissioning/closeout activities, including regulatory considerations; decommissioning of the mine/mill buildings, structures and facilities; decommissioning/closeout of open pit and underground mines; decommissioning/closeout of tailings impoundments; decommissioning/closeout of mining debris piles, unprocessed ore and other contaminated material such as heap leach piles, in situe leach facilities and contaminated soils; restoration of the site, vicinity properties and groundwater; radiation protection and health and safety considerations; and an assessment of costs and post-decommissioning or post-closeout maintenance and monitoring needs. 55 refs, figs and tabs

  2. KINETIC STUDIES ON BIODEGRADATION OF LIPIDS FROM OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS WITH FREE AND IMMOBILIZED Bacillus sp. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Irina Galaction

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the biodegradation of lipids from olive oil mill wastewater with free and immobilized Bacillus sp. cells indicated that the maximum specific rate of the process is reached at pH = 8. The use of immobilized cells allows to increasing the number of biodegradation process cycles, but reduces the rate of the process. In this case, the process rate depends on the biocatalysts size and cells concentration inside them. Thus, at bacterial cells concentration of 9 g d.w./100 mL biocatalyst, the apparent specific rate varied from 4.65 to 1.46×10-2 h-1 by increasing the biocatalyst particles diameter from 3 to 4.2 mm.The cumulated influences of the particles size and cells concentration have been included in a mathematical model for the apparent specific rate of lipids biodegradation. The model offers a good concordance with the experimental data, the average deviation being of +/- 7.38%.

  3. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykas, C.; Vegalas, I.; Gougaulias, N.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH), fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs. (Author)

  4. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  5. Fungal bioremediation of olive mill wastewater: using a multi-step approach to model inhibition or stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Cibelli, Francesca; Raimondo, Maria Luisa; Carlucci, Antonia; Lops, Francesco; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2017-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) possess a strong environmental impact; the use of fungi as tools for bioremediation could be a promising method. Twenty-nine fungi were grown on minimal media supplemented with five different kinds of OMWWs (5-15%). Radial growth was assessed for 21 days and the data were modelled through the Dantigny-logistic like function to estimate τ, i.e. the time to attain half of the maximum diameter. Growth on potato dextrose agar and water agar (WA, minimal medium without supplementation) was used as reference. The differences in τ between PDA/WA and minimal media with OMWWs were modelled through a multi-factorial ANOVA, using the concentration of OMWW, the kind of wastes and fungi as categorical predictors. Finally, a principal component analysis was run to group and divide resistant and sensitive fungi. Some fungi experienced a positive Δτ, thus suggesting an inhibition by OMWW, whereas other isolates were enhanced. Some isolates (for example Aspergillus ochraceus) showed a promising trend and could be possible candidates for a validation on a real scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Phenolic compounds removal from mimosa tannin model water and olive mill wastewater by energy-efficient electrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Kraljić Roković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of NaCl concentration, time, and current density on the removal efficiency of phenolic compounds by electrocoagulation process, as well as to compare the specific energy consumption (SEC of these processes under different experimental conditions. Electrocoagulation was carried out on two different samples of water: model water of mimosa tannin and olive mill wastewater (OMW. Low carbon steel electrodes were used in the experiments. The properties of the treated effluent were determined using UV/Vis spectroscopy and by measuring total organic carbon (TOC. Percentage of removal increased with time, current density, and NaCl concentration. SEC value increased with increased time and current density but it was decreased significantly by NaCl additions (0-29 g L-1. It was found that electro­coagulation treatment of effluents containing phenolic compounds involves complex formation between ferrous/ferric and phenolic compounds present in treated effluent, which has significant impact on the efficiency of the process.

  7. Evaluation of Fungal Growth on Olive-Mill Wastewaters Treated at High Temperature and by High-Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cibelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs in agriculture represents a significant challenge for health and safety of our planet. Phytotoxic compounds in OMWW generally prohibit use of untreated OMWWs for agricultural irrigation or direct discharge into surface waters. However, pretreated OMWW can have positive effects on chemical and microbiological soil characteristics, to fight against fungal soil-borne pathogens. Low amounts of OMWW following thermal (TT-OMWW and high-pressure homogenization (HPH-OMWW pretreatments counteracted growth of some of 12 soil-borne and/or pathogenic fungi examined. With fungal growth measured as standardized change in time to half maximum colony diameter, Δτ, overall, HPH-OMWW showed increased bioactivity, as increased mean Δτ from 3.0 to 4.8 days. Principal component analysis highlighted two fungal groups: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria alternata, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Rosellinia necatrix, with growth strongly inhibited by the treated OMWWs; and Aspergillus ochraceus and Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, with stimulated growth by the treated OMWWs. As a non-thermal treatment, HPH-OMWW generally shows improved positive effects, which potentially arise from preservation of the phenols.

  8. Odor control in evaporation ponds treating olive mill wastewater through the use of Ca(OH)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoudianaki, E; Manios, T; Geniatakis, M; Frantzeskaki, N; Manios, V

    2003-01-01

    Different amounts of Ca(OH)2 were added in 2 L beakers containing 1 L of olive mill wastewater (OMW). The mixture was stirred for 45 min and left to settle. Wastewater analysis was used in order to determine the effect of the different amounts of calcium hydroxide in the treating process, three days after the application. The Odor Detection Threshold was used for determining the effect of the treatment in the odors produced in the beakers, three and 30 days after. Both sets of measurements indicated an important reduction in wastewater pollutants and odor emission when 10 g/L of Ca(OH)2 were added. In order to evaluate these results in more realistic conditions. 10 L plastic containers were filled with 6 L of OMW, relevant amounts of Ca(OH)2 were added, the mixture was stirred manually and left to settle in the open. Again, 10 g/L of calcium hydroxide produced the best results in odor reduction and wastewater treatment.

  9. Olive mill wastewater evaporation management using PCA method Case study of natural degradation in stabilization ponds (Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-04-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) evaporation ponds management was investigated in five serial evaporation open-air multiponds of 50 ha located in Sfax (Tunisia). Physico-chemical parameters and microbial flora evolution were considered. Empirical models describing the OMW characteristic changes with the operation time were established and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) described the correlation between physico-chemical and biological parameters. COD, BOD, total solids, polyphenols and electrical conductivity exhibited first-order models. Four groups exhibited high correlations. The first included temperature, density, COD, TSS, TS, BOD, VS, TOC, TKN, polyphenols and minerals. The second group was made up of yeasts and moulds. The third group was established with phenolic compounds, total sugars, fats, total phosphorous, NH(4)(+) and pH. The fourth group was constituted by exclusively aerobic bacteria. Bacterial-growth toxic effect was exhibited by high organic load, ash content and polyphenols, whereas moulds and yeasts were more adapted to OMW. During the storage, all the third group parameter values decreased and were inversely related to the others. In the last pond, COD, BOD, TS and TSS rates were reduced by 40%, 50%, 50% and 75% respectively. The evaporation and the biological activity were the main processes acting, predicting the OMW behavior during evaporation in air-open ponds. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters in biofilm reactors packed with ceramic filters or granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Lampis, Silvia; Todaro, Daniela; Scoma, Alberto; Vallini, Giovanni; Marchetti, Leonardo; Majone, Mauro; Fava, Fabio

    2010-08-01

    Four identically configured anaerobic packed bed biofilm reactors were developed and employed in the continuous acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be exploited in the biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ceramic porous cubes or granular activated carbon were used as biofilm supports. Aside packing material, the role of temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA production yield and mixture composition were also studied. The process was monitored through a chemical, microbiological and molecular biology integrated procedure. The highest wastewater acidification yield was achieved with the ceramic-based technology at 25 degrees C, with an inlet COD and an OLR of about 17 g/L and 13 g/L/day, respectively. Under these conditions, about the 66% of the influent COD (not including its VFA content) was converted into VFAs, whose final amount represented more than 82% of the influent COD. In particular, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were the main VFAs by composing the 55.7, 21.5 and 14.4%, respectively, of the whole VFA mixture. Importantly, the relative concentrations of acetate and propionate were affected by the OLR parameter. The nature of the packing material remarkable influenced the process performances, by greatly affecting the biofilm bacterial community structure. In particular, ceramic cubes favoured the immobilization of Firmicutes of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium, which were probably involved in the VFA producing process. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of olive mill wastewater on growth and bulb production of tulip plants infected by bulb diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lykas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW on growth of tulip plants infected by common diseases as well as on their new bulbs production is analyzed in this work. Filtered and sterilized OMW was tested as growth inhibitor of Botrytis tulipae, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. mycelium. The effect of filtered OMW on uninfected tulip bulbs was also tested as well as on the growth of bulbs infected with the fungus B. tulipae and A. niger in vivo. The mycelium length, severity of scab-like lesions, plant height (PH, fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM of plants and production of new bulbs were recorded. Only the filtered OMW inhibited the in vitro mycelium growth of all tested fungi. However filtered OMW caused infections when it sprayed on uninfected bulbs, malformations on 30% of the plants grown from these bulbs and decrease PH, FM and DM as well as new bulbs production at 75%, 72.4%, 79.1% and 50% respectively. The treatment of B. tulipae infected bulbs with filtered OMW reduced further the PH, FM, DM and the production of new bulbs in 92.1%, 81.4%, 78.7% and 97% respectively. In contrast the treatment of infected bulbs by B. tulipae + A. niger with filtered OMW did not affect PH, FM and the number of new bulbs produced and significantly improved plants DM and the mass of new bulbs.

  12. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  13. The importance of pretreatment tailoring on the performance of ultrafiltration membranes to treat two-phase olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando Pulido, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of an ultrafiltration (UF membrane in the treatment of the effluents by-produced by olive mills is addressed by applying different pretreatments on the raw effluents. By conducting a photo-catalytic process (UV/TiO2 PC after pH-temperature flocculation (pH-T F higher threshold flux values were observed for all feed stocks than by applying solely the pH-T F process, with an 18.8–34.2% increment. In addition, the performance of the UF membrane was also improved in terms of rejection efficiency, such that higher rejection values were yielded by the membrane for the organic pollutants (RCOD by 48.5 vs. 39.9% and 53.4 vs. 42.0%. The UF membrane performance was also improved in terms of the volume feed recovery factor (VFR, achieving up to 88.2 vs. 87.2% and 90.7 vs. 89.3%. Results in the same line were also observed when the highly polluted olives oil washing wastewater raw stream was previously mixed with the effluent stream coming from the washing of the olives. This permits the UF to permeate, achieving the standard limits to reuse the purified effluent for irrigation purposes (COD values below 1000 mg·L−1, which makes the treatment process cost-effective and results in making the olive oil production process environmentally friendly.En este estudio se aborda el rendimiento de una membrana de ultrafiltración (UF para el tratamiento de los efluentes generados por la industria oleícola, mediante la aplicación de distintos pretratamientos. Tras aplicar un proceso fotocatalítico (UV/TiO2 PC después de una floculación pH-temperatura (pH-T F se observaron flujos límite para todos los efluentes mayores que tras la aplicación únicamente del proceso pH-T F, con incrementos del 18.8–34.2 %. Además, el rendimiento de la membrana de UF mejoró en términos de eficiencia de rechazo, con mayores valores de rechazo respecto de los contaminantes orgánicos (RCOD, 48.5 vs. 39.9 % y 53.4 vs. 42.0 %. El rendimiento de

  14. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of surfactin from rice mill polishing residue by submerged fermentation using Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Jigar; Sengupta, Bina

    2015-08-01

    Rice mill polishing residue (RMPR), an abundant and cheap agro residue, was used as substrate for microbial growth of Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 by submerged fermentation process to produce surfactin. Nutrients present in the residue were sufficient to sustain the growth of the microorganism. Multi stage foam fractionation followed by acid precipitation was used to concentrate and recover the product. Recoverable yield of surfactin was 4.17 g/kg residue. Product recovered in the foamate accounted for 69% of the total yield. The residual broth containing ∼ 30% surfactin exhibited biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values of 23 and 69 mg/L respectively. The microbial growth data was correlated using three parameter sigmoid models. Surfactin synthesized had a predominance of molecular weight 1076 Da. Foam separation of copper using surfactin resulted in a maximum removal of 72.5%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pesticide interactions with soil affected by olive mill wastewater (OMW): how strong and long-lasting is the OMW effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Diehl, Dörte; Tamimi, Nisreen; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2017-04-01

    Sorption interactions with soils are well known to control the environmental fate of multiple organic compounds including pesticides. Pesticide-soil interactions may be affected by organic amendments or organic matter (OM)-containing wastewater brought to the field. Specifically, land spreading of olive mill wastewater (OMW), occurring intentionally or not, may also influence pesticide-soil interactions. The effects of the OMW disposed in the field on soil properties, including their ability to interact with pesticides, become of great interest due to the increasing demand for olive oil and a constant growth of world oil production. This paper summarizes some recent findings related to the effect of prior OMW land application on the ability of soils to interact with the organic compounds including pesticides, diuron and simazine. The major findings are as following: (1) bringing OMW to the field increases the potential of soils to sorb non-ionized pesticides; (2) this sorption increase may not be related solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content but it can reflect also the changes in the soil sorption mechanisms; (3) increased pesticide interactions with OMW-affected soils may become irreversible, due, assumedly, to the swelling of some components of the OMW-treated soil; (4) enhanced pesticide-soil interactions mitigate with the time passed after the OMW application, however, in the case of diuron, the remaining effect could be envisioned at least 600 days after the normal OMW application; (5) the enhancement effect of OMW application on soil sorption may increase with soil depth, in the 0-10 cm interval; (6) at higher pesticide (diuron) concentrations, larger extents of sorption enhancement, following the prior OMW-soil interactions, may be expected; (7) disposal of OMW in the field may be seasonal-dependent, and, in the case studied, it led to more distinct impacts on sorption when carried out in spring and winter, as compared with summer. It appears

  17. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  18. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  19. Evaluation of the QuEChERS sample preparation approach for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Sara C; Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Fernandes, José O; Beatriz, Maria; Oliveira, P P

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the use of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for extraction and cleanup of 16 pesticide residues of interest in olives and olive oil. These products contain a high lipid content, which can adversely affect pesticide recoveries and harm traditional chromatographic systems. For extraction, the main factors (oil and water content) were studied and optimized in experiments to maximize pesticide recoveries. Dispersive SPE with different sorbents was also investigated to minimize matrix coextractives and interferences. For analysis, a new automated DSI device was tested in GC-MS to avoid nonvolatile coextractives from contaminating the instrument. LC-MS/MS with positive ESI was used for those pesticides that were difficult to detect by GC-MS. The final method was validated for olives in terms of recoveries, repeatabilities, and reproducibilities using both detection techniques. The results demonstrated that the method achieved acceptable quantitative recoveries of 70-109% with RSDs < 20% for DSI-GC-MS and 88-130% with RSDs < 10% for LC-MS/MS, and LOQ at or below the regulatory maximum residue limits for the pesticides were achieved.

  20. On Operating a Nanofiltration Membrane for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification at Sub- and Super-Boundary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Marco; Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Field, Robert

    2017-07-14

    In the last decades, membrane processes have gained a significant share of the market for wastewater purification. Although the product (i.e., purified water) is not of high added value, these processes are feasible both technically and from an economic point of view, provided the flux is relatively high and that membrane fouling is strongly inhibited. By controlling membrane fouling, the membrane may work for years without service, thus dramatically reducing operating costs and the need for membrane substitution. There is tension between operating at high permeate fluxes, which enhances fouling but reduces capital costs, and operating at lower fluxes which increases capital costs. Operating batch membrane processes leads to increased difficulties, since the feed fed to the membrane changes as a function of the recovery value. This paper is concerned with the operation of such a process. Membrane process designers should therefore avoid membrane fouling by operating membranes away from the permeate flux point where severe fouling is triggered. The design and operation of membrane purification plants is a difficult task, and the precision to properly describe the evolution of the fouling phenomenon as a function of the operating conditions is a key to success. Many reported works have reported on the control of fouling by operating below the boundary flux. On the other hand, only a few works have successfully sought to exploit super-boundary operating conditions; most super-boundary operations are reported to have led to process failures. In this work, both sub- and super-boundary operating conditions for a batch nanofiltration membrane process used for olive mill wastewater treatment were investigated. A model to identify a priori the point of transition from a sub-boundary to a super-boundary operation during a batch operation was developed, and this will provide membrane designers with a helpful tool to carefully avoid process failures.

  1. Olive mill wastewater disposal in evaporation ponds in Sfax (Tunisia): moisture content effect on microbiological and physical chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Hadrich, Bilel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2009-11-01

    The study of the isotherms desorption of olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated to describe its water activity under different saturated environments. The microbial biodegradation of OMW during its storage in 5 evaporation ponds located in Agareb (Sfax-Tunisia) was carried out during the oil-harvesting year held 105 days in 2004. Gravimetric static method using saturated salt solutions was used and OMW as placed at 30 degrees C and under different water activities ranging from 0.11 to 0.90. Eight models were taken from the literature to describe experimental desorption isotherms. During storage, the evolution of physico-chemical parameters including pH, temperature, evaporation, humidity, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phenols and three microbiological flora (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds) were considered. At 30 degrees C, when relative humidity increased in the experimented ponds of 69, 84 and 90%, the evaporation speed decreased from 1.24 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1), from 6 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) and from 5 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) respectively. The desorption isotherm exhibited a sigmoidal curve corresponding to type II, typical of many organic material. The GAB and Peleg models gave the best fit for describing the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and water activity in OMW (R (2) = 0.998). During the storage period, the analysis showed an increase of all the physico-chemical parameters studied, except phenols and total phosphorus concentrations. The microbiological study showed the predominance of yeasts and moulds and the decrease of bacteria population after 75 days reflecting both effect of recalcitrant compounds and the water activity on microbial growth.

  2. Ball milled bauxite residue as a reinforcing filler in phosphate-based intumescent system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiat Ibironke Arogundade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue (BR is an alumina refinery waste with a global disposal problem. Of the 120 MT generated annually, only 3 MT is disposed via utilization. One of the significant challenges to sustainable utilization has been found to be the cost of processing. In this work, using ball milling, we achieved material modification of bauxite residue. Spectrometric imaging with FESEM showed the transformation from an aggregate structure to nano, platy particulates, leading to particle size homogeneity. BET analysis showed surface area was increased by 23%, while pH was reduced from 10.8 to 9.1 due to collapsing of the hydroxyl surface by the fracturing action of the ball mill. Incorporation of this into a phosphate-based fire retardant, intumescent formulation led to improved material dispersion and the formation of reinforcing heat shielding char nodules. XRD revealed the formation of ceramic metal phosphates which acted as an additional heat sink to the intumescent system, thereby reducing char oxidation and heat transfer to the substrate. Steel substrate temperature from a Bunsen burner test reduced by 33%. Therefore, ball milling can serve as a simple, low-cost processing route for the reuse of bauxite residue in intumescent composites.

  3. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  4. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  5. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic byproducts of olive oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Saez, F; Ballesteros, M

    2001-01-01

    The recent implementation of a new two-step centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby eliminating oil mill wastewater. However, a new high sugar content residue is still generated. In this work the two fractions present in the residue (olive pulp and fragmented stones) were assayed as substrate for ethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Pretreatment of fragmented olive stones by sulfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion was the most effective treatment for increasing enzymatic digestibility; however, a pretreatment step was not necessary to bioconvert the olive pulp into ethanol. The olive pulp and fragmented olive stones were tested by the SSF process using a fed-batch procedure. By adding the pulp three times at 24-h intervals, 76% of the theoretical SSF yield was obtained. Experiments with fed-batch pretreated olive stones provided SSF yields significantly lower than those obtained at standard SSF procedure. The preferred SSF conditions to obtain ethanol from olives stones (61% of theoretical yield) were 10% substrate and addition of cellulases at 15 filter paper units/g of substrate.

  6. Valorization of Olive Mill Wastewater by Membrane Processes to Recover Natural Antioxidant Compounds for Cosmeceutical and Nutraceutical Applications or Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Alberto; Corsuto, Luisana; Finamore, Rosario; Savarese, Maria; Ferrara, Filomena; Falco, Salvatore; Santabarbara, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2018-05-23

    Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts of metabolism. The objective of this research project was to recover the biologically active components rich in polyphenols, which include treatment of olive oil mills wastewater, and, at the same time, to remove the pollutant waste component resulting from the olive oil manufacturing processes. With specific focus on using technologies based on the application of ultra and nanofiltration membranes, the polyphenols fraction was extracted after an initial flocculation step. The nano-filtration permeate showed a reduction of about 95% of the organic load. The polyphenols recovery after two filtration steps was about 65% w / v . The nanofiltration retentate, dried using the spray dryer technique, was tested for cell viability after oxidative stress induction on human keratinocytes model in vitro and an improved cell reparation in the presence of this polyphenolic compound was demonstrated in scratch assays assisted through time lapse video-microscopy. The polyphenols recovered from these treatments may be suitable ingredients in cosmeceuticals and possibly nutraceutical preparations or functional foods.

  7. Ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols from olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi, Angelo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biofiltration ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove polyphenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD from olive mill wastewater (OMWw collected from the traditional (TS and continuous (CS extraction systems. Azolla biomass was packed into five sequential Imhoff cones and five sequential columns. In both experiments, the filtrates collected from the 5th biofilter showed a decrease in polyphenol contents: from 7650 mg l–1 to 3610 mg l–1 in TS OMWw and from 3852 mg l–1 to 1351 mg l–1 in CS OMWw. The COD contents decreased from 110200 mg L–1 to 52400 mg L–1 in TS OMWw and from 41600 mg L–1 to 2300 mg L–1 in CS OMWw. A 5:1 OMWw to Azolla-fresh-weight ratio was optimal for both polyphenol and COD removal. The biofiltration ability of alfalfa was compared with that of Azolla, but the treatment with alfalfa did not result in the reduction of COD or polyphenols.La eficacia del helecho de agua azolla para eliminar polifenoles y reducir la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de los alpechines obtenidos en el proceso de obtención tradicional y continuo del aceite de oliva, fue investigado mediante ensayos de filtración. Cinco conos secuenciales de Imhoff y cinco columnas secuenciales se rellenaron de biomasa de Azolla. En ambos experimentos, el filtrado procedente de la quinta extracción mostró una disminución en el contenido de polifenoles de 7650 mg L–1 a 3610 mg L–1en el alpechín obtenido mediante el sistema tradicional y de 3852 mg L–1 a 1351 mg L–1en el alpechín del sistema continuo. La demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín del sistema tradicional disminuyó de 110200 mg L–1 a 52400 mg L–1 en y de 41600 mg L–1a 2300 mg L–1en el procedente del sistema continuo. Una proporción en peso 5:1 de alpechín: Azolla fue la óptima tanto para la reducción de los polifenoles como para la de la DQO. La eficiencia del tratamiento biológico con alfalfa se comparó con la obtenida con Azolla. Los

  8. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy (α+β) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  9. Treatment of mine water and solid residues (RS) in San Rafael mining and milling complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.; Perrino, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    San Rafael Mining and Milling Complex is located in Mendoza Province, in San Rafael Department, 38 km West from San Rafael city and 240 km south from Mendoza city, capital of the province. Activities related with yellow cake production were performed from 1979 to 1999. Nowadays the mine and the plant are in stand by. At the moment technical, economic and environmental studies are being done in order to restart the activities. Different kind of residues are accumulated in the site: a) Tailing; b) Sludges; c) Low grade ores; e) Waste rock; f) Mine water; g) Solid residues (RS). In this paper methodology to treat mine water and solid residues (RS) will be informed. a) Mine water: 800.000 m 3 of mine water are accumulated in different open pit. Uranium, radium and arsenic are the main ions to take into account to treat the water. Several laboratory and pilot test have been performed in order to define the treatment of the water, according with the regulatory requirement. A methodology using anion exchange resin to fix uranium and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulfate to separate radium and arsenic has been developed. b) Solid residues (RS): these residues (precipitates) have been produced by neutralization of effluents in a nuclear purification process (TBP process). They are accumulated in drums. These residues come from Cordoba plant, a factory which produces UO 2 powder. The total content of uranium in the precipitate is 14.249 kg with an average uranium concentration of 1,33%. A methodology using sulfuric acid dissolution of the precipitates and anion exchange resin to recovery the uranium has been developed. (author) [es

  10. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis...

  11. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of OMW. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46–51% in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials. PMID:24790964

  12. Recovery of soil properties after seedlings Inoculation with AM fungi and addition of composted olive mill waste in the regeneration of a heavy metal polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) on the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal polluted soil. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96% and 60% respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soils properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided G-mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs; because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy-metal contaminated soils derived from mining process, and also can be a good way for olive mill wastes disposal.

  13. Extraction of antioxidants from olive mill wastewater and electro-coagulation of exhausted fraction to reduce its toxicity on anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoufi, Sonia; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was used in order to recover phenolic compounds from centrifuged olive mill wastewater (OMW), a polluting by-product of olive oil production process, and to reduce their toxicity for a subsequent aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Phenolic compounds were identified in untreated and treated OMW by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental results of ethyl acetate extraction showed that the monomers recovery efficiency was over 90%. This pre-treatment resulted in the removal of the major LMM phenolic compounds and a small part of HMM polyphenols. The aerobic treatment of the exhausted OMW fraction removed 78.7% of the soluble COD. In the case of anaerobic digestion at OLR ranged from 1 to 3.5 gCOD l(-1)day(-1), methanisation process exhibited high methane yield as 0.3 l CH4 produced per g COD introduced and high COD removal (80%). However, a disruption of the process was observed when the OLR was increased to 4.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1). A pre-treatment by electro-coagulation resulted in decreasing the toxicity and enhancing the performance of methanisation operated at higher OLR from 4 to 7.5 gCODl(-1)day(-1).

  14. Effects of Olive Mill Wastewater on Soil Microarthropods and Soil Chemistry in Two Different Cultivation Scenarios in Israel and Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Peter Kurtz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although olive mill wastewater (OMW is often applied onto soil and is known to be phytotoxic, its impact on soil fauna is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate how OMW spreading in olive orchards affects Oribatida and Collembola communities, physicochemical soil properties and their interdependency. For this, we treated plots in two study sites (Gilat, Bait Reema with OMW. Among others, the sites differed in irrigation practice, soil type and climate. We observed that soil acidity and water repellency developed to a lower extent in Gilat than in Bait Reema. This may be explained by irrigation-induced dilution and leaching of OMW compounds in Gilat. In Bait Reema, OMW application suppressed emergence of Oribatida and induced a community shift, but the abundance of Collembola increased in OMW and water-treated plots. In Gilat, Oribatida abundance increased after OMW application. The effects of OMW application on soil biota result from an interaction between stimulation of biological activity and suppression of sensitive species by toxic compounds. Environmental and management conditions are relevant for the degree and persistence of the effects. Moreover, this study underlines the need for detailed research on the ecotoxicological effects of OMW at different application rates.

  15. Time-dependent evolution of olive mill wastewater sludge organic and inorganic components and resident microbiota in multi-pond evaporation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Chtourou, Mohamed; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-08-01

    The physico-chemical and microbiological characterizations of olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) were investigated in five OMW evaporation ponds of the open-pond system in Sfax (Tunisia), during the olive oil production period in 2004. Time-dependent changes in both physico-chemical parameters and the microbiota were investigated. Mathematical models and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to establish the correlations between the studied parameters. During the effluent time-dependent changes in the ponds, the result of OMWS analysis showed an increase of sludge index (SI), ash content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), ethyl acetate extractive (EAE) and total phosphorus (Total P), as well as microbial flora especially the yeasts and moulds. The SI, TS, VS and Total P changes with time fit a simple linear equation, while EAE, phenols and NH(4)(+) fit a second-degree polynomial model. The PCA analysis exhibited three correlated groups. The first group included temperature, ash content, evaporation, SI, TS, VS, Total P, EAE, yeasts and moulds. The second group was made by bacteria and moisture; and the third group by NH(4)(+), oil and phenol. Such modelling might be of help in the prediction of OMW changes in natural evaporation ponds. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new framework proposal, towards a common EU agricultural policy, with the best sustainable practices for the re-use of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsos, T M; Chatzistathis, T; Balampekou, E I

    2018-05-01

    The disposal of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a serious environmental issue for the Mediterranean countries. However, there is still no common European legislation on the management and the re-use of OMW in agriculture, in the frame of sustainable crop management and the standards for the safe OMW disposal and re-use are left to be set by each EU country, individually. This review paper presents the most effective and sustainable practices for OMW, (treatment, application and management), which can maximize the benefits of OMW on crops and soils, while minimizing the potential hazards for public health, thus promoting environmental sustainability. The findings of this synthetic work suggest that there is enough information and proven sustainable practices to go ahead with the initial formulation of a new consensual framework, environmentally acceptable, socially bearable and economically viable, that could hopefully help to set the standards for the re-use of olive mil wastewater and can lead to a common EU policy on the management and re-use of OMW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Composted versus Raw Olive Mill Waste as Substrates for the Production of Medicinal Mushrooms: An Assessment of Selected Cultivation and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios I. Zervakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, “alperujo” is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota, that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120–135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20–40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium. Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  18. Composted versus raw olive mill waste as substrates for the production of medicinal mushrooms: an assessment of selected cultivation and quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervakis, Georgios I; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Katsaris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW, "alperujo") is a highly biotoxic sludge-like effluent of the olive-oil milling process with a huge seasonal production. One of the treatment approaches that has so far received little attention is the use of TPOMW as substrate for the cultivation of edible mushrooms. Fifteen fungal strains belonging to five species (Basidiomycota), that is, Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius, were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize media composed of TPOMW, which was used either raw or composted in mixtures with wheat straw in various ratios. Qualified strains exhibited high values of biological efficiency (e.g., 120-135% for Pleurotus spp. and 125% for A. cylindracea) and productivity in subsequent cultivation experiments on substrates supplemented with 20-40% composted TPOMW or 20% raw TPOMW. Only when supplementation exceeded 60% for raw TPOMW, a negative impact was noted on mushroom yields which could be attributed to the effluent's toxicity (otherwise alleviated in the respective composted TPOMW medium). Earliness and mushroom size as well as quality parameters such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity did not demonstrate significant differences versus the control wheat-straw substrate. The substrates hemicellulose content was negatively correlated with mycelium growth rates and yields and positively with earliness; in addition, cellulose: lignin ratio presented a positive correlation with mycelium growth and mushroom weight for A. cylindracea and with earliness for all species examined. TPOMW-based media revealed a great potential for the substitution of traditional cultivation substrates by valorizing environmentally hazardous agricultural waste.

  19. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintucci, Cristina; Padovani, Giulia; Giovannelli, Alessio; Traversi, Maria Laura; Ena, Alba; Pushparaj, Benjamin; Carlozzi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW F ) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMW F . • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH 2 . In this study, bioH 2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMW F ) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 μE/m 2 /s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH 2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMW F and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  20. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  1. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  2. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  3. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochando-Pulido, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW. Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065, which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF.En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF y ósmosis inversa (OI poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  4. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  5. Investigation of olive mill wastewater (OMW) ozonation efficiency with the use of a battery of selected ecotoxicity and human toxicity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siorou, Sofia [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vgenis, Theodoros T.; Dareioti, Margarita A. [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Efthimiou, Ioanna [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Kornaros, Michael [Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 1 Karatheodori Str., University Campus, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Vlastos, Dimitris [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Raw- and ozonated-olive mill wastewater (OMW) toxic effects were investigated. • A battery of biological assays and toxic endpoints were used. • Ozonation for up to 300 min attenuates OMW toxicity, following phenols’ reduction. • Further OMW ozonation (>300 min) could enhance OMW toxicity. • OMW ozonation efficacy depends on OMW-derived intermediates and high NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N levels. - Abstract: The effects of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on a battery of biological assays, before and during the ozonation process, were investigated in order to assess ozone’s efficiency in removing phenolic compounds from OMW and decreasing the concomitant OMW toxicity. Specifically, ozonated-OMW held for 0, 60, 120, 300, 420, 540 min in a glass bubble reactor, showed a drastic reduction of OMW total phenols (almost 50%) after 300 min of ozonation with a concomitant decrease of OMW toxicity. In particular, the acute toxicity test primarily performed in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Thamnotoxkit F™ screening toxicity test) showed a significant attenuation of OMW-induced toxic effects, after ozonation for a period of 120 and in a lesser extent 300 min, while further treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of ozonated-OMW toxic effects. Furthermore, ozonated-OMW-treated mussel hemocytes showed a significant attenuation of the ability of OMW to cause cytotoxic (obtained by the use of NRRT assay) effects already after an ozonation period of 120 and to a lesser extent 300 min. In accordance with the latter, OMW-mediated oxidative (enhanced levels of superoxide anions and lipid peroxidation by-products) and genotoxic (induction of DNA damage) effects were diminished after OMW ozonation for the aforementioned periods of time. The latter was also revealed by the use of cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in human lymphocytes exposed to different concentrations of both raw- and ozonated-OMW for 60, 120 and 300 min. Those findings

  6. Pyrolysis of fibre residues with plastic contamination from a paper recycling mill: Energy recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Logan Jeremy; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of fibre-plastics residues from paper recycling mill into fuel products. • Product with remarkable energy content up to 42.8 MJ/kg. • Influence of temperature on the product yields and fuel properties. • Effect of plastic composition on product properties. - Abstract: Pyrolysis is a promising technology for the production of marketable energy products from waste mixtures, as it decomposes heterogeneous material into homogenous fuel products. This research assessed the ability of slow pyrolysis to convert three waste streams, composed of fibre residues contaminated with different plastic mixtures, into char and tarry phase products at three different temperatures (300, 425 and 550 °C). The products were characterised in terms of mass yield, higher heating value (HHV) and gross energy conversion (EC). Significant amounts of hydrocarbon plastics in the feed materials increased the calorific values of the char (up to 32.9 MJ/kg) and tarry phase (up to 42.8 MJ/kg) products, comparable to high volatile bituminous A coal and diesel respectively. For all three waste streams converted at 300 °C, the majority of the energy in the feedstock was recovered in the char product (>80%), while deoxygenation of fibre component resulted in char with increased calorific value (up to 31.6 MJ/kg) being produced. Pyrolysis at 425 °C for two of the waste streams containing significant amounts of plastic produced both a valuable char and tarry phase, which resulted in an EC greater than 74%. Full conversion of plastic at 550 °C increased the tarry phase yield but dramatically decreased the char HHV. The influence of temperature on product yield and HHV was discussed based on the pyrolysis mechanisms and in relation to the plastic composition of the waste streams.

  7. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Papadopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW administered through drinking water, on chickens’ redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50 μg/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, protein carbonyls (CARB, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD in plasma, and glutathione (GSH and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  9. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Victor-Ortega, M.D.; Martinez-Ferez, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF) and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane) in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065), which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF). [es

  10. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  11. Enhancement of Antioxidant Mechanisms and Reduction of Oxidative Stress in Chickens after the Administration of Drinking Water Enriched with Polyphenolic Powder from Olive Mill Waste Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Aliki; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Maimaris, Antonios; Makris, Haralampos; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Makri, Sotiria; Kerasioti, Efthalia; Halabalaki, Maria; Brieudes, Vincent; Ntasi, Georgia; Kokkas, Stylianos; Tzimas, Pavlos; Goulas, Panagiotis; Zakharenko, Alexander M; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a polyphenolic powder from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) administered through drinking water, on chickens' redox status. Thus, 75 chickens were divided into three groups. Group A was given just drinking water, while groups B and C were given drinking water containing 20 and 50  μ g/ml of polyphenols, respectively, for 45 days. The antioxidant effects of the polyphenolic powder were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood after 25 and 45 days of treatment. These markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyls (CARB), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in plasma, and glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in erythrocytes. The results showed that CARB and TBARS were decreased significantly in groups B and C, and SOD decreased in group B compared to that in group A. TAC was increased significantly in group C and GSH was increased in group B, while catalase activity was increased in groups B and C compared to that in group A. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that supplementation of chickens with polyphenols from OMWW through drinking water enhanced their antioxidant mechanisms and reduced oxidative stress-induced damage.

  12. Regarding the rejection performance of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane for the final purification of two-phase olive mill effluents previously treated by an advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Férez, A.

    2017-01-01

    In previous works on olive mill wastewater (OMW), secondary advanced oxidation treatment solved the problem related to the presence of phenolic compounds and considerable chemical oxygen demand. However, the effluent presented a significant salinity after this treatment. In this work, an adequate operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is addressed to ensure constant performance over a long period of time. In this paper, the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic membrane rejection performance towards the target species was examined and discussed. Rejection efficiencies of all species were observed to follow a similar pattern, which consisted of slight initial improvement that further decreased over time. Rejection of both divalent ions remained constant at over 99% regardless of the operating conditions. Rejections were noticed to follow the order SO42−> Cl−> NO3− and Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+, as a rule. Divalent species were moderately more highly rejected than monovalent ones, in accordance with their higher charge and molecular size, and sulfate anions were consistently rejected by over 99%. Finally, the RO membrane exiting treated effluent was depleted of the high electro conductivity initially present (above 97% rejection), permitting its re-use as good quality irrigation water (below 1 mS/cm). [es

  13. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Leonardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter

  14. Photo-Fenton treatment of saccharin in a solar pilot compound parabolic collector: Use of olive mill wastewater as iron chelating agent, preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davididou, K; Chatzisymeon, E; Perez-Estrada, L; Oller, I; Malato, S

    2018-03-14

    The aim of this work was to investigate the treatment of the artificial sweetener saccharin (SAC) in a solar compound parabolic collector pilot plant by means of the photo-Fenton process at pH 2.8. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) was used as iron chelating agent to avoid acidification of water at pH 2.8. For comparative purposes, Ethylenediamine-N, N-disuccinic acid (EDDS), a well-studied iron chelator, was also employed at circumneutral pH. Degradation products formed along treatment were identified by LC-QTOF-MS analysis. Their degradation was associated with toxicity removal, evaluated by monitoring changes in the bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Results showed that conventional photo-Fenton at pH 2.8 could easily degrade SAC and its intermediates yielding k, apparent reaction rate constant, in the range of 0.64-0.82 L kJ -1 , as well as, eliminate effluent's chronic toxicity. Both OMW and EDDS formed iron-complexes able to catalyse H 2 O 2 decomposition and generate HO. OMW yielded lower SAC oxidation rates (k = 0.05-0.1 L kJ -1 ) than EDDS (k = 2.21-7.88 L kJ -1 ) possibly due to its higher TOC contribution. However, the degradation rates were improved (k = 0.13 L kJ -1 ) by increasing OMW dilution in the reactant mixture. All in all, encouraging results were obtained by using OMW as iron chelating agent, thus rendering this approach promising towards the increase of process sustainability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of land suitability for olive mill wastewater disposal site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP, and WLC in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek; Nasr, Imen Hamdi; Louati, Mourad; Zairi, Moncef

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system-based multi-criteria site selection tool of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) disposal site in Sidi Bouzid Region, Tunisia. The multi-criteria decision framework integrates ten constraints and six factors that relate to environmental and economic concerns, and builds a hierarchy model for OMW disposal site suitability. The methodology is used for preliminary assessment of the most suitable OMW disposal sites by combining fuzzy set theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The fuzzy set theory is used to standardize factors using different fuzzy membership functions while the AHP is used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by both environmental and economic decision criteria. The OMW disposal site suitability is achieved by applying a weighted linear combination that uses a comparison matrix to aggregate different importance scenarios associated with environmental and economic objectives. Three different scenarios generated by different weights applied to the two objectives. The scenario (a) assigns a weight of 0.75 to the environmental and 0.25 to the economic objective, scenario (b) has equal weights, and scenario (c) features weights of 0.25 and 0.75 for environmental and economic objectives, respectively. The results from this study assign the least suitable OMW disposal site of 2.5 % when environmental and economic objectives are rated equally, while a more suitable OMW disposal site of 1.0 % is generated when the economic objective is rated higher.

  16. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  18. Analysis of the relation between the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content and the thermal behavior of residual biomass from olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Maraver, A; Salvachúa, D; Martínez, M J; Diaz, L F; Zamorano, M

    2013-11-01

    The heterogeneity of biomass makes it difficult if not impossible to make sweeping generalizations concerning thermochemical treatment systems and the optimal equipment to be used in them. Chemical differences in the structural components of the biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) have a direct impact on its chemical reactivity. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the organic components of the raw material from olive trees (leaves, pruning residues, and wood) in the combustion behavior of this biomass, as well as to find the component responsible for the higher ash content of olive leaves. Accordingly, the study used a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor the different states and complex transitions that occurred in the biomass as the temperature varied. The decomposition rates of the different samples were analyzed in order to establish a link between each combustion phase and the composition of the raw materials. Two methods were used to determine the hemicellulose and cellulose contents of biomass from olive trees. Significant differences among the results obtained by the different methods were observed, as well as important variations regarding the chemical composition and consequently the thermal behavior of the raw materials tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of oil mill waste water from Tunisian olive varieties (Chetoui and Chemlali

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    Maissa Khemakhem Sellami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil mill waste water (OMWW is of great interest due to the presence of valuable resources such as biophenols that can be recovered as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of physicochemical composition of OMWW from Chetoui and Chemlali varieties, to evaluate phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of OMWW extracts under native and acidified conditions. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed for the extraction of polyphenols. Antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP tests. Phenolic compounds content was determined by HPLC-DAD method. OMWW from Chetoui variety has been shown to contain an important amount of K, Ca and Na whereas Chemlali cultivar was rich in Mg. Phenolic extract from Chetoui fruit (COCt has been  shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols (2.48 ± 0.21 g L-1 as well as an appreciable content of flavonoids (9.39 ± 0.32 g L-1. However, phenolic extract from Chemlali fruit (COCm has been shown to have the highest content of proanthocyanidins (0.39 ± 0.00 g L-1. Acidification treatment improved polyphenol recovery of extracts from both varieties. COCt was more active using DPPH (EC50 of 7.5 mg L-1 and FRAP tests. However, COCt and COCm exhibited the same activity using ABTS test. In general, acidification treatment decreased antioxidant activity of extracts. COCt has been shown to contain higher amount of hydroxytyrosol when compared to COCm (157.16 ± 0.820 and 23.440 ± 0.440 mg g-1 D.W. of extract, respectively as revealed by HPLC-DAD analysis. 

  20. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Appropriate conditions for applying NaOH-pretreated two-phase olive milling waste for codigestion with food waste to enhance biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallahi, Jumana; Furuichi, Toru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2016-02-01

    The high methane gas production potential of two phase olive milling waste (2POMW) makes its application to biogas plants in business an economical process to increase the productivity of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate conditions for the codigestion of NaOH-pretreated 2POMW with food waste. NaOH pretreatment can increase the methane production by increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), but it may cause inhibition because of higher levels of alkalinity, sodium ion, volatile fatty acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Therefore, the first experimental phase of this study aimed to investigate the effect of different mixing ratios of 2POMW to food waste. A continuous stirred tank reactor experiment with different mixing ratios of 3%, 4.3%, 5.7% and 8.3% (2POMW: food waste) was conducted. NaOH pretreatment in the range of 6-20% was used. A mixing ratio up to 4.3%, when 10% NaOH pretreatment was used, caused no inhibition and increased methane production by 445.9mL/g-VS(2POMW). For this mixing ratio an additional experimental phase was conducted with the 20% NaOH pretreatment as the 20% NaOH pretreatment had the highest sCOD. The methane gas production was increased by 503.6mL/g-VS(2POMW). However, pH adjustment was required for applying this concentration of the high alkalinity 20% NaOH-pretreated 2POMW. Therefore, we consider using 10% NaOH pretreatment in a mixing ratio of 4.3% to be more applicable. The increase in methane gas production was correlated to the oleic acid concentration inside the reactors. The high oleic acid concentration of 61.8mg/L for the 8.3% mixing ratio was responsible for the strong inhibition. This study showed that adjusting the appropriate mixing ratio of the NaOH-pretreated 2POMW could increase the electricity production of a reactor that regularly receives food waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of cell immobilization on the treatment of olive mill wastewater by a total phenols, acetic acid and formic acid degrading bacterium strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errami, Mohamed

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater (OMW is a pure vegetative by-product, containing a high organic and polyphenol content and is resistant to biodegradation. Its disposal lead to major environmental pollution problems in the Mediterranean basin. An aerobic bacterium was isolated from OMW. During three consecutive diluted and supplemented OMW treatment cycles, significant abatement of its phytotoxic substances was observed. In fact, total phenols, acetic and formic acids were reduced between 33 and 64 % when cells of the isolated bacterium were grown free; and between 62 and 78 % when cells of the same isolated bacterium were grown immobilized in a polyurethane sponge. These results suggest that the bacterium culture of the new isolate would decrease the OMW phytotoxicity. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA showed that all the related sequences are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and revealed that the isolated bacterium was characterized as a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.El alpechín (OMW es un residuo puro de la extracción del aceite de oliva, que contiene una elevada carga orgánica y de polifenoles por lo que es resistente a la degradación. Su descarga produce graves problemas de contaminación medioambiental en toda el área mediterránea. Se ha aislado una bacteria anaerobia del OMW, que , durante tres ciclos consecutivos de tratamiento del OMW diluido y suplementado, produjo una disminución significativa de las sustancias fitotóxicas del residuo. De hecho, la concentración en fenoles totales, ácido acético y ácido fórmico se redujeron entre 33 y 64 % cuando las células no estaban inmovilizadas y entre el 62 y 78 % cuando las células bacterianas se inmovilizaron en una esponja de poliuretano. Estos resultados indican que el cultivo de la nueva bacteria aislada puede disminuir la fototoxicidad del alpechín. Análisis filogenético del ribosoma 16S de DNA demostró que todas las secuencias eran miembros de la familia

  3. A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste during its storage in an evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Raposo, F; Rincón, B; Jiménez, A M; Martín, A

    2006-01-01

    A study of the natural biodegradation of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) during its storage in an evaporation pond was carried out. This system is traditionally used as the final disposal of this waste or constitutes a previous stage before being processed by cogeneration or anaerobic digestion processes. A laboratory-scale pond with a total volume of 520 l was used. The experiment was carried out between December 2002 and August 2003 covering a total period of 269 days. During the experiment, the variations of temperature (outside and inside the pond), the effective volume of the OMSW in the pond, moisture content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), the total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), total volatile acids (TVA), pH and cumulative methane production as a function of the operation time were evaluated. The experimental results obtained showed that the characteristics of the two-phase OMSW in the pond were dependent on the time of operation and temperature. During the experiment, three periods were clearly observed and differentiated: (a) An initial period with a rapid reduction of moisture content and effective volume, with an increase of TS, VS and TCOD removals, a decrease of pH and an increase of TVA and methane production until day 21. (b) A second period of slow decrease of moisture content and effective volume, due to the decrease of the ambient temperature. This period took place between day 21 and days 120-150 of assay, and it was characterised by a slight change in the OMSW properties. (c) A third period where the characteristics of the waste in the pond changed considerably due to the increase of the temperature outside the pond. The methane gas production also showed an increase due to the increase of methanogenic activity with the increase of temperature. An empirical model to describe the changes of two-phase OMSW characteristics and methane production with the operation time was developed. The proposed model, based on the use of

  4. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jiménez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW, are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid.

  5. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [es

  6. Combined effect of diuron and simazine on photosystem II photochemistry in a sandy soil and soil amended with solid olive-mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea) and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of these herbicides on Photosystem II photochemistry of Olea europaea L., and whether the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from olive oil production industry modifies this effect. For this purpose, herbicide soil adsorption studies, with unamended and OW-amended soil, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in adult olive leaves, after one, two and three weeks of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment, were performed. Soil application of these herbicides reduced the efficiency of Photosystem II photochemistry of olive trees due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect is counterbalanced by the addition of OW to the soil. OW reduces herbicide uptake by the plant due to an increase in herbicide adsorption.

  7. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  8. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Palm Oil Mill Residues to Sustainable Electricity System (POMR-SES): A Case Study from Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, I. F. Md; Sadhukhan, J.; Murphy, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Generating electricity from biomass are undeniably gives huge advantages to the energy security, environmental protection and the social development. Nevertheless, it always been negatively claimed as not economically competitive as compared to the conventional electricity generation system using fossil fuel. Due to the unfair subsidies given to renewable energy based fuel and the maturity of conventional electricity generation system, the commercialization of this system is rather discouraging. The uniqueness of the chemical and physical properties of the biomass and the functionality of the system are fully depending on the availability of the biomass resources, the capital expenditure of the system is relatively expensive. To remain competitive, biomass based system must be developed in their most economical form. Therefore the justification of the economies of scale of such system is become essential. This study will provide a comprehensive review of process to select an appropriate size for electricity generation plant from palm oil mill (POM) residues through the combustion of an empty fruit bunch (EFB) and biogas from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Peninsular Malaysia using a mathematical model and simulation using ASPEN Plus software package. The system operated at 4 MW capacity is expected to provide a return on investment (ROI) of 20% with a payback period of 6.5 years. It is notably agreed that the correct selection of generation plant size will have a significant impact on overall economic and environmental feasibility of the system.

  10. Influence of γ-Ray on Residues Dimethoate Insecticides in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofnie M Chairul; Elida Djabir; I Wayan Reja; Yusleha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of γ-ray influence on residues dimethoate insecticides in tomato, was carried out. Tomatoes were soaked into solution of dimethoate insecticides, at concentration of 100; 200; 300; and 400 ppm for 3 minutes. Then the tomatoes were dried at room temperature, after, drying the tomatoes were packed using aluminium foil, and kept for 1 week. Pack, of tomatoes the irradiated with γ-ray at 0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 kGy dose. The residues of insecticide dimethoate was determined by extracting of tomatoes using ethyl acetate solvent and analyzed by Chromatography Gas using Flame Photo Detector. The result showed that dimethoate insecticide residues decreased from 9.74 ppm - 30.56 ppm ranges to become 0.0096 ppm-0.0294 ppm at irradiation of 0.5 kGy dose; 0.0049 ppm - 0.0202 ppm at irradiation of 1.0 kGy; 0.0072 ppm - 0.0152 ppm at irradiation of 1.5 kGy dose, while due a 7 days storage a decrease of only 8.24 ppm - 24.19 ppm occurred. (author)

  11. Determination of pesticide residues in olives by liquid extraction surface analysis followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Almenar, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pesticides are essential in modern agriculture for crop protection, however, this use supposes a potential risk for human health and the environment. Traditional techniques of pesticide determination require the use of laborious and complex extraction methods to separate pesticides from the matrix, above all in fatty matrices like olives. For this reason, a new simple, rapid, cheap and selective method for the extraction and quantification of the most frequently used pesticides in olive growing has been developed. Pesticide determination was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mean recoveries were found in a range between 73 and 114% with relative standard deviations lower than 20% in most pesticides evaluated and the limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs were lower than 4 μg· kg-1 and 8 μg· kg-1, respectively. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 25 olive samples where Dimethoate and Terbuthylazine were detected in some cases, but their results were lower than 15 μg· kg-1.Hoy en día los pesticidas son esenciales en la agricultura moderna para la protección de los cultivos pero su uso supone un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. Las técnicas tradicionales de determinación de pesticidas requieren el uso de métodos de extracción complejos a fin de separar los pesticidas de la matriz, sobre todo en matrices grasas como las aceitunas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un nuevo método simple, rápido, barato y selectivo para la extracción y cuantificación de los pesticidas más frecuentemente utilizados en el cultivo del olivo, empleando cromatografía líquida de ultra-resolución (UPLC acoplada a espectrometría de masas (MS/MS. Las recuperaciones alcanzadas variaron entre el 73 y 114% obteniendo desviaciones estándar relativas inferiores al 20%. Los límites de detección (LD y cuantificación (LQ fueron

  12. Investigation on microbiology of olive oil extraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zanoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several batches of approx. 200 kg olives from Frantoio and Moraiolo cultivars were processed in an oil mill at two dates of harvesting. Samples were collected in several steps of extraction process for sensory, chemical and microbial analyses.All extracted olive oil from the second olive harvesting date was affected by sensory defects and hence classified as being “non-extra virgin”. A distinction between extra virgin olive oil and nonextra virgin olive oil obtained from both harvesting dates was explained by the volatile compounds content of olive oil samples and by yeast and mould counts collected at different processing steps.

  13. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  14. A multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction method for the determination of halogenated solvent residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, J; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L; González, A G

    2014-02-01

    The present paper describes a method based on the extraction of analytes by multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction and detection by ion-trap mass spectrometry and electron capture detectors after gas chromatographic separation. The limits of detection are in the range of 0.13-0.67 μg kg(-1), five orders of magnitude lower than those reached with the European Commission Official method of analysis, with three orders of magnitude of linear range (from the quantification limits to 400 μg kg(-1) for all the analytes) and recoveries in fortified olive oils in the range of 78-104 %. The main advantages of the analytical method are the absence of sample carryover (due to the disposable nature of the membranes), high enrichment factors in the range of 79-488, high throughput and low cost. The repeatability of the analytical method ranged from 8 to 15 % for all the analytes, showing a good performance.

  15. Evaluation of residual uranium contamination in the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassford, Eric; Spitz, Henry; Lobaugh, Megan; Spitler, Grant; Succop, Paul; Rice, Carol

    2013-02-01

    A single, large, bulk sample of uranium-contaminated material from the dirt floor of an abandoned metal rolling mill was separated into different types and sizes of aliquots to simulate samples that would be collected during site remediation. The facility rolled approximately 11,000 tons of hot-forged ingots of uranium metal approximately 60 y ago, and it has not been used since that time. Thirty small mass (≈ 0.7 g) and 15 large mass (≈ 70 g) samples were prepared from the heterogeneously contaminated bulk material to determine how measurements of the uranium contamination vary with sample size. Aliquots of bulk material were also resuspended in an exposure chamber to produce six samples of respirable particles that were obtained using a cascade impactor. Samples of removable surface contamination were collected by wiping 100 cm of the interior surfaces of the exposure chamber with 47-mm-diameter fiber filters. Uranium contamination in each of the samples was measured directly using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. As expected, results for isotopic uranium (i.e., U and U) measured with the large-mass and small-mass samples are significantly different (p 0.05) from results for the large- or small-mass samples. Large-mass samples are more reliable for characterizing heterogeneously distributed radiological contamination than small-mass samples since they exhibit the least variation compared to the mean. Thus, samples should be sufficiently large in mass to insure that the results are truly representative of the heterogeneously distributed uranium contamination present at the facility. Monitoring exposure of workers and the public as a result of uranium contamination resuspended during site remediation should be evaluated using samples of sufficient size and type to accommodate the heterogeneous distribution of uranium in the bulk material.

  16. Dissipation and decontamination of bifenthrin residues in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Reena; Monga, Samriti; Kumari, Beena

    2012-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of CCS HAU, Hisar to study the dissipation and decontamination behavior of bifenthrin on tomato crop following the application of 25 g a.i ha(-1) (T(1)) and 50 g a.i ha(-1) (T(2)). Samples were collected periodically on the sampling days after applications. Residues were reached below detectable level of 0.005 mg kg(-1) on 10(th) day after application showing half-life period of 1.83 and 2.05 days at room temperature and 2.02 and 2.32 days under refrigerated condition for single and double dose, respectively. Processing was found effective in reducing the residues of bifenthrin in tomato fruits. Maximum reduction (42.10-45.23 %) was observed by washing + boiling followed by washing (16.66-19.04 %). Reduction was slightly less when samples were stored under refrigerated conditions as compared to room temperature conditions.

  17. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  18. Lignocellulose fermentation and residual solids characterization for senescent switchgrass fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum in the presence and absence of continuous in situ ball-milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, Michael L.; Holwerda, Evert K.; Davis, Mark F.; Sykes, Robert W.; Happs, Renee M.; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2017-04-12

    Milling during lignocellulosic fermentation, henceforth referred to as cotreatment, is investigated as an alternative to thermochemical pretreatment as a means of enhancing biological solubilization of lignocellulose. We investigate the impact of milling on soluble substrate fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum with comparison to yeast, document solubilization for fermentation of senescent switchgrass with and without ball milling, and characterize residual solids. Soluble substrate fermentation by C. thermocellum proceeded readily in the presence of continuous ball milling but was completely arrested for yeast. Total fractional carbohydrate solubilization achieved after fermentation of senescent switchgrass by C. thermocellum for 5 days was 0.45 without cotreatment or pretreatment, 0.81 with hydrothermal pretreatment (200 degrees C, 15 minutes, severity 4.2), and 0.88 with cotreatment. Acetate and ethanol were the main fermentation products, and were produced at similar ratios with and without cotreatment. Analysis of solid residues was undertaken using molecular beam mass spectrometry (PyMBMS) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in order to provide insight into changes in plant cell walls during processing via various modes. The structure of lignin present in residual solids remaining after fermentation with cotreatment appeared to change little, with substantially greater changes observed for hydrothermal pretreatment - particularly with respect to formation of C-C bonds. The observation of high solubilization with little apparent modification of the residue is consistent with cotreatment enhancing solubilization primarily by increasing the access of saccharolytic enzymes to the feedstock, and C. thermocellum being able to attack all the major linkages in cellulosic biomass provided that these linkages are accessible.

  19. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  20. On the origin of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Morchio, G

    1995-04-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and styrene were determined in olives and the oils produced thereof, as well as at various intermediate steps during production. Concentrations were compared to those found in samples of air taken from the olive grove and the olive mills. In an exposition experiment in the laboratory, olives absorbed aromatic compounds, approaching saturation corresponding to the partition coefficient between air and oil. However, concentrations in olives delivered to the mills were 4-10 times higher than expected from the analysis of the air in the olive grove. In the olive mills, concentrations were increased further by a factor of up to 2 because of uptake from air which contained high concentrations of aromatics. Styrene concentrations strongly increased during storage of crushed olives at ambient temperature, which confirms the hypothesis that styrene is a product of metabolism.

  1. Determination and evaluation of effective criteria to location selection the optimal for establishing fluting paper mills from agricultural residues of Mazandaran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah barimani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Location selection for factory competitiveness in the market place plays an important role and should be chosen so that will leads achievement of the strategic advantages compared with other competitors. The objective of this study was determination of the effective criteria for decision making to select the most suitable location for establishing a fluting paper mills from agricultural residues. For this purpose, effective criteria were divided into five major groups: Material and Product, Facilities and limitations of regional (infrastructure, Technical and Human, Economical, Rules & Regulations as well as 33 sub-criteria, after preliminary investigation, preparatory observation, and an interview with some of the paper producers and relevant experts. A hierarchy was designed based on five major groups of criteria and then the priority rates of obtained criteria and sub-criteria were determined by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP after compiling expert's opinions via questionnaire. Results have shown that among 33 determined effective criteria in location selection of fluting paper mills from agricultural residues , the sub-criteria of Supply residual amount, Ensure the supply of residual, Cost purchasing of raw material, Cost of transporting raw material have the highest priorities, respectively

  2. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893

  3. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  4. Risk element immobilization/stabilization potential of fungal-transformed dry olive residue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi application in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Stejskalová, Tereza; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on risk element uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants in a pot experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn contaminated soil. The results showed a significant impact of the combined treatment (biotransformed DOR and AMF inoculation) on wheat plant growth and element mobility. The mobile proportions of elements in the treated soils were related to soil pH; with increasing pH levels, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn mobility decreased significantly (r values between -0.36 and -0.46), while Ca and Mg mobility increased (r = 0.63, and r = 0.51, respectively). The application of biotransformed DOR decreased risk element levels (Cd, Zn), and nutrient concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the aboveground biomass, where the elements were retained in the roots. Thus, biotransformed DOR in combination with AMF resulted in a higher capacity of wheat plants to grow under detrimental conditions, being able to accumulate high amounts of risk elements in the roots. However, risk element reduction was insufficient for safe crop production in the extremely contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  6. Estudio del efecto de la adición de alperujo sobre la persis­tencia de diuron en el cultivo del olivar Study of the effect of olive mill waste "alperujo" addition on the persis­tence of diuron in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estu­diar el efecto de la aplicación de alperujo (residuo de almazara sobre la persisten­cia y el movimiento del herbicida diuron [3-(3,4-diclorofenil-1,1-dimetilurea] en un olivar en Mengíbar (Jaén, España. La parcela se dividió en 2 subparcelas, un en la que no se aplicó enmienda al suelo y otra donde se aplicó alperujo (18000 kg ha-1. Tras la aplicación del herbicida a una dosis de 2 kg/ha se tomaron muestras de suelo por triplicado en cada subparce­la, a distintas profundidades y distintos días desde la aplicación de diuron. Des­pués de secar, limpiar las muestras de sue-lo y tamizarlas, se procedió a la extrac­ción de diuron con metanol y se analizó por HPLC. Se observó una mayor canti­dad de diurón en el suelo enmendado que en el suelo no enmendado en todas las muestras. Sin embargo, la movilidad de diuron no aumentó con el tiempo en el suelo enmendado.The aim of this work was to study the ef­fect of "alperujo" (olive mill waste on the persistence and the mobility of the herbicide diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dime­thylurea] in an olive grove from Mengíbar (Jaén, Spain. The plot was divided in two subplots, one where no amendement was applied and another one where "alperujo" was applied to the soil (18.000 kg ha-1. Af­ter herbicide application at a rate of 2 kg/ha, three replicates of soil were sampled at each subplot, at different depths and different days after diuron application. After drying, cleaning and sieving samples diuron was extracted with methanol and the extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Higher amounts of diuron were recovered from amended soil than from non amended soil in every sam­ple. However, diuron mobility in amen-ded soil did not increase with time.

  7. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  8. Immobilized Inocula of White-Rot Fungi Accelerate both Detoxification and Organic Matter Transformation in Two-Phase Dry Olive-Mill Residue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Stazi, S. R.; Grego, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2009), s. 5452-5460 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : White-rot fungi * immobilized inocula * phenols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  9. Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huidong; du, Hongxia; Fang, Liping; Dong, Zhan; Guan, Shuai; Fan, Wenjing; Chen, Zilei

    2016-06-01

    Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  11. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  12. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  13. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  15. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  17. A real-time web-based optimal Biomass Site Assessment Tool (BioSAT): Module 1. An economic assessment of mill residues for the southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; James H. Perdue; Andy Hartsell; Robert C. Abt; Donald Hodges; Timothy G. Rials

    2009-01-01

    Optimal locations for biomass facilities that use mill residues are identified for 13 southern U.S. states. The Biomass Site Assessment Tool (BioSAT) model is used to identify the top 20 locations for 13 southern U.S. states. The trucking cost model of BioSAT is used with Timber Mart South 2009 price data to estimate the total cost, average cost, and marginal costs for...

  18. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  19. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a quadrupole/linear ion trap instrument for the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M D; Ferrer, C; Ulaszewska, M; García-Reyes, J F; Molina-Díaz, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the development of an enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of pesticides in olive oil. One hundred pesticides belonging to different classes and that are currently used in agriculture have been included in this method. The LC-MS method was developed using a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) analyzer. Key features of this technique are the rapid scan acquisition times, high specificity and high sensitivity it enables when the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode or the linear ion-trap operational mode is employed. The application of 5 ms dwell times using a linearly accelerating (LINAC) high-pressure collision cell enabled the analysis of a high number of pesticides, with enough data points acquired for optimal peak definition in MRM operation mode and for satisfactory quantitative determinations to be made. The method quantifies over a linear dynamic range of LOQs (0.03-10 microg kg(-1)) up to 500 microg kg(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated by comparing the slopes of matrix-matched and solvent-based calibration curves. Weak suppression or enhancement of signals was observed (ion (EPI) and MS3 were developed.

  20. Effect of addition of organic materials and irrigation conditions on soil quality in olive groves in the region of Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Repas, Spiros; Koubouris, Georgos; Psaras, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Intensive cultivation practices are associated to soil degradation mainly due to low soil organic matter content. The application of organic materials to land is a common practice in sustainable agriculture in the last years. However, its implementation in olive groves under different irrigation regimes has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of alternative carbon input techniques (i.e. wood shredded, pruning residues, returning of olive mill wastes the field with compost) and irrigation conditions (irrigated and rainfed olive orchards) on spatial distribution of soil chemical (pH, EC, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, available P, and exchangeable K) and microbial properties (soil basal microbial respiration and microbial biomass carbon) in two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-40 cm). The study took place in the region of Messinia, South western Peloponnese, Greece during three year soil campaigns. Forty soil plots of olive groves were selected (20 rainfed and 20 irrigated) and carbon input practices were applied on the half of the irrigated and rainfed soil parcels (10 rainfed and 10 irrigated), while the remaining ones were used as controls. The results showed significant changes of chemical and biological properties of soil in olive orchards due to carbon treatments. However, these changes were depended on irrigation conditions. Microbial parameters appeared to be reliable indicators of changes in soil management. Proper management of alternative soil carbon inputs in olive orchards can positively affect soil fertility.

  1. The effectiveness of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi and Aspergillus niger or Phanerochaete chrysosporium treated organic amendments from olive residues upon plant growth in a semi-arid degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2010-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and a residue from dry olive cake (DOC) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) and treated with either Aspergillus niger (DOC-A) or Phanerochaete chrysosporium (DOC-P), were assayed in a natural, semi-arid soil using Trifolium repens or Dorycnium pentaphyllum plants. The effects of the AM fungi and/or DOC-A were compared with P-fertilisation (P) over eleven successive harvests to evaluate the persistence of the effectiveness of the treatments. The biomass of dually-treated plants after four successive harvests was greater than that obtained for non-treated plants or those receiving the AM inoculum or DOC-A treatments after eleven yields. The AM inoculation was critical for obtaining plant growth benefit from the application of fermented DOC-A residue. The abilities of the treatments to prevent plant drought stress were also assayed. Drought-alleviating effects were evaluated in terms of plant growth, proline and total sugars concentration under alternative drought and re-watering conditions (8th and 9th harvests). The concentrations of both compounds in plant biomass increased under drought when DOC-A amendment and AM inoculation were employed together: they reinforced the plant drought-avoidance capabilities and anti-oxidative defence. Water stress was less compensated in P-fertilised than in DOC-A-treated plants. DOC-P increased D. pentaphyllum biomass, shoot P content, nodule number and AM colonisation, indicating the greater DOC-transforming ability of P. chrysosporium compared to A. niger. The lack of AM colonisation and nodulation in this soil was compensated by the application of DOC-P, particularly with AM inoculum. The management of natural resources (organic amendments and soil microorganisms) represents an important strategy that assured the growth, nutrition and plant establishment in arid, degraded soils, preventing the damage that arises from limited water and nutrient supply. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  3. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Lucia; D'Antuono, Isabella; Durante, Miriana; Conte, Amalia; Cardinali, Angela; Linsalata, Vito; Mita, Giovanni; Logrieco, Antonio F; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2018-04-16

    During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% ( w / w ). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  4. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  5. Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indeed, the use of this compost as biofertilizer allowed an increase of the yield to 30.61% and an improvement of wheat growth, spikes' number (5.25±0.3 per plant in comparison with 1±0.09 for control) and seeds (57.12±0.99 per plant in comparison with 14.87±1.88 for control). Keywords: Compost, Olive husks, olive mill ...

  6. Physico-chemical and toxicological assessment of liquid wastes from olive processing-related industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantozzi, Pierluigi; Zampini, Catiana; Torres, Mariela; Isla, María I; Verdenelli, Romina A; Meriles, José M; Maestri, Damián

    2012-01-30

    In the last few years, agricultural uses of waste waters from olive processing-related industries have been gaining interest mainly with a view to composting or bio-fertilizers. The present work examines physico-chemical, toxicological and geno-toxicological properties of three liquid wastes, namely olive mill wastewater (OMWW), olive wet husk and olive brine. The effect of OMWW spreading on soil microbial activity and biomass was also evaluated. Data from Artemia salina and Lactuca sativa toxicity tests indicated high levels of lethality, and inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth of all olive wastes. The genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa tests showed contrasting results. At high concentrations, olive wastes caused inhibition or suppression of mitosis. However, they did not produce induced anaphase aberrations. Data on reversion of Salmonella thyphimurium strains using the Ames test indicated that the olive wastes did not present mutagenic activity. Results from the field experiment showed that OMWW at a 500 m(3) ha(-1) had the highest values of both soil microbial activity and biomass after 3 months of the amendment application. This work adds new data for environmental risk assessment of olive industrial wastes. Direct use of olive wastes for agricultural purposes should be limited owing to their possible chemotoxic, phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Improvements in the malaxation process to enhance the aroma quality of extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-09-01

    The influence of olive paste preparation conditions on the standard quality parameters, as well as volatile profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla cultivars produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain and processed in an oil mill plant were investigated. For this purpose, two malaxation temperatures (20/30 °C), and two malaxation times (30/90 min) selected in accordance with the customs of the area producers were tested. The volatile profile of the oils underwent a substantial change in terms of odorant series when different malaxation parameters were applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  10. Ultrasounds pretreatment of olive pomace to improve xylanase and cellulase production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paulina; Salgado, José Manuel; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Olive mills generate a large amount of waste that can be revaluated. This work aim to improve the production lignocellulolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation using ultrasounds pretreated olive mill wastes. The composition of olive mill wastes (crude and exhausted olive pomace) was compared and several physicochemical characteristics were significantly different. The use of both wastes in SSF was evaluated and a screening of fungi for xylanase and cellulase production was carried out. After screening, the use of exhausted olive pomace and Aspergillus niger led to the highest enzyme activities, so that they were used in the study of ultrasounds pre-treatment. The results showed that the sonication led to a 3-fold increase of xylanase activity and a decrease of cellulase activity. Moreover, the liquid fraction obtained from ultrasounds treatment was used to adjust the moisture of solid and a positive effect on xylanase (3.6-fold increase) and cellulase (1.2-fold increase) production was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.

  12. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...... in order to detect faults in the coal mill when they emerge. This paper deals with the second objective. Based on a simple dynamic model of the energy balance a residual is formed for the coal mill. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate this residual. The estimated residual is following...... tested on measured data of a fault in a coal mill, it can hereby be concluded that this residual is very useful for detecting faults in the coal mill....

  13. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  14. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  15. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  18. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  19. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  20. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  1. LC/DAD/ESI/MS method for the determination of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and spinosad in olives and olive oil after field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Porcu, Luciano; Pirisi, Filippo

    2011-10-26

    The behavior in the field and the transfer from olives to olive oil during the technological process of imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and spinosad were studied. The extraction method used was effective in extracting the analytes of interest, and no interfering peaks were detected in the chromatogram. The residue levels found in olives after treatment were 0.14, 0.04, and 0.30 mg/kg for imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and spinosad, respectively, far below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set for these insecticides in EU. At the preharvest interval (PHI), no residue was detected for imidacloprid and thiacloprid, while spinosad showed a residue level of 0.04 mg/kg. The study of the effect of the technological process on pesticide transfer in olive oil showed that these insecticides tend to remain in the olive cake. The LC/DAD/ESI/MS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 80 to 119% and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs). No matrix effect was detected.

  2. Fate and Prediction of Phenolic Secoiridoid Compounds throughout the Different Stages of the Virgin Olive Oil Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados

    2017-08-03

    The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process-crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation-is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed. During malaxation, the content of the main phenolic secoiridoids is reduced, especially in the case of the hydroxytyrosol derivatives, in which a variety-dependent behaviour is observed. The prediction of the concentration of phenolic secoiridoids finally transferred from the kneaded paste to the virgin olive oil is also feasible, and depends on the phenolic content and amount of water in the olive paste. The determination of the phenolic compounds in the olive fruit, olive paste and olive oil has been carried out by LC-MS (Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry). This improved knowledge could help in the use of more adequate processing conditions for the production of virgin olive oil with desired properties; for example, higher or lower phenolic content, as the amount of these minor components is directly related to its sensory, antioxidant and healthy properties.

  3. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekiari, S. A.; Oreopoulou, V.; Kourkaoutas, Y.; Kamoun, N.; Msallem, M.; Psimouli, V.; Arapoglou, D.

    2010-07-01

    Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rhytmaton in the Greek island of Crete named Throumbolia, and Koroneiki. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30 degree centigrade. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of {beta}-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation. (Author) 41 refs.

  4. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  5. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  6. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Pereira Cunill, J. L.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Ortiz-Leyba, C.; Martínez-Brocca, M.; Mangas-Cruz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic ...

  7. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials

  9. Feeding olive cake to ewes improves fatty acid profile of milk and cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vera, R. R.; Aguilar, C.

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil extraction yields a residual cake rich in oil that can be used in animal diets as a source of monounsaturated fat. Milk and cheese from sheep are high in saturated fatty acids (FA) thus, it was hypothesized that supplementing olive cake to lactating ewes would result in naturally enhanced...... milk and cheese with healthier FA profiles for human consumption. Nine lactating ewes were randomly assigned to a replicated (n= s3) 3. ×. 3 Latin square design. Diets were supplemented with 0, 10 or 25% of dry olive cake. Except for total solids, dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were...... not affected by dietary treatments. Oleic acid, n-6/. n-3 ratio and monounsaturated FA gradually increased (P. olive cake was increased in dietary treatments. Overall, FA profile of milk and cheese...

  10. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  11. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  12. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  13. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  14. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  15. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  16. Utilization of corn residues for production of the polysaccharide schizophyllan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant corn residues include fiber from wet milling operations and distillers' dried grains from dry grind ethanol plants. Biorefineries of the future will utilize such residues for the production of valuable bioproducts, particularly those traditionally produced from fossil fuels. Schizophyllan...

  17. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  18. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  19. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  20. Olive oil pilot-production assisted by pulsed electric field: impact on extraction yield, chemical parameters and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo

    2015-01-15

    The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  2. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  3. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  4. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  5. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  7. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  8. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  9. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... ... and Microbial Activity, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University - ... A total of 24 lipolytic yeasts were isolated from the spent olive derived from olive fruits of ... isolated during process of fermentation of olive table, can.

  10. Review and Analysis of Alternatives for the Valorisation of Agro-Industrial Olive Oil By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By-products and waste from olive production (agriculture and the olive oil industry (mills and refineries are an important environmental issue in Mediterranean areas. Industrial waste and by-products contain highly valuable components that can also be phytotoxic. This article reviews recent research on the valorisation of olive by-products under the bioeconomy strategy. The alternatives are classified according to the ‘bioeconomy value pyramid’, which prioritises higher value uses over the current energy and compost valorisation. Special attention is paid to the use of these by-products for animal feed that can be improved by reducing the content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and increase the polyunsaturated fatty acids amount considered beneficial in response to their use; this makes the food healthier for humans while simultaneously reducing feeding costs and the environmental impact of livestock.

  11. Interaction of Olive Oil and Metals

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKGÖK, Elif Burçin; ÖTLEŞ, Semih

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil, obtained only from the fruits of olive trees, is a food item consumed in natural form without any chemical process and is liquid at room temperature. In addition to its flavor, oxidative stability is the unique property of it. Oxidative stability of olive oil is so powerful is due to its major components which are fatty acids and minor components which are phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, sterols, phospholipids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, etc. All edible oils, including ol...

  12. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  13. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject...... was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive...

  16. Assessment of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different olive processing wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Belaqziz

    Full Text Available Olive processing wastewaters (OPW, namely olive mill wastewater (OMW and table-olive wastewaters (TOW were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria using the standard disc diffusion and thin layer chromatography (TLC-bioautography assays. Disc diffusion screening and bioautography of OMW were compared to the phenolic extracts of table-olive brines. Positive activity against S. aureus was demonstrated. The optimization of chromatographic separation revealed that hexane/acetone in the ratio of 4:6 was the most effective for phenolic compounds separation. A HPLC-MS analysis was performed showing that only two compounds, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were the predominant phenolic compounds in all OPW. The phenolic extract of OMW generated by a semi-modern process showed the highest free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH assay compared to the other phenolic extracts. It is apparent from the present study that OPW are a rich source of antioxidants suitable for use in food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnai, A.; Venturi, F.; Quartacci, V.F.; Sanmartin, C.; Favati, F.; Andrich, G.

    2016-07-01

    The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation), and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred. (Author)

  18. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  20. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  1. Phytosanitary evaluation of olive germplasm in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on viruses was carried out in 2008 in the main olive-growing areas of Albania (Kruja, Sauk and Vlora. Fifty samples from 14 local and 2 exotic olive cultivars were collected from 10 commercial orchards and one collection field and inspected for Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV, Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1, Olive leaf yellowing-associated virus (OLYaV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus strain D (TNV-D by a one-step RT-PCR assay using virus-specifi c primers. None of these viruses were found in the source plants except SLRSV and OLYaV, which were detected in a ‘K. M. Berat’ olive tree grown in the collection field. These findings are important because the incidence of olive virus diseases is low in Albania but high in other Mediterranean countries. Thus, all efforts should be to directed to maintaining the Albanian olive germplasm pathogen-free and in the best agronomical and phytosanitary condition possible.

  2. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  3. Oliver Stone : "Bush oli paadialune!" / Oliver Stone ; interv. Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stone, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Kreekas, Thessaloniki filmifestivalil antud intervjuu. Festivalil linastus režissööri mängufilm "W", mille peaosas George Bush jun. (mängib Josh Brolin). Lisaks filmist : ""W" - ümbersündinud mehe kentsakas portree"

  4. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  5. Effects of milling on the extraction efficiency of incurred pesticides in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Andersen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of particle size and milling temperature on the extraction efficiencies of pesticide residues from cereal flour. Samples of cereal grains (barley, oat, rye and wheat) were milled using a centrifugal mill with four different sieves (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mm......) or a knife mill both at room temperature and after freezing of the grain at –80°C overnight. The incurred pesticides in the test materials were extracted by the QuEChERS method and analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The particle size distribution for the milled samples was determined using a vibratory sieve...... shaker. Based on the pesticide levels recovered from each of the different millings and the corresponding particle size distributions, it was confirmed that smaller average particle sizes increase the extraction efficiency up to 31%, with all other factors equal. The cereals milled at room temperature...

  6. Oil Characteristics of Four Palestinian Olive Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodolini, Enrico Maria; Polverigiani, Serena; Ali, Saed; Mutawea, Mohammed; Qutub, Mayyada; Arabasi, Taysir; Pierini, Fabio; Abed, Mohammed; Neri, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Olive oil represents an important source of income for Palestinian farmers in local, national and international markets. Sometimes, olive oil produced in local climatic conditions, does not achieve the International Olive Council (IOC) trade standards so that international markets are precluded. The oil chemical composition and sensory profile of four Palestinian olive varieties (Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Souri and K18) were characterized in 2010 throughout an in situ evaluation. Most of the physicchemical characteristics and the fatty acid composition of the varieties met the International Olive Council trade standards (IOC-TS) for extra virgin olive oils. Values of K 270 for Nabali Baladi and linolenic acid for Souri slightly exceeded the limit. Eicosanoic acid exceeded the IOC-TS limits in the oils of all considered varieties. Among the sterols, the Δ-7-stigmastenol resulted too high for Nabali Baladi and Souri. Sensory profile for the tested varieties showed a reminiscence of tomato or artichoke and light to medium bitter and pungent sensations. Results represent an important baseline reference for further studies about oil composition and quality of the main Palestinian olive germplasm and provide indication of potential critical points to be controlled in order to ensure the full achievement of IOC-TS and access international markets.

  7. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  8. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  9. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  11. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  12. 40 CFR 180.128 - Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 0.05 Loganberry, postharvest 1.0 Mango, postharvest 1.0 Milk, fat (reflecting negligible residues... a result of its use in cereal grain mills and in storage areas for milled cereal grain products. (3... served. Food must be removed or covered prior to use. (4) Where tolerances are established on both the...

  13. Descriptive documentation for New Mexico uranium milling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonem, G.; Livevano, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The New Mexico Uranium Milling Model is a linear programming model. It can demonstrate how cost minimizing management can reduce the costs of milling uranium subject to a series of environmental, resource, and technological constraints. For example, if 15,000 tons were the targeted level of milling output, the model would provide the minimum cost of this production level, given certain levels of environmental, fuel, water, and technological constraints. The model was developed to allow state policymakers to assess the uranium industry from various standpoints. Through the use of the model, state policymakers can determine the effects of air and water discharge standards and limited capital availability on: milling costs of production; uses of electricity, fuel, and water; and levels of air and water emissions. The model covers the following: process technologies which are acid leach and carbonate leach; raw materials mix; air and water discharges; residual treatment process; and plant types

  14. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  15. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  16. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  17. Weed control and persistence of two oxyfluorfen formulations in olive groves under non tillage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M J; Farsaoui, K; de Prado, R

    2004-01-01

    To obtain profitable yields in olive groves, residual preemergence herbicides are applied in October or November before the winter rains, and before the winter annual weeds germinate. Simazine, one of the herbicides most used for weed control in olive groves, has recently been banned. Oxyfluorfen is presented as a good alternative to simazine in olive fields. Experiments were carried out in 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the behaviour of two oxyfluorfen formulations, 2XL and G4F, at 480 g a.i. ha(-1) for three different soil management systems with three replications (1. bare soil; 2. bare soil and grassed buffer strips, chemically controlled and 3. bare soil and grassed buffer strips with controlled mowing; under non tillage conditions in all three cases). The most important species that survived 2XL and G4F treatments was Sagina apetala ARD. Oxyfluorfen residues were evaluated throughout 158 days after the applications. Three soil samples from each plot were collected, mixed and air dried. The herbicide extractions were made with methanol and the residues were analyzed by HPLC. We found no differences between the two formulations, but results showed that recoveries of oxyfluorfen were higher in plots with chemically controlled buffer grassed strips than in the other soil management types.

  18. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Angeloni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  20. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  1. Bioconversion of sago residue into value added products | Awg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... value added products. DS Awg-Adeni, S Abd-Aziz, K Bujang, MA Hassan ... sago processing mills. This review focuses on the developments in processes and products for the value addition of sago residues through biotechnological means.

  2. Olive pomace based lightweight concrete, an experimental approach and contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Amel Chaabane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to conventional aggregates resources depletion, material recycling has become an economic and ecologic alternative. In this paper, locally available natural residues such as olive pomace were investigated, when partially incorporated in the concrete formulation, since the mechanical characteristics of lightweight aggregate concrete strongly depend on its properties and proportions. Lightweight aggregates are more deformable than the cement matrix because of their high porosity, and their influence on the concrete strength remains complex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the aggregates properties on lightweight concrete mechanical behaviour through an experimental approach. In addition, the different substitution sequences and the W/C ratio on lightweight concrete behaviour were evaluated, in order to determine the W/C ratio influence on the improvement of the lightweight concrete mechanical properties while knowing that the mixing water quantity gives the cement paste manoeuvrability and mechanical strength effects. The last part of this paper, therefore, was to provide statistical survey for estimating strength and weight reduction through the different natural aggregate substitutions to improve the lightweight concrete properties. The results achieved in a significant olive-pomace lower adhesion with the matrix after the cement setting, making the lightweight concrete mechanical strength weak. However, this work can open several perspectives: Results modeling and correlation with an experimental approach, the evolution and determination of lightweight concrete characteristics when exposed to high temperatures and thermohydric properties.

  3. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  4. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  5. Olive pomace valorization by Aspergillus species: lipase production using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Moreira, Cláudia; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Pollution by olive mill wastes is an important problem in the Mediterranean area and novel solutions for their proper management and valorization are needed. The aim of this work was to optimize a solid-state fermentation (SSF) process to produce lipase using olive pomace (OP) as the main source of nutrients by several Aspergillus spp. Optimized variables in two different designs were: ratio between olive pomace and wheat bran (OP:WB), NaNO3 , Czapek nutrients, fermentation time, moisture content (MC) and temperature. Results showed that the mixture OP:WB and MC were the most significant factors affecting lipase production for all fungi strains tested. With MC and temperature optimization, a 4.4-fold increase in A. ibericus lipase was achieved (90.5 ± 1.5 U g(-1) ), using a mixture of OP and WB at 1:1 ratio, 0.02 g NaNO3 g(-1) dry substrate, absence of Czapek nutrients, 60% of MC and incubation at 30 °C for 7 days. For A. niger and A. tubingensis, highest lipase activity obtained was 56.6 ± 5.4 and 7.6 ± 0.6 U g(-1) , respectively. Aspergillus ibericus was found to be the most promising microorganism for lipase production using mixtures of OP and WB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  7. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  8. Mild separation system for olive oil: quality evaluation and pilot plant design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Genovese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The entire process of olive oil extraction involves the breakage of olive fruits to obtain a paste, the kneading of the paste, a centrifugation, and a further cleaning, performed by a disc stack centrifuge, to separate the residual water. In this research, in order to evaluate the effect of final centrifugal separation on olive oil quality and to both define and design the settings of a innovative separation system, olive oil was separated off from water using an accelerated separation process, tested in comparison with a disc centrifuge. The laboratory plant used for the trials was constituted by a twin cylindrical separator equipped with 4 variable frequency inverters, in order to regulate the fluid flow rates in the plant. Oil samples were collected during the trials to evaluate the influence of the proposed innovative process on oil quality; measuring some parameters as free acidity, peroxides (PV, specific extinction coefficients K232 and K270, chlorophylls , carotenoids, total polyphenols (POL and turbidity. Results showed statistically significant differences (p-values<0.05 in some parameters as POL, PV, and ultraviolet absorption K232 and K270.

  9. Quantification of pure refined olive oil adulterant in extra virgin olive oil using diamond cell atr-ftir spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, A.A.; Saleem, R.; Laghari, A.H.; Sultana, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study depicts spectroscopic method development to deliver a rapid, simple and reproducible quantification of pure refined olive oil (PROO) adulterant in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) using partial least square (PLS) regression (statistical parameter). Single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was choice in the developed method. Blended standards of PROO and EVOO were obtained by their weight by weight percentage and the values were used to construct calibration curves for quantification. The optimum regression values (i.e. >0.99) were achieved using the combined frequencies of 3105-2761, 1838-1687, and 1482-440 cm-1 with regression coefficients (R2) 0.99718 and achieved residual mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 1.40% w/w. To determine the suitability of developed method principal component spectra (PCS) diagnostic was also used. The results of the present study prove that the developed methods reported in preceding studies can be good option for more rapid and accurate determination of PROO adulteration in EVOO. (author)

  10. Study of the effect of olive mill waste >Alperujo> addition on the persistence of diuron in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Mesa, Alegría; Fernández Hernández, A.; García-Ortiz Civantos, C.; Cox, L.; Velarde Muñoz, Pilar; Cornejo, J.

    2010-01-01

    [ES]: El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar el efecto de la aplicación de alperujo (residuo de almazara) sobre la persistencia y el movimiento del herbicida diuron [3-(3,4-diclorofenil)-1,1-dimetilurea] en un olivar en Mengíbar (Jaén, España). La parcela se dividió en 2 subparcelas, un en la que no se aplicó enmienda al suelo y otra donde se aplicó alperujo (18000 kg ha -1 ). Tras la aplicación del herbicida a una dosis de 2 kg/ha se tomaron muestras de suelo por triplicado en cada sub...

  11. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biodegradation of high doses of commercial pesticide products in pilot-scale biobeds using olive-oil agroindustry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E

    2017-12-15

    Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mäekalda kortermaja : Lucca küla, Tabasalu = Mäekalda Apartment Building : Lucca küla, Tabasalu / Oliver Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Oliver, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Elamu kergust rõhutavad galeriid teepoolsel fassaadil, treppe katavad varikatused, pankranniku poolses küljes on avatav klaassein, mille taga on igal korteril veranda. Üldpind: 1071 mø, korterite arv: 8. Projekteerija: HTMd. Autor Oliver Alver. Konstruktor Eino Hint (Ehitusekspertiisibüroo). Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: I, II ja III korruse plaan, 3 värv. välisvaadet

  14. Comparison between different liquid-liquid and solid phase methods of extraction prior to the identification of the phenolic fraction present in olive oil washing wastewater from the two-phase olive oil extraction system; Comparación entre métodos de extracción líquido-líquido y en fase sólida previos a la identificación de la fracción fenólica presente en las aguas residuales procedentes del lavado del aceite de oliva obtenido mediante el sistema de extracción de aceite de oliva en dos fases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Herrera, S.; Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Ferez, A.

    2017-07-01

    Phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW), are characterized by a strong antioxidant activity. At the same time, they represent an environmental problem because they are difficult to degrade. The purpose of this work was to identify these biologically active compounds in the OMW from two-phase olive oil production in order to convert a polluting residue into a source of natural antioxidants. After optimizing the extraction process of phenolic compounds using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, it was determined that the most appropriate sequence comprised a previous centrifugation to remove the lipid fraction, followed by liquid extraction with ethyl acetate or SPE. The most important compounds identified in olive oil washing wastewater (OOWW) were tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and succinic acid; whereas the ones in the wastewater derived from the washing of the olives (OWW) were cresol, catechol, 4-methylcatechol, hydrocinnamic acid and p-hydroxy-hydrocinnamic acid. [Spanish] Los compuestos fenólicos presentes en las aguas residuales de la industria oleícola (OMW) se caracterizan por una gran actividad antioxidante. Por otra parte, suponen un problema medioambiental debido a que son difíciles de degradar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de estos compuestos biológicamente activos que se encuentran en las OMW generadas del proceso de obtención del aceite de oliva por el sistema de dos fases, para así convertir un residuo contaminante en una fuente de antioxidantes naturales. Tras optimizar el proceso de extracción de los compuestos fenólicos utilizando extracción líquido-líquido (LLE) y extracción en fase sólida (SPE), se obtuvo que la secuencia más apropiada comprendió una centrifugación previa para eliminar la fracción lipídica, seguida de una extracción líquida con acetato de etilo o una SPE. Los compuestos más importantes identificados en las aguas residuales del lavado del aceite

  15. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  16. Vibration and noise characteristics of hook type olive harvesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... The homeland of olive upper Mesopotamia including south-eastern ... Turkey where 81% of olive trees are grown in slopped and terraced .... effectively, it has been established the minimal security level at the equivalent noise ...

  17. Effect of milling on DSC thermogram of excipient adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Kiong; Kwek, Jin Wang; Yuen, Aaron; Tan, Chin Lee; Tan, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate why and how mechanical milling results in an unexpected shift in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measured fusion enthalpy (Delta(fus)H) and melting point (T(m)) of adipic acid, a pharmaceutical excipient. Hyper differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) was used to characterize adipic acid before and after ball-milling. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate previous postulations such as electrostatic charging using the Faraday cage method, crystallinity loss using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal annealing using DSC, impurities removal using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Karl Fischer titration. DSC thermograms showed that after milling, the values of Delta(fus)H and T(m) were increased by approximately 9% and 5 K, respectively. Previous suggestions of increased electrostatic attraction, change in particle size distribution, and thermal annealing during measurements did not explain the differences. Instead, theoretical analysis and experimental findings suggested that the residual solvent (water) plays a key role. Water entrapped as inclusions inside adipic acid during solution crystallization was partially evaporated by localized heating at the cleaved surfaces during milling. The correlation between the removal of water and melting properties measured was shown via drying and crystallization experiments. These findings show that milling can reduce residual solvent content and causes a shift in DSC results.

  18. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in olive oil by gel permeation chromatography followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Andres Garcia; Martos, Natividad Ramos; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2006-01-01

    A method for the multiresidue analysis of olive oil samples for 26 pesticides is proposed. Residual pesticides are extracted from oil using an n-hexane/acetonitrile mixture, extracts being cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Electron ionization and chemical ionization are employed in a single analysis for the determination of pesticides. Pesticide recoveries from virgin and refined olive oil spiked with 10, 100 and 250 μg/kg concentrations of the pesticides ranged from 83.8 to 110.3%. The proposed method features good sensitivity: its limits of quantification are low enough to allow pesticide residues to be determined at concentrations below the maximum residue levels legally accepted. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranges from 4.93 to 8.11%. Applicability was tested on 40 olive oil samples. Several pesticides were detected in most of the virgin olive oil samples. By contrast, refined olive samples contained few pesticides, and only endosulfan sulphate was detected in all

  19. Radium, uranium and metals in acidic or alkaline uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, St.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mill study sites have been chosen in function of their different characteristics: deposits age, treatment nature (alkaline or acid), mill origin. The realization of specific drilling allowed the simultaneous study of the interstitial water and the solid fraction of samples, cut at determined deep. A radiation imbalance between 230 Th and 226 Ra is observed in the acid treatment residues. The trace elements concentration spectrum is directly bound to the nature of the ore. Diamagnetic evolutions are observed in residues. The uranium concentrations are higher in carbonated waters than in calcic sulfated waters. The selective sequential lixiviation showed that the 226 Ra activity of the interstitial water is controlled by the Gypsum in acid treatment residues. In other hand in the alkaline treatment waters, the carbonates occur. The Ra retention is largely bound to the Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. (A.L.B.)

  20. Cleaning up commingled uranium mill tailings: is Federal assistance necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    GAO was asked to determine whether Federal assistance should be given to operating mill owners that have processed uranium for sale to both government and industry and, thus, generated residual radioactive wastes. The wastes generated for both government and commercial use are called commingled uranium mill tailings. GAO recommends that the Congress provide assistance to active mill owners to share in the cost of cleaning up that portion of the tailings which were produced under Federal contract. Further, GAO believes that the Congress should also consider having the Federal government assist those mills who acted in good faith in meeting all legal requirements pertaining to controlling the mill tailings that were generated for commercial purposes and for which the Federal government is now requiring retroactive remedial action. At the same time, the Congress should make sure that this action establishes no precedent for the Federal government assuming the financial responsibility of cleaning up other non-Federal nuclear facilities and wastes, including those mill tailings generated after the date when the Federal government notified industry that the failings should be controlled

  1. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  2. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  3. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  4. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  5. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  6. Completion of the uranium mill tailings remedial project and cleanup of the former mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rael, G.J.; Cox, S.W.; Artiglia, E.W.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project has successfully completed the cleanup of 22 former uranium mill sites, more than 5400 vicinity properties, and has constructed 18 entombment cells. The Project has recently received the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's approval and certification for the last two disposal sites, with these sites being placed under the general license for long term custodial care of residual radioactive material. The UMTRA site located at Grand Junction, Colorado is a good example of the technical, political, economic, and public relations challenges that were overcome in achieving success. The UMTRA Team discussed, negotiated, planned, and eventually acted on this uranium mill tailings problem and brought the project to a successful conclusion for the community. From the early 1940s through the 1970s, uranium ore was mined in significant quantities under United States federal contracts for the government's national defence programmes, i.e. the Manhattan Engineering District and Atomic Energy Commission programmes. The problem started as the need for uranium decreased in the late 1960s, resulting in mills shutting down, leaving behind large quantities of process waste tailings and contaminated mill buildings. The former Climax Uranium Company mill site in Grand Junction was one of the largest of these sites. (author)

  7. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  8. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by origin area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the weight and the influence of the origin area on the analytical and compositional variables of olive oil, an investigation was carried out. Five Italian geographical zones were chosen. They were in the neighbour of the: (i Faculty of Agriculture of University of Perugia (UNI-PG; (ii the Olive Growing Institute-National Research Council of Perugia (NRC-PG; (iii the Experimental Olive Growing Institute of Spoleto (EOI-SPOL; (iv the Agricultural Technical Institute of Pescia (ATI-PES; and (v the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Florence (UNI-FL. From these areas, Frantoio, Leccino and Moraiolo olive variety samples were taken, which were processed by a mini oil-mill. The research results showed that the quality, typicality and shelf-life parameters and the flavour of the oils were largely influenced by the origin zone, i.e., by the climatic and pedologic factors of the production environment. The influence exerted on some oil constituent groups, as phenols, tocopherols, aromatic volatile compounds, and fatty acids, should be emphasized as these components are closely related to the quality and typicality of product. Some oil genuineness parameters were affected as well by the environmental variables.

    Se ha realizado una investigación para evidenciar la importancia y la Influencia que la zona de origen tiene sobre las variables analíticas del aceite de oliva virgen. Han sido seleccionadas cinco zonas geográficas de Italia: (i una cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Perusa (UNI-PG; (ii una cerca del Instituto para la Olivicultura - Consejo Nacional de las Investigaciones de Perusa (CNI-PG; (iii una zona próxima al Instituto Experimental para la Olivicultura de Espoleto (lEO-ESP; (iv una zona cerca Instituto Técnico Agrario de Pescia (ITA-PES; (v una zona cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Florencia (UNI-FL. De estas zonas han sido tomadas muestras de aceitunas de las

  9. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  10. Eestlased sisustamas maailma suurimat laeva / Oliver Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Oliver, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Soome laevaehitusfirma Kvaerner Masa-Yards kaasas Eesti sisustusfirma Lindal Private laevaehitusprojekti, mille tulemusel valmivad viie aasta jooksul kolm maailma suurimat luksusreisilaeva. Tabel: Maailma suurima reisilaeva tehnilised andmed

  11. Mineral and sensory profile of seasoned cracked olives packed in diverse salt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Baquero, J M; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A; López-López, A

    2013-05-01

    This work studies the effect of packing cracked seasoned olives with NaCl, KCl, and CaCl(2) mixture brines on their mineral nutrients and sensory attributes, using RSM methodology. The Na, K, Ca, and residual natural Mn contents in flesh as well as saltiness, bitterness and fibrousness were significantly related to the initial concentrations of salts in the packing solution. This new process led to table olives with a significantly lower sodium content (about 31%) than the traditional product but fortified in K and Ca. High levels of Na and Ca in the flesh led to high scores of acidity and saltiness (the first descriptor) and bitterness (the second) while the K content was unrelated to any sensory descriptor. The new presentations using moderate proportions of alternative salts will therefore have improved nutritional value and healthier characteristics but only a slightly modified sensory profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Seedlings Gowth of Eucalyptus badjensis in Substrata from Composted Residues (Pulp and Paper Mill, Brewery Industry and Goat Dung Resíduos Industriais e Dejetos da Caprinocultura como Componentes de Substratos para Produção de Mudas de Eucalyptus badjensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuo Maeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the seedling growth of Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev. & Welch in substrata prepared from different residues: pulp and paper mill wastes (organic sludge and cellulose mill liquid alkaline liquor, brewery malt and also goat manure. The experiment was carried out in the seedlings nursery of the Embrapa Florestas, in Colombo, Paraná. The organic sludge, cellulose mill liquid alkaline liquor and the brewer’s grain were previously composted with sawdust, and goat dung with pinus bark. A randomized blocks design with split-plot arrangement, with four replications was used. Plot treatments were the substrata and split-plot were base fertilization (with and without: 1 mixture of a commercial substratum prepared with composted pinus bark in a volume/volume relation - v/v - of 1/1 - standard of the experiment when base fertilization was applied; 2 composted brewery malt with sawdust in a relation v/v of 1/4; 3 composted organic sludge with sawdust (relation v/v of 1/1; 4 mixture of
    treatment 3 with pinus bark (relation v/v of 1/1; 5 composted cellulose mill liquid alkaline waste with sawdust (relation v/v of 4/1; 6 composted cellulose mill liquid alkaline waste with sawdust (relation v/v of 3/2; 7 mixture of the product
    of treatment 6 with Pinus bark (relation v/v of 1/1; 8 composted goat dung with pinus bark. The results showed that substrata of treatments 2 and 8 can be used for the production of E. badjensis seedlings, with or without base fertilization, while treatment 4 can only be used with base fertilization. The growth of E. badjensis in the substratum of the standard treatment was not influenced by the lack of base fertilization.
    Com o objetivo de avaliar resíduos gerados nas produções de papel e celulose, de cerveja e na caprinocultura como substratos para a produção de mudas de Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev. & Welch, foi

  13. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  14. Ball-milling-induced crystallization and ball-milling effect on thermal crystallization kinetics in an amorphous FeMoSiB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.Q.; Lu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Microstructure evolution in a melt-spun amorphous Fe 77.2 Mo 0.8 Si 9 B 13 alloy subjected to high-energy ball milling was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was found that during ball milling, crystallization occurs in the amorphous ribbon sample with precipitation of an α-Fe solid solution, and the amorphous sample crystallizes completely into a single α-Fe nanostructure (rather than α-Fe and borides as in the usual thermal crystallization products) when the milling time exceeds 135 hours. The volume fraction of material crystallized was found to be approximately proportional to the milling time. The fully crystallized sample with a single α-Fe nanophase exhibits an intrinsic thermal stability against phase separation upon annealing at high temperatures. The ball-milling effect on the subsequent thermal crystallization of the amorphous phase in an as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled sample was studied by comparison of the crystallization products and kinetic parameters between the as-quenched amorphous sample and the as-milled partially crystallized samples. The crystallization temperatures and activation energies for the crystallization processes of the residual amorphous phase were considerably decreased due to ball milling, indicating that ball milling has a significant effect on the depression of thermal stability of the residual amorphous phase

  15. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  16. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  17. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  18. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  19. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  20. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  1. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Comparison of Manzanilla and wild type olives by RAPD-PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... In this study, the cultivated type olive Manzanilla was supplied from Olive ... America and Australia continents (MOARA, 2006). Olive ... reserved as table olives and 52.869 tons for oil produc- .... phism rate indicates a high genetic diversity in varieties. ... olive germplasm bank by means of RAPD markers.

  3. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  4. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  5. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  6. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  7. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  8. Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

    The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

  9. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from southern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekiari, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rethymnon in the Greek island of Crete named “Throumbolia”, and “Koroneiki”. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30ºC. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of β-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6 in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation.

    Aceite de oliva virgen extra fue producida con aceitunas de las dos principales variedades cultivadas en la región de Rethymnon en la isla de Creta denominadas “Throumbolia” y “Koroneiki”. La primera es una variedad muy famosa debido a la falta de amargor natural de su fruto, mientras que la última es la variedad más común de aceitunas cultivada en el norte de Grecia. La aceitunas fueron cosechadas en tres estados sucesivos de maduración de acuerdo al

  10. Evolution and perspectives of cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives by means of DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Montemurro, Cinzia; di Rienzo, Valentina; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of typicality marks has been awarded to high-quality olive oils produced from local cultivars. In this case, quality control requires effective varietal checks of the starting materials. Moreover, accurate cultivar identification is essential in vegetative-propagated plants distributed by nurseries and is a pre-requisite to register new cultivars. Food genomics provides many tools for cultivar identification and traceability from tree to oil and table olives. The results of the application of different classes of DNA markers to olive with the purpose of checking cultivar identity and variability of plant material are extensively discussed in this review, with special regard to repeatability issues and polymorphism degree. The characterization of olive germplasm from all countries of the Mediterranean basin and from less studied geographical areas is described and innovative high-throughput molecular tools to manage reference collections are reviewed. Then the transferability of DNA markers to processed products - virgin olive oils and table olives - is overviewed to point out strengths and weaknesses, with special regard to (i) the influence of processing steps and storage time on the quantity and quality of residual DNA, (ii) recent advances to overcome the bottleneck of DNA extraction from processed products, (iii) factors affecting whole comparability of DNA profiles between fresh plant materials and end-products, (iv) drawbacks in the analysis of multi-cultivar versus single-cultivar end-products and (v) the potential of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  12. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  13. Influence of process parameters and biomass characteristics on the durability of pellets from the pruning residues of Olea europaea L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carone, Maria Teresa; Pantaleo, Antonio; Pellerano, Achille [Department of Engineering and Management of the Agricultural, Livestock and Forest Systems, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bari, Via Amendola, 165/A, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The present work aims to investigate the influence of the main process parameters (pressure and temperature) and biomass characteristics (moisture content and particle size) on some mechanical properties (density and durability) of olive tree pruning residues pellets. By means of a lab scale pellet press, able to control process parameters, the biomass, ground with three different hammer mill screen sizes (1, 2 and 4 mm) and conditioned at different moisture contents (5, 10, 15 and 20% w.b.), was pelletized at various process temperatures (60, 90, 120 and 150 C) and pressures (71, 106, 141 and 176 MPa). Compressed sample dimensions and mass were measured in order to calculate pellet density, while compressive strength tests were carried out to estimate the durability of the final biofuel. The relationships between the factor settings and the responses (density, compression strength and modulus of elasticity) were examined by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Temperature resulted the most important variable influencing pellet mechanical properties, followed by the initial moisture content and the particle size of the raw material. In particular, high process temperature, low moisture contents and reduced particle sizes allowed obtaining good quality pellets. The effect of compression force resulted scarcely relevant. (author)

  14. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Surface Project Management Plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) authorizes the US Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at 24 designated inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties (VP) containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials. The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project is to minimize or eliminate radiation health hazards to the public and the environment at the 24 sites and related VPs. This document describes the management organization, system, and methods used to manage the design, construction, and other activities required to clean up the designated sites and associated VPs, in accordance with the UMTRCA.

  18. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. La filière huile d’olive en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi Ines

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier a façonné, au fil des millénaires, les paysages, l’histoire, la culture et la gastronomie du bassin méditerranéen qui est encore aujourd’hui le cœur productif et commercial de l’huile d’olive. La Tunisie est le pays oléicole le plus important du Sud de la Méditerranée. Si l’on exclut l’Union européenne, la Tunisie est la plus grande puissance mondiale dans le secteur de l’huile d’olive, déployant de grands efforts de restructuration, de modernisation et d’amélioration de la qualité de ses huiles, accompagnés d’une considérable expansion de surfaces. L’enjeu sera pour la Tunisie d’assurer un ajustement permanent de sa politique oléicole et d’élaborer et mettre en œuvre des stratégies concurrentielles lui permettant de profiter de ces nouvelles opportunités et de renforcer sa compétitivité. La présente étude, qui s’insère dans le cadre de cette préoccupation, a pour objectif d’affiner cette connaissance. Elle se propose d’étudier la filière huile d’olive tunisienne et les possibilités d’amélioration de ses performances.

  20. Screening of plant species as ground cover on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venu Babu, P.; Eapen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of construction of dams or holding areas for uranium mill tailings is relatively new in India and to date there is only one such facility being maintained by Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) at Jaduguda in Jharkhand. Due to the residual nature of radionuclides, chiefly uranium and its daughter products, special emphasis is given to the engineering aspects of the mill tailings ponds so as to ensure safety to general public for at least 200 years. Once a mill tailings pond reaches to its full capacity, creation of barrier layers over the mill tailings to prevent seepage of rain water and also erosion of mill tailings due to wind and water are advocated and a number of procedures are followed worldwide. Taking the extraordinary period of public safety to be assured, providing soil covers along with contouring and appropriate slopes over which vegetation is grown is gaining popularity. The vegetation not only reduces the impact of rain water hitting the soil cover, thereby reducing the soil erosion, but also lowers the moisture in the soil cover by extensive evapotranspiration, ensuring long term hydrological separation of the mill tailings underneath. Based on set criteria, applicable to the field scenario of mill tailings, a screening experiment was conducted under pot culture conditions to evaluate the survival and growth of different plant species. The plants after germination and hardening were transplanted into beakers containing mill tailings and periodical measurements on appropriate morphological characteristics such as plant height, length of twiners, number of tillers and number of leaves were recorded and evaluated. Of the twenty species tested in mill tailings, significant differences were noticed in the vigour of growth and several plant species could indeed establish well completing their life cycle including flowering and seed setting. Further, several leguminous species could also produce root nodules. It appears that the

  1. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  2. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  3. Centennial Olive trees in Lebanon: a substantial patrimony

    OpenAIRE

    Chalak, L.; Malas, F.; Hamadeh, B.; Essalouh, Laila; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the centennial olive trees growing across Lebanon, with the perspective of conservation of the ancient germplasm. The survey indicated the existence of numerous centennial olive trees distributed in different agro-climatic areas, from 80 to 1350 meters altitude across the country. Centennial olives were found in large size orchards and scattered as well as in young orchards, road hedges and gardens for ornamental purposes. Yet, no reliable information...

  4. Assessment of crystalline disorder in cryo-milled samples of indomethacin using atomic pair-wise distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Johan P; Karmwar, Pranav; Strachan, Clare J

    2011-01-01

    to analyse the cryo-milled samples. The high similarity between the ¿-indomethacin cryogenic ball milled samples and the crude ¿-indomethacin indicated that milled samples retained residual order of the ¿-form. The PDF analysis encompassed the capability of achieving a correlation with the physical......The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the atomic pair-wise distribution function (PDF) to detect the extension of disorder/amorphousness induced into a crystalline drug using a cryo-milling technique, and to determine the optimal milling times to achieve amorphisation. The PDF...... properties determined from DSC, ss-NMR and stability experiments. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) was used to visualize the differences in the PDF and XRPD data. The MVDA approach revealed that PDF is more efficient in assessing the introduced degree of disorder in ¿-indomethacin after cryo-milling than...

  5. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  6. Effect of olive waste (Husk on behavior of cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Alkheder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is a famous country in terms of olive trees agriculture that resulted in a mass production of olive oil products. The huge amounts of olive waste (husk that resulted from olives processing to produce olive oil represent an environmental challenge in the country. The idea in this paper comes to use olive waste as a partial replacement for Portland cement in cement paste to conserve the environment, reduce cement consumption and increase cost efficiency. The wastes were burned properly in an oven and maintained for 6 h until it was fully transformed into ashes. Then, the oven was turned off and ashes were allowed to cool. After cooling, the material passed sieve #200 were used. The sieved ashes were used in the cement mix as a partial cement replacement for making the mortar and cement paste. Normal consistency and setting time were determined as well as soundness, compressive strength. Results indicated that normal consistency of the cement pastes containing different percentage of olive waste is somehow lower than that of the ordinary cement paste and slightly decreases with increasing the percentage. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of hardened blended cement paste containing different percentages of olive waste slightly decrease with olive waste content at 3, 7, and 28 days.

  7. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  8. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C 6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C 6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Hydrological behavior of a Vertisol under different soil management systems in a rain-fed olive orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Jose Manuel; Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil water availability is a major subject in Mediterranean agricultural systems, mainly due to the limited and highly variable annual rainfall, high evaporative demand, and soil hydrological characteristics. The recent expansion of olive cultivation in the rolling-plains of the Guadalquivir valley, due to the higher profitability of new intensive olive orchards, expanded the presence of olive orchards on Vertisols, soils traditionally used for annual rain-fed crops. These soils have a high content of smectitic clays, which give them a high water storage capacity, and are characterized by vertical and deep shrinkage cracks in the dry season, associated to low soil moisture. Farmers make several tillage passes in these olive groves during the summer, in order to cover the cracks and thus reduce soil water loss by evaporation, which will impact especially in rain-fed in the next olive yield. This tillage practice involves removal of plant residues from the soil surface, as well as burying seeds produced by the plants, so this will remain bared at the beginning of the rainy season, when in the Mediterranean climate is frequent occurrence of high-intensity rainfall, which are ideal conditions for soil loss by water erosion, one of the most serious problems for the sustainability of olive cultivation in Andalusia. Although there are some studies showing that water loss by evaporation from deep horizons of a vertic soil might be elevated (eg. Ritchie and Adams, 1974), the presence of plant residues on the soil surface drastically reduced soil water loss (eg Adams et al., 1969). Thus the aim of this study was to assess of soil moisture dynamics in a rain-fed olive orchard growing on a Vertisol under different soil management practices, in Andalusia (southern Spain). Four different soil management treatments were applied, which combined a cover crop (Bromus rubens L.) or bare soil throughout the year by applying herbicides, with tillage in summer to cover the cracks or non

  12. Jamie Oliver i den gode smags tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    »Hi guys – I’d like to ask you a favor: I need your help with a food movement I’ve started«. Således starter Jamie Olivers kogebog »Jamie’s Ministry of Food« (2008). Denne åbning understreger, at der ikke er tale om en helt almindelig kogebog. For mange er kogebogen blot en samling opskrifter på ...

  13. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  14. Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-10-14

    The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed.

  15. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  16. Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) activity, fruit infestation and temperature in an organic table olive orchard in southern Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Volakakis, Mr N.; Eyre, Dr M.D.; Kabourakis, Dr E.; Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    Olive fly activity and olive fruit infestation was monitored in a table olive orchard in southern Crete throughout most of 2006 using McPhail traps. Flies were trapped weekly for 40 weeks, starting at the beginning of February. The fly data was split into 10 four-week periods. Male, female and total fly activity was significantly related to sampling period, maximum temperature and relative humidity but the pattern of catches was not consistent. Activity increased from February until July but ...

  17. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...

  19. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  20. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  1. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  2. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    quality olive plants. To study the potential of the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to stimulate the growth of micropropagated olive plants and to compare their ... phosphate, 15% potassium oxide, 2% magnesium oxide, 4.5% sulphur, 0.02% ..... Our results indicate the feasibility of G. mosseae and.

  4. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  5. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive handlers are... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  6. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared the genetic profiles of six old olive cultivars from an Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to 15 modern Turkish olive cultivars from different geographical origins. The RAPD profiles successfully clarified the molecular relationships among the genotypes tested. Seventeen RAPD primers generated 153 ...

  7. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  8. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  9. Production of fuel ethanol from steam-explosion pretreated olive tree pruning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristobal Cara; Encarnacion Ruiz; Mercedes Ballesteros; Paloma Manzanares; Ma Jose Negro; Eulogio Castro [University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain). Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering

    2008-05-15

    This work deals with the production of fuel ethanol from olive tree pruning. This raw material is a renewable, low cost, largely available, and lacking of economic alternatives agricultural residue. Olive tree pruning was submitted to steam explosion pre-treatment in the temperature range 190-240{sup o}C, with or without previous impregnation by water or sulphuric acid solutions. The influence of both pre-treatment temperature and impregnation conditions on sugar and ethanol yields was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation on the pretreated solids. Results show that the maximum ethanol yield (7.2 g ethanol/100 g raw material) is obtained from water impregnated, steam pretreated residue at 240{sup o}C. Nevertheless if all sugars solubilized during pre-treatment are taken into account, up to 15.9 g ethanol/100 g raw material may be obtained (pre-treatment conditions: 230{sup o}C and impregnation with 1% w/w sulphuric acid concentration), assuming theoretical conversion of these sugars to ethanol. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via multiple M2-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tai, Ta-Sheng; Terashima, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    We derive 4-dimensional N = 4 U(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory from a 3-dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theory with product gauge group (U(N)) 2n . The latter describes M2-branes probing an orbifold where a torus emerges in a scaling limit. It is expected that the SL(2,Z) duality of the 4-dimensional Yang-Mills theory will be shown in M-theory point of view since it is trivially realized as modular transformations of the torus. Indeed, starting from one single Chern-Simons-matter theory, we find infinitely many equivalent 4-dimensional theories differing up to T-transformation of the SL(2,Z) redefinition of the gauge coupling τ = θ/2π + 4πi/g 2 and a parity transformation in 4 dimensions. Although S-transformation can not be shown in our work, it is important that a part of the SL(2,Z) transformation is realized via the M2-brane action. Thus we think our work can be a step toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via M2-branes.

  12. Toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via multiple M2-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Tai, Ta-Sheng; Terashima, Seiji

    2009-04-01

    We derive 4-dimensional Script N = 4 U(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory from a 3-dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theory with product gauge group (U(N))2n. The latter describes M2-branes probing an orbifold where a torus emerges in a scaling limit. It is expected that the SL(2,Z) duality of the 4-dimensional Yang-Mills theory will be shown in M-theory point of view since it is trivially realized as modular transformations of the torus. Indeed, starting from one single Chern-Simons-matter theory, we find infinitely many equivalent 4-dimensional theories differing up to T-transformation of the SL(2,Z) redefinition of the gauge coupling τ = θ/2π + 4πi/g2 and a parity transformation in 4 dimensions. Although S-transformation can not be shown in our work, it is important that a part of the SL(2,Z) transformation is realized via the M2-brane action. Thus we think our work can be a step toward a proof of Montonen-Olive duality via M2-branes.

  13. Olives: less kilos, more watts; L`olive: moins de kilos, plus de watts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandroy, L [Biofutur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ``lasting development`` concept. 10 refs.

  14. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  15. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  16. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  17. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  18. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  19. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  20. 'Galega Vulgar' - yield indices and quality of elementary olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.; Vitorino, M.C.; Henriques, L.R.; Peres, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows the evolution of two olive yield indexes (humidity and fat) and three olive oil quality parameters (acidity, peroxid value and UV absorbances) for cv. Galega vulgar from the olive grove Quinta Senhora de Mercules, Castelo Branco, during the 1995/96 harvest. It shows also the evolution of fatty acid composition of the same olive oil [pt

  1. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  2. Effect of complementary irrigation on yield components and alternate bearing of a traditional olive orchard in semi-arid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodolini, E.M.; Polverigiani, S.; Ali, S.; Mutawea, M.; Qutub, M.; Pierini, F.; Neri, D.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards are usually not irrigated in the Mediterranean basin, but at those latitudes, the yearly rainfall is frequently insufficient to support equilibrated vegetative growth and high fruit and oil production. This three-year field study investigated the effect of complementary irrigation on olive tree vegetative growth, fruit and oil yield during a biennial alternate bearing cycle in a traditional grove under semi-arid conditions. Adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Nabali Baladi) were subjected to complementary irrigation in 2011 and 2012 ('on' and 'off' years, respectively) with 6, 10, 15 or 20 m3 of water per tree per season, which corresponded to 14.2%, 23.8%, 35.7% and 47.6% of the whole seasonal evapotranspiration (42 m3 of water per year), respectively. Rain-fed trees were used as control. In 2013, no complementary irrigation was supplied, and any residual effects on the yield components were determined. Results showed that none of the irrigation regimes affected vegetative growth, or olive fruit size (mesocarp and endocarp), as fresh and dry weights. The fruit and oil yield per tree increased compared to the rain-fed conditions only when the threshold of 15 m3 was exceeded, thus inducing a higher crop load compared to the rain-fed control during the 'off' and even further during the 'on' year. No residual effects were registered in 2013. The study showed that complementary irrigation of at least 35% of the seasonal water requirement can produce remarkable positive effects on fruit yield especially during 'on' bearing years. (Author)

  3. Effect of complementary irrigation on yield components and alternate bearing of a traditional olive orchard in semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico M. Lodolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional olive orchards are usually not irrigated in the Mediterranean basin, but at those latitudes, the yearly rainfall is frequently insufficient to support equilibrated vegetative growth and high fruit and oil production. This three-year field study investigated the effect of complementary irrigation on olive tree vegetative growth, fruit and oil yield during a biennial alternate bearing cycle in a traditional grove under semi-arid conditions. Adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Nabali Baladi were subjected to complementary irrigation in 2011 and 2012 ('on' and 'off' years, respectively with 6, 10, 15 or 20 m3 of water per tree per season, which corresponded to 14.2%, 23.8%, 35.7% and 47.6% of the whole seasonal evapotranspiration (42 m3 of water per year, respectively. Rain-fed trees were used as control. In 2013, no complementary irrigation was supplied, and any residual effects on the yield components were determined. Results showed that none of the irrigation regimes affected vegetative growth, or olive fruit size (mesocarp and endocarp, as fresh and dry weights. The fruit and oil yield per tree increased compared to the rain-fed conditions only when the threshold of 15 m3 was exceeded, thus inducing a higher crop load compared to the rain-fed control during the 'off' and even further during the 'on' year. No residual effects were registered in 2013. The study showed that complementary irrigation of at least 35% of the seasonal water requirement can produce remarkable positive effects on fruit yield especially during 'on' bearing years.

  4. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  5. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  6. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  7. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  8. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, C.; Tanzi, V.; Lanzetta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dip di Ingegneria Chimica, Napoli (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The Italian production of agricultural residues has been evaluated with a view to energy recovery through gasification. Two main categories of residues have been identified: the first, (A) is associated with the growing and collection of products with a nutritional value, whereas the second (B) includes the residues associated with the subsequent processing in order to obtain final products for commercialization. Category A, which comprises three further sub-categories: straw (A1); woody residues (A2); and stems and leaves (residues from vegetables, tobacco, sugar beet, (A3)), results in about 16.5 mt yr. The average amount of straw (A1) is 11 mt/yr, of which about 60% is waste to be eliminated. Woody residues (A2) (mainly pruning off-cuts from vineyards and olive groves) are about 3.5 mt/yr (85% unused). Category A3 amounts to about 2 mt/yr (90% unused). Straw is available mainly in the northern part of the country, whereas the other two sub-categories are widely distributed in central and southern regions. The yields of category B are estimated at 4 mt/yr, of which more than 3 mt/yr are waste products from grape and olive processing. Other residues, such as rice, sunflower and soya-bean husks (about 0.65 mt/yr), almond and nut shells and fruit stones (about 0.2 mt/yr), although not widely available on a national scale, can be significant on a local basis. The total amount of unused agricultural residues is about 14.5 mt/yr, which, if completely exploited through gasification, can contribute as much as 7-10% to the current national electricity needs. The regions of Veneto, Puglia, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna appear to be good candidates for electricity production, given the significant surface concentration of unused residues (105-55 t km{sup 2}). (author)

  9. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  10. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  11. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  12. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  13. FIB-based measurement of local residual stresses on microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Dietmar; Sabate, Neus; Gollhardt, Astrid; Keller, Juergen; Auersperg, Juergen; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    The paper comprises research results obtained for stress determination on micro and nanotechnology components. It meets the concern of controlling stresses introduced to sensors, MEMS and electronics devices during different micromachining processes. The method bases on deformation measurement options made available inside focused ion beam equipment. Removing locally material by ion beam milling existing stresses / residual stresses lead to deformation fields around the milled feature. Digital image correlation techniques are used to extract deformation values from micrographs captured before and after milling. In the paper, two main milling features have been analyzed - through hole and through slit milling. Analytical solutions for stress release fields of in-plane stresses have been derived and compared to respective experimental findings. Their good agreement allows to settle a method for determination of residual stress values, which is demonstrated for thin membranes manufactured by silicon micro technology. Some emphasis is made on the elimination of main error sources for stress determination, like rigid body object displacements and rotations due to drifts of experimental conditions under FIB imaging. In order to illustrate potential application areas of the method residual stress suppression by ion implantation is evaluated by the method and reported here.

  14. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  15. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW: an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipori, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW, provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g.g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill.En los modernos olivares, las tecnologías de recogida mecánica han acelerado significativamente la recogida

  16. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  17. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  18. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  19. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration By application dated July 22... regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North...

  20. DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Bandelj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites combine several features of an ultimate molecular marker and they are used increasingly in various plant genetic studies and applications. In this work we report on the utilisation of fourteen previously developed olive microsatellite markers for the identification and differentiation of a set of nineteen olive varieties. All analysed microsatellite markers revealed a high level of polymorphism that allowed unique genotyping of the examined varieties. Ninety-six alleles were detected at all 14 loci, which multiplied into a large number of observed genotypes, giving high discrimination value for varietal identification. A minimum number of three microsatellite markers was chosen for the rapid and unambiguous varietal identification of nineteen olive varieties and only two markers were sufficient for differentiation of five local varieties. DNA fingerprints of olive cultivars by means of microsatellites provided meaningful data, which can be extended by additional olive varieties or new microsatellites and used for accurate inter-laboratory comparison. The data obtained can be used for the varietal survey and construction of a database of all olive varieties grown in Slovenia providing also additional genetic information on the agronomic and quality characteristics of the olive varieties.

  1. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  2. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  3. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  4. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  5. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  6. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current

  7. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  8. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  9. Massive Yang-Mills fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Reiff, J.

    1969-01-01

    Two problems are studied in the paper: (i) the relation between Lagrangian and Feynman rules if the Lagrangian contains derivative couplings and/or vector meson fields and (ii) the behaviour of certain two closed loop diagrams in the perturbation theory of Yang-Mills fields. With respect to ( i ) .

  10. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  11. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  12. From which soil metal fractions Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are taken up by olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis') in organic groves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Papaioannou, A; Gasparatos, D; Molassiotis, A

    2017-12-01

    Organic farming has been proposed as an alternative agricultural system to help solve environmental problems, like the sustainable management of soil micronutrients, without inputs of chemical fertilizers. The purposes of this study were: i) to assess Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu bioavailability through the determination of sequentially extracted chemical forms (fractions) and their correlation with foliar micronutrient concentrations in mature organic olive (cv. 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis') groves; ii) to determine the soil depth and the available forms (fractions) by which the 4 metals are taken up by olive trees. DTPA extractable (from the soil layers 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) and foliar micronutrient concentrations were determined in two organic olive groves. Using the Tessier fractionation, five fractions, for all the metals, were found: exchangeable, bound to carbonates (acid-soluble), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (reducible), organic (oxidizable), as well as residual form. Our results indicated that Fe was taken up by the olive trees as organic complex, mainly from the soil layer 40-60 cm. Manganese was taken up from the exchangeable fraction (0-20 cm); Zinc was taken up as organic complex from the layers 0-20 and 40-60 cm, as well as in the exchangeable form from the upper 20 cm. Copper was taken up from the soil layers 0-20 and 40-60 cm as soluble organic complex, and as exchangeable ion from the upper 20 cm. Our data reveal the crucial role of organic matter to sustain metal (Fe, Zn and Cu) uptake -as soluble complexes-by olive trees, in mature organic groves grown on calcareous soils; it is also expected that these data will constitute a thorough insight and useful tool towards a successful nutrient and organic C management for organic olive groves, since no serious nutritional deficiencies were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrient composition, energy value and residual anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The proximate composition, carbohydrate fraction, minerals and residual ... energy-rich fruits like bread fruit (Artocarpus altilis) that ... samples were dried in an oven at 60°C for 72 h, bulked and milled ... Composition of the reference and test diets used in the apparent metabolizable energy assay (100%).

  14. Microstructural characterization of copper based alloys produced by reactive milling; caracterizacion microestructural de aleaciones base cobre obtenidas mediante molienda reactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, R.; Sepulveda, A.; Zuniga, A.; Donoso, E.; Dianez, M. J.; Criado, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    The micro and nano structure of Cu-Al, Cu-V and Cu-Ti alloys produced by reactive milling were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples with different milling times (t= 0, 10, 20 and 30 h) were considered. The grain size, dislocation density and residual micro strain were evaluated form the XRD data using the Williamson-Hall and Klug-Alexander methods. The evolution of texture as a function of milling time was also studied using XRD. It was found, using TEM, that the grain size and dispersoid size were nano metric in all three alloys considered. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Chemometric analysis for discrimination of extra virgin olive oils from whole and stoned olive pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Puoci, Francesco; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric discrimination of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from whole and stoned olive pastes was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) approach. Four Italian commercial EVOO brands, all in both whole and stoned version, were considered in this study. The adopted chemometric methodologies were able to describe the different chemical features in phenolic and volatile compounds contained in the two types of oil by using unspecific IR spectral information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in cluster analysis to capture data patterns and to highlight differences between technological processes and EVOO brands. The PLS1-DA algorithm was used as supervised discriminant analysis to identify the different oil extraction procedures. Discriminant analysis was extended to the evaluation of possible adulteration by addition of aliquots of oil from whole paste to the most valuable oil from stoned olives. The statistical parameters from external validation of all the PLS models were very satisfactory, with low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative error (RE%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. International developments in uranium mining and mill site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarch, H.; Kuhlmann, J.; Daroussin, J.L.; Poyser, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    At the end of production, mine sites, mill sites, tailings ponds, heap leaching residues in uranium mining districts world-wide have to be remediated in a responsible and sustainable manner in order to minimize long term environmental impacts. Current practice, regulatory environments and rehabilitation objectives in some of the most important uranium producing countries are briefly characterized as well as applicable radioprotection and geotechnical criteria. Important local and regional variables are outlined which determine optimal site specific solutions. Examples from Europe and North America are shown. Monitoring and control requirements as well as areas of current and necessary research and development are identified

  17. Uranium mill tailings storage, use, and disposal problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Solid and liquid residues (tailings) containing substantial quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides are produced and stored at all US uranium mill sites. These radioactive wastes are a potential health hazard with the degree of hazard depending largely on the tailings management practices at the individual sites. The principal pathways of potential radiation exposure to man are discussed. A description is presented of some past and current tailings storage practices together with a description of some of the possible problems associated with various stabilization and disposal options. 16 figures

  18. Yang-Mills gravity in biconformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B; Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    We write a gravity theory with Yang-Mills-type action using the biconformal gauging of the conformal group. We show that the resulting biconformal Yang-Mills gravity theories describe 4-dim, scale-invariant general relativity in the case of slowly changing fields. In addition, we systematically extend arbitrary 4-dim Yang-Mills theories to biconformal space, providing a new arena for studying flat-space Yang-Mills theories. By applying the biconformal extension to a 4-dim pure Yang-Mills theory with conformal symmetry, we establish a 1-1, onto mapping between a set of gravitational gauge theories and 4-dim, flat-space gauge theories

  19. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  20. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.