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Sample records for olive fruit development

  1. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California

  2. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  3. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  4. Epicuticular Wax in Developing Olives (Olea europaea) Is Highly Dependent upon Cultivar and Fruit Ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Barrios, Gonçal; Mateu, Jordi; Ninot, Antonia; Romero, Agustí

    2016-08-03

    The epicuticular wax (EW) layer is located on the surface of most plant organs. It provides the cuticle with most of its properties and is the primary barrier against biotic and abiotic stress. Despite the importance of Olea europaea cultivation, few studies have characterized the EW covering leaves and olives, which could be involved in resistance to both infection and environmental conditions. In the present study, wide-ranging screening was carried out using direct-injection electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze EW in developing olives of nine varieties. The proportions of EW fractions [wax esters (WEs), diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols (TAGs), triterpenic acids, and aldehydes] strongly depended upon the olive cultivar and, in only a few cases, were influenced by the sampling date. The specific compositions of the major fractions, WEs and TAGs, were strictly related to the cultivar, while the degree of unsaturation and chain length of the WEs evolved throughout the 4 weeks prior to the olive turning color.

  5. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  6. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  8. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  9. Unsaturated Lipids Change in Olive Tree Drupe and Seed during Fruit Development and in Response to Cold-Stress and Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone D’Angeli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is a plant of economic value for the oil of its drupe. It is a cultigen complex composed of genotypes with differences in cold-hardiness. About 90% of the oil is stored in oil bodies (OBs in the drupe during the oleogenic phase. Phenols and lipids contribute to oil quality, but the unsaturated fatty acid (FA fraction is emerging as the most important for quality, because of the very high content in oleic acid, the presence of ω6-linoleic acid and ω3-linolenic acid, and the very low saturated FA content. Another 10% of oil is produced by the seed. Differences in unsaturated FA-enriched lipids exist among seed coat, endosperm, and embryo. Olive oil quality is also affected by the environmental conditions during fruit growth and genotype peculiarities. Production of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, fruit growth, fruit and leaf responses to low temperatures, including cuticle formation, and cold-acclimation are related processes. The levels of unsaturated FAs are changed by FA-desaturase (FAD activities, involving the functioning of chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum. Cold induces lipid changes during drupe and seed development, affecting FADs, but its effect is related to the genotype capability to acclimate to the cold.

  10. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Oil accumulation kinetic along ripening in four olive cultivars varying for fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether oil accumulation pattern is parallel to drupe olive (Olea europaea L growth and if common climatic parameters may influence oil content we conducted an experiment in rainfed orchards with four olive cultivars, Amygdalolia, Arbequina, Lucques, and Olivière, differing by fruit size at maturity. Fruits were harvested weekly from July to November. They were counted and weighted before being crushed. Fat content was determined on dry matter using a Minispec RMN. Common climatic parameters were recorded. Variance analyses showed stage effects highly significant. Results showed three different patterns for fruit growth. Dry matter accumulated broadly similarly and the weekly rates were positively correlated with fruit size. Oil accumulation is mostly independent of climatic variation and probably depends on genetic programmes for each cultivar. We defined the main steps and events for olive fruit ripening according to recent knowledge on fruit development.

  12. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-10-14

    The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed.

  15. The transcriptional response to the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) reveals extended differences between tolerant and susceptible olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Filomena; Coppola, Mariangela; Carbone, Fabrizio; Baldoni, Luciana; Alagna, Fiammetta; Perrotta, Gaetano; Pérez-Pulido, Antonio J; Garonna, Antonio; Facella, Paolo; Daddiego, Loretta; Lopez, Loredana; Vitiello, Alessia; Rao, Rosa; Corrado, Giandomenico

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most devastating pest of cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.). Intraspecific variation in plant resistance to B. oleae has been described only at phenotypic level. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to study the molecular response to the olive fruit fly in two olive cultivars with contrasting level of susceptibility. Using next-generation pyrosequencing, we first generated a catalogue of more than 80,000 sequences expressed in drupes from approximately 700k reads. The assembled sequences were used to develop a microarray layout with over 60,000 olive-specific probes. The differential gene expression analysis between infested (i.e. with II or III instar larvae) and control drupes indicated a significant intraspecific variation between the more tolerant and susceptible cultivar. Around 2500 genes were differentially regulated in infested drupes of the tolerant variety. The GO annotation of the differentially expressed genes implies that the inducible resistance to the olive fruit fly involves a number of biological functions, cellular processes and metabolic pathways, including those with a known role in defence, oxidative stress responses, cellular structure, hormone signalling, and primary and secondary metabolism. The difference in the induced transcriptional changes between the cultivars suggests a strong genetic role in the olive inducible defence, which can ultimately lead to the discovery of factors associated with a higher level of tolerance to B. oleae.

  16. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  17. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  18. Identification of molecular markers associated with fruit traits in olive and assessment of olive core collection with AFLP markers and fruit traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Seker, M; Ipek, A; Gul, M K

    2015-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to characterize olive core collection with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and fruit traits and to determine AFLP markers significantly associated with these fruit characters in olive. A total of 168 polymorphic AFLP markers generated by five primer combinations and nine fruit traits were used to characterize relationships between 18 olive cultivars. Although all olive cultivars were discriminated from each other by either AFLP markers (markers and fruit traits was not significantly correlated (r = 0.13). Partial clustering of olive cultivars by AFLP markers according to their geographical origin was observed. Associations of AFLP markers with fruits were determined using a multiple-regression analysis with stepwise addition of AFLP markers. Significant associations between eight AFLP markers and fruit traits were identified. While five AFLP markers demonstrated significant negative correlation with fruit and stone weight, width and length and total polyphenols (P markers displayed significant positive correlation with α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (P molecular markers with fruit traits in olive. Molecular markers associated with morphological and agronomic traits could be utilized for the breeding of olive cultivars. However, the association power of these markers needs to be confirmed in larger populations, and highly correlated markers should then be converted to PCR-based DNA markers such as sequence-characterized amplified region markers for better utilization.

  19. Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) activity, fruit infestation and temperature in an organic table olive orchard in southern Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Volakakis, Mr N.; Eyre, Dr M.D.; Kabourakis, Dr E.; Leifert, Prof C.

    2008-01-01

    Olive fly activity and olive fruit infestation was monitored in a table olive orchard in southern Crete throughout most of 2006 using McPhail traps. Flies were trapped weekly for 40 weeks, starting at the beginning of February. The fly data was split into 10 four-week periods. Male, female and total fly activity was significantly related to sampling period, maximum temperature and relative humidity but the pattern of catches was not consistent. Activity increased from February until July but ...

  20. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  1. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans;

    enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening

    Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield

  2. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K 232 , K 270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  4. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  5. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  7. Mummified fruit as a source of inoculum and disease dynamics of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a destructive disease of olive fruit worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of agronomical and weather factors on inoculum production using detached olive fruit and on the development of epidemics in the field. The pathogen produced very large numbers of conidia on rotted (>1.87 × 10(8) conidia/fruit) or mummified (>2.16 × 10(4) conidia/fruit) fruit under optimal conditions. On mummified fruit, conidial production was highest on mummies incubated at 20 to 25°C and 96 h of wetness. Repeated washings of mummies reduced conidial production until it was very low after five washings. When mummies were placed in the tree canopy, conidial production was not reduced after 6 months (May to October); but, when they were held on the soil or buried in the soil, conidial production comparatively decreased up to 10,000 times. Anthracnose epidemics on susceptible 'Hojiblanca' and 'Picudo' during three seasons (2005-08) were influenced by rainfall, temperature, and fruit ripening, and had three main phases: the latent period (May to October); the onset of the epidemic, which coincided with the beginning of fruit ripening (early November); and disease development, which was predicted by the Weibull model (November to March). No epidemics developed on the susceptible cultivars during the driest season (2007-08) or on the resistant 'Picual' olive during any of the three seasons. These results provide the basis for a forecasting system of olive anthracnose which could greatly improve the management of this disease.

  8. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bianco

    Full Text Available Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes.In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies.This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  9. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  10. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  11. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae transcriptome and phylogenetic classification of the major detoxification gene families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Chrisargiris, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved.

  13. Identification and characterization of the iridoid synthase involved in oleuropein biosynthesis in olive (Olea europaea) fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range...... of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From...... these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive...

  14. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  15. Leaf biochemical responses and fruit oil quality parameters in olive plants subjected to airborne metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Lantero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L. trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control

  17. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantero, E.; Matallanas, B.; Ochando, M.D.; Pascual, S.; Callejas, C.

    2017-07-01

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control.

  18. Specific and sensitive primers for the detection of predated olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantero, E.; Matallanas, B.; Ochando, M.D.; Pascual, S.; Callejas, C.

    2017-01-01

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly, is a major pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees worldwide. Its presence can cause important losses, with consequences for the economies of countries that produce and export table olives and olive oil. Efforts to control olive fruit fly populations have, however, been insufficient. Now more than ever, environmentally friendly alternatives need to be considered in potential control programs. Generalist predators could provide a way of managing this pest naturally. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers for detecting the presence of B. oleae DNA in the gut of predatory arthropods. All primers were tested for checking cross-reactive amplification of other fruit fly DNA and evaluated in heterospecific mixes of nucleic acids. All were found to be very sensitive for B. oleae. Subsequent feeding trials were conducted using one of the most abundant species of ground dwelling carabids in olive groves in south-eastern Madrid, Spain. These trials allowed determining that 253F-334R and 334F-253R primer pairs had the highest detection efficiency with an ID50 of around 78 h. These primers therefore provide a very useful tool for screening the gut contents of potential predators of B. oleae, and can thus reveal candidate species for the pest's biological control.

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis in determining the mineral contents of the olive fruit fly and its food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Grimanis, A.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of the olive fruit mesocarp and of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, pupae in Na, K, Ca, Mg and Mn determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is reported. The AAS was used as a standard method to evaluate the results obtained by NAA because of problems encountered with this method. (Auth.)

  20. Chlorophyll catabolism in olive fruits (var. Arbequina and Hojiblanca) during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Ríos, José Julían; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Roca, María

    2016-12-01

    The central reaction of chlorophyll (chl) breakdown pathway occurring during olive fruits maturation is the cleavage of the macrocycle pheophorbide a to a primary fluorescent chl catabolite (pFCC) and it is catalyzed by two enzymes: pheophorbide a oxygenase (PaO) and red chl catabolite reductase (RCCR). In subsequent steps, pFCC is converted to different fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs). This work demonstrated that RCCR activity of olive fruits is type II. During the study of evolution of PaO and RCCR activities through the olive fruits maturation in two varieties: Hojiblanca and Arbequina, a significant increase in PaO and RCCR activity was found in ripening stage. In addition, the profile and structure of NCCs present in epicarp of this fruit was studied using HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. Five different NCCs were defined and for the first time the enzymatic reactions implied in chlorophyll degradations in olive fruits elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos; de la Rosa, Raúl

    2018-01-01

    Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO) although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties ("Picual" and "Arbequina") used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the simplified procedure of the

  2. In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Antimicrobial potential of leaf and fruit extracts and oils of wild and cultivated edible olive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Qurshi, I.A.; Liaqat, R.; Akhtar, S.; Aziz, I.

    2014-01-01

    Olive tree is the first botanical noted in the Bible. Leaves and fruits of olive are rich sources of Phenols, triterpenes, and flavanoids. Oleuropein obtained from the leaves extract is believed to be important therapeutic compound. Olive leaf and oils are used for the treatment of different diseases as folklore medicines by different ethnic groups in different countries of the world. The present study aims to investigate the potential antimicrobial activities of wild (Olea ferruginea) and edible (Olea europaea) olive leaf crude extracts, crude oils from ripe and unripe fruits and extra virgin oils against the selected gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. The results show that olive leaf and oil have potential antibacterial activities against some of the gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. However, certain strains were resistant to the extracts. It was also found that the activities were higher for the gram negative strains as compared to gram positive strains. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts were found to be more efficient in extraction than the other solvents used. Leaf extracts were more effective than the oil extracted from ripe and unripe fruits. There was no significant difference in the activities of extra virgin oils and crude leaf extracts. From the results it is concluded that the leaf extract is a cheap and effective antibacterial agent that can be used as alternative to purified oil. (author)

  4. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Giandomenico

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction.

  5. Characterization of olive oil obtained from whole fruit and fruit flesh of cultivar: Kaissy grown in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO from whole fruits and fruit flesh of Kaissy olive (Olea europaea cultivar was investigated in this study. Acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, specification number (SV, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value, phenol content, refractive index (RI and viscosity were measured after 0, 6 and 12 months of storage. The physicochemical properties of oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh samples of olive were: AV (0.32 and 0.40%, PV (4.79 and 6.13%, TBA (0.056 and 0.052 mg MDA kg-1 oil, IV (84.41 and 83.87 g-1 oil, SV (195.48 and 187.56 mg KOH g-1 oil, total phenolic (339.52 and 226.68 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil, RI (1.4669 and 1.4668 and viscosity (129.33 and 130.00 mPa s-1 respectively. The results demonstrated that the AV, PV, RI and viscosity values significantly (p<0.05 increased, while TBA value and total phenolic content significantly (p<0.05 decreased during storage.

  6. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. PMID:26709230

  7. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-11

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Characterisation of olive fruit for the milling process by using visible/near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of olive oil and table olives has recently determined an expansion of olive tree cultivation in the world. This trend is supported by the documented nutritional value of the Mediterranean diet. The aim of this work was to test a portable visible/ near infrared (vis/NIR system (400-1000 nm for the analysis of physical-chemical parameters, such as olive soluble solid content (SSC and texture before the olive oil extraction process. The final goal is to provide the sector with post-harvest methods and sorting systems for a quick evaluation of important properties of olive fruit. In the present study, a total of 109 olives for oil production were analysed. Olive spectra registered with the optical device and values obtained with destructive analysis in the laboratory were analysed. Specific statistical models were elaborated to study correlations between optical and laboratory analysis, and to evaluate predictions of reference parameters obtained through the analysis of the visible-near infrared range. Statistical models were processed using chemometric techniques to extract maximum data information. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on vis/NIR spectra to examine sample groupings and identify outliers, while partial least square (PLS regression algorithm was used to correlate samples spectra and physical- chemical properties. Results are encouraging. PCA showed a significant sample grouping among different ranges of SSC and texture. PLS models gave fairly good predictive capabilities in validation for SSC (R2=0.67 and RMSECV%=7.5% and texture (R2=0.68 and RMSECV%=8.2%.

  9. PRESENCE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY(Ceratitis capitata Wied. IN SELECTED OLIVE ORCHARDS OF CENTRAL DALMATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bjeliš

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann is a regular pest of large number of cultivated and wild host plants in Dalmatia. However, this pest does not develop either inside fruits of cultivated olive - Olea europaea sativa or wild olive „ mastrinka“ - Olea europaea oleaster. The main objective of this research was to prove regular presence, time of appearance and flight duration of the Mediterranean fruit fly inside selected orchards of central Dalmatia. During the four years of research, from 2001 to 2004 by using of traps and parapheromone trimedlure, the regular presence of the Mediterranean fruit fly was proved inside four selected orchards on the area of cities of Split and Kaštela, with differences in adult caught between localities and years. During the 2001 year, on the three locations in the area of city of Kaštela, the highest capture during the total research period was recorded, while on the locations in Split, the highest capture was recorded during 2003 year, but also significant during 2001 year. The lowest number of adult, less than 5 flies/trap was captured on all four locations during 2002 year.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on quality of olive fruits (Olea Europaea L. ), and its oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bashir, M.

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on accelerating the debittering steps of olive fruits, oil extractability and the quality of extracted oil. Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) were treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 669 Gy/hr., a part of these fruits was debittered in distilled water, the second was processed with NaOH (3.6% concentration) for 3 or 6 hr. Both treated fruits with a control part were kept in brine (5.6% sodium chloride) and stored for 12 months at room temperature. Portions of all these treated fruits were subjected to oil extraction by mechanical means immediately after treatment. During the debittering period (8 days) the total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and ph values were determined in wastewater (daily), whereas the peroxide value, iodine number and the total acidity were measured in the extracted oil. The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, a and K in wastewater. The most significant effect was noticed when irradiated fruits were processed with NaOH for 3 hrs. as indicated by the values of total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K concentration in wastewater. All used doses of gamma radiation, increased the extractability of the oil from the treated fruits, the total acidity and the peroxide value of that oil. (Author)

  11. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    (Ci, and stomatal conductance (gs between (09.30 – 11.30 h on a fully expanded current season leaves situated at mid canopy height. Statistical assessments of differences between mean values were performed by the LSD test at P = 0.05. Results and Discussion The results revealed that reclaimed water enhanced fruit yield, weight (15%, volume (23% and leaf photosynthesis (22% in plants compared with clear water. Recycled water was found to supply more nutrients than clear water. High nutrient concentrations in RW, compared to those in clear water, result in nutrient accumulation in the soil, making them available to plant roots to promote overall plant growth and fruit production. Improved N, P, K nutrition of wastewater-irrigated plants has been reported (Farooq et al, 2006. Olive leaves and stems represent storage organs for N and release it in response to the metabolic demands of developing reproductive and vegetative organs (Fernandez-Escobar et al., 2004. However, Al-Abasi et al. (2009 found no statistical differences. Irrigation with SLI systems increased the photosynthesis (33%, and stomatal conductance (57% when compared with surface irrigation systems. The results showed that reclaimed water had a significant effect on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. However, fruit length and firmness had no significant difference. Substomatal CO2 decreased when the SI systems were used for irrigation. Also SLI system could enhance fruit yield (65%, weight (17%, photosynthesis (32% and chlorophyll Fluorescence (Fv/Fm (18%. The SLI systems with recycled water induced greater shoot growth, total leaf surface area, and transpiration during the entire growing period. This led to an overall positive effect on mean fruit weight and total fruit production per tree. The SLI system applying RW led to more photosynthesis by 34% as compared to the SI system. In the present study, the SLI system delivered water directly in the root zone and improved water availability, which

  12. Fruit Phenolic Profiling: A New Selection Criterion in Olive Breeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Pérez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs. This is mainly due to the difficulties for evaluating oil phenolic composition in large number of samples and the limited knowledge on the genetic and environmental factors that may influence phenolic composition. In the present work, we propose a high throughput methodology to include the phenolic composition as a selection criterion in olive breeding programs. For that purpose, the phenolic profile has been determined in fruits and oils of several breeding selections and two varieties (“Picual” and “Arbequina” used as control. The effect of three different environments, typical for olive growing in Andalusia, Southern Spain, was also evaluated. A high genetic effect was observed on both fruit and oil phenolic profile. In particular, the breeding selection UCI2-68 showed an optimum phenolic profile, which sums up to a good agronomic performance previously reported. A high correlation was found between fruit and oil total phenolic content as well as some individual phenols from the two different matrices. The environmental effect on phenolic compounds was also significant in both fruit and oil, although the low genotype × environment interaction allowed similar ranking of genotypes on the different environments. In summary, the high genotypic variance and the

  13. Fatty acid composition of oil obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated whole fruit and fruit flesh of olives (Olea europaea L. 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz  Al-BACHIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the fatty acid profile of olive oil extracted from whole fruit and fruit flesh of "Kaissy cultivar" olives, irradiated with 0, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation, and stored for 0, 6 and 12 months. Results on the fatty acid profile showed that the studied oils contained mostly oleic acid (68.1570.80% followed by palmitic acid (14.38-15.89% and linoleic acid (10.3412.51%. Generally, there are slight differences in the fatty acid profile between the oil extracted from whole olives and fruit flesh, but sometime significant (p<0.05. Also, the storage time influenced to a limited extent the fatty acid profile of both type of oils. Immediately after treatment, irradiation caused a significant (p<0.01 gradual decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid content and a significant (p<0.01 saturated fatty acid content increased in virgin olive oils.

  14. Tests with VHR images for the identification of olive trees and other fruit trees in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Josiane; Soille, Pierre; Mueller, Rick

    2004-10-01

    In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) there is a strong interest of the European Commission for counting and individually locating fruit trees. An automatic counting algorithm developed by the JRC (OLICOUNT) was used in the past for olive trees only, on 1m black and white orthophotos but with limits in case of young trees or irregular groves. This study investigates the improvement of fruit tree identification using VHR images on a large set of data in three test sites, one in Creta (Greece; one in the south-east of France with a majority of olive trees and associated fruit trees, and the last one in Florida on citrus trees. OLICOUNT was compared with two other automatic tree counting, applications, one using the CRISP software on citrus trees and the other completely automatic based on regional minima (morphological image analysis). Additional investigation was undertaken to refine the methods. This paper describes the automatic methods and presents the results derived from the tests.

  15. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some people. Metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions such as high blood pressure, excess ... Up to 1 liter per week of extra-virgin olive oil has been used safely as part ...

  16. Short Communications Fruit selection in the olive thrush: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-03-05

    Mar 5, 1996 ... HERRERA, CM. 1987. Vertebrate-dispersed plants of the Iberian. peninSUla: a study of fruit characteristics. Ecol. Monog. 57' ... in climate, geOlogy, altitude and plant community composi- tion ('lable I). Rainfall is highest, and ...

  17. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  18. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier, for wide-spread release and biological control of olive fruit fly in California. As many as 3...

  19. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California - release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic strains of the African endoparasitoids Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were released to suppress the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California from 2006 – 2016. Both parasitoid species were recovered post-release within the same fruit season; ho...

  20. Mass rearing of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin), at ''Democritos''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsipis, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Production of more than 4.5 million olive fruit fly pupae within a 4-month period during the summer and autumn of 1973, at an approximate cost of US $ 1 per 1000 pupae, was made possible by introducing certain improvements in the formerly used rearing system. Replacement of the adult liquid diet by a solid one and less frequent changing of the water supply saved labour; better timing in the egg collection improved hatchability. Incubation of the eggs in 0.3% propionic acid followed by their surface sterilization drastically cut down or eliminated previous sporadically appearing microbial contaminations. Most important, a new larval diet (T), which is much easier to prepare and handle, has doubled pupal yield. A new caging and egging system under development provides a higher egg production and requires far less labour. Preliminary promising results on new larval diets and modifications in the various steps of the rearing procedure will hopefully contribute to achieving the much lower costs needed even in a moderate-scale mass-release programme. (author)

  1. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L. Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

  2. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  3. Influence of gamma rays, soaking and microwave heating on the quality of olive fruits and their virgin oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; El-Nashaby, F.M.; Afifi, E.A.; Sallam, E.M.; Abd El-Hady, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation at doses of 1 and 3 KGy, soaking in boiling water at 100 degree C for 6,9 and 12 min and microwave heating for 10, 13 and 15 minutes treatments on the chemical composition, sensory properties and microbiological quality of olive fruits (Calamata variety). In addition, the influence of applied treatments on the acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and fatty acids profiles of virgin oil (extracted from olive fruits under investigation) were studied. The results indicated that all treatments undertaken had no real effects on the chemical composition of olive fruits except the moisture content which was markedly decreased by microwave heating treatment. However, the total counts of bacteria, molds and yeasts were decreased by the above treatments. During storage, the overall acceptability scores of each treatment were gradually decreased by increasing the storage periods, while a gradually increase in AV, PV and TBA of olive oil were observed while fatty acid profiles did not alter by all treatments. Gamma irradiation at dose of 3 KGy was the best treatment under investigation for extending the shelf-life of olive fruits to 35 days compared to 20 days for control sample which stored at ambient temperature without a deleterious effect on their chemical and sensory properties

  4. Therapeutics role of olive fruits/oil in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-oxidant, anti-tumour and genetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Albutti, Aqel S; Aly, Salah M

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment for various diseases is based on synthetic drugs are effective but they show adverse effect and also alter the genetic and metabolic activity. Moreover, some drugs prepared from plants and their constituents show potentiality with more efficacy than synthetic agents used in clinical therapy. Earlier report has shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly related with reduced risk of developing various diseases. Several epidemiological studies has shown that, the incidence heart disease and cancers is lowest in the Mediterranean basin as compared to the part of the world because of their diet rich in olives and olive products. Olives are commonly consumed in Mediterranean and Arabian Peninsula and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that, the constituents from olive such as oleuropein, squalene and hydroxytyrosol modulate the genes functions and other activities. In this review, the medicinal value of olives and their constituents are summarized in terms of therapeutic approach in the diseases management through regulation of various activities.

  5. Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage. Contents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (i.e. from 50.8% to 64.5%, from 7.2% to 9.1% and from 1.5% to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg -1 , chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg -1 , vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg -1 , caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg -1 , p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg -1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg -1 were obtained. Methyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as an alternative postharvest technique to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  7. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Physico-chemical characteristics of olive fruits of Turkish varieties from the province of Hatay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan, D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive fruits of four different Turkish varieties (Kargaburun, Erkence, Halhalı and Saurani from the province of Hatay which were harvested on three different occasions have been analyzed in order to determine the effects of both the nature of the cultivar and the time of harvest. Analyses of some physical properties were carried out such as fruit and pit weight, size, moisture and oil contents and instrumental color index along with some chemical properties such as individual phenolic compounds, total phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition. For all the varieties studied, oleuropein was the most abundant phenolic substance ranging from 41.39-159.73 mg/kg, for which the Saurani variety had the highest level. Saurani and Kargaburun varieties were found to possess characteristic phenolic profiles: Saurani for its high amount of oleuropein and Kargaburun for its high level of H-tyrosol. These two varieties had higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities as well. Citric and succinic acids were the main organic acids determined in the olive fruits. The level of total phenolics in the olive fruits declined rapidly with a later harvest date. A general decreasing trend was also observed in the saturated fatty acid (palmitic and stearic acids concentrations of the olive oils with later harvest dates in the four varieties studied.

    Aceitunas de cuatro variedades diferentes de la provincia de Hatay en Turquía (Kargaburun, Erkence, Halhalı y Saurani fueron recogidas en tres periodos diferentes y analizadas con el fin de determinar los efectos tanto de la naturaleza de la variedad como del tiempo de la cosecha. Se llevaron a cabo las determinaciones analíticas de algunos parámetros físicos (número y peso de frutos, dimensiones, humedad, contenido de aceite e índice instrumental de color de los frutos y químicos (compuestos fenólicos individuales, fenoles totales

  9. The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males. (author)

  10. Effect of unsaponifiable matter extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil on the oxidative stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei

    2017-08-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R 2  = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.

  11. Towards an efficient protocol for the determination of triterpenic acids in olive fruit: a comparative study of drying and extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Vlasios; Manganaris, George A

    2012-01-01

    Triterpenic acids, such as maslinic acid and oleanolic acid, are commonly found in olive fruits and have been associated with many health benefits. The drying and extraction methods, as well as the solvents used, are critical factors in the determination of their concentration in plant tissues. Thus, there is an emerging need for standardisation of an efficient extraction protocol that determines triterpenic acid content in olive fruits. To evaluate common extraction methods of triterpenic acids from olive fruits and to determine the effect of the drying method on their content in order to propose an optimum protocol for their quantification. The efficacy of different drying and extraction methods was evaluated through the quantification of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid contents using the reversed-phase HPLC technique. Data showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction with ethanol or a mixture of ethanol:methanol (1:1, v/v) resulted in the recovery of significantly higher amounts of triterpenic acids than other methods used. The drying method also affected the estimated triterpenic acid content; frozen or lyophilised olive fruit material gave higher yields of triterpenic acids compared with air-dried material at both 35°C and 105°C. This study provides a rapid and low-cost extraction method, i.e. ultrasonic assisted extraction with an eco-friendly solvent such as ethanol, from frozen or lyophilised olive fruit for the accurate determination of the triterpenic acid content in olive fruit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  13. The application of NMR and MS methods for detection of adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, N; Kosir, I J; Spangenberg, J E; Kidric, J

    2003-06-01

    This review covers two important techniques, high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), used to characterize food products and detect possible adulteration of wine, fruit juices, and olive oil, all important products of the Mediterranean Basin. Emphasis is placed on the complementary use of SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation nuclear magnetic resonance) and IRMS (isotope-ratio mass spectrometry) in association with chemometric methods for detecting the adulteration.

  14. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavragani-Tsipidou, P

    2002-09-01

    The genetic and cytogenetic characteristics of one of the major agricultural pests, the olive fruit fly Bactmcera oleae, are presented here. The mitotic metaphase complement of this insect consists of six pairs of chromosomes including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the polytene complements of three larval tissues, the fat body, the salivary glands and the Malpighian tubules of this pest has shown (a) a total number of five long chromosomes (10 polytene arms) that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic nuclei and a heterochromatic mass corresponding to the sex chromosomes, (b) the constancy of the banding pattern of the three somatic tissues, (c) the absence of a typical chromocenter as an accumulation of heterochromatin, (d) the existence of reverse tandem duplications, and (e) the presence of toroid tips of the chromosome arms. The in situ hybridization of genes or DNA sequences to the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of B. oleae provided molecular markers for all five autosomes and permitted the establishment of chromosomal homologies among B. olea, B. tryoni and Ceratitis capitata. The heat shock response of B. oleae, as revealed by heat-inducible puffing and protein pattern, shows a higher thermotolerance than Drosophila melanogaster.

  15. Multiclass pesticide determination in olives and their processing factors in olive oil: comparison of different olive oil extraction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrazi, Elpiniki G; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2008-07-23

    The processing factors (pesticide concentration found in olive oil/pesticide concentration found in olives) of azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, and fenthion were determined in olive oil production process in various laboratory-scale olive oil extractions based on three- or two-phase centrifugation systems in comparison with samples collected during olive oil extractions in conventional olive mills located at different olive oil production areas in Greece. Pesticide analyses were performed using a multiresidue method developed in our laboratory for the determination of different insecticides and herbicides in olive oil by solid-phase extraction techniques coupled to gas chromatography detection (electron capture detection and nitrogen phosphorus detection), optimized, and validated for olive fruits sample preparation. Processing factors were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. Water addition in the oil extraction procedure (as in a three-phase centrifugation system) was found to decrease the processing factors of dimethoate, alpha-endosulfan, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, whereas those of fenthion, azinphos methyl, beta-endosulfan, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin residues were not affected. The water content of olives processed was found to proportionally affect pesticide processing factors. Fenthion sulfoxide and endosulfan sulfate were the major metabolites of fenthion and endosulfan, respectively, that were detected in laboratory-produced olive oils, but only the concentration of fenthion sulfoxide was found to increase with the increase of water addition in the olive oil extraction process.

  16. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  17. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, Luigi [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  18. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Ruiz, F. J.; Jiménez-Jiménez, F.; Blanco-Roldán, G.L.; Sola-Guirado, R. R.; Agüera-Vega, J.; Castro-Garcia, S.

    2015-07-01

    Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina) in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%). Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system. (Author)

  19. Analysis of fruit and oil quantity and quality distribution in high-density olive trees in order to improve the mechanical harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit production and oil quality distribution with respect to canopy distribution are important criteria for selection and improvement of mechanical harvesting methods. Tests were performed in a high-density olive orchard (Olea europea L., cv. Arbequina in southern Spain. Fruit distribution, fruit properties and oil parameters were measured by taken separate samples for each canopy location and tree. Results showed a high percentage of fruits and oil located in the middle-outer and upper canopy, representing more than 60% of total production. The position of these fruits along with their higher weight per fruit, maturity index and polyphenol content make them the target for all mechanical harvesting systems. The fruits from the lower canopy represented close to 30% of fruit and oil production, however, the mechanical harvesting of these fruits is inefficient for mechanical harvesting systems. Whether these fruits cannot be properly harvested, enhance tree training to raise their position is recommended. Fruits located inside the canopy are not a target location for mechanical harvesting systems as they were a small percentage of the total fruit (<10%. Significant differences were found for polyphenol content with respect to canopy height, although this was not the case with acidity. In addition, the ripening index did not influence polyphenol content and acidity values within the canopy. Fruit production, properties and oil quality varied depending on fruit canopy position. Thus harvesting systems may be targeted at maximize harvesting efficiency including an adequate tree training system adapted to the harvesting system.

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Olive, a Qur’anic Fruit: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Heidari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies  in which data  were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Geographical Basis for Development of Organic Olive Grow in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Čuka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture is among the biggest polluters of the environment. Overuse of synthetic pesticides, herbicides and mineral fertilisers have caused soil exhaustion, erosion, unbalance in the ecosystem, and their harmful effect on human health has been proven. This is why the author tried to point to the importance of development of organic agriculture, and olive growing as a traditional agricultural sector in coastal Croatia.The main intention is to show the basic geographical aspects of coastal Croatia and to explain the ways it can influence the development of organic olive farming. It is specially emphasized that organically produced food must be incorporated in Croatian tourist offer. It will stimulate a bigger interest for Croatia as an attractive tourist destination in the world tourist market and will simplify the sale of organically produced food. Development of organic olive farming will also contribute to the revitalisation of small villages where a strong presence of negative processes, such as deagrarisation, deruralisation and demographic regression is evident.

  2. Vibration parameters assessment to develop a continuous lateral canopy shaker for mechanical harvesting of traditional olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola-Guirado, R.R.; Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Blanco-Roldan, G.L.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Castillo-Ruiz, F.J.; Gil Ribes, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    The fruit harvesting is a key factor involving both product quality and profitability. Particularly, mechanical harvesting of traditional oil olive orchards is hint by tree training system for manual harvesting, tree size and several and slanted trunks which makes difficult trunk shaker work. Therefore, canopy shaker technology could be a feasible alternative to develop an integral harvester able to work on irregular canopies. The aim of this research was to determine vibration parameters applied to the olive tree for efficient mechanical harvesting by canopy shaker measuring fruit removal efficiency and debris. In this work, a continuous lateral canopy shaker harvester has been developed and tested on large olive trees in order to analyse the operating harvester parameters and tree properties to improve mutual adaptation. Vibration amplitude and frequency, rod density and ground speed were assessed. Vibration amplitude and frequency beside ground speed were decisive factors on fruit removal efficiency. Increasing rod density has not influenced on removal efficiency although it increased significantly debris. Promising results has been reached with 77.3% of removal efficiency, applying a 28 s shaking duration, 0.17 m amplitude vibration and 12 rod drum. This result was obtained reporting 0.26 s of accumulative shaking time over 200 m/s2 resultant acceleration. The canopy shaker mechanism enabled more than 65% of detached fruits to fall vertically, facilitating catch fruit. In order to improve removal efficiency it is advisable to adapt trees, set high amplitude in the shaker mechanism, and enhance the contact time between rods and tree. (Author)

  3. Population Dynamics of Pre-Imaginal Stages of Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Region of Bar (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit fly is the most harmful pest of olive fruits and important for oil production.Damage involves yield reduction as a consequence of premature fruit drop, but also areduced quality of olive oil and olive products. There is little available data regarding thebiology of Bactrocera oleae in Montenegro. Knowledge of the pest life cycle and developmentwould improve optimization of insecticide application timing and protection offruits, and reduce adverse effects on the environment.Investigation was conducted on the Žutica variety in an olive grove located in Bar duringa three-year period. Population dynamics of the pre-imaginal stages and level of fruitinfestation were monitored from mid-July until the end of October.The results of this three-year investigation showed that the beginning of infestationwas always at the end of July. It was also found that, depending on environmental conditions,the level of infestation was low until the end of August. In September and October itmultiplied, and reached maximum by the end of October.Regarding infestation structure, eggs and first instar larvae were the dominant developmentalstages of the pest until the middle of September. From mid-September until mid-October all developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae were equally present in infestedfruits. Pupae, cocoons and abandoned galleries prevailed until the harvest.

  4. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Attempts to develop sustainable biocontrol strategies of Xylella fastidiosa infections in olive

    OpenAIRE

    D'Attoma G., Morelli M., Cicco S., Saponari M. and Saldarelli P.

    2017-01-01

    X. fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium, which is causing the ‘Olive Quick Decline Syndrome’ (OQDS), on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region. The knowledge of mechanisms regulating olive- X. fastidiosa interactions is fundamental to develop biocontrol strategies. In Pierce’s Disease (PD) the pathogen virulence relies on a fine balance between motile cells, which move and proliferate in xylem vessels, and sticky cells forming a biofilm and responsible for vessels...

  6. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  7. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea Europea. 1.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea Europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater 9 daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine. (author)

  8. Changes of washing water during debittering and the brine during storage of irradiated olive fruits (Olea europea. L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    Olive fruits (Olea europea. var. Surrany) treated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation were debittered in distilled water for 8 days and stored in brine for 12 months at room temperature. Total dissolved and inorganic dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, electric conductivity (EC) and pH values were evaluated in washing wastewater (daily), and in brine (after 6 and 12 months). The results showed that gamma irradiation increased the total and inorganic dissolved solids, Na and K in washing wastewater, and in brine throughout debittering and storage periods. Also, gamma irradiation had an effect on EC and pH values of washing wastewater and brine [es

  9. Nutritional and technological characteristics of olive (Olea europea L.) fruit and oil: two varieties growing in two different locations of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cevat; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gümüş, Tuncay

    2009-08-01

    Olea europea L. fruits were evaluated for weight, moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, energy, crude fibre, roundness, resistance against extra force and product density. The relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value and unsaponifiables were determined in the olive oils. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Of the identified fatty acids, lauric acid (12:0), linolenic acid (18:3), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), behenic acid (22:0) and lignoseric acid (24:0) were found in trace amounts. As expected, the oleic acid content was the major fatty acid of olive oil. Oleic acid was represented in much higher concentrations than the other acids. The product roundness, resistance against extra force, product density and weight of 100 fruit were established as technological characteristics in olive fruit. The damage energy and the unit of volume deformation energy of the Memecik and Tavşanyüreği varieties were 1.36×10(-3) J and 3.59×10(-4) J/mm(3) and 1.89×10(-3) J and 5.10×10(-4) J/mm(3), respectively. The fruits showed a similar composition, and both fruit and oil contained unsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of olive fruits of the Turkish variety “Sarıulak” from different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan, D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compounds, radical scavenging effect and antioxidant capacity of olive fruits from the “Sarıulak” variety were studied from four different locations: Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke and Karaman in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. They were collected on three different harvest dates (HDs and in two consecutive crop years. The levels of most of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of the Alanya location were remarkably high among the values (mg/kg obtained for all location samples mainly on the first HDs, for instance hydroxytyrosol rose to 3596.4, luteolin rose to 269.5, vanillic acid rose to 159.8 and caffeic acid rose to 62.1. The olive fruits from Alanya, which had the highest average rainfall compared to the other locations, showed the highest phenolic content. The olive fruits from Silifke, which had a dramatic decrease in rainfall between the two crop years, showed a reduction in total phenolic content in the following crop year. The highest oleuropein contents (mg/kg were detected for the fruit samples grown in Silifke (963.5-2981.8 and for Karaman (835.2-655.6. All of the locations showed similar changes in antioxidant activity pointing to an increase with later HDs. The effect of HD on the phenolic compounds such as 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid and hidroxytyrosol, luteolin, chlorogenic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were more dependent on the location factor.

    Se han estudiado los compuestos fenólicos, el efecto captador de radicales y la capacidad antioxidante de aceitunas de la variedad “Sarıulak” procedentes de cuatro localidades diferentes, Alanya, Ceyhan, Silifke y Karaman de la región mediterránea de Turquía, que fueron recogidas en tres diferentes fechas de cosecha (HDs y en dos años consecutivos de cultivos. Los niveles de la mayoría de estos compuestos fenólicos, expresados en mg/kg , de los frutos procedentes de Alanya fueron los mas altos entre los valores

  11. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: prendon@aphisguate.co [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    2006-07-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  12. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y.; Rendon, Pedro A.; Sivinski, John

    2006-01-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  13. Simultaneous determination of the lipoxygenase and hydroperxide lyase specificity in olive fruit pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Joaquín J.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive pulp lipoxygenase regiospecificity and hydroperoxide lyase substrate specificity are important parameters in order to justify the volatile composition of olive oil. A new radiolabelling method to determine simultaneously these properties using only thin layer chromatography steps is described in the present work. The method involves incubation of an enzyme preparation from olive pulp with radiolabelled linoleate, followed by the fractionation of the resulting lipid products, previously treated with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine, on thin layer chromatography plates coated with polyethylenglycol 400. The results obtained are in agreement with previous studies carried out by other methods.La regioespecificidad de la lipoxigenasa y la especificidad del sustrato hidroperóxido liasa de pulpa de aceituna son parámetros importantes en la justificación de la composición en volátiles del aceite de oliva. En este trabajo se describe un nuevo método de marcaje radioactivo para determinar simultáneamente estas propiedades, usando solo etapas de cromatografía en capa fina. El método implica la incubación de una preparación enzimática de pulpa de aceituna con linoleato marcado, seguido del fraccionamiento de los productos lipídicos resultantes, previamente tratados con 2,4-dinitrofenil hidrazina, sobre placas de cromatografía en capa fina soportadas con polietilenglicol 400. Los resultados obtenidos están de acuerdo con estudios previos llevados a cabo con otros métodos.

  14. A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, Antonino; Schena, Leonardo; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Mosca, Saveria; Giunti, Giulia; Strano, Cinzia Patricia; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the "core" associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal community was mainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  15. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  16. The Major Qualitative Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivated in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zizhang; Zhan, Mingming; Yang, Zeshen; Zumstein, Kristina; Chen, Huaping; Huang, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Olive trees, originated from Mediterranean, have been cultivated in China for decades and show great adaption to local environment. However, research on this topic is limited. In this study, the major qualitative characteristics and changes of olive grown in southwest China were investigated. The results showed that oil accumulated during fruit development and reached its maximum value when fruit had fully ripened. Phenolic and flavonoid contents increase rapidly in the early growth stage (0-90 DAFB) and then begin to decrease as fruit ripens. Compared with olive from the Mediterranean, olive from China has special characteristics: higher moisture content in the fruit combined with lower percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and oil content. This is due to southwest China's climate which is wetter and cooler compared to the Mediterranean. Our study suggests that southwest China's higher annual rainfall might contribute to higher fruit moisture content while its low temperatures would be conducive to higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the fruit.

  17. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  18. Optimization of olive-fruit paste production using a methodological proposal based on a sensory and objective color analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero-Gilete, M. L.; Melendez-Martinez, A. J.; Heredia, F. J.; Vicario, I. M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the conditions to formulate paste based on olive fruits. The processing stages included: washing, blending, oil addition and preservation. Pair-comparisons and ranking tests were carried out by both a trained panel and a consumer panel to single out the preferred sample at each stage. The sensory attributes considered were taste, visual texture, texture in the mouth and overall preference. The results of the sensory analyses were processed statistically by means of ANOVA and the Friedman test to select the most appropriate processing conditions: washing for 30 minutes three times, blending at 2000 r.p.m, and the addition of 10 ml of oil. Several pasteurization conditions were assayed (62.5, 75, 85 and 95 degree centigrade for 15 minutes). No significant color differences (p < 0.05) were found for the objective color measurement (CIELAB) of the pastes submitted to the different pasteurization conditions. Based on the results of the preference test, the pasteurization conditions selected were heating at 85 degree centigrade for 15 minutes. (Author) 30 refs.

  19. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-06-03

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  20. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Georgakouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition—CC every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05 following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (p = 0.06 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05 following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  1. Variability of Phenolic and Volatile Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil from Leccino and Istarska Bjelica Cultivars in Relation to Their Fruit Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and volatile compounds are closely related to valuable gastronomic and nutritional properties, as well as oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. Since biochemical synthesis and transformation of these compounds during olive processing depend on the activity of endogenous enzymes, which are partially influenced by genetic factors, mixtures of different cultivars could have either a synergistic or antagonistic effect on phenolic and volatile compounds in the resulting oil. In this context, two specific cultivars from the Istrian peninsula, Leccino (L and Istarska bjelica (B, were selected. Two monovarietal fruit samples (L100 and B100 and four mixtures in the following mass ratios: L/B=80:20, L/B=60:40, L/B=40:60 and L/B=20:80 were prepared. The mass fraction of total phenols was determined colourimetrically, while C6 and C5 volatiles from lipoxygenase pathway were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Mass fraction of total phenols in the oil samples from fruit mixtures changed linearly from (199.5±7.2 in Leccino to (642.0±61.7 mg/kg in Istarska bjelica, in a strict correlation with fruit mass ratio of the two cultivars. Leccino monovarietal samples had statistically higher values (p≤0.05 of C6 aldehydes ((15.32±1.69 vs. (10.91±0.62 mg/kg and C6 alcohols ((2.96±0.98 vs. (0.17±0.05 mg/kg, but lower values of C5 compounds ((0.77±0.12 vs. (0.96±0.05 mg/kg compared to Istarska bjelica samples. Volatiles having a direct contribution to the oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one (84–201, E-2-hexenal (26–42, hexanal (1.8–2.4 and Z-2-penten-1-ol (1.3–2.6. A significant synergistic effect was observed for C6 aldehydes in the case of L/B=40:60 fruit mixture. The addition of Istarska bjelica to Leccino fruits caused a significant antagonistic effect on C6 alcohols, but no significant deviations from the expected values were found in the case of C6 esters and C5 compounds

  2. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... ... and Microbial Activity, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University - ... A total of 24 lipolytic yeasts were isolated from the spent olive derived from olive fruits of ... isolated during process of fermentation of olive table, can.

  3. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  4. Effect of olive mill waste (OMW) supplementation to Oyster mushrooms substrates on the cultivation parameters and fruiting bodies quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, A.; Soler-Rivas, C.; Polonia, I.; Wichers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven Oyster mushroom strains were cultivated in wheat straw (WS) bags supplemented with 0 up to 90% olive mill waste (OMW), a solid residue obtained from a two-phases olive oil production system. All mushroom strains could grow but high OMW concentrations resulted in a significant yield, biological

  5. organic fertilization of olive tree based on soil analysis and foliar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 sept. 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The present study aims at developing an organic fertilization program of an olive orchard located in the North-west of Tunisia. Soil analyses showed an acceptable level of P2O5 and. K2O in the soil of the studied farm. Based on leaves and olive fruit analyses, the requirements in N, P and K ...

  6. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  7. Excellent fruits of national research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This book introduces 100 excellent fruits of research and development in Korea. Such as. It show the titles of 100 excellent fruits about technology of hope to give people healthy life, technology of product and abundance to enrich resource, technology to make green growth and sound society, next service technology to communicate with network, new electron technology to brings life change, technology to draw innovation of industrial fields, technology to build higher value-added product with new fusion materials and technology to share and to create future knowledge.

  8. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  9. Development of Cladium mariscus (L. Pohl. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Marek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovule and ovary development was investigated with the aim to establish from what is the scleroid cover of the Cladium mariscus fruit derived. It was proved, that like in other members of the Cyperaceae family, it derives from the ovary.

  10. Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model for Olive Oil Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, K.; Bouhafa, H.; Hamdi, S.

    2009-03-01

    A mathematical model describing the stability or the susceptibility to oxidation of extra virgin olive oil has been developed. The model has been resolved by an iterative method using differential finite method. It was validated by experimental data of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) oxidation. EVOO stability was tested by using a Rancimat at four different temperatures 60, 70, 80 and 90° C until peroxide accumulation reached 20 [meq/kg]. Peroxide formation is speed relatively slow; fits zero order reaction with linear regression coefficients varying from 0, 98 to 0, 99. The mathematical model was used to predict the shelf life of bulk conditioned olive oil. This model described peroxide accumulation inside a container in excess of oxygen as a function of time at various positions from the interface air/oil. Good correlations were obtained between theoretical and experimental values.

  11. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Optimization of olive-fruit paste production using a methodological proposal based on a sensory and objective color analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heredia, F. J.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimization of the conditions to formulate paste based on olive fruits. The processing stages included: washing, blending, oil addition and preservation. Pair-comparisons and ranking tests were carried out by both a trained panel and a consumer panel to single out the preferred sample at each stage. The sensory attributes considered were taste, visual texture, texture in the mouth and overall preference. The results of the sensory analyses were processed statistically by means of ANOVA and the Friedman test to select the most appropriate processing conditions: washing for 30 minutes three times, blending at 2000 r.p.m, and the addition of 10 mL of oil. Several pasteurization conditions were assayed (62.5, 75, 85 and 95 °C for 15 minutes. No significant color differences (p Este trabajo presenta la optimización de las condiciones de formulación de una pasta de aceitunas. La elaboración comprendió diferentes fases: lavado, mezcla, adición de aceite y conservación. Un panel entrenado y un panel de consumidores realizaron pruebas de comparación por pareja y test de ordenación para seleccionar la muestra preferida en cada fase. Los atributos sensoriales considerados fueron sabor, textura visual, textura en boca y preferencia total. Los resultados del análisis sensorial se procesaron estadísticamente mediante ANOVA y el test de Friedman para seleccionar las condiciones óptimas de elaboración: lavado 3 veces durante 30 minutos, mezclado a 2000 r.p.m y adición de 10 mL de aceite de cobertura. Se ensayaron diferentes condiciones de pasteurización (62.5, 75, 85 y 95 °C durante 15 minutes. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p < 0.05 de color (CIELAB entre las pastas sometidas a diferentes condiciones de conservación. En base a los resultados del test de preferencia, las condiciones seleccionadas fueron: calentar a 85 °C durante 15 minutos.

  13. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  14. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiammetta Alagna

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia, included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  15. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  16. Evaluation Of Growth And Development In Mango Fruits Cvs. Julie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Growth And Development In Mango Fruits Cvs. Julie And Peter To Determine Maturity. ... Two mango cultivars viz., Julie and Peter, were studied for growth and development of fruits in 2001 and 2002 ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. development of motorized development of motorized oil palm fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    industrial activity in a number of developing West. African and ... pharmaceutical industries for the manufacture of drugs. ... production line of which oil palm fruit digestion is one. Thus, one ... For effective design of the machine, it was necessary.

  18. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  19. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  20. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  1. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  2. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  3. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use.

  4. Development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems with olive vegetable oil for cutaneous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas Arandas Monteiro e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Liquid-Crystalline Systems represent active compounds delivery systems that may be able to overcome the physical barrier of the skin, especially represented by the stratum corneum. To obtain these systems, aqueous and oily components are used with surfactants. Of the different association structures in such systems, the liquid-crystalline offer numerous advantages to a topical product. This manuscript presents the development of liquid-crystalline systems consisting, in which the oil component is olive oil, its rheological characterizations, and the location of liquid crystals in its phase map. Cytotoxic effects were evaluated using J-774 mouse macrophages as the cellular model. A phase diagram to mix three components with different proportions was constructed. Two liquid crystalline areas were found with olive oil in different regions in the ternary diagram with two nonionic surfactants, called SLC1 (S1 and SLC2 (S2. These systems showed lamellar liquid crystals that remained stable during the entire analysis time. The systems were also characterized rheologically with pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropy. The texture and bioadhesion assays showed that formulations were similar statistically (p < 0.05, indicating that the increased amount of water in S2 did not interfere with the bioadhesive properties of the systems. In vitro cytotoxic assays showed that formulations did not present cytotoxicity. Olive oil-based systems may be a promising platform for skin delivery of drugs.

  5. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  6. Evolution of biométrie parameters and chemical composition of olives from the Moroccan Picholine variety during fruit ripeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajana, H.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the maturity index during the ripeness of olives from the Moroccan Picholine variety did not show any significant variation before the middle of September. After this date it began the growing and reached the maximum value (4.7 at the middle of January. The weight of olives increased continuously from June to November, and remained constant over two months beyond the maximal value of 3.95g (November and December. The weight of the olive kernels was constant during all the sampling period. The olive dimensions (length and width showed similar trend as the olive weight. The polar lipid fraction of the oil predominated over the neutral one during June and July and after this date, the neutral fraction prevailed. The maximum value was reached in December. The protein content decreased from 4.6 to 2.3%. Ash content grow from 2.72 to 5.57%. The chlorophyll content in the oils decrease progressively and showed an inverse correlation with the maturity index. The phosphorus content diminished until September and then continued to be constant.

    La evolución del índice de madurez durante la maduración de aceitunas de la variedad Picholine marroquí no mostró variación significativa antes de mediados de septiembre. Después de esta fecha comenzó el crecimiento y alcanzó su valor máximo (4.7 a mediados de enero. El peso de las aceitunas aumentó continuamente desde junio hasta noviembre y se estabilizó durante dos meses más allá del valor máximo de 3.95g (noviembre y diciembre. El peso del hueso de las aceitunas permaneció constante durante todo el período de muestreo. Las dimensiones de las aceitunas (longitud y anchura tuvieron tendencias similares a las del peso de la aceituna. La fracción lipídica polar del aceite predominó sobre la neutra durante los meses de junio y julio, para después de esta fecha prevalecer la fracción neutra alcanzando su valor máximo en el mes de diciembre. El contenido en prote

  7. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  8. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  9. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  10. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  11. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  12. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  13. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit, seed and embryo developments of different cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genotypes, as well as embryo rescue, were investigated. The fruits of three genotypes after uncontrolled open pollination presented the same progressive development with similar sizes at different stages. There are large differences in ...

  14. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Chapman, N.; David, K.; Angenent, G.C.; Seymour, G.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on

  15. Interaction of Olive Oil and Metals

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKGÖK, Elif Burçin; ÖTLEŞ, Semih

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil, obtained only from the fruits of olive trees, is a food item consumed in natural form without any chemical process and is liquid at room temperature. In addition to its flavor, oxidative stability is the unique property of it. Oxidative stability of olive oil is so powerful is due to its major components which are fatty acids and minor components which are phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, sterols, phospholipids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, etc. All edible oils, including ol...

  16. Plastid Proteomic Analysis in Tomato Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Suzuki

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanism of plastid differentiation from chloroplast to chromoplast, we examined proteome and plastid changes over four distinct developmental stages of 'Micro-Tom' fruit. Additionally, to discover more about the relationship between fruit color and plastid differentiation, we also analyzed and compared 'Micro-Tom' results with those from two other varieties, 'Black' and 'White Beauty'. We confirmed that proteins related to photosynthesis remain through the orange maturity stage of 'Micro-Tom', and also learned that thylakoids no longer exist at this stage. These results suggest that at a minimum there are changes in plastid morphology occurring before all related proteins change. We also compared 'Micro-Tom' fruits with 'Black' and 'White Beauty' using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We found a decrease of CHRC (plastid-lipid-associated protein and HrBP1 (harpin binding protein-1 in the 'Black' and 'White Beauty' varieties. CHRC is involved in carotenoid accumulation and stabilization. HrBP1 in Arabidopsis has a sequence similar to proteins in the PAP/fibrillin family. These proteins have characteristics and functions similar to lipocalin, an example of which is the transport of hydrophobic molecules. We detected spots of TIL (temperature-induced lipocalin in 2D-PAGE results, however the number of spots and their isoelectric points differed between 'Micro-Tom' and 'Black'/'White Beauty'. Lipocalin has various functions including those related to environmental stress response, apoptosis induction, membrane formation and fixation, regulation of immune response, cell growth, and metabolism adjustment. Lipocalin related proteins such as TIL and HrBP1 could be related to the accumulation of carotenoids, fruit color and the differentiation of chromoplast.

  17. A value chain analysis for sustainable development of olive oil agro-industry: the case of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkhire Boudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the performance of the olive oil value chain in Algeria and identifies the bottlenecks that must be overcome to achieve sustainable development. Surveys were carried out and interviews conducted during a five-year period. Value chain approach was used as a tool to analyze the entire chain. The results showed that despite the value chain was found to be profitable for all chain actors, significant shortcomings and bottlenecks continue to undermine the overall development of the value chain. Major bottlenecks to improve productivity and value added were the poor agricultural practice and institutional environment; issues related to natural, structural, technology and economic environment; lack of market transparency; market uncertainties; lack of quality control; absence of traceability monitoring system throughout the chain; lack of certification and labelling; almost total absences of organized structures exist around the product; and limited effectiveness of agricultural extension services with low involvement of farmers and millers in professional organization related to olive oil industry. However, Algeria’s olive oil value chain has great potential for future development and currently, the country has an important advantage in terms of current development policies, the use of technology, and the extension of olive tree acreage. Nevertheless, the following upgrading strategies are recommended to enhance sustainability: improvement in product and process; changing in functional position; access to market; supply; cross distribution chain; and intra-chain linkage

  18. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  19. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  20. Efficacy of bioactive compounds from extra virgin olive oil to modulate atherosclerosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Arnal, Carmen; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    As olive oil is the main source of calories in the Mediterranean diet, a great deal of research has been devoted to characterizing its role in atherosclerosis. Virgin olive oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene; triterpenes such as uvaol, erythrodiol, oleanolic, and maslinic acid; phytosterols; and a wide range of phenolic compounds comprising simple phenols, flavonoids, secoiridoids, and lignans. In this review, we analyze the studies dealing with atherosclerosis and olive oil in several species. A protective role of virgin olive oil against atherosclerosis has been shown in ApoE-deficient mice and hamsters. In the former animal, sex, dose, and dietary cholesterol are modulators of the outcome. Contradictory findings have been reported for rabbits, a circumstance that could be due to the profusion of experimental designs, differing in terms of doses and animal strains, as well as sources of olive oils. This role has yet to be fully validated in humans. Minor components of olive oil have been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis protection. Nevertheless, evidence of the potential of isolated compounds or the right combination of them to achieve the antiatherosclerotic effect of virgin olive oil is inconclusive and will undoubtedly require further experimental support. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    fractions. These results show that the nanostructural complexity of pectins present in CDTA and Na 2 CO 3 fractions diminishes during fruit development, and this correlates with the solubilisation of pectins and the softening of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineering design and prototype development of a full scale ultrasound system for virgin olive oil by means of numerical and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Moramarco, Vito; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Di Palmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Corbo, Filomena; Pesce, Vito; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo; Amirante, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch. The aim of the paper was to design, realize and test the first full scale sono-exchanger for the virgin olive oil industry, to be placed immediately after the crusher and before the malaxer. The innovative device is mainly composed of a triple concentric pipe heat exchanger combined with three ultrasound probes. This mechanical solution allows both the cell walls (which release the oil droplets) along with the minor compounds to be destroyed more effectively and the heat exchange between the olive paste and the process water to be accelerated. This strategy represents the first step towards the transformation of the malaxing step from a batch operation into a real continuous process, thus improving the working capacity of the industrial plants. Considering the heterogeneity of the olive paste, which is composed of different tissues, the design of the sono-exchanger required a thorough fluid dynamic analysis. The thermal effects of the sono-exchanger were monitored by measuring the temperature of the product at the inlet and the outlet of the device; in addition, the measurement of the pigments concentration in the product allowed monitoring the mechanical effects of the sono-exchanger. The effects of the innovative process were also evaluated in terms of extra virgin olive oil yields and quality, evaluating the main legal parameters, the polyphenol and tocopherol content. Moreover, the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in the olive

  3. Development and optimization of an efficient qPCR system for olive authentication in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Rebollo, Alba; Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Ortega, Natividad

    2017-10-01

    The applicability of qPCR in olive-oil authentication depends on the DNA obtained from the oils and the amplification primers. Therefore, four olive-specific amplification systems based on the trnL gene were designed (A-, B-, C- and D-trnL systems). The qPCR conditions, primer concentration and annealing temperature, were optimized. The systems were tested for efficiency and sensitivity to select the most suitable for olive oil authentication. The selected system (D-trnL) demonstrated specificity toward olive in contrast to other oleaginous species (canola, soybean, sunflower, maize, peanut and coconut) and showed high sensitivity in a broad linear dynamic range (LOD and LOQ: 500ng - 0.0625pg). This qPCR system enabled detection, with high sensitivity and specificity, of olive DNA isolated from oils processed in different ways, establishing it as an efficient method for the authentication of olive oil regardless of its category. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  5. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species

  6. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    of current trapping devices and the female biased attractant Biolure as well as on evaluation of mass trapping as a method for population suppression and development of target lure and kill devices or 'bait stations' for fruit fly control and field evaluation procedures. Through this CRP (2000-2005) and two previous CRP's, which results were published in IAEA-TECDOC-883, and IAEA-TECDOC-1099, on fruit fly trapping technology, significant progress has been made in optimization of current trapping systems and on developing female biased attractants for surveillance of some of the major fruit fly pests. Furthermore, a solid basis for continuing the development of bait stations has been established. However, there are still a number of information gaps that need to be filled through further research and development. These gaps have been clearly identified for future research efforts. This includes: (1) optimizing the use of the dry synthetic food attractants in relation to different climatic conditions, (2) continuation of the evaluation of detection systems for new exotic invasive fruit fly species, (3) basic research on more potent attractants for the olive fruit fly (B. oleae) and on the behaviour related with such attractants, (4) development of bait station that present a generic action, have low impact on non-target species (natural enemies and pollinators), be long-lasting, inexpensive and biodegradable, and (5) studies on spatial and temporal dynamics of the populations for development of mass trapping and bait station technologies. The setting of the CRP, with scientists from research institutions in 18 different Member States interacting with the manufacturers and suppliers of trapping materials and under the coordination of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme, showed to be a very effective model to reduce the time period from the development of the technology to the commercialization and utilization by the end user

  7. The role of rabbit density and the diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops in olive groves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Casado, J.; Carpio, A.J.; Prada, L.M.; Tortosa, F.S.

    2015-07-01

    Cover crops are an effective means to reduce soil erosion and to provide food and shelter for wildlife. However, in areas of intensive farming, which are characterised by the scarcity of weed communities, wild herbivores may focus their grazing on cover crops, which could make their implementation difficult. In this work, we test whether rabbit grazing can prevent the growth of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves in Southern Spain in addition to assessing the role of rabbit abundance and diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops. This question has been addressed by sowing Bromus rubens between the rows of five olive groves in Cordoba province (Spain). We then monitored the surface covered by B. rubens, along with both diversity of weed communities and rabbit abundance. Two rabbit exclusion areas were also placed in each olive grove in order to assess the impact of rabbits on the development of cover crops. Our results showed that the surface occupied by B. rubens was considerably higher in the rabbit exclusion areas (mean 56.8 ± 5.65 %) than in those areas in which they could feed (mean 35.6 ± 4.32 %). The coverage occupied by cover crops was higher in areas with lower rabbit density, although this relationship was modulated by the weed diversity index, since in areas with the same rabbit abundance the coverage was higher in those with a richer weed community. These findings suggest that high rabbit abundances can prevent the development of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves, particularly in areas in which alternative food resources (measured as weed diversity) are scarce. (Author)

  8. The role of rabbit density and the diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops are an effective means to reduce soil erosion and to provide food and shelter for wildlife. However, in areas of intensive farming, which are characterised by the scarcity of weed communities, wild herbivores may focus their grazing on cover crops, which could make their implementation difficult. In this work, we test whether rabbit grazing can prevent the growth of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves in Southern Spain in addition to assessing the role of rabbit abundance and diversity of weeds in the development of cover crops. This question has been addressed by sowing Bromus rubens between the rows of five olive groves in Cordoba province (Spain. We then monitored the surface covered by B. rubens, along with both diversity of weed communities and rabbit abundance. Two rabbit exclusion areas were also placed in each olive grove in order to assess the impact of rabbits on the development of cover crops. Our results showed that the surface occupied by B. rubens was considerably higher in the rabbit exclusion areas (mean 56.8 ± 5.65 % than in those areas in which they could feed (mean 35.6 ± 4.32 %. The coverage occupied by cover crops was higher in areas with lower rabbit density, although this relationship was modulated by the weed diversity index, since in areas with the same rabbit abundance the coverage was higher in those with a richer weed community. These findings suggest that high rabbit abundances can prevent the development of herbaceous cover crops in olive groves, particularly in areas in which alternative food resources (measured as weed diversity are scarce.

  9. Development of Motorized Oil Palm Fruit Rotary Digester | Asoiro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A motorized oil palm fruit rotary digester comprising of a feed hopper, hammers, axle, screening plate, v-belt, 2hp electric motor, digesting chamber and frame was designed and developed using standard and locally sourced materials. The performance test analysis showed that its throughput capacity is 117.93kg/hr with a ...

  10. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis.

  11. Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina T Tsoumani

    Full Text Available Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97% of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages.

  12. Molecular studies in olive (Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, T; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Sebastiani, L

    2011-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) and cultivated (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea). In spite of its economic and nutritional importance, there are few data about the genetic of olive if compared with other fruit crops. Available molecular data are especially related to the application of molecular markers to the analysis of genetic variability in Olea europaea complex and to develop efficient molecular tools for the olive oil origin traceability. With regard to genomic research, in the last years efforts are made for the identification of expressed sequence tag, with particular interest in those sequences expressed during fruit development and in pollen allergens. Very recently the sequencing of chloroplast genome provided new information on the olive nucleotide sequence, opening the olive genomic era. In this article, we provide an overview of the most relevant results in olive molecular studies. A particular attention was given to DNA markers and their application that constitute the most part of published researches. The first important results in genome analysis were reported.

  13. Anatomy and fruit development in Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesprini, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Schinopsis balansae Engl. is a dioecious tree; reproduction is by woody samaras containing a single seed. Fruit set is high, even in isolated trees, empty fruits are frequent and account for a high proportion of the total fruit production. To describe the anatomy and the ontogeny of seeded and seedless fruits, flowers and fruits at different development stages from bagged and pollen exposed flowers were studied. The development and the anatomy of the pericarp in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits did not differ. It consisted in an exocarp formed sensu lato from the external epidermis of the ovary and some layers of the underlying parenchyma. The mature mesocarp was constituted by a sclerified tissue and lysigenous channels. The fruit is of Anacardium type: the endocarp presented three sclerenchymatic and a crystalliferous layer. The endocarp development was also sensu lato because it was formed from the epidermis and the hypodermis of the carpel. This organization agrees with the only species described in the genus: S. haenkeana Engl. Schinopsis balansae is able to produce parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Empty fruits from free exposed flowers presented embryos arrested at different stages, although total absence of an embryo was the most common condition. Parthenocarpy seems to be a plesiomorphic trait within the Anacardiaceae, but regardless of its origin, the maintenance of empty fruit production in a wind-dispersed samara is difficult to explain. Whether parthenocarpy has an adaptive value, or is an evolutionary constraint remains unclear in Schinopsis.Schinopsis balansae Engl. es un árbol dioico, cuya reproducción se realiza a través de sámaras uniseminadas. La producción de frutos es muy alta y una gran proporción de los mismos son vanos. Con la finalidad de describir la anatomía y ontogenia de los frutos, con y sin semillas, se trabajó con flores y frutos en distintos estados de desarrollo. Se utilizaron

  14. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  15. ANÁLISIS INTERNO DE LAS COOPERATIVAS AGROALIMENTARIAS CATALANAS DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA: LOS SECTORES DEL ACEITE Y LA FRUTA DULCE / INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF CATALAN AGRARIAN COOPERATIVES SINCE A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE: THE OIL OLIVE SECTOR AND THE SWEET FRUIT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard CRISTÓBAL FRANSI

    2012-05-01

    in the subsequent phases to the production. In order to do this, we have realized a comparative study basing in different aspects of the internal structure of sweet fruit as well as olive oil cooperatives.

  16. Development of a mobile application based on RUSLE model to predict erosion in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Moreno, Víctor Javier; Redel, María Dolores; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impact of agriculture in fragile areas such as the Mediterranean Basin due to its scarcity and/or variability of water resources or to their susceptibility to soil erosion may be extremely damaging. Over 96% of the world's olive oil is produced in Mediterranean countries (FAOSTAT, 2014). Suitable managements and environmental evaluations of the conditions in olive cultivation farms is of major relevance for countries such as Spain, particularly in Andalusia (in Southern Spain) with an olive orchard area of 1.5 Mha (CAP, 2016). The average erosion rates in olive orchard in Southern Spain are approximately 19 tons.ha-1.year-1. It is worth noting how 23% of this surface presents high or very high erosion rates with values over 50 tons.ha-1.year-1 (Areal, 2014). Most of farmers implement soil conservation practices only when have they perceived high erosion risk (Franco, 2011: Taguas and Gómez, 2015). On the other hand, technicians also require proper technological tools to evaluate in a straightforward way, soil loss risk in the field. Simple tools integrated into smartphones may enable us to evaluate soil erosion rates through minimum information; which would be a great help in raising farmer awareness as well as in environmental control. In this work, the preliminary version of RIESGO (Risk Index for Erosion Soil in Olive Groves) , -an APP mobile based in SECO (Soil Erosion Calculator in Olives; Marín-Moreno et al. 2013) that promises broad functionality to identify soil loss risk in the field,- is presented. Features such as simple screens, a reduced group of input data, calculations for R and K factors based on environmental information of Andalusia which are identified from geographical coordinates and a new method of obtaining factor C from empirical data have been integrated to fit its use in the field. RIESGO is and hybrid application which was programmed by using web technologies HTML, CSS and JavaScript, and built with Visual Studio Tools for

  17. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  18. A dynamic interplay between phytohormones is required for fruit development, maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMcAtee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that bear fruit often utilise expansion of an ovary (carpel or accessory tissue as a vehicle for seed dispersal. While the seed(s develop, the tissue(s of the fruit follow a common progression of cell division and cell expansion, promoting growth of the fruit. Once the seed is fully developed, the fruit matures and the surrounding tissue either dries or ripens promoting the dissemination of the seed. As with many developmental processes in plants, plant hormones play an important role in the synchronisation of signals between the developing seed and its surrounding fruit tissue(s, regulating each phase of fruit development. Following pollination, fruit set is achieved through a de-repression of growth and an activation of cell division via the action of auxin and/or cytokinin and/or gibberellin. Following fruit set, growth of the fruit is facilitated through a relatively poorly studied period of cell expansion and endoreduplication that is likely regulated by similar hormones as in fruit set. Once the seeds reach maturity, fruit become ready to undergo ripening and during this period there is a major switch in relative hormone levels of the fruit, involving an overall decrease in auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin and a simultaneous increase in abscisic acid and ethylene. While the role of hormones in fruit set and ripening is well documented, the knowledge of the roles of other hormones during growth, maturation and some individual ripening components is sketchy.

  19. Influence of Dacus Oleae infestation on flavor of oils, extracted from attacked olive fruits, by HPLC and HRGC analyses of volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solinas, M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined the influence of the Dacus Oleae infestation on the aroma of the oils obtained from olives of Coratina and Nebbio varieties at different levels of attack. The results obtained indicated a worsening of the qualitative level of the oils obtained from increasing percentages of infested olives; these were found to have a great decrease of phenolic substances and higher contents of both volatile alcohols and aldehydes with an unpleasant sensation. Of particular interest was hexanal/total volatile alcohols ratio, in which having been well correlated with the extent of infestation, would permit one to establish in an objective manner, if and how much the olives from which an oil has been extracted have suffered a Dacus attack.Los autores han examinado la influencia de la infestación por Dacus Oleae sobre el aroma de aceites obtenidos de aceitunas de las variedades Coratina y Nebbio en diferentes estados de ataque. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron un empeoramiento de los niveles de calidad de los aceites obtenidos a medida que se incrementaba el porcentaje de aceitunas infestadas; mostrando una gran disminución de las sustancias fenólicas y altos contenidos tanto de alcoholes volátiles como de aldehídos, con una sensación desagradable. De particular interés fue la relación hexanal/alcoholes volátiles totales, la cual ha sido bien correlacionada con la extensión de la infestación, lo que permitiría establecer de una manera objetiva, sí y cuantas de las aceitunas de las cuales se ha extraído, han sufrido ataque por Dacus.

  20. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Determining the most suitable frequency and shaking time for olive harvesting by a pneumatic branch shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olive (Oleo europaea includes about 20 species of small trees from Oleaceae family. This point should be considered that Iran has allocated only a small universal market to its olive products in spite of having high production potentials; so that about 23 provinces of this country can produce olive products. Therefore mechanizing of olive production and encouraging to develop olive trade are among the effective methods for development of this market. On the basis of IOOC report, the production of olive oil in 2008-2009 in Iran and all over the world has been 3 and 2866.5 thousand tons, respectively. Currently, harvesting olive product is done by hand in Iran. The expensiveness of work force and providing the needed workers are considered as the biggest problem in olive harvesting. While harvesting the tall trees, the workers use beating method by wood sticks which causes the fruits to be damaged and their quality to be decreased. The harvesting method which the quality and quantity of the olive final products is under its effect and also high expenses of harvesting by hand are considered as the two important factors in developing the mechanical harvesting of olive. For this purpose, the mechanized harvesting of olive should be considered for producing olive conserve and olive oil and decreasing expenses of harvesting. Considering the conducted studies on one hand and shortage of informational resources in the country on the other hand, a research was designed and performed with the following purposes: Designing and fabricating of a portable pneumatic branch shaking system. Determining the best frequency and oscillation duration for harvesting olive by the constructed system. Materials and Methods The branch shaking system is made of two general parts: (a The set of branch shaker driving unit. (b The portable vibration arm. For constructing the set of vibrating arm, two experiments “elasticity and inflectionˮ of tree branches were

  2. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Viability During Fruit Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    and petri dishes on moist filter paper, gave 80% germination in variety gabonensis, 20 weeks after fruiting. .... Effect of pretreatments on seed germination of fruits of Irvingia gabonensis plucked from forest ...... A review of the tariff structure and.

  3. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order... their fresh harvested state, whether or not placed in a water or other preserving medium. [33 FR 11266...

  5. Flowering in the wild olive (Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-19

    Apr 19, 2012 ... This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female ... ecological niches in oleaster trees. ... The self-pollination may occur, but olive cultivars are ... Plants can ..... The fruit set results from the interaction.

  6. Effect of hormone treatments on deformed fruit development in pear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erica

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... of plant growth regulators applications and endogenous hormones on deformed pear fruit to clarify the relation- ship between shape and hormones in the fruit. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The experiments were conducted in 2008 using pear trees growing fruit demonstration farm in Jianning County.

  7. A development plan for the south-eastern part of Pag island with an emphasis on olive-growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Koščak Miočić-Stošić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the fact that the traditional usage of rural landscapes was agricultural, a degradation of landscape values, as well as an onset of natural succession, occur due to contemporary lifestyle. This can lead to negative effects regarding land-use change. This paper focuses on the south-eastern part of Pag island and explores the possibilities for the revitalisation of its neglected areas by envisioning its future development as an olive-growing region. The final goal was to define a planning procedure framework which would enable the creation of a strategic vision to be transformed into a comprehensive spatial development strategy for the research area. This area encompasses the territory between Kaštela in the north-west and the Pag’s bridge in the south-east which administratively belongs to the Zadar County and includes the Town of Pag, and the Kolan and Povljana municipalities. Olive-growing has been recognized as the strategic choice for development because of its tradition in the area and the potential integration with other relatable activities. Based on the SWOT analysis, an appropriate mission, a vision and strategic goals were defined for developing Pag as an olive-growing region. Further landscape planning methods included (1 the Lynch mapping analysis, (2 the Forman and Godron landscape ecology analysis and (3 the landscape pattern analysis. The results were then used together with digital orthophoto imagery to overlay and analyse relevant information. Hand drawings as well as AutoCAD, ArcGIS and image editing computer programmes were used in the process. This analytical phase was then followed by the development of several alternative spatial zonings, diagrams and concepts based on a preferable neighbourhood matrix and the activity sizing table. The planning process resulted in a concept for spatial development of the research area which would enable the implementation of the strategic vision. The main goal of this

  8. Identification and gene expression analysis of AUX1 influencing adventitious root induction in olive cuttings (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Mazinani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive is one of the most important fruit crops throughout the Mediterranean Basin, mainly propagated by cuttings. The adventitious root development is a key stage in vegetative propagation however the low rooting capacity of some cultivars severely affects the efficiency of olive clonal propagation. Auxin Influx Carrier gene (AUX1, plays a key role in lateral root formation in many plant species promoting the export of IAA from newly developing leaves to lateral root primordia. Putative olive homologues were amplified by using degenerate primers designed on the conserved regions of AUX1 transcripts identified in other plants. Transcript and amino acid sequences in root (OeAUX1R and base of cutting (OeAUX1B were different causes of polymorphisms relating to possible distinct roles in these tissues. In order to investigate the gene expression patterns, Real-time PCR was performed on cuttings during the rooting stage collected from genotypes characterized by high and low rooting ability. Moreover, the gene expression was investigated on different olive tissues. Preliminary results showed that the expression of OeAUX1B and OeAUX1R in base of cuttings and roots of the high-rooting genotype were higher which suggests the hypothesis of the involvement of OeAUX1 in olive rooting. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AUX1 gene had 8 exons in olive and the sequence of this gene in plant was conserved during evolution.

  9. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  10. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  11. Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California---Utilization of Parasitoids from USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala and Cultural Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, for biological ...

  12. Development and Utilization of Technology on Indian Mango Fruit Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda A. Bronce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This project aimed to develop and utilize technology on Indian mango fruit processing. Chemical properties of matured unripe and ripe Indian mangoes were determined in terms of total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, titratable acidity and pH. Fermentation parameters investigated in the study were amount of sugar added (20 and 25% fermentation medium, acidity of fermentation medium (addition of 1.33 and 1.66 grams of citric acid for ripe and dilution of water for unripe, degree of ripening of Indian mango fruits (ripe and unripe and ageing period (3 and 4 months. Sixteen treatments were done in triplicates and a composite sample was taken from each treatment for sensory evaluation. Results of the preference test were subjected to statistical analysis. The physicochemical properties of Indian mango wine produced using best fermentation parameters were determined. Appropriate packaging material was selected and packaging design was developed for Indian mango wine. Project cooperators were selected and the technology was transferred through training and production runs. Results of preference test showed that the wine with best sensory properties was prepared using matured unripe Indian mango diluted with water and added with 25% sugar. According to the panel of sensory experts, the taste of Indian mango wine was strong with proper blending of sweetness and sourness, its mouth feel was smooth and good balance, aroma was hot pungent and its color and appearance was clear and light yellow. Its titratable acidity was 0.622%, pH was 5, alcohol content was 11% and brix was 5°.

  13. Modelling of the carbon and water balances of olive (Olea europaea, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Olive orchards are the main component of numerous agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. In this work we present the development of a simulation model of olive orchards, which is used here to illustrate some specific features of the water and carbon balances of olives. The fraction of daily Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR) intercepted by the trees (Qd) changes substantially with solar declination. For a given LAI Qd increases as tree size is smaller. Canopy volume has a much larger effect on Qd than Leaf Area Density (LAD), implying that a submodel for canopy volume will be required. Estimates of Radiation-Use Efficiency for yield are 0.35 g dry matter/(MJ PAR) and 0.16 g oil/(MJ PAR) which are around 80% of those for sunflower under the same environment. Crop evaporation in olive orchards is characterized by a high proportion of evaporation from the soil surface (Es) and by the response of stomata to air humidity. Results from a evapotranspiration corresponds to Es, and that Water-Use Efficiency relative to transpiration is 0.9 kg fruit dry matter m-3, which is equal to that of sunflower. Important gaps in our knowledge of olive ecophysiology (dry matter partitioning and growth) require further research

  14. Phytochemicals and Medicinal Properties of Indigenous Tropical Fruits with Potential for Commercial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of fruit-bearing trees are native to Southeast Asia, but many of them are considered as indigenous or underutilized. These species can be categorized as indigenous tropical fruits with potential for commercial development and those possible for commercial development. Many of these fruits are considered as underutilized unless the commercialization is being realized despite the fact that they have the developmental potential. This review discusses seven indigenous tropical fruits from 15 species that have been identified, in which their fruits are having potential for commercial development. As they are not as popular as the commercially available fruits, limited information is found. This paper is the first initiative to provide information on the phytochemicals and potential medicinal uses of these fruits. Phytochemicals detected in these fruits are mainly the phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and other terpenoids. Most of these phytochemicals are potent antioxidants and have corresponded to the free radical scavenging activities and other biological activities of the fruits. The scientific research that covered a broad range of in vitro to in vivo studies on the medicinal potentials of these fruits is also discussed in detail. The current review is an update for researchers to have a better understanding of the species, which simultaneously can provide awareness to enhance their commercial value and promote their utilization for better biodiversity conservation.

  15. BEL1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN 11 regulated chloroplast development and chlorophyll synthesis in tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroplast development and chlorophyll content and metabolism in unripe tomato contribute to the growth and development of the fruit, and also the ripe fruit quality, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In this work, seven homeobox-containing transcription factors (TFs) with specific ripening-a...

  16. Fruit, seed and embryo development of different cassava (Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... Key words: Manihot esculenta Crantz, day after pollination (DAP), fruit set, seed size, .... (day/night) photoperiod with light supplied by white fluorescent tubes .... Science Foundation of China (31301378) and the projects.

  17. Investment in plant research and development bears fruit in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kang; Xu, Zhihong

    2014-04-01

    Recent rapid progress in plant science and biotechnology in China demonstrates that China's stronger support for funding in plant research and development (R&D) has borne fruit. Chinese groups have contributed major advances in a range of fields, such as rice biology, plant hormone and developmental biology, genomics and evolution, plant genetics and epigenetics, as well as plant biotechnology. Strigolactone studies including those identifying its receptor and dissecting its complex structure and signaling are representative of the recent researches from China at the forefront of the field. These advances are attributable in large part to interdisciplinary studies among scientists from plant science, chemistry, bioinformatics, structural biology, and agronomy. The platforms provided by national facilities facilitate this collaboration. As well, efficient restructuring of the top-down organization of state programs and free exploration of scientists' interests have accelerated achievements by Chinese researchers. Here, we provide a general outline of China's progress in plant R&D to highlight fields in which Chinese research has made significant contributions.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  19. Transcription analysis of apple fruit development using cDNA microarrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soglio, V.; Costa, F.; Molthoff, J.W.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Schouten, H.J.; Gianfranceschi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit quality traits is fundamental to devise efficient marker-assisted selection strategies and to improve apple breeding. In this study, cDNA microarray technology was used to identify genes whose expression changes during fruit development and

  20. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC, β-actin (ClACT, and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5 as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1, a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  1. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  2. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  3. Regularities in the +H14C assimilate supply of peach fruits at their last development stage within the range of a fruit-bearing branchlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Manolov, P.

    1977-01-01

    Studies have been accomplished by means of 14 C and autoradiography on the transport link between individual shoots and Redhaven fruits in their advanced development (about a week before maturity) which have formed within the range of a fruit-bearing branchlet. This confirms the conception of directing the photosynthetic prod%cts mainly to the ripening fruits. The basic regularities of the photoassimilate transport prove to be the same as at an early phase of fruit development. Nevertheless, there are also some new traits of morphological and physiological essence such as relatively a large phloem fibre scope of the fruit-bearing branchlet, creating better possibilities of taking over the transport products of the photosynthesis and enhanced attraction opwer of fruits, conditioning a strengthened linear and additional transversal transport, thus contributing to the rapid growth of fruits in their last development phase. Under the influence of these factors, the independence of individual shoots and fruits along and around a fruit-bearing branchlet is substantially less than at an early development phase. (author)

  4. A randomised controlled intervention study investigating the efficacy of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables and extra-virgin olive oil on attenuating sarcopenic symptomology in overweight and obese older adults during energy intake restriction: protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Anthony; Wright, Hattie; Slater, Gary; Buckley, Jonathan

    2018-01-05

    Weight loss interventions have not been advocated for overweight/obese older adults due to potential loss of skeletal muscle and strength impacting on physical function with potential loss of independence. Carotenoids and polyphenols are inversely associated with sarcopenic symptomology. This paper reports the protocol of a study evaluating the efficacy of a high-protein, energy restricted diet rich in carotenoids and polyphenols on body composition, muscle strength, physical performance and quality of life in overweight and obese older adults. This randomised controlled clinical trial will recruit community-dwelling, healthy overweight and obese older adults (≥60 years) for a 12-week weight loss intervention. Seventy-three participants will be recruited and randomized to an energy restricted (~30% restriction), isocaloric diet (30% protein; 30% carbohydrate; 40% fat) enriched with either: a) 375 g/d of high carotenoid vegetables, 300 g/d high carotenoid fruit, and 40-60 ml extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO); or b) 375 g/d of lower carotenoid vegetables, 300 g/d lower carotenoid fruit, and 40-60 ml Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) based oil. All participants will receive individual dietary counselling each fortnight for the duration of the study and will be asked to maintain their habitual level of physical activity throughout the study. The primary outcome will be appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes will include body weight, fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), muscle strength (Isometric hand-grip strength), physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and health related quality of life (SF-36). Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at week 12. The results of this study will provide a novel insight relating to the potential influence of high carotenoid and polyphenol intakes on attenuation of ASM during

  5. Ethanol, vinegar and Origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos G

    2010-08-15

    Anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (AEA), vinegar (VIN), chlorine (CHL) or origanum oil (ORI) and storage at 12 degrees C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. Fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of AEA- and VIN-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. Fruit lesion development was suppressed after fruit exposure to pure (100% v/v) AEA or ORI vapours which were accompanied by increased fruit cracking. Exposure to pure VIN-, CHL- and ORI vapours reduced (up to 92%) spore germination in vitro, but no differences were observed in the AEA treatment. The benefits associated with volatiles-enrichment were maintained in fruit pre-exposed to vapours, resulting in suppression in spore germination and spore production. However, studies performed on fungi grown on Potato Dextrose Agar revealed fewer direct effects of volatiles on fungal colony development and spore germination per se, implying that suppression of pathogen development was due in a large part to the impact of volatiles on fruit-pathogen interactions and/or 'memory' effects on fruit tissue. Work is currently focussing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of volatiles on fruit quality related attributes. The results of this study indicate that volatiles may be considered as an alternative to the traditional postharvest sanitizing techniques. Each commodity needs to be individually assessed, and the volatile concentration and sanitising technique optimised, before the volatile treatment is used commercially. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of sugar-metabolic enzymes and sugars accumulation during watermelon (citrullus lanatus) fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type w2, a low-sugar type (w1), and their hybrid. In w2, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.71). In W, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of W (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of W2, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In W1, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in W1 than in W2 at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in W1. (author)

  7. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  8. Variability of 137Cs and 40K soil-to-fruit transfer factor in tropical lemon trees during the fruit development period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, H.; Cid, A.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Zamboni, C.B.; Rizzotto, M.; Valladares, D.L.; Juri Ayub, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluate the soil uptake of 137 Cs and 40 K by tropical plants and their consequent translocation to fruits, by calculating the soil-to-fruit transfer factors defined as F v = [concentration of radionuclide in fruit (Bq kg −1 dry mass)/concentration of radionuclide in soil (Bq kg −1 dry mass in upper 20 cm)]. In order to obtain F v values, the accumulation of these radionuclides in fruits of lemon trees (Citrus limon B.) during the fruit growth was measured. A mathematical model was calibrated from the experimental data allowing simulating the incorporation process of these radionuclides by fruits. Although the fruit incorporates a lot more potassium than cesium, both radionuclides present similar absorption patterns during the entire growth period. F v ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for 40 K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for 137 Cs. Maximum F v values are reached at the initial time of fruit growth and decrease as the fruit develops, being lowest at the maturation period. As a result of applying the model a decreasing exponential function is derived for F v as time increases. The agreement between the theoretical approach and the experimental values is satisfactory. - Highlights: ► We assessed the transfer of 137 Cs and 40 K from soil to fruits in tropical plants. ► A mathematical model was developed to describe the dry mass growth of lemon fruits. ► The transfer factors ranged from 0.54 to 1.02 for 40 K and from 0.02 to 0.06 for 137 Cs. ► Maximum values of transfer factors were reached in the initial phase of fruit growth. ► The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was satisfactory.

  9. Influence of Inter stock Grafting as a Dwarfing Component on Peach Trees Development and Fruit Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S.; Nasrulhaq, A.; Mizutani, F.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the interstock grafting effect as a dwarfing component on Peach tree development and fruit quality. The study was made at the Ehime University Experimental farm located in south-eastern Japan during the period 2001-2005. The results of the field experiment indicated that pruned branches weight and flowers number were lower in interstock than in control trees. However, percent fruit set was a little higher in intersrock treated than in control trees. Fruit yield and fruit weight were lower in interstock treated than control trees. Soluble solids content and maturity index were higher in interstock treated trees than control, with an increasing trend in the period from 2001 to 2005, while titratable acidity showed that the livestock grafting is a useful dwarfing component for controlling the size of peach trees and improvement of fruit quality. (author)

  10. Development and quality of pineapple guava fruit in two locations with different altitudes in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit growth is stimulated by different weather conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of weather conditions on the physicochemical properties of pineapple guava fruit growth. Twenty trees were marked in two production areas located at different altitudes (1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., and measurements were performed every 7 days from 99 and 141 days post-anthesis to harvest at altitudes of 1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., respectively. The results indicate that altitude and weather conditions greatly influence the growth and development of pineapple guava fruit, and these effects are primarily manifested in the physical characteristics of the fruit. The weight and size of the fruit at harvest are directly related to the altitude of the production area. The weather condition that has the greatest impact on total titratable acidity at harvest is cumulative radiation during fruit growth; the highest value of total soluble solids at harvest corresponds to the location with the higher altitude, lower rainfall and relative humidity and higher cumulative radiation during the fruit growth period. The hue angle and pulp firmness at harvest are not influenced by the location or weather conditions at any location and do not determine the fruit quality at harvest time.

  11. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  12. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph A; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0

  13. Forecasting olive crop yields based on long-term aero biological data series and bio climatic conditions for the southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, F.; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, bio-meteorological models for predicting olive-crop production in the southern Iberian Peninsula were developed. These covered a 16-year period: 1994-2009. The forecasting models were constructed using the partial least-squares regression method, taking the annual olive yield as the dependent variable, and both aero biological and meteorological parameters as the independent variables. Two regression models were built for the prediction of crop production prior to the final harvest at two different times of the year: July and November. The percentage variance explained by the models was between 83% and 93%. Through these forecasting models, the main factors that influence olive-crop yield were identified. Pollen index and accumulated precipitation, especially as rain recorded during the pre-flowering months, were the most important parameters for providing an explanation of fluctuations in fruit production. The temperature recorded during the two months preceding budburst was another important variable, which showed positive effects on the final yield. The July model that provides accurate predictions of fruit production eight months prior to the final harvest is proposed as an optimal model to forecast fruit produced by olive trees in western Mediterranean areas. (Author)

  14. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  15. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana Stavropoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L. oil (DIT and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L and times of exposure (up to 120 h examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres.

  16. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  17. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2014-08-06

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were ‘disease and defense’ (16.5%) and ‘metabolism’ (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of ‘Barhi’ fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  18. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  19. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  20. Development of molecular tests for the detection of ILAR and latent viruses in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, S; Kummert, J; Dutrecq, O; Lepoivre, P; Jijakli, M H

    2004-01-01

    The detection throughout the year of latent and ILAR viruses in fruit tress by classical serological tests appear to be unreliable. We have developed RT-PCR tests for a reliable detection of latent and ILAR viruses in fruit trees. These assays were then simplified to allow the direct use of crude plant extracts instead of total RNA preparations, and the analyses of pooled samples. In this way, such RT-PCR protocols are suitable for a routine diagnosis of latent and ILAR viruses in fruit tree certification.

  1. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. PMID:26930190

  2. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  3. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  4. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnaire and focus group discussions in each of the three districts, i.e., Mudzi, Mt Darwin and Muzarabani in Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that the masau fruit is usually gathered by women and chi...

  5. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Erel

    Full Text Available The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  6. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  7. Variability in Susceptibility to Anthracnose in the World Collection of Olive Cultivars of Cordoba (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Juan; Xaviér, Carlos J; Viruega, José R; Roca, Luis F; Caballero, Juan; Trapero, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose of olive ( Olea europaea ssp. europaea L.), caused by Colletotrichum species, is a serious disease causing fruit rot and branch dieback, whose epidemics are highly dependent on cultivar susceptibility and environmental conditions. Over a period of 10 years, there have been three severe epidemics in Andalusia (southern Spain) that allowed us to complete the assessment of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Córdoba, one of the most important cultivar collections worldwide.A total of 308 cultivars from 21 countries were evaluated, mainly Spain (174 cvs.), Syria (29 cvs.), Italy (20 cvs.), Turkey (15 cvs.), and Greece (16 cvs.). Disease assessments were performed using a 0-10 rating scale, specifically developed to estimate the incidence of symptomatic fruit in the tree canopy. Also, the susceptibility of five reference cultivars was confirmed by artificial inoculation. Because of the direct relationship between the maturity of the fruit and their susceptibility to the pathogen, evaluations were performed at the end of fruit ripening, which forced coupling assessments according to the maturity state of the trees. By applying the cluster analysis to the 308 cultivars, these were classified as follows: 66 cvs. highly susceptible (21.4%), 83 cvs. susceptible (26.9%), 66 cvs. moderately susceptible (21.4%), 61 cvs. resistant (19.8%), and 32 cvs. highly resistant (10.4%). Representative cultivars of these five categories are "Ocal," "Lechín de Sevilla," "Arbequina," "Picual," and "Frantoio," respectively. With some exceptions, such as cvs. Arbosana, Empeltre and Picual, most of the Spanish cultivars, such as "Arbequina," "Cornicabra," "Hojiblanca," "Manzanilla de Sevilla," "Morisca," "Picudo," "Farga," and "Verdial de Huévar" are included in the categories of moderately susceptible, susceptible or highly susceptible. The phenotypic evaluation of anthracnose reaction is a limiting factor for the selection of olive cultivars by farmers, technicians, and breeders.

  8. Rural Destination Development Based on Olive Oil Tourism: The Impact of Residents’ Community Attachment and Quality of Life on Their Support for Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Campón-Cerro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Residents are an essential part of tourism destinations, which makes gaining a deeper understanding of residents’ attitudes towards tourism development necessary because their favourable attitudes can contribute to destinations’ success. This study sought to understand to what extent rural residents’ perceptions of tourism development in their region affect their intention to support further tourism development. The present research also focused on the influence of the variables of community attachment and perceived quality of life on the relationship between residents’ perceptions of and intentions to support this development. This study concentrated on the case of olive oil tourism development in the Sierra de Gata and Las Hurdes districts in Spain. To test the proposed model, the data were collected from a sample of 245 residents in this region. Partial least squares was used to assess the model’s accuracy. The results highlight the importance of residents’ perceptions and their community attachment and perceived quality of life to destination managers who plan and develop tourism projects.

  9. Rosaceae Fruit Development, Ripening and Post-harvest: An Epigenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinati, Silvia; Rasori, Angela; Varotto, Serena; Bonghi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Rosaceae is a family with an extraordinary spectrum of fruit types, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry that provide unique contributions to a healthy diet for consumers, and represent an excellent model for studying fruit patterning and development. In recent years, many efforts have been made to unravel regulatory mechanism underlying the hormonal, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic changes occurring during Rosaceae fruit development. More recently, several studies on fleshy (tomato) and dry (Arabidopsis) fruit model have contributed to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms underlying important heritable crop traits, such as ripening and stress response. In this context and summing up the results obtained so far, this review aims to collect the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that may provide an additional level in gene transcription regulation, thus influencing and driving the entire Rosaceae fruit developmental process. The whole body of information suggests that Rosaceae fruit could become also a model for studying the epigenetic basis of economically important phenotypes, allowing for their more efficient exploitation in plant breeding.

  10. The development of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. in Polish conditions. II. Flowering and fruiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive development of tomatillo (husk tomato was investigated in the conditions of central Poland. The developmental cycle of tomatillo in Poland lasts 20-23 weeks, including 6 weeks in a greenhouse or a tunnel and is longer than in Mexico (15 weeks. The plant grows well in Poland and is fruiting aboundantly. The cv. Rendidora B1 was early fruiting and sensitive to drought so it should be cultivated in a garden. Cvs Bujna and Antocyjanowa were medium late or late and suitable for open-field cultivation. Fruit development lasts about 6 weeks. Fruiting was concentrated on the apparent lateral branches of the 1st and 2nd order during the large part of a vegetative season. Among the abscised generative organs predominated flowers and at the end of vegetative season the flower buds. The maximum abscission of flower buds and flowers took place about 2-4 weeks after the most intensive flowering and fruit set. The fruits of many individuals are easily cracking. After being abscised they are attacked frequently by Botrytis sp.

  11. First report of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rhouma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and overripe olive fruits (cv. Meski, Manzanilla and Picholine showing circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color, were collected from local markets and orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Zarzis and Rgueb in Tunisia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from symptomatic fruits and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of olives in Tunisia.

  12. Characterization of transcriptome dynamics during watermelon fruit development: sequencing, assembly, annotation and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Liu, Jingan; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Mingyun; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; He, Hongju; Ren, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2011-09-21

    Cultivated watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is an important agriculture crop world-wide. The fruit of watermelon undergoes distinct stages of development with dramatic changes in its size, color, sweetness, texture and aroma. In order to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of these changes and significantly expand the watermelon transcript catalog, we have selected four critical stages of watermelon fruit development and used Roche/454 next-generation sequencing technology to generate a large expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset and a comprehensive transcriptome profile for watermelon fruit flesh tissues. We performed half Roche/454 GS-FLX run for each of the four watermelon fruit developmental stages (immature white, white-pink flesh, red flesh and over-ripe) and obtained 577,023 high quality ESTs with an average length of 302.8 bp. De novo assembly of these ESTs together with 11,786 watermelon ESTs collected from GenBank produced 75,068 unigenes with a total length of approximately 31.8 Mb. Overall 54.9% of the unigenes showed significant similarities to known sequences in GenBank non-redundant (nr) protein database and around two-thirds of them matched proteins of cucumber, the most closely-related species with a sequenced genome. The unigenes were further assigned with gene ontology (GO) terms and mapped to biochemical pathways. More than 5,000 SSRs were identified from the EST collection. Furthermore we carried out digital gene expression analysis of these ESTs and identified 3,023 genes that were differentially expressed during watermelon fruit development and ripening, which provided novel insights into watermelon fruit biology and a comprehensive resource of candidate genes for future functional analysis. We then generated profiles of several interesting metabolites that are important to fruit quality including pigmentation and sweetness. Integrative analysis of metabolite and digital gene expression

  13. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Genetic regulation and structural changes during tomato fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo ePesaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are an important evolutionary acquisition of angiosperms, which afford protection for seeds and ensure their optimal dispersal in the environment. Fruits can be divided into dry or fleshy. Dry fruits are the more ancient and provide for mechanical seed dispersal. In contrast, fleshy fruits develop soft tissues in which flavour compounds and pigments accumulate during the ripening process. These serve to attract animals that eat them and disseminate the indigestible seeds. Fruit maturation is accompanied by several striking cytological modifications. In particular, plastids undergo significant structural alterations, including the dedifferentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts. Chloroplast biogenesis, their remodeling in response to environmental constraints and their conversion into alternative plastid types are known to require communication between plastids and the nucleus in order to coordinate the expression of their respective genomes. In this review, we discuss the role of plastid modifications in the context of fruit maturation and ripening, and consider the possible involvement of organelle-nucleus crosstalk via retrograde (plastid to nucleus and anterograde (nucleus to plastid signaling in the process.

  15. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  16. First Application of Newly Developed FT-NIR Spectroscopic Methodology to Predict Authenticity of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Retail Products in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoba, Magdi M; Azizian, Hormoz; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kramer, John K G

    2017-05-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) has been a worldwide problem and a concern for government regulators for a long time. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to protect the US public against intentional adulteration of foods and has jurisdiction over deceptive label declarations. To detect EMA of olive oil and address food safety vulnerabilities, we used a previously developed rapid screening methodology to authenticate EVOO. For the first time, a recently developed FT-NIR spectroscopic methodology in conjunction with partial least squares analysis was applied to commercial products labeled EVOO purchased in College Park, MD, USA to rapidly predict whether they are authentic, potentially mixed with refined olive oil (RO) or other vegetable oil(s), or are of lower quality. Of the 88 commercial products labeled EVOO that were assessed according to published specified ranges, 33 (37.5%) satisfied the three published FT-NIR requirements identified for authentic EVOO products which included the purity test. This test was based on limits established for the contents of three potential adulterants, oils high in linoleic acid (OH-LNA), oils high in oleic acid (OH-OLA), palm olein (PO), and/or RO. The remaining 55 samples (62.5%) did not meet one or more of the criteria established for authentic EVOO. The breakdown of the 55 products was EVOO potentially mixed with OH-LNA (25.5%), OH-OLA (10.9%), PO (5.4%), RO (25.5%), or a combination of any of these four (32.7%). If assessments had been based strictly on whether the fatty acid composition was within the established ranges set by the International Olive Council (IOC), less than 10% would have been identified as non-EVOO. These findings are significant not only because they were consistent with previously published data based on the results of two sensory panels that were accredited by IOC but more importantly each measurement/analysis was accomplished in less than 5

  17. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  18. The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for β-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Apple MdACS6 Regulates Ethylene Biosynthesis During Fruit Development Involving Ethylene-Responsive Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tan, Dongmei; Liu, Zhi; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Xinyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Aide

    2015-10-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis in plants involves different 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) genes. The regulation of each ACS gene during fruit development is unclear. Here, we characterized another apple (Malus×domestica) ACS gene, MdACS6. The transcript of MdACS6 was observed not only in fruits but also in other tissues. During fruit development, MdACS6 was initiated at a much earlier stage, whereas MdACS3a and MdACS1 began to be expressed at 35 d before harvest and immediateley after harvest, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity of MdACS6 was significantly lower than that of MdACS3a and MdACS1, accounting for the low ethylene biosynthesis in young fruits. Overexpression of MdACS6 (MdACS6-OE) by transient assay in apple showed enhanced ethylene production, and MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits but not in control fruits. In MdACS6 apple fruits silenced by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system (MdACS6-AN), neither ethylene production nor MdACS3a transcript was detectable. In order to explore the mechanism through which MdACS3a was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits, we investigated the expression of apple ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) genes. The results showed that the expression of MdERF2 was induced in MdACS6-OE fruits and inhibited in MdACS6-AN fruits. Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that MdERF2 protein could bind to the promoter of MdACS3a. Moreover, down-regulation of MdERF2 in apple flesh callus led to a decrease of MdACS3a expression, demonstrating the regulation of MdERF2 on MdACS3a. The mechanism through which MdACS6 regulates the action of MdACS3a was discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L

    2009-09-01

    The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development.

  1. Anoxia Treatment for Delaying Skin Browning, Inhibiting Disease Development and Maintaining the Quality of Litchi Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Litchi fruit has a very short shelf life after harvest, so marketers and consumers alike desire longer periods of storage, transportation and distribution. To extend shelf life, anoxia treatments were used for the fruit. Litchi fruit were exposed to pure N2 for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h. They were then kept individually in closed but vented containers for 6 days in the dark at 20 °C and 95–100 % relative humidity. Exposure of litchi fruit to N2 for 3 or 6 h markedly delayed skin browning, reduced rot development and maintained higher concentrations of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid after 6 days of storage. Anoxia treatment for 24 h reduced browning index, but it accelerated disease development, compared to the control. Thus, a pre-storage pure N2 treatment for 3 or 6 h can be an effective means of reducing rotting while maintaining the physical quality of the fruit.

  2. Development and morphology of the fruit and seed of the hemiparasite genus Jodina (Cervantesiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luján Luna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Jodina is endemic to central and southeastern South America, common in forests and scrubland environments. The fruit type in Jodina is controversial since it has been described at different stages of development. The main objective of this work was to analyze the morphology of the fruit of J. rhombifolia during its maturation to attain a consensus about its type. Also characteristics of seed development and anatomy were analyzed in detail. Material was processed according to conventional techniques for LM and SEM studies. The fruit of J. rhombifolia is a pseudodrupe since the ovary is half-inferior; the fleshy layer of the pericarp is constituted by an increase of the nectary disk whereas the stony layer is represented by the mesocarp. Participation of the nectary disk as part of the fruit wall has not been mentioned previously. The seed is “naked” —the integument disintegrates during development— and the resulting structure is a pyrene. The interpretations made by other authors on the fruit of Jodina are also discussed.

  3. The transformation and translocation of 14C-labelled glucose in the course of granulation development of Batangas mandarin fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangyang

    1996-01-01

    In the middle of storage period for Batangas mandarin fruits, the fruits segment was injected with 14 C-labelled glucose. Radioisotope was found in the rind and non-injected segments of the granulated fruits or normal fruits. The results showed that the radioactivity in the rind of slight-granulated fruits was significantly lower than that in normal fruits. The diffusion of 14 C-labelled glucose to the rind or to the segments of slightly granulated fruits was significantly higher than that of normals. These results indicated that granulation was not caused by the shift of nutritive matter from the juice sac to the rind but likely by its senescence. In the course of granulation development, the radioactivity of insoluble carbohydrate of the juice sac in severely granulated fruits was 24.65% of the total sac radioactivity. However, it was only 6.41% in normal fruits. Although the radioactivity in the rind of granulated fruits was lower than that in normal fruits, it increased faster. The respiratory rate of medium granulated fruit was 17.18 CO 2 ml/kg·h and that of severely granulated fruit was 23.64 CO 2 mol/kg·h. Both were significantly higher than that of normal fruits (11.03 CO 2 ml/kg·h). It was suggested that the sharp loss of soluble nutritive matter in the juice sac of granulated fruits might result from their transformation into insoluble matter, translocation to the rind and respiration consumption

  4. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  5. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  6. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  7. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Normalization of qPCR Analysis during Pepper Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is practiced as a useful research tool for targeted gene expression analysis. For qPCR operations, the normalization with suitable reference genes (RGs is a crucial step that eventually determines the reliability of the obtained results. Although pepper is considered an ideal model plant for the study of non-climacteric fruit development, at present no specific RG have been developed or validated for the qPCR analyses of pepper fruit. Therefore, this study aimed to identify stably expressed genes for their potential use as RGs in pepper fruit studies. Initially, a total of 35 putative RGs were selected by mining the pepper transcriptome data sets derived from the PGP (Pepper Genome Platform and PGD (Pepper Genome Database. Their expression stabilities were further measured in a set of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. 007e fruit samples, which represented four different fruit developmental stages (IM: Immature; MG: Mature green; B: Break; MR: Mature red using the qPCR analysis. Then, based on the qPCR results, three different statistical algorithms, namely geNorm, Normfinder, and boxplot, were chosen to evaluate the expression stabilities of these putative RGs. It should be noted that nine genes were proven to be qualified as RGs during pepper fruit development, namely CaREV05 (CA00g79660; CaREV08 (CA06g02180; CaREV09 (CA06g05650; CaREV16 (Capana12g002666; CaREV21 (Capana10g001439; CaREV23 (Capana05g000680; CaREV26 (Capana01g002973; CaREV27 (Capana11g000123; CaREV31 (Capana04g002411; and CaREV33 (Capana08g001826. Further analysis based on geNorm suggested that the application of the two most stably expressed genes (CaREV05 and CaREV08 would provide optimal transcript normalization in the qPCR experiments. Therefore, a new and comprehensive strategy for the identification of optimal RGs was developed. This strategy allowed for the effective normalization of the q

  8. Comparative transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum during fruit and color development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingli; Zhang, Hehua; Liu, Zhongshuai; Cui, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Lingyun

    2016-10-12

    Blueberry is an economically important fruit crop in Ericaceae family. The substantial quantities of flavonoids in blueberry have been implicated in a broad range of health benefits. However, the information regarding fruit development and flavonoid metabolites based on the transcriptome level is still limited. In the present study, the transcriptome and gene expression profiling over berry development, especially during color development were initiated. A total of approximately 13.67 Gbp of data were obtained and assembled into 186,962 transcripts and 80,836 unigenes from three stages of blueberry fruit and color development. A large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and candidate genes, which are potentially involved in plant development, metabolic and hormone pathways, were identified. A total of 6429 sequences containing 8796 SSRs were characterized from 15,457 unigenes and 1763 unigenes contained more than one SSR. The expression profiles of key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were also studied. In addition, a comparison between our dataset and other published results was carried out. Our high quality reads produced in this study are an important advancement and provide a new resource for the interpretation of high-throughput data for blueberry species whether regarding sequencing data depth or species extension. The use of this transcriptome data will serve as a valuable public information database for the studies of blueberry genome and would greatly boost the research of fruit and color development, flavonoid metabolisms and regulation and breeding of more healthful blueberries.

  9. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  10. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data

  11. Breeding programme for developing new sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sweet cherry is a major structural species in Bulgaria. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, in 2010 it occupied 21% of the fruit tree areas, which defined it as a leading fruit crop. It represents 16% of the total fruit production in the country, as is the relative share of peach, being surpassed only by apple and plum production. The increased interest in establishing new cherry plantations necessitates the provision of new market-oriented cultivars with a better sensory profile of the fruits, resistant to biotic and abiotic stress factors, suitable for creating modern intensive cherry plantations. The Bulgarian sweet cherry cultivars are chronologically discussed and a thorough description of the development of the sweet cherry breeding programme, launched at the Fruit Growing Institute in Plovdiv in 1987, is presented. Current objectives comply with the world's major breeding trends and the changing market requirements. The paper reflects the main objectives of the programme and the finalized products obtained in the last twenty years of the past century and first decade of the new millennium, i.e. the new cultivars 'Kossara', 'Rosita', 'Rozalina' and 'Thrakiiska hrushtyalka' and some promising hybrids.

  12. Effect of mulching systems on fruit quality and phytochemical composition of newly developed strawberry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three mulching systems on total yield, average yield per plant, average fruit weight, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA, firmness and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of two newly developed lines (‘Orléans’ and ‘Saint Pierre’, one advanced selection (‘SJ8976-1’ and two commonly used cultivars (‘Jewel’ and ‘Kent’ were evaluated. The studied mulching systems were: plastic mulch (PM, mulch with row cover (PMRC, and matted-row system (MRS. Results showed that plastic mulch with row cover (PMRC generally increased yield per plant, average fruit weight, SSC, firmness and ORAC, but differences varied within harvest times. No significant differences in total yield and TA were observed under the selected mulching systems. Both PMRC and PM accelerated the harvest periods compared to MRS. ‘Kent’ and ‘Jewel’ had the highest total yield while ‘SJ8976-1’ and ‘St-Pierre’ had the highest average fruit weight. The highest SSC, TA and ORAC were found in ‘Jewel’. There was no interaction between the mulching systems and genotypes, indicating that the effect of production system is independent of cultivars. PMRC seems to be a better growing system, improving fruit quality and increasing the nutritional value of all genotypes. By allowing off-season fruit production in cool climates, PMRC can be an alternative method to the costly high tunnels.

  13. The acquisition, development, and maintenance of fruit machine gambling in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M D

    1990-09-01

    In the U.K., the major commercial gambling activity in adolescents is the playing of slot machines (commonly known as "fruit machines"). Over the past few years, the negative effects of "fruit machine addiction" have been reported by various helping organizations (e.g. Gamblers Anonymous) and the national press, including allegations of attempted murder, suicide and prostitution as well as a wider incidence of petty crime.Fifty adolescent fruit machine players from a 'user population' participated in a face-to-face interview and questionnaire study examining factors in the acquisition, development and maintenance of gambling behaviour. Nine adolescent males were deemed to be pathological gamblers as measured by the American Psychiatric Association DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria, and a number of serious consequences were reported including gambling debts, truancy and stealing.

  14. Consumer-Oriented New Product Development in Fruit Flavour Breeding - A Bayesian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, L.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Taking consumer quality perceptions into account is very important for new-fruit product development in todays competitive food market. To this end, consumer-oriented quality improvement models like the Quality Guidance Model (QGM) have been proposed. Implementing such mod- els in the agro industry

  15. Cytokinins in the perianth, carpels, and developing fruit of Helleborus niger L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowski, Petr; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Mihaljević, S.; Magnus, V.; Strnad, Miroslav; Salopek-Sondi, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 10 (2006), s. 2237-2247 ISSN 0022-0957 Grant - others:Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports of the Republic of Croatia (HR) 0098080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Christmas rose * cytokinin identification and quantification * fruit and seed development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2006

  16. Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables: a qualitive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Most children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake. Since preference is an important predictor of intake, more knowledge is needed about children's preferences and about how these preferences develop. As most research about preferences has ignored

  17. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages.

    A survey to document the traditional processing

  18. The role of Momordica balsamina fruit pulp extract in development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of Momordica balsamina fruit pulp extract in development of immunity to avian newcastle disease virus. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  20. Development of a Handmade Conductivity Measurement Apparatus and Application to Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Seng; Kita, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple handmade conductivity measurement apparatus based on a Kohlrausch bridge with inexpensive materials. We have examined the reliability of this apparatus with standard solutions and then measured juices of vegetables and fruits as well as a sports drink. Comparisons to total alkali content as…

  1. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Padilla, Rafael; Raposo Bejines, Francisco; Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three ident...

  2. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, Bárbara; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiabl...

  3. Low hanging fruit in infectious disease drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Carl N

    2008-10-01

    Cost estimates for developing new molecular entities (NME) are reaching non-sustainable levels and coupled with increasing regulatory requirements and oversight have led many pharmaceutical sponsors to divest their anti-microbial development portfolios [Projan SJ: Why is big Pharma getting out of anti-bacterial drug discovery?Curr Opin Microbiol 2003, 6:427-430] [Spellberg B, Powers JH, Brass EP, Miller LG, Edwards JE, Jr: Trends in antimicrobial drug development: implications for the future.Clin Infect Dis 2004, 38:1279-1286]. Operational issues such as study planning and execution are significant contributors to the overall cost of drug development that can benefit from the leveraging of pre-randomization data in an evidence-based approach to protocol development, site selection and patient recruitment. For non-NME products there is even greater benefit from available data resources since these data may permit smaller and shorter study programs. There are now many available open source intelligence (OSINT) resources that are being integrated into drug development programs, permitting an evidence-based or 'operational epidemiology' approach to study planning and execution.

  4. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  5. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  6. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  7. Genetic and environmental features for oil composition in olive varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bervillé André Jean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of olive oil helps both prevent and cure heart disease. Olive oils vary in their fatty acid profiles as well as those of other secondary metabolites (phenols, sterols, and terpene compounds. We seek to distinguish the genetic bases from the environmental factors that cause these variations. The genetic base is indeed wide: varieties originate in different domestication occurrences, from different oleaster trees and in differing climatic regimes. With the aid of diagrams, we set out briefly the oil synthesis pathway for fruits in comparison with that of seeds, and the specific aspects of olive oil in particular. Varieties of olive have appeared that are adapted to regions with harsh conditions where the oleaster could not thrive. Environmental stresses have consequences on drupes and their oil profiles; these have been highlighted in European countries through the use of appellations. Whilst stresses tend to enhance the quality of the end product, they do however decrease final yields with potential negative impacts on olive growers’ incomes. Irrigation experiments are underway in order to determine the optimal amount of watering. In breeding new varieties, the result sought is that of accumulating pest tolerances and fruit-quality characteristics; selection programmes are however expensive as they necessitate observations over many years. Consumers have choice across a range of appellations with different organoleptic specificities at different prices, and whatever the appellation of the oil they can expect a positive effect on their health.

  8. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on the development of putative functional SSR and SNP markers in passion fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Zirlane Portugal; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2017-09-06

    Passionflowers Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata are diploid, outcrossing and understudied fruit bearing species. In Brazil, passion fruit cultivation began relatively recently and has earned the country an outstanding position as the world's top producer of passion fruit. The fruit's main economic value lies in the production of juice, an essential exotic ingredient in juice blends. Currently, crop improvement strategies, including those for underexploited tropical species, tend to incorporate molecular genetic approaches. In this study, we examined a set of P. edulis transcripts expressed in response to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis, (the passion fruit's main bacterial pathogen that attacks the vines), aiming at the development of putative functional markers, i.e. SSRs (simple sequence repeats) and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms). A total of 210 microsatellites were found in 998 sequences, and trinucleotide repeats were found to be the most frequent (31.4%). Of the sequences selected for designing primers, 80.9% could be used to develop SSR markers, and 60.6% SNP markers for P. alata. SNPs were all biallelic and found within 15 gene fragments of P. alata. Overall, gene fragments generated 10,003 bp. SNP frequency was estimated as one SNP every 294 bp. Polymorphism rates revealed by SSR and SNP loci were 29.4 and 53.6%, respectively. Passiflora edulis transcripts were useful for the development of putative functional markers for P. alata, suggesting a certain level of sequence conservation between these cultivated species. The markers developed herein could be used for genetic mapping purposes and also in diversity studies.

  10. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3 on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fruit quality, 50 mg/l GA3 treatment increased the juice content, K+, TSS, total sugar and sugar acid ratio of wax apple fruits. In addition, higher vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, carotene content, PAL and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between the peel colour and TSS content and between the PAL activity and anthocyanin formation in the GA3-treated fruit. It was concluded that rubbing with 50 mg/L GA3 at inflorescence developing point of phloem once a week from the tiny inflorescence bud until the flower opening resulted in better yield and quality of wax apple fruits and could be an effective technique to safe the environment from excessive spray.

  11. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Exhibits Potent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease [1, 2]. Activation ... Olea europaea Linn. (family, Oleaceae), commonly ... Although the health beneficial effects of olive fruit and leaf oils have ..... are up-regulated in the brains of patients with.

  12. Fine-tuning of the flavonoid and monolignol pathways during apple early fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Paolo; Moser, Mirko; Brilli, Matteo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pindo, Massimo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine

    2017-05-01

    A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing. We identified and characterized genes induced and repressed during fruit development in the apple cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. Our results showed an opposite regulation of genes coding for enzymes belonging to flavonoid and monolignol pathways, with a strong induction of the former and a simultaneous repression of the latter. Two isoforms of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, key enzymes located at the branching point between flavonoid and monolignol pathways, showed opposite expression patterns during the period in analysis, suggesting a possible regulation mechanism. A targeted metabolomic analysis supported the SSH results and revealed an accumulation of the monomers catechin and epicatechin as well as several forms of procyanidin oligomers in apple fruitlets starting early after anthesis, together with a decreased production of other classes of flavonoids such as some flavonols and the dihydrochalcone phlorizin. Moreover, gene expression and metabolites accumulation of 'Golden Delicious' were compared to a wild apple genotype of Manchurian crabapple (Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom.). Significant differences in both gene expression and metabolites accumulation were found between the two genotypes.

  13. Microchip electrophoresis with amperometric detection for a novel determination of phenolic compounds in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Caballero, María del Pilar; Acedo-Valenzuela, María Isabel; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; Costa-García, Agustín; Fernández-Abedul, María Teresa

    2012-11-07

    The relevance of the development of microchip electrophoresis applications in the field of food analysis is considered in this work. A novel method to determine important phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oil samples using a miniaturized chemical analysis system is presented in this paper. Three interesting phenolic compounds in olive oil and fruit (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein glucoside) were studied by end-channel amperometric detection using a 100 μm gold wire as working electrode in glass microchip electrophoresis. The electrochemical behavior of these compounds was studied and the medium to carry out their detection was selected (0.1 M aqueous sulfuric acid). The best conditions for the separation were achieved in sodium tetraborate (10% methanol, pH 9.50) with different concentrations for the sample and the running buffer in order to allow the sample stacking phenomenon. The injection was carried out using 600 V for 3 s and the separation voltage was set at 1000 V. The quality of the method was evaluated through its analytical figures of merit and by its performance on real extra virgin olive oil samples. Determination of these compounds was carried out using the standard addition calibration method with good recoveries.

  14. Development of iodimetric redox method for routine estimation of ascorbic acid from fresh fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.; Baloch, A. K.; Khan, W. A.; Ahmad, F.; Jamil, M.

    2013-01-01

    The iodimetric method (Im) is developed for rapid estimation of ascorbic acid from fresh fruit and vegetables. The efficiency of Im was compared with standard with standard dye method (Dm) utilizing a variety of model solutions and aqueous extracts from fresh fruit and vegetables of different colors. The Im presented consistently accurate and precise results from colorless to colored model solutions and from fruit/vegetable extracts with standard deviation (Stdev) in the range of +-0.013 - +-0.405 and +-0.019 - +-0.428 respectively with no significant difference between the replicates. The Dm worked also satisfactorily for colorless model solutions and extracts (Stdev range +-0.235 - +-0.309) while producing unsatisfactory results (+-0.464 - +-3.281) for colored counterparts. Severe discrepancies/ overestimates continued to pileup (52% to 197%) estimating the nutrient from high (3.0 mg/10mL) to low (0.5 mg/10mL) concentration levels, respectively. On the basis of precision and reliability, the Im technique is suggested for adoption in general laboratories for routine estimation of ascorbic acid from fruit and vegetables possessing any shade. (author)

  15. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao; Yu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  16. Development of a polyprobe to detect six viroids of pome and stone fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liming; Li, Ruhui; Mock, Ray; Kinard, Gary

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive dot blot hybridization assay using a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA polyprobe was developed for the simultaneous detection of six viroids that infect pome and stone fruit trees. The polyprobe was constructed by cloning sequentially partial sequences of each viroid into a single vector, with run-off transcription driven by the T7 promoter. All six viroids were detectable within a dilution range of 5(-3) to 5(-4) in total nucleic acid extracts from infected trees. Individual trees were co-inoculated to create mixed infections and all four pome fruit viroids and both stone fruit viroids could be detected in pear and peach trees, respectively, using the polyprobe. The results of the assays using the polyprobe were comparable to those using single probes. The methods were validated by testing geographically diverse isolates of viroids, as well as field samples from several collections in the US. The assay offers a rapid, reliable and cost-effective approach to the simultaneous detection of six fruit trees viroids and has the potential for routine use in quarantine, certification, and plant genebank programs where many samples are tested and distributed worldwide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Yu, Xiyan, E-mail: yuxiyan@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Wang, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfwang@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-03-12

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  18. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici on resistant and susceptible watermelon fruit of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown in 44 states in the United States. Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is a serious disease in the southeastern U.S., where over 50% of the watermelons are produced. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers, especially in...

  20. What’s now, what’s new and what’s next in virgin olive oil elaboration systems? A perspective on current knowledge and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of virgin olive oil elaboration process is to obtain the highest recovery of the best quality oil from the fruits. The aim of the researchers is to understand the key elements that allow to modulate the complex series of physical, physico-chemical, chemical and biochemical transformations in order to develop innovative and sustainable plant solutions able to increase simultaneously both yield and quality of product. The basic principles applied also in the newest olive oil industrial plants still follow the technical knowledge which have been empirically learned by humans thousands of years ago. In fact, it is well known that three factors, mixing, water adding and warming, are the three macroscopic driving forces able to favour the separation of the oily phase from the mass of crushed olives. In this consolidated scenario, can new elements emerge? The whole process should be considered more than a simple extraction of the oil present in fruit cells, but a complex elaboration of a product, which is depleted and enriched of both constitutive and neo-synthesised compounds through complex phenomena only in part discovered. In fact, while it is evident that numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate the behaviour of olive paste during virgin olive oil extraction process, a key conclusion is that the current level of understanding can be improved further by means the development of more rigorous researches with more focused targets aimed to understand the rheological changes, the coalescence phenomena, the changes in hydrophobic and hydrophilic phenomena, the partition equilibrium of minor compounds between aqueous and oily phases and, last but not least, the favourable and unfavourable enzymatic reactions. This paper provides an analysis of the present research field and its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Potentially important future directions for research are also proposed.

  1. Fortification of table olive packing with the potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodriguez Gomez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are currently the main carriers of probiotic microorganisms to the human body. However, the development of new matrices for probiotic delivery is convenient for intolerant to milk (or its derivatives and those requiring low-cholesterol diet consumers. The present work focused on the fortification of previously fermented green Spanish style olives with the autochthonous putative probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2. The fortification was carried out by inoculating the bacteria into the packing brines using Manzanilla fruits from three different processes: i spontaneously fermented (F1, ii fermented using L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2 as starter (F2, and iii spontaneously fermented and then thermally treated (F3. Data showed that all inoculated treatments had higher population levels (5.49, 4.41 and 6.77 log10 cfu/cm2 than their respective controls (1.66, 4.33 and 0.0 log10 cfu/cm2, for F1, F2 and F3 treatments, respectively. The presence of L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2 on olive surface was confirmed by rep-PCR, with a recovery frequency at the end of the shelf life (200 days of 52.6, 57.9 and 100.0% for F1, F2 and F3 treatments, respectively. Thus, results obtained in this work show the ability of this microorganism to survive under packing conditions for long period of times as well as to colonize the olive surface which is the food finally ingested by consumers. This opens the possibility for the development of a new and simply probiotic fortified olive product.

  2. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  3. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of natural fermentation process of Conservolea and Kalamàta table olives and developement of a protocol for the pre-selection of fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Grieco, Francesco; Ramires, Francesca Anna; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. Conservolea and Kalamàta are the most important table olives Greek varieties. In the Greek system, the final product is obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. This natural fermentation process is not predictable and strongly influenced by the physical-chemical conditions and by the presence of microorganisms contaminating the olives. Natural fermentations of Conservolea and Kalamàta cultivars black olives were studied in order to determine microbiological, biochemical and chemical evolution during the process. Following the process conditions generally used by producers, in both cultivars, yeasts were detected throughout the fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in the last staged of the process. A new optimized specific protocol was developed to select autochthonous yeast and LAB isolates that can be good candidates as starters. These microorganisms were pre-selected for their ability to adapt to model brines, to have beta-glucosidase activity, not to produce biogenic amines. Chemical compounds deriving by microbiological activities and associated to the three different phases (30, 90 and 180 days) of the fermentation process were identified and were proposed as chemical descriptors to follow the fermentation progress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Peng; Li, Fusen; Zhang, Guangyu; Pan, Linlin; Al-Amer, Ali; Mei, Hailiang; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Al-Johi, Hasan Awad; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  6. Profiling microRNA expression during multi-staged date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit development

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Chengqi

    2015-01-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in multiple stages of plant development and regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional and translational levels. In this study, we first identified 238 conserved miRNAs in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) based on a high-quality genome assembly and defined 78 fruit-development-associated (FDA) miRNAs, whose expression profiles are variable at different fruit development stages. Using experimental data, we subsequently detected 276 novel P. dactylifera-specific FDA miRNAs and predicted their targets. We also revealed that FDA miRNAs function mainly in regulating genes involved in starch/sucrose metabolisms and other carbon metabolic pathways; among them, 221 FDA miRNAs exhibit negative correlation with their corresponding targets, which suggests their direct regulatory roles on mRNA targets. Our data define a comprehensive set of conserved and novel FDA miRNAs along with their expression profiles, which provide a basis for further experimentation in assigning discrete functions of these miRNAs in P. dactylifera fruit development.

  7. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Bendini, Alessandra; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2018-03-24

    Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.

  9. Tourist orchards: an opportunity for sustainable development tourism in Romanian traditional fruit growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian traditional fruit growing areas are spaces that, given the transition from a centralized economy to a market economy, have accumulated multiple dysfunctions, whose solving requires the identification of viable solutions, matching local potential and preserving traditional specificity at the same time. The article analyzes how the tourist orchard model, developed successfully in China could be implemented in Romanian traditional fruit growing areas. Also the evolution of the Chinese tourist orchard is presented, highlighting the stages of its development and paying special attention to the current stage that witnesses the solid consolidation of the extant niche of tourist orchards, as part of the Chinese tourism. This consolidation has led to several large metropolitan areas (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in China standing out on the international market.

  10. Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of ozone negatively influence pollen and fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Colin; Stabler, Daniel; Tallentire, Eva; Goumenaki, Eleni; Barnes, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Triton) revealed that environmentally-relevant levels of ozone (O_3) pollution adversely affected pollen germination, germ tube growth and pollen-stigma interactions – pollen originating from plants raised in charcoal-Purafil"® filtered air (CFA) exhibited reduced germ tube development on the stigma of plants exposed to environmentally-relevant levels of O_3. The O_3-induced decline in in vivo pollen viability was reflected in increased numbers of non-fertilized and fertilized non-viable ovules in immature fruit. Negative effects of O_3 on fertilization occurred regardless of the timing of exposure, with reductions in ovule viability evident in O_3 × CFA and CFA × O_3 crossed plants. This suggests O_3-induced reductions in fertilization were associated with reduced pollen viability and/or ovule development. Fruit born on trusses independently exposed to 100 nmol mol"−"1 O_3 (10 h d"−"1) from flowering exhibited a decline in seed number and this was reflected in a marked decline in the weight and size of individual fruit – a clear demonstration of the direct consequence of the effects of the pollutant on reproductive processes. Ozone exposure also resulted in shifts in the starch and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of fruit that were consistent with accelerated ripening. The findings of this study draw attention to the need for greater consideration of, and possibly the adoption of weightings for the direct impacts of O_3, and potentially other gaseous pollutants, on reproductive biology during ‘risk assessment’ exercises. - Highlights: • Environmentally-relevant levels of ozone exert negative effects on pollen viability that translate into direct impacts on fruit yield. • Negative impacts of O_3 pollution on reproductive processes were evident regardless of the stage of plant development. • Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of O_3

  11. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of light quality on development of fruiting bodies of Panus fragilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orson K. Miller; John G. Palmer

    1977-01-01

    Under a system that permits mass screening of mycelia within bands of the visible spectrum, fruit bodies initiated and developed in two light bands (387-400nm and 425-430nm) in axenic culture. Either or both of these light bands will trigger fruitbody initiation at as low an energy level as 0.2 K (1 K = 1,000 microwatts/cm2). Maturation of sporocarp and hymenium...

  13. A Probabilistic Decision-Making Scoring System for Quality and Safety Management in Aloreña de Málaga Table Olive Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á. Ruiz Bellido

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most representatives and consumed fermented vegetables in Mediterranean countries. However, there is an evident lack of standardization of production processes and HACCP systems thus implying the need of establishing decision-making tools allowing their commercialization and shelf-life extension. The present work aims at developing a decision-making scoring system by means of a probabilistic assessment to standardize production process of Aloreña de Málaga table olives based on the identification of potential hazards or deficiencies in hygienic processes for the subsequent implementation of corrective measures. A total of 658 microbiological and physico-chemical data were collected over three consecutive olive campaigns (2014–2016 to measure the variability and relative importance of each elaboration step on total hygienic quality and product safety. Three representative companies were visited to collect samples from food-contact surfaces, olive fruits, brines, air environment, olive dressings, water tanks, and finished/packaged products. A probabilistic assessment was done based on the establishment of Performance Hygiene and Safety Scores (PHSS 0–100% through a standardized system for evaluating product acceptability. The mean value of the global PHSS for the Aloreña de Málaga table olives processing (PHHSFTOT was 64.82% (90th CI: 52.78–76.39% indicating the high variability among facilities in the evaluated processing steps on final product quality and safety. Washing and cracking, and selection and addition of olive dressings were detected as the most deficient ones in relation to PHSSFi values (p < 0.05 (mean = 53.02 and 56.62%, respectively. The relative contribution of each processing step was quantified by different experts (n = 25 from the Aloreña de Málaga table olive sector through a weighted PHSS (PHSSw. The mean value of PHSSw was 65.53% (90th CI: 53.12–77.52%. The final processing steps

  14. Carbon partitioning among leaves, fruits, and seeds during development of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, D.R.; Shieh, Wenjang; Saluke, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Development of vegetative and floral buds was found to be a key factor in establishing the way carbon is distributed among growing leaves and fruits in Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants. Leaves emerged principally during a period 14 to 32 days after planting while flowers were produced during a 10- to 12-day period near the end of leaf emergence. Timing of anthesis established the sigmoidal time course for dry weight accumulated by the composite of all fruits on the plant. During the first 12 days following anthesis, fruit growth mainly consisted of elongation and dry weight accumulation by the pod wall. Thereafter, seed dry weight increased for about 1 week, decreased markedly for several days, and then increased again over the next 2 weeks. Accumulation of imported carbon in individual seeds, measured by steady-state labeling, confirmed the time course for dry weight accumulation observed during seed development. Seed respiration rate initially increased rapidly along with dry weight and then remained nearly steady until seed maturation. A number of developmental events described in the literature coincided with the different phases of diauxic growth. The results demonstrated the feasibility of relating current rates of carbon import in individual seeds measured with tracer 14 C to the rates of conversion of imported sucrose and use of the products for specific developmental processes. The resulting data are useful for evaluating the roles of conversion and utilization of imported sucrose in regulating import by developing seeds

  15. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  16. Transcriptome Sequencing and Development of Genic SSR Markers of an Endangered Chinese Endemic Genus Dipteronia Oliver (Aceraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Li, Zhong-Hu; Bai, Guo-Qing; Feng, Li; Chen, Chen; Wei, Yue; Chang, Yong-Xia; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-02-23

    Dipteronia Oliver (Aceraceae) is an endangered Chinese endemic genus consisting of two living species, Dipteronia sinensis and Dipteronia dyeriana. However, studies on the population genetics and evolutionary analyses of Dipteronia have been hindered by limited genomic resources and genetic markers. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets, and a large set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Dipteronia have been described. After Illumina pair-end sequencing, approximately 93.2 million reads were generated and assembled to yield a total of 99,358 unigenes. A majority of these unigenes (53%, 52,789) had at least one blast hit against the public protein databases. Further, 12,377 SSR loci were detected and 4179 primer pairs were designed for experimental validation. Of these 4179 primer pairs, 435 primer pairs were randomly selected to test polymorphism. Our results show that products from 132 primer pairs were polymorphic, in which 97 polymorphic SSR markers were further selected to analyze the genetic diversity of 10 natural populations of Dipteronia. The identification of SSR markers during our research will provide the much valuable data for population genetic analyses and evolutionary studies in Dipteronia.

  17. Dynamic Labeling Reveals Temporal Changes in Carbon Re-Allocation within the Central Metabolism of Developing Apple Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiye F. Beshir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of isotopically labeled substrates has received extensive attention in plant physiology. Measuring the propagation of the label through metabolic networks may provide information on carbon allocation in sink fruit during fruit development. In this research, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling was used to characterize the changing metabolic pool sizes in developing apple fruit at five growth stages (30, 58, 93, 121, and 149 days after full bloom using 13C-isotope feeding experiments on hypanthium tissue discs. Following the feeding of [U-13C]glucose, the 13C-label was incorporated into the various metabolites to different degrees depending on incubation time, metabolic pathway activity, and growth stage. Evidence is presented that early in fruit development the utilization of the imported sugars was faster than in later developmental stages, likely to supply the energy and carbon skeletons required for cell division and fruit growth. The declined 13C-incorporation into various metabolites during growth and maturation can be associated with the reduced metabolic activity, as mirrored by the respiratory rate. Moreover, the concentration of fructose and sucrose increased during fruit development, whereas concentrations of most amino and organic acids and polyphenols declined. In general, this study showed that the imported compounds play a central role not only in carbohydrate metabolism, but also in the biosynthesis of amino acid and related protein synthesis and secondary metabolites at the early stage of fruit development.

  18. Olive Mill Waste Enhances α-Glucan Content in the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Avni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus. Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.

  19. Cell wall structures leading to cultivar differences in softening rates develop early during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jovyn K T; Schröder, Roswitha; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Hall, Miriam I; Prakash, Roneel; Smith, Bronwen G; Melton, Laurence D; Johnston, Jason W

    2013-11-19

    There is a paucity of information regarding development of fruit tissue microstructure and changes in the cell walls during fruit growth, and how these developmental processes differ between cultivars with contrasting softening behaviour. In this study we compare two apple cultivars that show different softening rates during fruit development and ripening. We investigate whether these different softening behaviours manifest themselves late during ethylene-induced softening in the ripening phase, or early during fruit expansion and maturation. 'Scifresh' (slow softening) and 'Royal Gala' (rapid softening) apples show differences in cortical microstructure and cell adhesion as early as the cell expansion phase. 'Scifresh' apples showed reduced loss of firmness and greater dry matter accumulation compared with 'Royal Gala' during early fruit development, suggesting differences in resource allocation that influence tissue structural properties. Tricellular junctions in 'Scifresh' were rich in highly-esterified pectin, contributing to stronger cell adhesion and an increased resistance to the development of large airspaces during cell expansion. Consequently, mature fruit of 'Scifresh' showed larger, more angular shaped cells than 'Royal Gala', with less airspaces and denser tissue. Stronger cell adhesion in ripe 'Scifresh' resulted in tissue fracture by cell rupture rather than by cell-to-cell-separation as seen in 'Royal Gala'. CDTA-soluble pectin differed in both cultivars during development, implicating its involvement in cell adhesion. Low pectin methylesterase activity during early stages of fruit development coupled with the lack of immuno-detectable PG was associated with increased cell adhesion in 'Scifresh'. Our results indicate that cell wall structures leading to differences in softening rates of apple fruit develop early during fruit growth and well before the induction of the ripening process.

  20. Development of Export Performance Scale for Fresh Vegetable-Fruit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Keskinkılınç

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a scale for assessing the performance of foreign trade companies in fresh vegetable-fruit sector. As a first step, a qualitative interviews was conducted to the sample consists of the managers working in export companies. As a result of the interviews major problems of exporters were grouped. In the second phase of the study a questionnaire was formed and a survey was conducted to the larger sample. Subsequently, validity and reliability of the scales were determined by means of explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and reliability analysis respectively. The theoretical contribution of this research is the development of a method for evaluation of export performance of foreign trade companies in fresh vegetable-fruit sector.

  1. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in the classroom, especially PowerPoint techniques for which he received university grants. Oliver's computer skills also allowed him to design several, simple but important programs to help students understand difficult subjects. A favorite, "Oliver's Orrery," clearly shows how different models of the solar system produce planetary motions, a program that remains unique. Research interests involved 3-mm radio astronomy, photometry of eclipsing binary systems, and the design of astronomical instruments and computer controlled telescopes. Oliver was the first visiting astronomer of the Copernicus Institute in Warsaw, Poland, where he helped participate in its establishment. He also held a joint appointment as Senior Research Scientist at UF's Institute for Space Science and Technology from 1988 to 1994. During this time he was a co-investigator on the Long Duration Exposure Facility/Interplanetary Dust Experiment and the Clementine Orbital Meteoroid and Debris Counter. These experiments obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and provided information on the population of small mass, man-made debris in near Earth space. Oliver was twice a NASA Faculty Research Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he developed models used to predict meteoroid impacts on space probes. He was always excited about discovering orbital debris clouds around the Earth. A favorite and special project from 1984 to 1988 was Oliver's involvement as co-investigator on UF's South Pole Optical Telescope where his knowledge of computer controlled instruments was vital. He visited the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station four times during Antarctic summers and the U.S. State Department and U.S. Navy awarded him the Antarctic Service Medal for activities in Antarctica in October 1986. This small, specialized instrument, the first stellar telescope located at Earth's South Pole, operated for several seasons

  2. Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Analyses of Fruiting Body Development in Coprinopsis cinerea.

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    Hajime Muraguchi

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis cinerea is an important model system for multicellular development. Fruiting bodies of C. cinerea are typical mushrooms, which can be produced synchronously on defined media in the laboratory. To investigate the transcriptome in detail during fruiting body development, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed using cDNA libraries strand-specifically constructed from 13 points (stages/tissues with two biological replicates. The reads were aligned to 14,245 predicted transcripts, and counted for forward and reverse transcripts. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between two adjacent points and between vegetative mycelium and each point were detected by Tag Count Comparison (TCC. To validate RNA-seq data, expression levels of selected genes were compared using RPKM values in RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR data, and DEGs detected in microarray data were examined in MA plots of RNA-seq data by TCC. We discuss events deduced from GO analysis of DEGs. In addition, we uncovered both transcription factor candidates and antisense transcripts that are likely to be involved in developmental regulation for fruiting.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of a spontaneous mutant in sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Andan; Chai, Lijun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Keqin; Ding, Jian; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2009-01-01

    Bud mutations often arise in citrus. The selection of mutants is one of the most important breeding channels in citrus. However, the molecular basis of bud mutation has rarely been studied. To identify differentially expressed genes in a spontaneous sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] bud mutation which causes lycopene accumulation, low citric acid, and high sucrose in fruit, suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis were performed to decipher this bud mutation during fruit development. After sequencing of the differentially expressed clones, a total of 267 non-redundant transcripts were obtained and 182 (68.2%) of them shared homology (E-value or = 2) in the bud mutation during fruit development. Self-organizing tree algorithm analysis results showed that 95.1% of the differentially expressed genes were extensively coordinated with the initiation of lycopene accumulation. Metabolic process, cellular process, establishment of localization, response to stimulus, and biological regulation-related transcripts were among the most regulated genes. These genes were involved in many biological processes such as organic acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, and pyruvate metabolism, etc. Moreover, 13 genes which were differentially regulated at 170 d after flowering shared homology with previously described signal transduction or transcription factors. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid in the understanding of bud mutation in citrus.

  4. Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of ozone negatively influence pollen and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Colin; Stabler, Daniel; Tallentire, Eva; Goumenaki, Eleni; Barnes, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Triton) revealed that environmentally-relevant levels of ozone (O3) pollution adversely affected pollen germination, germ tube growth and pollen-stigma interactions - pollen originating from plants raised in charcoal-Purafil(®) filtered air (CFA) exhibited reduced germ tube development on the stigma of plants exposed to environmentally-relevant levels of O3. The O3-induced decline in in vivo pollen viability was reflected in increased numbers of non-fertilized and fertilized non-viable ovules in immature fruit. Negative effects of O3 on fertilization occurred regardless of the timing of exposure, with reductions in ovule viability evident in O3 × CFA and CFA × O3 crossed plants. This suggests O3-induced reductions in fertilization were associated with reduced pollen viability and/or ovule development. Fruit born on trusses independently exposed to 100 nmol mol(-1) O3 (10 h d(-1)) from flowering exhibited a decline in seed number and this was reflected in a marked decline in the weight and size of individual fruit - a clear demonstration of the direct consequence of the effects of the pollutant on reproductive processes. Ozone exposure also resulted in shifts in the starch and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of fruit that were consistent with accelerated ripening. The findings of this study draw attention to the need for greater consideration of, and possibly the adoption of weightings for the direct impacts of O3, and potentially other gaseous pollutants, on reproductive biology during 'risk assessment' exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of botryodiplodia theobromae and on rot development in banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, I.Y.; El-Ashmawi, A.M.; Fahim, M.M.; Kararah, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. increased with the increase in doses of gamma radiation. Young cultures (7 days old) were less sensitive to radiation than old ones (48 days); lethal doses being 800 and 600 Krad respectively. Rot development was greatly reduced when inoculated banana fruits were exposed to 300 Krad. Disease development was checked for 10 days in inoculated fruits exposed to 400 Krad. The combined treatment of 200 p.p.m. T B Z and 100 or 200 Krad gamma radiation was more effective in reducing disease incidence than either treatments alone. No deleterious effects occurred in banana fruits that were irradiated with the low doses of gamma radiation

  7. An explanation for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during ripening on the tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susamci, E.; Romero, C.; Tuncay, O.; Brenes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. [es

  8. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  9. Microsatellite marker development by partial sequencing of the sour passion fruit genome (Passiflora edulis Sims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Susan; Martins, Alexandre M; Junqueira, Nilton T V; Costa, Ana Maria; Faleiro, Fábio G; Ferreira, Márcio E

    2017-07-21

    The Passiflora genus comprises hundreds of wild and cultivated species of passion fruit used for food, industrial, ornamental and medicinal purposes. Efforts to develop genomic tools for genetic analysis of P. edulis, the most important commercial Passiflora species, are still incipient. In spite of many recognized applications of microsatellite markers in genetics and breeding, their availability for passion fruit research remains restricted. Microsatellite markers in P. edulis are usually limited in number, show reduced polymorphism, and are mostly based on compound or imperfect repeats. Furthermore, they are confined to only a few Passiflora species. We describe the use of NGS technology to partially assemble the P. edulis genome in order to develop hundreds of new microsatellite markers. A total of 14.11 Gbp of Illumina paired-end sequence reads were analyzed to detect simple sequence repeat sites in the sour passion fruit genome. A sample of 1300 contigs containing perfect repeat microsatellite sequences was selected for PCR primer development. Panels of di- and tri-nucleotide repeat markers were then tested in P. edulis germplasm accessions for validation. DNA polymorphism was detected in 74% of the markers (PIC = 0.16 to 0.77; number of alleles/locus = 2 to 7). A core panel of highly polymorphic markers (PIC = 0.46 to 0.77) was used to cross-amplify PCR products in 79 species of Passiflora (including P. edulis), belonging to four subgenera (Astrophea, Decaloba, Distephana and Passiflora). Approximately 71% of the marker/species combinations resulted in positive amplicons in all species tested. DNA polymorphism was detected in germplasm accessions of six closely related Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. alata, P. maliformis, P. nitida, P. quadrangularis and P. setacea) and the data used for accession discrimination and species assignment. A database of P. edulis DNA sequences obtained by NGS technology was examined to identify microsatellite repeats in

  10. Development and chemical characterization of flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "pequizeiro" fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a recommendation for the chemical peeling of pequi fruit and characterize the flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "Pequizeiro", pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. The technology applied to obtain the external mesocarp pequi flour included the epicarp removal with NaOH solution. The Response Surface Method was used to optimize the chemical peeling process by applying the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with eleven trials including three replicates at the central point, varying the NaOH aqueous solution concentration and fruit immersion time. The mass loss was evaluated through the analysis of variance and using bi and three dimensional graphs. The chemical characteristics of the external mesocarp pequi flour evaluated were: moisture content, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and some minerals. The best combination for an efficient removal of the fruit peel with the lowest mass loss was reached with 7.05 minutes of immersion in a 5.08 g.L-1 NaOH aqueous solution. This study indicated that the external mesocarp pequi flour is a food source rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, ashes, magnesium, calcium, manganese, and copper, but it is poor in lipids, zinc, and iron.

  11. Changes In water translocation in the vascular tissue of grape during fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaosen, X.; Forney, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vascular water translocation in grapes and berry growth was investigated. Berry growth, firmness and turgor were measured, and the structure and function of the vascular bundles for water translocation was observed. During phase I fruit development, the dorsal and central vascular bundles rapidly translocated introduced dye in the pedicle. The speed of dye translocation was highest in the dorsal vascular bundles of phase I fruit with a speed of 0.97cm/h. After phase II, both the distribution of dye and the speed of dye translocation in the fruit vascular tissue decreased, with speeds in the dorsal and central vascular bundles being 0.08 cm/h and 0.72 cm/h, respectively. During phase III, the distribution of dye was still lower than phase I. After phase II, the walls of some xylem vessels were indistinct and broken. After phase III, even though the water translocation efficiency of the xylem decreased, sugar accumulation in the berry as well as osmoregulation increased. (author)

  12. Development and Characterization of Edible Films Based on Fruit and Vegetable Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberta M S; Ferreira, Mariana S L; Gonçalves, Édira C B A

    2016-02-01

    Edible films were developed from the solid residue of the processing of whole fruits and vegetables. The solid residue, processed into flour (FVR flour) was chemically and structurally characterized by microstructure, elemental composition, structural links, and moisture sorption isotherm. Films were prepared by casting using aqueous extracts of 8% and 10% of flour (w/w) and characterized in terms of thickness, water solubility, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The analysis of microstructure and elemental composition, performed on flour (mean particle size 350 μm), showed an essentially granular aspect, with the presence of fibrous particles having potassium as one of the most abundant elements. FTIR results showed similarity between the characteristic bands of other raw materials used in edible films. The sorption isotherm of FVR flour showed a typical profile of foods rich in soluble components, such as sugars. Dried films presented an average thickness of 0.263 ± 0.003 mm, a homogenous aspect, bright yellow color, pronounced fruit flavor, and high water solubility. The FTIR spectra of the edible films revealed that addition of potato skin flour did not change the molecular conformation. Moreover, the films presented low tensile strength at break when compared with fruit starch-based films. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract as an Alternative Means to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Sonia; Nicosia, Maria G Li Destri; Agosteo, Giovanni E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora V; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruit worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks because natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/liter and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/liter, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Because PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olive fruit, it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  14. Harvest of table olives by mechanical harvesting equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gambella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the performance, of an electric comb equipped with five undulated fingers used for mechanized the harvesting of table olives. The first aim of the work was to test three different types of coating materials used for covering the fingers: Silicon (S, Vulcanized rubber (VR and Natural rubber (NR. The diameter of the coating materials tested were 7mm (D1, 14 mm (D2, 19 mm (D3 in order to evaluate the damage of different working conditions on the intact olives. During harvesting, silicon at 7mm and 14mm resulted in the largest percentage of undamaged the fruit (67% and 65%, natural rubber 63% and vulcanized rubber at the 54%. The second aim was to evaluate the combination, in terms of the best performance, of the machines used for mechanized harvesting of table olives. Several factors have been examined: undulating fingers variation thickness, different rotational speeds and different coating materials used to reduce the impact damage on olives. From the tests on olive tree we have determined that while plastic materials (S and (NR appear to have a positive role in harvest quality, the vibration transmitted to the operator’s hand is great from 6.48 m/s2 for S to 6.31 m/ s2 for NR and 2.92 m/s2 for VR, respect to the materials used.

  15. Genome sequence of the olive tree, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando; Julca, Irene; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Loska, Damian; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Cano, Emilio; Galán, Beatriz; Frias, Leonor; Ribeca, Paolo; Derdak, Sophia; Gut, Marta; Sánchez-Fernández, Manuel; García, Jose Luis; Gut, Ivo G; Vargas, Pablo; Alioto, Tyler S; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-06-27

    The Mediterranean olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was one of the first trees to be domesticated and is currently of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The molecular bases underlying the phenotypic differences among domesticated cultivars, or between domesticated olive trees and their wild relatives, remain poorly understood. Both wild and cultivated olive trees have 46 chromosomes (2n). A total of 543 Gb of raw DNA sequence from whole genome shotgun sequencing, and a fosmid library containing 155,000 clones from a 1,000+ year-old olive tree (cv. Farga) were generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and pair-end libraries. Assembly gave a final genome with a scaffold N50 of 443 kb, and a total length of 1.31 Gb, which represents 95 % of the estimated genome length (1.38 Gb). In addition, the associated fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was partially sequenced. Genome annotation, assisted by RNA sequencing from leaf, root, and fruit tissues at various stages, resulted in 56,349 unique protein coding genes, suggesting recent genomic expansion. Genome completeness, as estimated using the CEGMA pipeline, reached 98.79 %. The assembled draft genome of O. europaea will provide a valuable resource for the study of the evolution and domestication processes of this important tree, and allow determination of the genetic bases of key phenotypic traits. Moreover, it will enhance breeding programs and the formation of new varieties.

  16. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  17. Isolation of genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of Fragaria chiloensis fruit by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Paula; Salvatierra, Ariel; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2010-09-15

    Fragaria chiloensis, the native Chilean strawberry, is noted for its good fruit quality characters. However, it is a highly perishable fruit due to its rapid softening. With the aim to screen for genes differentially expressed during development and ripening of strawberry fruit, the subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) methodology was employed. Six libraries were generated contrasting transcripts from four different developmental stages. A set of 1807 genes was isolated and characterized. In our EST collection, approximately 90% of partial cDNAs showed significant similarity to proteins with known or unknown function registered in databases. Among them, proteins related to protein fate were identified in a large green fruit library and protein related with cellular transport, cell wall-related proteins, and transcription regulators were identified in a ripe fruit library. Thirteen genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR during development and ripening of the Chilean strawberry fruit. The information generated in this study provides new clues to aid the understanding of the ripening process in F. chiloensis fruit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Performances and microbial features of an aerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor developed to post-treat an olive mill effluent from an anaerobic GAC reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Leonardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive mill wastewater (OMW is the aqueous effluent of olive oil producing processes. Given its high COD and content of phenols, it has to be decontaminated before being discharged. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising treatment process for such an effluent, as it combines high decontamination efficiency with methane production. The large scale anaerobic digestion of OMWs is normally conducted in dispersed-growth reactors, where however are generally achieved unsatisfactory COD removal and methane production yields. The possibility of intensifying the performance of the process using a packed bed biofilm reactor, as anaerobic treatment alternative, was demonstrated. Even in this case, however, a post-treatment step is required to further reduce the COD. In this work, a biological post-treatment, consisting of an aerobic biological "Manville" silica bead-packed bed aerobic reactor, was developed, tested for its ability to complete COD removal from the anaerobic digestion effluents, and characterized biologically through molecular tools. Results The aerobic post-treatment was assessed through a 2 month-continuous feeding with the digested effluent at 50.42 and 2.04 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. It was found to be a stable process, able to remove 24 and 39% of such organic loads, respectively, and to account for 1/4 of the overall decontamination efficiency displayed by the anaerobic-aerobic integrated system when fed with an amended OMW at 31.74 and 1.70 gl-1day-1 of COD and phenol loading rates, respectively. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of biomass samples from the aerobic reactor biofilm revealed that it was colonized by Rhodobacterales, Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Rhodocyclales and genera incertae sedis TM7. Some taxons occurring in the influent were not detected in the biofilm, whereas others, such as Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter

  19. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  20. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  1. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  2. DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Bandelj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites combine several features of an ultimate molecular marker and they are used increasingly in various plant genetic studies and applications. In this work we report on the utilisation of fourteen previously developed olive microsatellite markers for the identification and differentiation of a set of nineteen olive varieties. All analysed microsatellite markers revealed a high level of polymorphism that allowed unique genotyping of the examined varieties. Ninety-six alleles were detected at all 14 loci, which multiplied into a large number of observed genotypes, giving high discrimination value for varietal identification. A minimum number of three microsatellite markers was chosen for the rapid and unambiguous varietal identification of nineteen olive varieties and only two markers were sufficient for differentiation of five local varieties. DNA fingerprints of olive cultivars by means of microsatellites provided meaningful data, which can be extended by additional olive varieties or new microsatellites and used for accurate inter-laboratory comparison. The data obtained can be used for the varietal survey and construction of a database of all olive varieties grown in Slovenia providing also additional genetic information on the agronomic and quality characteristics of the olive varieties.

  3. Development of Improved Process with Treatment of Cellulase for Isolation of Ampelopsin from Dried Fruits of Ampelopsis grossedentata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The commercial method for isolation of ampelopsin, one of the most common flavonoids isolated from the plant species Ampelopsis grossedentata, is a simple hydrothermal extraction at high temperature. To develop an improved process to isolate ampelopsin, the effects of treatment of cellulase on hydrolysis of the dried fruit of A. grossedentata were investigated. The treatment of cellulase was found to decrease the temperature and time for hydrolysis of the dried fruit of A. grossedentata. The conditions of the filter press and continuous flow centrifuge for removal of insoluble materials from the hydrolysate of the dried fruit of A. grossedentata were optimized. The recovery yield of ampelopsin from the dried fruits of A. grossedentata was 39.4%, as determined by HPLC chromatographic analysis. A safe and economical process at low temperature with treatment of cellulase for the isolation of ampelopsin was developed in this study.

  4. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  5. New insights from an old mutant: SPADIX4 governs fruiting body development but not hyphal fusion in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines; Lutomski, Miriam; Märker, Ramona; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    During the sexual life cycle of filamentous fungi, multicellular fruiting bodies are generated for the dispersal of spores. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a long history as a model system for studying fruiting body formation, and two collections of sterile mutants have been generated. However, for most of these mutants, the underlying genetic defect remains unknown. Here, we investigated the mutant spadix (spd) that was generated by X-ray mutagenesis in the 1950s and terminates sexual development after the formation of pre-fruiting bodies (protoperithecia). We sequenced the spd genome and found a 22 kb deletion affecting four genes, which we termed spd1-4. Generation of deletion strains revealed that only spd4 is required for fruiting body formation. Although sterility in S. macrospora is often coupled with a vegetative hyphal fusion defect, Δspd4 was still capable of fusion. This feature distinguishes SPD4 from many other regulators of sexual development. Remarkably, GFP-tagged SPD4 accumulated in the nuclei of vegetative hyphae and fruiting body initials, the ascogonial coils, but not in sterile tissue from the developing protoperithecium. Our results point to SPD4 as a specific determinant of fruiting body formation. Research on SPD4 will, therefore, contribute to understanding cellular reprogramming during initiation of sexual development in fungi.

  6. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening

  7. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  9. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  10. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...

  11. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ho [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Pradhan, Jonu [Department of Nanobio Medical Science, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 50, Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Myung-Whan [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeung Ju, E-mail: mjukim99@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Cheol, E-mail: ansil67@hanmail.net [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  12. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heat unit accumulation and inflorescence and fruit development in ‘Ubá’ mango trees grown in Visconde do Rio Branco-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Moreira Carvalho Lemos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are little information in the scientific literature on flowering and fruiting of ‘Ubá’ mango trees. These information enables to know the proportion of hermaphrodite flowers in inflorescence, fruit set percentage and developmental stages of the fruit. In this study evaluations on inflorescence and fruit development of the ‘Ubá’ mango tree (Mangifera indica L. were carried out, as well as the determination of the required number of heat units for full fruit development. Thirty branches whose terminal buds were swollen were selected from five mango trees. With the aid of a camera and a caliper, the panicle and fruit development were evaluated weekly until full fruit development. A digital thermometer was used to record ambient temperatures during fruit development in order to estimate the number of heat units required for complete development of the fruits. Male and hermaphrodite flowers of the panicles were also identified and counted. The developmental cycle of ‘Ubá’ mango from the beginning of apical bud swelling to commercial harvest of the fruit lasted 168 days in 2011 and 154 days in 2012. The number of hermaphrodite flowers and the percentage of fruit set in the inflorescence in 2011 were 32.3 and 0.066%, respectively; and 122.1 and 0.099% in 2012, respectively. There was accumulation of 3,173 heat units from flower bud swelling to full development of the ‘Ubá’ mangoes.

  14. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  15. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  17. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  18. The Role of Polyphenoloxidase, Peroxidase, and β-Glucosidase in Phenolics Accumulation in Olea europaea L. Fruits under Different Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cirilli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruits and oils contain an array of compounds that contribute to their sensory and nutritional properties. Phenolic compounds in virgin oil and olive-derived products have been proven to be highly beneficial for human health, eliciting increasing attention from the food industry and consumers. Although phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oil have been extensively investigated, allowing the identification of the main classes of metabolites and their accumulation patterns, knowledge of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating phenolic metabolism remains scarce. We focused on the role of polyphenoloxidase (PPO, peroxidase (PRX and β-glucosidase (β-GLU gene families and their enzyme activities in the accumulation of phenolic compounds during olive fruit development (35–146 days after full bloom, under either full irrigation (FI or rain-fed (RF conditions. The irrigation regime affected yield, maturation index, mesocarp oil content, fruit size, and pulp-to-pit ratio. Accumulation of fruit phenolics was higher in RF drupes than in FI ones. Members of each gene family were developmentally regulated, affected by water regime, and their transcript levels were correlated with the respective enzyme activities. During the early phase of drupe growth (35–43 days after full bloom, phenolic composition appeared to be linked to β-GLU and PRX activities, probably through their effects on oleuropein catabolism. Interestingly, a higher β-GLU activity was measured in immature RF drupes, as well as a higher content of the oleuropein derivate 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and verbascoside. Activity of PPO enzymes was slightly affected by the water status of trees during ripening (from 120 days after full bloom, but was not correlated with phenolics content. Overall, the main changes in phenolics content appeared soon after the supply of irrigation water and remained thereafter almost unchanged until maturity, despite fruit growth and the progressive

  19. Carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkanong, Korakot; Yang, Jing Hua; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2012-06-13

    Carotenoid levels and composition during squash fruit development were compared in Cucurbita moschata , Cucurbita maxima , and two lines of their interspecific inbred lines, namely, Maxchata1 and Maxchata2. Eight genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The two squash species and their interspecific inbred lines exhibited different qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms. C. moschata had the lowest total carotenoid content and mainly accumulated α-carotene and β-carotene, as expected in a fruit with pale-orange flesh. Low carotenoid content in this species was probably due to the comparatively low expression of all genes investigated, especially PSY1 gene, compared to the other squashes. The predominant carotenoids in C. maxima were violaxanthin and lutein, which produced a corresponding yellow flesh color in mature fruit. The relationship between the expression of the CHYB and ZEP genes may result in almost equal concentrations of violaxanthin and lutein in C. maxima at fruit ripening. In contrast, their interspecific inbred lines principally accumulated lutein and β-carotene, leading to orange flesh color. The PSY1 gene exhibited higher expression levels at earlier stages of fruit development in the Maxchata lines, potentially triggering the increased carotenoid accumulation seen in these fruits. Likewise, the higher transcription level of CHYB gene observed in the two interspecific inbred lines might be correlated with high lutein in these hybrids. However, this study could not explain the observed β-carotene accumulation on the basis of gene expression.

  20. Relationship between delayed embryonic development and metabolic factors and fat deposition in fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Meenakumari, K J; Krishna, Amitabh

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in the fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx, which breeds twice in quick succession at Varanasi, India. Its gestation period varies significantly in the two successive pregnancies of the year owing to delayed embryonic development during the first (winter) pregnancy. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of metabolic factors in delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat C. sphinx. Variation in bodyweight, fat deposition, oxygen (O(2)) consumption rate, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body temperature (Tb) and hepatic succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, along with circulating levels of thyroid hormones (tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine), were examined as metabolic factors during the two successive pregnancies in C. sphinx. The increase in bodyweight observed in November was due to accumulation of white adipose tissue in the posterior abdominal region. A significant decline in O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity was found in early winter in November-December, which coincides closely with the period of fat accumulation and with the period of delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. A significantly higher O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity was noted during the second pregnancy in, when embryonic development was relatively faster. Thyroid hormone levels were high during the period of embryonic delay compared with levels during the remaining months. The results of the present study suggest that the delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx during early winter may be due to a low O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity in November-December. The energy saved by suppressing embryonic development in this species may be advantageous for fat accumulation. Increased thyroid hormone levels during the early winter period might facilitate fat accumulation in C. sphinx.

  1. Chlorophyll metabolism in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruits throughout development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosianskey, Yogev; Dahan, Yardena; Yadav, Sharawan; Freiman, Zohar E; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Kerem, Zohar; Eyal, Yoram; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2016-08-01

    Expression of 13 genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation was evaluated. Chlorophyll degradation was differentially regulated in pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruits, leading to earlier chlorophyll degradation in parthenocarpic fruits. Varieties of the common fig typically yield a commercial summer crop that requires no pollination, although it can be pollinated. Fig fruit pollination results in larger fruit size, greener skin and darker interior inflorescence color, and slows the ripening process compared to non-pollinated fruits. We evaluated the effect of pollination on chlorophyll content and levels of transcripts encoding enzymes of the chlorophyll metabolism in fruits of the common fig 'Brown Turkey'. We cloned and evaluated the expression of 13 different genes. All 13 genes showed high expression in the fruit skin, inflorescences and leaves, but extremely low expression in roots. Pollination delayed chlorophyll breakdown in the ripening fruit skin and inflorescences. This was correlated with the expression of genes encoding enzymes in the chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation pathways. Expression of pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) was strongly negatively correlated with chlorophyll levels during ripening in pollinated fruits; along with its high expression levels in yellow leaves, this supports a pivotal role for PAO in chlorophyll degradation in figs. Normalizing expression levels of all chlorophyll metabolism genes in the pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit skin and inflorescences showed three synthesis (FcGluTR1, FcGluTR2 and FcCLS1) and three degradation (FcCLH1, FcCLH2 and FcRCCR1) genes with different temporal expression in the pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit skin and inflorescences. FcCAO also showed different expressions in the parthenocarpic fruit skin. Thus, chlorophyll degradation is differentially regulated in the pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit skin and inflorescences, leading to earlier and more sustained

  2. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  3. The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora as a genetic model to study fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kück, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent experimental systems due to their short life cycles as well as easy and safe manipulation in the laboratory. They form three-dimensional structures with numerous different cell types and have a long tradition as genetic model organisms used to unravel basic mechanisms underlying eukaryotic cell differentiation. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is a model system for sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation. S. macrospora is homothallic, i.e., self-fertile, easily genetically tractable, and well suited for large-scale genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Specific features of its life cycle and the availability of a developmental mutant library make it an excellent system for studying cellular differentiation at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on recent developments in identifying gene and protein regulatory networks governing perithecia formation. A number of tools have been developed to genetically analyze developmental mutants and dissect transcriptional profiles at different developmental stages. Protein interaction studies allowed us to identify a highly conserved eukaryotic multisubunit protein complex, the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex and its role in sexual development. We have further identified a number of proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of fruiting body development. Furthermore, we review the involvement of metabolic processes from both primary and secondary metabolism, and the role of nutrient recycling by autophagy in perithecia formation. Our research has uncovered numerous players regulating multicellular development in S. macrospora. Future research will focus on mechanistically understanding how these players are orchestrated in this fungal model system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Potential of Tree Fruit Stone and Seed Wastes in Greece as Sources of Bioactive Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Stella A. Ordoudi; Christina Bakirtzi; Maria Z. Tsimidou

    2018-01-01

    The inedible part (stones, husks, kernels, seeds) of the tree fruits that are currently processed in various regions of Greece constitutes a huge portion of the fruit processing solid waste that remains underexploited. In this review, the existing scientific background for the composition and content of fruit stone and seed in bioactive ingredients is highlighted for olives, stone fruits and citrus fruits that represent the economically most important tree crop products of the country. The co...

  5. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  6. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  7. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 scheme (5 extraction methods of seed mucilage and 3 substrates being each parcel composed of 25 seeds. The parameters evaluated were: seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf number, stem length, longest root length, weight of dry matter of roots and shoots. Water and fermentation in water are the best method for mucilage extraction and rice hull and coconut fiber are the best substrate for passionfruit seedling emergence and development.

  8. Olives: less kilos, more watts; L`olive: moins de kilos, plus de watts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandroy, L [Biofutur, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ``lasting development`` concept. 10 refs.

  9. Methodological development for 87Sr/86Sr measurement in olive oil and preliminary discussion of its use for geographical traceability of PDO Nîmes (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Salim; Janin, Myriam; Verdoux, Patrick; Techer, Isabelle

    2015-03-15

    The lack of a geographical identification protocol for olive oils can lead to fraud and health risks. As some works call for Sr isotopes for the geographical identification of agri-food products, this study focus on the feasibility of extracting Sr from olive oils for isotopic measurements by TIMS. In fact, existing protocols for purification of Sr are unsuitable for lipid matrix. The defined protocol is applied to samples of PDO Nîmes olive oil. The accuracy of the extraction procedure is tested against isotopic standards. The values obtained are in conformity with NIST certified values. This consistency demonstrates that no modification of (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio is brought about by this protocol. Consequently, the method is preliminary used on PDO Nîmes and Moroccan oils to evaluate the feasibility of a discriminant Sr signature on the two geographical products. This study provides promising results for the geographical discrimination and identification of PDO olive oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The eastern part of the Fertile Crescent concealed an unexpected route of olive (Olea europaea L.) differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Soraya; Mariotti, Roberto; Bagnoli, Francesca; Costantini, Lorenzo; Cultrera, Nicolò G M; Arzani, Kazem; Pandolfi, Saverio; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Torkzaban, Bahareh; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Baldoni, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    Olive is considered a native plant of the eastern side of the Mediterranean basin, from where it should have spread westward along the Mediterranean shores, while little is known about its diffusion in the eastern direction. Genetic diversity levels and population genetic structure of a wide set of olive ecotypes and varieties collected from several provinces of Iran, representing a high percentage of the entire olive resources present in the area, was screened with 49 chloroplast and ten nuclear simple sequence repeat markers, and coupled with archaeo-botanical and historical data on Mediterranean olive varieties. Approximate Bayesian Computation was applied to define the demographic history of olives including Iranian germplasm, and species distribution modelling was performed to understand the impact of the Late Quaternary on olive distribution. The results of the present study demonstrated that: (1) the climatic conditions of the last glacial maximum had an important role on the actual olive distribution, (2) all Iranian olive samples had the same maternal inheritance as Mediterranean cultivars, and (3) the nuclear gene flow from the Mediterranean basin to the Iranian plateau was almost absent, as well as the contribution of subspecies cuspidata to the diversity of Iranian olives. Based on this evidence, a new scenario for the origin and distribution of this important fruit crop has been traced. The evaluation of olive trees growing in the eastern part of the Levant highlighted a new perspective on the spread and distribution of olive, suggesting two routes of olive differentiation, one westward, spreading along the Mediterranean basin, and another moving towards the east and reaching the Iranian plateau before its domestication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  12. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  13. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R.; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-01

    Background Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. Results In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel g...

  15. Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  16. Aframomum stipulatum (Gagnep) K. Schum and Aframomum giganteum (Oliv. & Hanb) K. Schum as Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops resources: essential oil, fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols composition of different fruit parts of Congo varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngakegni-Limbili, Adolphe Christian; Zebib, Bachar; Cerny, Muriel; Tsiba, Gouolally; Elouma Ndinga, Arnold Murphy; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Fourastier, Isabelle; Ouamba, Jean-Maurille

    2013-01-15

    Today, few known plant species provide both an essential oil (EO) and a vegetable oil (VO). Seed and husk of two Aframomum species were investigated and compared in terms of EO, fatty acids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. EO yield reaches 15.3 g kg(-1) in the seeds and 3.2 g kg(-1) in the husks, while VO yield is 180.0 g kg(-1) in the seeds and 25.0 g kg(-1) in the husks. β-Pinene, 1,8-cineol, α-selinene, terpine-4-ol, linalool, myrtenal and β-caryophyllene are the major compounds of seed and husk EO. Fatty acid analysis of two Aframomum species shows that oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids were the major compounds of VO. Total sterol contents reached 4.3 g kg(-1) in seed VO and 8.5 g kg(-1) in husk VO. An appreciable amount of tocopherols (0.52 g kg(-1) ) was found in seed VO. The seed and husk oil of A. stipulatum and A. giganteum fruits are rich sources of many bioactive constituents such as fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. These tropical wild fruits can be considered as new Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops (ATOC) resources that contain both EOs and VOs. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis during Tomato Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Bian, Wuying; Pang, Xin; Yu, Jiahong; Ahammed, Golam J; Zhou, Guozhi; Wang, Rongqing; Ruan, Meiying; Li, Zhimiao; Ye, Qingjing; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in tomato fruit has drawn increasing attention nowadays. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. In qPCR operation, reliability of results largely depends on the choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs). Although tomato is a model for fruit biology study, few RGs for qPCR analysis in tomato fruit had yet been developed. In this study, we initially identified 38 most stably expressed genes based on tomato transcriptome data set, and their expression stabilities were further determined in a set of tomato fruit samples of four different fruit developmental stages (Immature, mature green, breaker, mature red) using qPCR analysis. Two statistical algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder, concordantly determined the superiority of these identified putative RGs. Notably, SlFRG05 (Solyc01g104170), SlFRG12 (Solyc04g009770), SlFRG16 (Solyc10g081190), SlFRG27 (Solyc06g007510), and SlFRG37 (Solyc11g005330) were proved to be suitable RGs for tomato fruit development study. Further analysis using geNorm indicate that the combined use of SlFRG03 (Solyc02g063070) and SlFRG27 would provide more reliable normalization results in qPCR experiments. The identified RGs in this study will be beneficial for future qPCR analysis of tomato fruit developmental study, as well as for the potential identification of optimal normalization controls in other plant species.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis during Tomato Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in tomato fruit has drawn increasing attention nowadays. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. In qPCR operation, reliability of results largely depends on the choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs. Although tomato is a model for fruit biology study, few RGs for qPCR analysis in tomato fruit had yet been developed. In this study, we initially identified 38 most stably expressed genes based on tomato transcriptome data set, and their expression stabilities were further determined in a set of tomato fruit samples of four different fruit developmental stages (Immature, mature green, breaker, mature red using qPCR analysis. Two statistical algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder, concordantly determined the superiority of these identified putative RGs. Notably, SlFRG05 (Solyc01g104170, SlFRG12 (Solyc04g009770, SlFRG16 (Solyc10g081190, SlFRG27 (Solyc06g007510, and SlFRG37 (Solyc11g005330 were proved to be suitable RGs for tomato fruit development study. Further analysis using geNorm indicate that the combined use of SlFRG03 (Solyc02g063070 and SlFRG27 would provide more reliable normalization results in qPCR experiments. The identified RGs in this study will be beneficial for future qPCR analysis of tomato fruit developmental study, as well as for the potential identification of optimal normalization controls in other plant species.

  19. Evolution of a Development Model for Fruit Industry against Background of an Aging Population: Intensive or Extensive Adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important starting point for optimizing the structure of agricultural products and implementing green production methods, the direction of orchard management development is directly related to the success of “supply side” reform in the fruit industry in China. However, in the context of the progressive aging of the rural labor force, is the old labor force still capable of the high labor intensity and fine cultivation management needed, such as for pruning, or to maintain or improve the application efficiency of fertilizers? In this paper, based on the micro-production data of peach farmers in Jiangsu Province, we explore the influence of aging on the management of fruit trees and further introduce fruit tree management into the production function to analyze the effects of different orchard management methods on fertilizer efficiency. The results show that with the increase of labor force age, although the total labor investment of aged farmer households has somewhat increased, significant differences exist in the distribution of labor investment between the different production processes due to the different labor demands from the various production processes. In technical stages that demand good physical capabilities, such as pruning and flower/fruit thinning, elderly farmers have significantly reduced labor investment than younger ones, and this relative shortfall further reduces the marginal output of their chemical and organic fertilizers. Foreseeably, the aging of the rural labor force will have a negative impact on the efficiency of chemical and other fertilizers, cost-cutting, and profit-making in the fruit and nut industries, which have the same management methods for pruning and flower (fruit thinning. Therefore, this paper offers relevant policy recommendations for the optimization of production tools, expansion of operation scale, and development of socialized services for the fruit industry, etc.

  20. Nuclei fluorescence microscopic observation on early embryonic development of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2015-05-01

    Sperm genetic material of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. The nuclear phase changes during early embryonic development of diploid, haploid, and mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment were observed under fluorescent microscope with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The parameters of hydrostatic pressure treatment were 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase stage. The data showed that developmental timing sequence of diploid and haploid fertilized eggs was similar. The cell cycle was about 48 minutes, including interphase (about 21 minutes), prophase (about 3 minutes), prometaphase (about 6 minutes), metaphase (about 6 minutes), anaphase (around 9 minutes), and telophase (about 3 minutes). After entering the fertilized egg, ultraviolet-inactivated sperm formed a male pronucleus and became a dense chromatin body in the cytoplasm. Dense chromatin body did not participate in nuclear division and unchanged all the time. For hydrostatic pressure-treated embryos, the first nuclear division and cytokinesis after treatment proceeded normally after about 15 minutes recovery. During the second mitosis, having undergone interphase, prophase, and prometaphase stage, chromosomes began to slowly spread around and scattered in the cell but not entered into metaphase and anaphase. The second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The occurrence frequency of developmentally delayed embryos also showed that the second cleavage of about 80% treated eggs was inhibited. The inhibition of the second cleavage resulted to chromosome set doubling. So chromosome set doubling for mitogynogenetic flounder diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, performed at prometaphase stage, was mainly due to inhibition of the second mitosis rather than the first one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  2. Identification of microRNA targets in tomato fruit development using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Haarst, van J.C.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Geest, van de H.C.; Bovy, A.G.; Lammers, M.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plant development through regulation of gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Despite the fact that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the model system for studying fleshy fruit development and ripening, only a few experimentally

  3. Using Intervention Mapping for Systematic Development of Two School-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaerts, E.; De Nooijer, J.; De Vries, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how the intervention mapping (IM) protocol could be applied to the development of two school-based interventions. It provides an extensive description of the development, implementation and evaluation of two interventions which aimed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among primary…

  4. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  5. Kisspeptin regulates ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2017-11-01

    Cynopterus sphinx, a fruit bat, undergoes delayed embryonic development during the winter months, a period that corresponds to low levels of progesterone and estradiol synthesis by the ovary. Kisspeptins (KPs) are a group of neuropeptide hormones that act via G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) to stimulate hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thereby regulating ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. GPR54 is also expressed in the ovary, suggesting a direct role for KPs in ovarian steroidogenesis. The aim of present study was to determine if a low serum level of KP is responsible for reduced progesterone and estradiol levels during the period of delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. Indeed, low serum KP abundance corresponded to reduced expression of GPR54 in ovarian luteal cells during the period of delayed development compared to normal development. In vitro and in vivo treatment with KP increased GPR54 abundance, via Extracellular signal regulated kinase and its downstream mediators, leading to increased progesterone synthesis in the ovary during delayed embryonic development. KP treatment also increased cholesterol uptake and elevated expression of Luteinizing hormone receptor and Steroid acute regulatory protein in the ovary, suggesting that elevation in circulating KP during delayed embryonic development may reactivate luteal activity. KPs may also enhance cell survival (BCL-2, reduced Caspase 3 activity) and angiogenesis (Vascular endothelium growth factor) during this period. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a regulatory role for KPs in the maintenance of luteal steroidogenesis during pregnancy in C. sphinx. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The pro children intervention: applying the intervention mapping protocol to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Wind, Marianne; Hildonen, Christina; Bjelland, Mona; Aranceta, Javier; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Brug, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The importance of careful theory-based intervention planning is recognized for fruit and vegetable promotion. This paper describes the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop the Pro Children intervention to promote consumption of fruit and vegetable among 10- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Based on a needs assessment, promotion of intake of fruit and vegetable was split into performance objectives and related personal, social and environmental determinants. Crossing the performance objectives with related important and changeable determinants resulted in a matrix of learning and change objectives for which appropriate educational strategies were identified. Theoretically similar but culturally relevant interventions were designed, implemented and evaluated in Norway, the Netherlands and Spain during 2 school years. Programme activities included provision of fruits and vegetables in the schools, guided classroom activities, computer-tailored feedback and advice for children, and activities to be completed at home with the family. Additionally, optional intervention components for community reinforcement included incorporation of mass media, school health services or grocery stores. School project committees were supported. The Pro Children intervention was carefully developed based on the IM protocol that resulted in a comprehensive school-based fruit and vegetable promotion programme, but culturally sensible and locally relevant. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species.

  9. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of NAC transcription factors and their expression during cucumber fruit spine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide, and fruit trichomes ir spines are an important trait for external fruit quality. The mechanisms underlying spine formation are not well understood, but there is evidence of the involvement of the plant-specific NAC family of tra...

  11. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  12. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambient and 5°C) for different periods before oil extraction at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on olive oil quality. Conventional analyses (acidity, peroxide value, specific extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 ...

  13. Breeding bird use of and nesting success in exotic Russian olive in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2001-01-01

    The exotic tree, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), has invaded riparian zones throughout much of the western Unites States. Although promoted as a useful species for wildlife because of its abundant edible fruit, evidence for its value to breeding birds remains sparse. We compared relative rates of usage, nest success, and cowbird parasitism of birds breeding in...

  14. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynik-Debicka, Monika; Przychodzen, Paulina; Cappello, Francesco; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Knap, Narcyz; Wozniak, Michal; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena

    2018-02-28

    Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  15. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gorzynik-Debicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate, as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  16. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  17. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  18. [Development of a didactic questionnaire to measure vegetable and fruit intake during the school recess. Pilot test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Villanueva-Borbolla, Montserrat; Barquera, Simón

    2012-10-01

    To develop an open, self-reported questionnaire, focused in understanding intake and intention to increase vegetable and fruit consumption during the Mexican children's lunchtime. After assessing pilot tests, the self-reported questionnaire was applied as a classroom exercise to measure children's consumptions of fruit and vegetables. A total of 486 children completed the questionnaire (49.8% males and 50.2% females). The reported food consumption indicates that 24.5% of children do not consume vegetables or fruits, and among consumers the most common portion size is one. Girls consume more vegetables and fruits and they can recognize more benefits. A total of 9.7% of the participants that do not consume VF, expressed less intention of including vegetables or fruits in their lunch. These results were similar to those reported by other authors. This study is useful to identify strengths and limitations during the design and implementation of this type of instrument to understand children's food habits during school recess.

  19. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and organic acids over fruit development in American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) cultivars using HPLC and APCI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Singh, Ajay P; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2017-09-01

    Cranberry flavonoids, including anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins, and organic acids were characterized and quantified by HPLC and LC-MS/MS during fruit development and ripening in eight cranberry cultivars. Anthocyanin biosynthesis initiated at early fruit development and reached highest level in mature fruit, with significant differences between cultivars. Major flavonol glycosides, including the most abundant quercetin-3-galactoside and myricetin-3-galactoside, showed consistent concentrations during the season with moderate fluctuation, and were at similar levels in mature fruits of the eight cultivars. Proanthocyanidins declined during fruit development and then increased slightly in later maturation stages. Levels of various proanthocyanidin oligomers/polymers with different degree-of-polymerization were highly correlated within a cultivar during fruit development. Cultivars with coancestry exhibited similar levels (high/low) of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins, indicating genetic effects on biosynthesis of such flavonoids. All cultivars showed similar levels of malic and citric acids, and declining levels of quinic acid during fruit development. Benzoic acid was extremely low early in the season and increased sharply during fruit ripening. Levels of quinic and citric acids were significantly different among cultivars in the mature fruit. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, quinic acid and benzoic acid have a strong developmental association in developing ovaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adulteration detection in olive oil using dielectric technique and data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rashvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is one of the most important agricultural crops due to its digestive properties and economic status. However, olive oil production is a costly process which causes an expensive price of the final product. The most jobbery ways during olive oil production consist of mixing other oils such as maize, sunflower and soya oil into the olive oil. So, the aim of this study was to develop a dielectric-based system to detect adulteration in olive oil using cylindrical capacitive sensor. For categorizing of fake olive oil by using frequency specification, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA was developed. A set of 15 samples of olive oil, sunflower oil and canola oil which mixed with different ratio of adulteration, were used for calibration and evaluation of developed system. For each sample, 25 iterations were performed. Regarding results, the highest error rate was for a sample containing 60% olive oil-40% canola oil. In general, 7 iterations failed to be properly recognized. Regarding to accuracy indexes, specificity and sensitivity, the system had the minimum error for a mixed sample (60% olive oil-40% canola oil, specificity and sensitivity were obtained as 98% and 100%, respectively and accuracy was obtained as 72%, which was the weakest value. Finally, regarding mean value table for all sample, accuracy reached to 97%. Results showed the developed technique has a good capability of detecting impurities in olive oil. It is concluded from obtained results that the developed system revealed an acceptable adulterated detection in oil production. Keywords: Olive oil, Adulteration, Dielectric properties, LDA

  1. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  2. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  3. New developments in fruit and vegetables consumption in the period 1999-2004 in Denmark - a quantile regression approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aslak Hedemann

    2008-01-01

    The development in the consumption of fruit and vegetables in the period 1999-2004 in Denmark was investigated using quantile regression and two previously overlooked problems were identified. First, the change in the ten percent quantile samples decreased. This could have been caused by changes ...

  4. How Is a Fruit Tree Like You? Using Artistic Metaphors to Explore and Develop Emotional Competence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldard, Kathryn; Foo, Rebecca Yin; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Counselling children often requires the use of supplementary strategies in order to interest and engage the child in the therapeutic process. One such strategy is the Metaphorical Fruit Tree (MFT); an art metaphor suited to exploring and developing self-concept. Quantitative and qualitative data was used to explore the relationships between…

  5. The development of the fruit-body of Marasmius cornelii (Agaricales) and of a new species of Marasmius sect. Gloiocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The gymnocarpic development of the very small and gill-less fruit-body of Marasmius cornelii is directed by intrinsic factors until the lengthening stem becomes geotropic. The primordium is covered from a very early stage by a hymenioderm of clavate encrusted cells with a few lanceolate

  6. Biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation of theobromine in developing Theobroma cacao fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Koyama, Yoko; Nagai, Chifumi; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in Theobroma cacao fruits at differing growth stages: Stage A (young small fruit, fresh weight, ca. 2 g); stage B (medium size fruit, fresh weight, ca. 100 g) and stage C (large size, fresh weight, ca. 500 g). The major purine alkaloid in stage A fruits (mainly pericarp) was theobromine (0.7 micromol g(-1) fresh weight), followed by caffeine (0.09 micromol g(-1) fresh weight). The theobromine content of the pericarp decreased sharply with tissue age, and the caffeine content decreased gradually. A large amount of theobromine (22 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) had accumulated in seeds (mainly cotyledons) of stage C fruits. Theobromine was found also in the seed coat and placenta. Tracer experiments with [8-(14)C]adenine show that the major sites of theobromine synthesis are the young pericarp and cotyledons of T. cacao fruits. Limited amounts of purine alkaloids may be transported from the pericarp to seed tissue, but most purine alkaloids that accumulated in seeds appeared to be synthesised in cotyledons. Degradation of [8-(14)C]theobromine and [8-(14)C]caffeine to CO2 via 3-methylxanthine and ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid) was detected only in the pericarp of stage C fruits.

  7. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekiari, S. A.; Oreopoulou, V.; Kourkaoutas, Y.; Kamoun, N.; Msallem, M.; Psimouli, V.; Arapoglou, D.

    2010-07-01

    Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rhytmaton in the Greek island of Crete named Throumbolia, and Koroneiki. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30 degree centigrade. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of {beta}-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation. (Author) 41 refs.

  8. Fate and Prediction of Phenolic Secoiridoid Compounds throughout the Different Stages of the Virgin Olive Oil Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados

    2017-08-03

    The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process-crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation-is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed. During malaxation, the content of the main phenolic secoiridoids is reduced, especially in the case of the hydroxytyrosol derivatives, in which a variety-dependent behaviour is observed. The prediction of the concentration of phenolic secoiridoids finally transferred from the kneaded paste to the virgin olive oil is also feasible, and depends on the phenolic content and amount of water in the olive paste. The determination of the phenolic compounds in the olive fruit, olive paste and olive oil has been carried out by LC-MS (Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry). This improved knowledge could help in the use of more adequate processing conditions for the production of virgin olive oil with desired properties; for example, higher or lower phenolic content, as the amount of these minor components is directly related to its sensory, antioxidant and healthy properties.

  9. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Pereira Cunill, J. L.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Ortiz-Leyba, C.; Martínez-Brocca, M.; Mangas-Cruz, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic ...

  11. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Model Development of Cold Chains for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Distribution: A Case Study in Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisnawa, I. N. G. S.; Santosa, I. D. M. C.; Sunu, I. P. W.; Wirajati, IGAB

    2018-01-01

    In developing countries such as Indonesia, as much as 40% of total vegetables and fruits production becomes waste because of lack refrigeration. This condition also contributes a food crisis problem besides other factor such as, climate change and number of population. Cold chain system that will be modelled in this study is for vegetables and fruits and refrigeration system as the main devices. In future, this system will play an important role for the food crisis solution where fresh food can be distributed very well with significant low waste. The fresh food also can be kept with good quality and hygienist (bacteria contaminated). Cold Chain model will be designed using refrigeration components including, pre cooling chiller, cold room, and truck refrigeration. This study will be conducted by survey and observation di around Bali Province focus on vegetables and fruits production center. Interviews and questionnaire will be also done to get some information about the conventional distribution obstacles and problem. Distribution mapping will be developed and created. The data base of the storage characteristic of the fruits and vegetable also collected through experiment and secondary data. Depend on the mapping and data base can be developed a cold chain model that has the best performance application. The model will be can directly apply in Bali to get eligible cold chain in Bali. The cold chain model will be compared with the conventional distribution system using ALCC/LCC method and also others factor and will be weighted to get better results.

  13. Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs for fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhoubin; Zhang, Yuping; Ou, Lijun; Kang, Linyu; Liu, Yuhua; Lv, Junheng; Wei, Ge; Yang, Bozhi; Yang, Sha; Chen, Wenchao; Dai, Xiongze; Li, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shudong; Zhang, Zhuqing; Ma, Yanqing; Zou, Xuexiao

    2017-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs which play an important regulatory role in various biological processes. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs are involved in fruit development in model plants. However, the miRNAs related to fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) remains unknown. In this study, small RNA populations from different fruit ripening stages and different varieties were compared using next-generation sequencing technology. Totally, 59 known miRNAs and 310 novel miRNAs were identified from four libraries using miRDeep2 software. For these novel miRNAs, 656 targets were predicted and 402 of them were annotated. GO analysis and KEGG pathways suggested that some of the predicted miRNAs targeted genes involved in starch sucrose metabolism and amino sugar as well as nucleotide sugar metabolism. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the contrasting expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes. These results will provide an important foundation for future studies on the regulation of miRNAs involved in fruit development and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Whole Lyophilized Olives as Sources of Unexpectedly High Amounts of Secoiridoids: The Case of Three Tuscan Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2015-02-04

    The phenolic profiles of three typical Tuscan olive cultivars, Frantoio, Moraiolo, and Leccino, stored in different conditions (fresh, frozen, and whole lyophilized fruits), have been compared during the ripening period. Our main goals were to evaluate the phenolic content of whole freeze-dried fruits and to test the stability of the corresponding cake in oxidative-stress conditions. The comparison of fresh and whole freeze-dried fruits from the 2012 season gave unexpected results; e.g., oleuropein in lyophilized fruits was up to 20 times higher than in fresh olives with values up to 80.3 g/kg. Over time we noted that the olive pastes obtained from lyophilized olives contained highly stable phenolic compounds, even under strong oxidative stress conditions. Finally, it was also observed that the cake/powder obtained from unripe freeze-dried olives was very poor in oil content and therefore quite suitable for use in nutritional supplements rich in phenolic compounds, such as secoiridoids, which are not widely present in the human diet.

  15. Study on the growth and development of brinjal shoot and fruit borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... various aspects of the insect's life and activity with a view to evolving .... of brinjal shoot and fruit borer is still a difficult job. Many.

  16. Research and development of Camellia oleifera fruit sheller and sorting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Di; Wang, Yong; Fan, Youhua; Chen, Zejun

    2018-01-01

    Camellia oleifera fruit sheller in this paper was designed by the principle of kneading and extruding. This machine adopted the rolling classification sieve to screen camellia oleifera fruit with different sizes into the husking device, and camellia oleifera fruit was shelled in the mutually co-operative action of transport belt and flexible rubbing washboard. After research, in the condition that the moisture content of camellia oleifera fruit was below 55%, the vibration of the motor frequency was 50 Hz and the horizontal angle of sorting belt was 50 degrees∼55 degrees, the processing capacity was more than 900 kg/h, the threshing ratio was more than 97%, the seed broken ratio was less than 5%, the loss ratio was less than 1%. The machine is of great value in actual production, and should be widely spread and applied.

  17. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  18. De novo comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in fruit morphology of pumpkin cultivars with extreme size difference and development of EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Manioudaki, Maria; Moysiadis, Theodoros; Kapazoglou, Aliki; Osathanunkul, Maslin; Michailidou, Sofia; Kalivas, Apostolos; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2017-07-30

    The genetic basis of fruit size and shape was investigated for the first time in Cucurbita species and genetic loci associated with fruit morphology have been identified. Although extensive genomic resources are available at present for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), genomic databases for Cucurbita species are limited. Recently, our group reported the generation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) transcriptome databases from two contrasting cultivars with extreme fruit sizes. In the current study we used these databases to perform comparative transcriptome analysis in order to identify genes with potential roles in fruit morphology and fruit size. Differential Gene Expression (DGE) analysis between cv. 'Munchkin' (small-fruit) and cv. 'Big Moose' (large-fruit) revealed a variety of candidate genes associated with fruit morphology with significant differences in gene expression between the two cultivars. In addition, we have set the framework for generating EST-SSR markers, which discriminate different C. pepo cultivars and show transferability to related Cucurbitaceae species. The results of the present study will contribute to both further understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating fruit morphology and furthermore identifying the factors that determine fruit size. Moreover, they may lead to the development of molecular marker tools for selecting genotypes with desired morphological traits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben......Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose...

  20. Isolation, Characterization, and Selection of Molds Associated to Fermented Black Table Olives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavaro, Simona L.; Susca, Antonia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    Table olives are one of the most important fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Apart from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that mainly conduct the olive fermentation, molds can develop on the brine surface, and can have either deleterious or useful effects on this process. From the food...

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-03

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel genes to extend the available reference gene set. Second, 3958 genes in COS and 3503 genes in LSW177 showed at least two-fold variation in expression, and a large number of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during fruit ripening were related to carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone pathways, and sugar and cell wall metabolism. Third, we noted a correlation between ripening-associated transcripts and metabolites and the key function of these metabolic pathways during fruit ripening. The results revealed several ripening-associated actions and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening.

  2. Development of female fruit fly, Ceratitis species, attractant systems for trapping and sterility assessment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyles, D.K.; Du Plessis, N.; Barnes, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Fruit in the Western Cape Province of South Africa is attacked by the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa. Control costs and crop losses amount to an estimated US$ 5 million per year. The ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch has been taking part in the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to develop a female attractant systems for C. capitata during the 1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons. These seasons represented Year 3 and Year 4, respectively, of the female attractant CRP. The performance of these attractant systems in monitoring C. rosa was also evaluated. The Year 3 trial was carried out in a plum orchard with a low fruit fly population, and the Year 4 trial was carried out in the same plum orchard, as well as in a pear orchard with a high fruit fly population. Four female trapping systems were evaluated in Year 3 and five in Year 4. In Year 3, two systems consisted of a locally-manufactured buckettype 'Sensus' trap containing one of two different female attractants (β-caryophyllene, or β-caryophyllene + protein hydrolysate), one was a McPhail trap (IPMT) baited with borax + protein hydrolysate, and the fourth was an open bottom dry trap (OBDT) baited with the three component ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine system (FA-3). Sensus traps and Jackson traps baited with the male fruit fly attractant Trimedlure (TML) were also included. In Year 4, there was one wet and one dry IPMT system (both baited with FA-3), one IPMT system (borax + protein hydrolysate), and one wet and one dry Tephri trap system (both with FA-3). Jackson traps baited with TML were also included. Results from Year 3 showed that of the systems tested, the best female C. capitata attractant systems under low population conditions were the IPMT system baited with borax + protein hydrolysate, and the OBDT system baited with FA-3. β-caryophyllene in a Sensus trap did not adequately attract female C

  3. Firmness at Harvest Impacts Postharvest Fruit Softening and Internal Browning Development in Mechanically Damaged and Non-damaged Highbush Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Claudia; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel; González, Guillermina; Lobos, Gustavo A

    2017-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are very susceptible to mechanical damage, which limits postharvest life and firmness. Softening and susceptibility of cultivars "Duke" and "Brigitta" to developing internal browning (IB) after mechanical impact and subsequent storage was evaluated during a 2-year study (2011/2012, 2012/2013). On each season fruit were carefully hand-picked, segregated into soft (<1.60 N), medium (1.61-1.80 N), and firm (1.81-2.00 N) categories, and then either were dropped (32 cm) onto a hard plastic surface or remained non-dropped. All fruit were kept under refrigerated storage (0°C and 85-88% relative humidity) to assess firmness loss and IB after 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. In general, regardless of cultivar or season, high variability in fruit firmness was observed within each commercial harvest, and significant differences in IB and softening rates were found. "Duke" exhibited high softening rates, as well as high and significant r 2 between firmness and IB, but little differences for dropped vs. non-dropped fruit. "Brigitta," having lesser firmness rates, exhibited almost no relationships between firmness and IB (especially for non-dropped fruit), but marked differences between dropping treatments. Firmness loss and IB development were related to firmness at harvest, soft and firm fruit being the most and least damaged, respectively. Soft fruit were characterized by greater IB development during storage along with high soluble solids/acid ratio, which could be used together with firmness to estimate harvest date and storage potential of fruit. Results of this work suggest that the differences in fruit quality traits at harvest could be related to the time that fruit stay on the plant after turning blue, soft fruit being more advanced in maturity. Finally, the observed differences between segregated categories reinforce the importance of analyzing fruit condition for each sorted group separately.

  4. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  5. Wing morphology and flight development in the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Vadamalai; Yuvana Satya Priya, Elangovan; Raghuram, Hanumanth; Marimuthu, Ganapathy

    2007-01-01

    Postnatal changes in wing morphology, flight development and aerodynamics were studied in captive free-flying short-nosed fruit bats, Cynopterus sphinx. Pups were reluctant to move until 25 days of age and started fluttering at the mean age of 40 days. The wingspan and wing area increased linearly until 45 days of age by which time the young bats exhibited clumsy flight with gentle turns. At birth, C. sphinx had less-developed handwings compared to armwings; however, the handwing developed faster than the armwing during the postnatal period. Young bats achieved sustained flight at 55 days of age. Wing loading decreased linearly until 35 days of age and thereafter increased to a maximum of 12.82 Nm(-2) at 125 days of age. The logistic equation fitted the postnatal changes in wingspan and wing area better than the Gompertz and von Bertalanffy equations. The predicted minimum power speed (V(mp)) and maximum range speed (V(mr)) decreased until the onset of flight and thereafter the V(mp) and V(mr) increased linearly and approached 96.2% and 96.4%, respectively, of the speed of postpartum females at the age of 125 days. The requirement of minimum flight power (P(mp)) and maximum range power (P(mr)) increased until 85 days of age and thereafter stabilised. The minimum theoretical radius of banked turn (r(min)) decreased until 35 days of age and thereafter increased linearly and attained 86.5% of the r(min) of postpartum females at the age of 125 days.

  6. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  7. Transcriptome analysis and its application in identifying genes associated with fruiting body development in basidiomycete Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Zhang

    Full Text Available To elucidate the mechanisms of fruit body development in H. marmoreus, a total of 43609521 high-quality RNA-seq reads were obtained from four developmental stages, including the mycelial knot (H-M, mycelial pigmentation (H-V, primordium (H-P and fruiting body (H-F stages. These reads were assembled to obtain 40568 unigenes with an average length of 1074 bp. A total of 26800 (66.06% unigenes were annotated and analyzed with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, Gene Ontology (GO, and Eukaryotic Orthologous Group (KOG databases. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs from the four transcriptomes were analyzed. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the mycelium pigmentation stage was associated with the MAPK, cAMP, and blue light signal transduction pathways. In addition, expression of the two-component system members changed with the transition from H-M to H-V, suggesting that light affected the expression of genes related to fruit body initiation in H. marmoreus. During the transition from H-V to H-P, stress signals associated with MAPK, cAMP and ROS signals might be the most important inducers. Our data suggested that nitrogen starvation might be one of the most important factors in promoting fruit body maturation, and nitrogen metabolism and mTOR signaling pathway were associated with this process. In addition, 30 genes of interest were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR to verify their expression profiles at the four developmental stages. This study advances our understanding of the molecular mechanism of fruiting body development in H. marmoreus by identifying a wealth of new genes that may play important roles in mushroom morphogenesis.

  8. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Cevik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two factor interaction effects was proposed to explain the variation in the contents of target compounds depending on the malaxation conditions. Adequacies of models were evaluated by checking regression coefficients for each model. Models were found to work with high success for trans-2-hexenal prediction for oils from fruits at both purple and black stages, whereas the model for hexanalwas only in black stage oil. Their regression coefficients were higher than 0.86. Influences of time and temperature for the malaxation process were found to be significant for the transition of major aroma compounds from the fruit matrix to olive oil. The optimum conditions of temperature and time pairs to maximize trans-2-hexenal and hexanal was found to be 23°C/31 minutes for black olive and to maximize only trans-2-hexenal was also 29°C/41 minutes for purple olive.

  9. Influence of harvest time on the composition and quality of Rosinjola cultivar virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of Rosinjola cultivar fruits harvest time on oil content in olive pastes and on composition and quality of obtained oils. In the late harvest time the higher value of oil in the dry matter of olive paste was determined than in the early harvest time, but the late harvest negatively affected oil quality parameters. The proportion of oleic acid decreased slightly in the late harvest time and linoleic acid increased. The ratio of oleic/linoleic acid, total phenols and ortho-diphenols, as well as bitterness index and antioxidant capacity decreased in the oil obtained from black fruit. Late harvest time influenced the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid content and color parameter values (a*, b* and C in obtained oils, but lightness (L* increased. The concentration of volatiles responsible for positive odour of Rosinjola oils decreased, except for aldehydes which increased slightly. Sensory score of oil obtained from the late harvest time decreased, as well as intensities of sensory characteristics olive fruity, apple, green grass, bitter and pungent, while the intensities of characteristics sweet and ripe fruits increased. Oils obtained in the early harvest time were described as harmonious and astringent with pronounced green odour notes, and oils obtained in the late harvest time as overripe and without freshness. The obtained results are important for optimal harvest time determination and understanding the potential of Rosinjola cultivar for production of high quality virgin olive oil with targeted and specific characteristics.

  10. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-07-03

    Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.

  11. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Van Meulebroek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita. Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS m−1 was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant’s genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant’s salinity response (at the fruit level, whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  12. Prospects for the development of disease-resistant temperate fruit plants by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.I.; Wilson, D.

    1977-01-01

    In most of the present conventional fruit breeding programmes disease resistance has become an important objective. Progress is slow because of the long generation time and the genetic complexity of most tree fruit species. The complexity is such that cultivars can only be maintained as clones and it is unlikely that identical genotypes could ever be sexually produced. Hence, the prospect of changing a few characters in an otherwise unchanged genetic background, as might be done by somatic mutation, is attractive. The occurence of natural mutations in some fruit cultivars and the induction of mutations in others demonstrates that such an approach is possible for some characters at least and these may include disease resistance. The yet limited success of mutation breeding in fruit crops may be due in part to the innate difficulties with this group of plants but may also be a consequence of the faulty methods that have been used in the past. New techniques of inducing and selecting mutants in fruit trees are reported, with particular reference to disease resistance and some basic guidelines for success are suggested. The type of disease resistance required will undoubtedly affect the approach used. In theory, monogenic resistance seems more likely to respond to change by mutation induction than polygenic resistance. However, the multiple effects seen in the natural spur-type apple mutants and in the preliminary results with induced apple mutations at Long Ashton suggest that field resistance to some major diseases may not be an unreasonable target

  13. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  14. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  15. Surface survival and internalization of salmonella through natural cracks on developing cantaloupe fruits, alone or in the presence of the melon wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Gautam

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of foodborne illness attributed to the consumption of Salmonella-tainted cantaloupe have occurred repeatedly, but understanding of the ecology of Salmonella on cantaloupe fruit surfaces is limited. We investigated the interactions between Salmonella enterica Poona, the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila, and cantaloupe fruit. Fruit surfaces were inoculated at the natural cracking stage by spreading S. enterica and E. tracheiphila, 20 µl at 107 cfu/ml, independently or together, over a 2×2 cm rind area containing a crack. Microbial and microscopic analyses were performed at 0, 9 and 24 days post inoculation (DPI. Even at 24 DPI (fruit maturity S. enterica was detected on 14% and 40% of the fruit inoculated with S. enterica alone and the two-pathogen mixture, respectively. However, the population of S. enterica declined gradually after initial inoculation. E. tracheiphila, inoculated alone or together with Salmonella, caused watersoaked lesions on cantaloupe fruit; but we could not conclude in this study that S. enterica survival on the fruit surface was enhanced by the presence of those lesions. Of fruit inoculated with E. tracheiphila alone and sampled at 24 DPI, 61% had watersoaked lesions on the surface. In nearly half of those symptomatic fruits the watersoaking extended into the sub-rind mesocarp, and E. tracheiphila was recovered from that tissue in 50% of the symptomatic fruit. In this work, E. tracheiphila internalized through natural cracks on developing fruits. S. enterica was never detected in the fruit interior (ca. 2-3 mm below rind surface under the limited conditions of our experiments, but the possibility that it, or other human pathogens that contaminate fresh produce, might also do so should be investigated under a wider range of conditions and produce types.

  16. Revised Distribution of Bactrocera tryoni in Eastern Australia and Effect on Possible Incursions of Mediterranean Fruit Fly: Development of Australia's Eastern Trading Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Mapson, Richard

    2017-12-05

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly called 'Queensland fruit fly' in Australia, and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the two most economically important fruit fly in Australia with B. tryoni in the east and Mediterranean fruit fly in the west. The two species coexisted for several decades, but it is believed that B. tryoni displaced Mediterranean fruit fly. In southeastern Australia, this was deemed inadequate for export market access, and a large fruit fly free zone (fruit fly exclusion zone) was developed in 1996 where B. tryoni was eradicated by each state department in their portion of the zone. This zone caused an artificial restricted distribution of B. tryoni. When the fruit fly exclusion zone was withdrawn in Victoria and New South Wales in 2013, B. tryoni became endemic once again in this area and the national distribution of B. tryoni changed. For export markets, B. tryoni is now deemed endemic to all eastern Australian states, except for the Greater Sunraysia Pest-Free Area. All regulatory controls have been removed between eastern states, except for some small zones, subject to domestic market access requirements. The eastern Australian states now form a B. tryoni endemic trading group or block. All Australian states and territories maintain legislation to regulate the movement of potentially infested host fruit into their states. In particular, eastern states remain active and regulate the entry of commodities possibly infested with Mediterranean fruit fly. The combination of regulatory controls limits the chances of Mediterranean fruit fly entering eastern states, and if it did, Mediterranean fruit fly is unlikely to establish in the opposition to a well-established B. tryoni population. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Ángeles; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Die, Jose V; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Román, Belén

    2013-07-03

    The control of gene expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism in carotenoid accumulation of fruits and flowers. We investigated the role of transcriptional regulation of nine genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo with evident differences in fruit color. The transcriptional levels of the key genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis were higher in flower-, leaf-, and fruit skin tissues than flesh tissues. This correlated with higher concentration of carotenoid content in these tissues. The differential expression among the colored and white cultivars detected for some genes, such as LCYe, in combination with other regulatory mechanisms, could explain the large differences found in terms of carotenoid content among the three varieties. These results are a first step to elucidate carotenogenesis in C. pepo and demonstrate that, in general, regulation of the pathway genes is a critical factor that determines the accumulation of these compounds.

  18. Disposal of olive mill wastewater with DC arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimoglu, Beycan; Yilmazoglu, M Zeki

    2018-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater is an industrial waste, generated as a byproduct of olive oil production process and generally contains components such as organic matter, suspended solids, oil, and grease. Although various methods have been developed to achieve the disposal of this industrial wastewater, due to the low cost, the most common disposal application is the passive storage in the lagoons. The main objective of this study is to reduce pollution parameters in olive mill wastewater and draw water to discharge limits by using plasma technology. Plasma-assisted disposal of olive mill wastewater method could be an alternative disposal technique when considering potential utilization of treated water in agricultural areas and economic value of flammable plasma gas which is the byproduct of disposal process. According to the experimental results, the rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand) of olive mill wastewater are decreased by 94.42% and 95.37%, respectively. The dissolved oxygen amount is increased from 0.36 to 6.97 mg/l. In addition, plasma gas with high H 2 content and treated water that can be used in agricultural areas for irrigation are obtained from non-dischargeable wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  20. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  1. Analysis of factors affecting the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olive is one of the most valuable worldwide trees that produces useful products having high nutritional values. It is widely grown in many parts of world. The cost of olives hand picking is estimated to be about two-thirds of the total gross return of olive production. Therefore, various types of olive harvesting machineries were developed in the world. Guilan Province of Iran is one of the leading regions for olives production in Iran. At the present time, almost all olives produced in Guilan province of Iran are manually harvested. Review of the reports showed that no research was performed to study the factors affecting the development of mechanized olive picking in Guilan Province, Iran. Due to the complexity of using the olive harvest machineries, identifying the factors affecting of their application is essential. Therefore, a Delphi study were conducted to identify and analysis the drivers and barriers for mechanized olive harvest in Guilan province, Iran. Materials and Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi technique in Guilan Province, Northern Iran. Delphi technique is a structured process to gather and classify the knowledge of a group of experts. Through consultation with professors and researchers in related institutions, 22 experts from the subsidiary offices of agricultural organization of Guilan Province were selected for the study. In the first round of the study, the participants were asked to answer to two open questions about the driving factors and barriers of mechanical olive harvest in Guilan Province. Nineteen items were found as driving factors and seventeen as barriers for developing the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan Province. In the second phase of the study, the respondents were asked to answer to the all items written in the form of a five-level Likert scale, and finally, experts of panel were asked to answer to the top 10 items of driving factors and barriers in percent form. The

  2. Desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal' Fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento do fruto da lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn. 'Bengal'. Realizaram-se amostragens semanais, com início aos 35 dias após a antese e término no início da senescência dos frutos. A partir do 77º dia após a antese, os frutos foram decompostos em pericarpo, semente e arilo. A antese ocorreu na primeira semana de setembro. Foram ajustados modelos sigmoidais simples para acúmulo de matéria seca, comprimento e diâmetro. Para o acúmulo de matéria seca, uma fase inicial, de crescimento lento, prolongou-se até o 63º dia após a antese e coincidiu com um período de intensa queda natural de frutos. Do 63º ao 98º dia após a antese, houve uma fase de rápido acúmulo de matéria seca. Até o 77º dia, pericarpo e semente foram os principais responsáveis pelo acúmulo de matéria seca. Oitenta e oito por cento do comprimento e 65% do diâmetro máximos foram atingidos nesse período. Do 84º ao 98º dia após a antese, o desenvolvimento do fruto foi determinado basicamente pelo arilo. As dimensões e a matéria seca do fruto estabilizaram-se a partir do 98º dia após a antese. O ponto de colheita comercial dos frutos, caracterizado pela coloração avermelhada do pericarpo, ocorreu a partir do 112º dia após a antese. Verificou-se um quadro senescente nos frutos a partir do 119º dia após a antese.It was studied the fruit development in 'Bengal' litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. The samples were taken weekly 35 days after anthesis until the beginning of fruit senescence. From the 77th day after anthesis, fruits were decomposed in pericarp, aril and seed. Anthesis occurred in the first week of September. The fruit dry matter, length and diameter followed a single-sigmoid pattern. For dry matter accumulation, an initial phase, of slow growth, ended the 63rd day after anthesis and was coincident with a period of intense fruit drop. The next phase occurred from the 63rd to the 98th day and showed a rapid dry matter

  3. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.M.; Almeida, M.; Adikevičius, D.; Andzevičius, P.; Alvarenga, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n), consistency (K) and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’). No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn , even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage. [es

  4. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vossen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available California's olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels. The UCCE panel helped the California Olive Oil Council develop a seal certification program using sensory analysis. Certification provides consumers with assurance that labeled oils are free of defects and warrant the "extra virgin" grade. Sensory evaluation using a unique UCCE profile sheet provides complete and detailed information about specific positive flavor characteristics of olive cultivars grown in California. The UCCE sensory panel has also contributed to a better understanding of the qualities of California olive oil and advancement of the industry by participating in research on pest management, cultural practices and processing.

  5. Evaluation of Over-The-Row Harvester Damage in a Super-High-Density Olive Orchard Using On-Board Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New super-high-density (SHD olive orchards designed for mechanical harvesting using over-the-row harvesters are becoming increasingly common around the world. Some studies regarding olive SHD harvesting have focused on the effective removal of the olive fruits; however, the energy applied to the canopy by the harvesting machine that can result in fruit damage, structural damage or extra stress on the trees has been little studied. Using conventional analyses, this study investigates the effects of different nominal speeds and beating frequencies on the removal efficiency and the potential for fruit damage, and it uses remote sensing to determine changes in the plant structures of two varieties of olive trees (‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ and ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ planted in SHD orchards harvested by an over-the-row harvester. ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ fruit was the least tolerant to damage, and for this variety, harvesting at the highest nominal speed led to the greatest percentage of fruits with cuts. Different vibration patterns were applied to the olive trees and were evaluated using triaxial accelerometers. The use of two light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensing devices allowed us to evaluate structural changes in the studied olive trees. Before- and after-harvest measurements revealed significant differences in the LiDAR data analysis, particularly at the highest nominal speed. The results of this work show that the operating conditions of the harvester are key to minimising fruit damage and that a rapid estimate of the damage produced by an over-the-row harvester with contactless sensing could provide useful information for automatically adjusting the machine parameters in individual olive groves in the future.

  6. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  7. Functional analysis of mating type genes and transcriptome analysis during fruiting body development of botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Sander Y.A.; Terhem, Razak B.; Veloso, Javier; Stassen, Joost H.M.; Kan, van Jan A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus producing apothecia as sexual fruiting bodies. To study the function of mating type (MAT) genes, single-gene deletion mutants were generated in both genes of the MAT1-1 locus and both genes of the MAT1-2 locus. Deletion mutants in two MAT genes were

  8. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I., E-mail: ento@intnet.m, E-mail: moa-entomology@mail.gov.m [Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries, Reduit (Mauritius)

    2006-07-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  9. Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookar, P.; Permalloo, S.; Alleck, M.; Seewooruthun, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit flies are major constraint to fruit production in Mauritius. The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), the medfly, C. capitata (Wiedmann) are the main pests of fleshy fruits. Fruit fly trapping trials were conducted in backyards to find the most effective combination of attractant and lures for females. There were two separate trapping trials, carried out in two different localities during the period November 2004 to March 2005. In the first trial, the attractants in different combinations were tested in International Pheromone McPhail Trap (IPMT). The attractants were as follows: three patches containing Ammonium Acetate (AA) + Trimethylamine (TMA) + Putrescine (PT); Two patches of AA ; two patches of AA + one patch of PT ; two patches of AA + one patch of TMA; one patch of solbait; torula tablets; protein hydrolysate and GF120. Water and Triton B were used as retention device in traps baited with the patches. In the first trial, all treatments were equally effective in the capture of either female B. zonata or female C. capitata with the exception of protein hydrolysate and GF120 which trapped fewer numbers of flies. In the second trapping trial, additional trap types and lure combinations were assessed. The three component lure (AA + PT + TMA with water/Triton as retention device in IPMT) and the trap baited with Waste Brewer's Yeast captured significantly more female flies followed by IPMT with AA + PT + TMA / Sticky insert and the Easy trap. In all trials, females accounted for more than 75% of the catches. (author)

  10. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level

  11. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  12. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  13. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  14. The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    1999-05-01

    During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.

  15. Long-term soil alteration in historical charcoal hearths affects Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizal development and environmental conditions for fruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Forcadell, Ricardo; Sánchez, Sergio; Reyna, Santiago

    2017-08-01

    Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study. In the bioassay, percent root colonisation and relative abundance of T. melanosporum were significantly lower in hearth than in control soils. Hearth soils showed significantly lower resistance to penetration, larger temperature fluctuation, reduced plant cover and reduced herbaceous root abundance. The results do not support the hypothesis that soil from historical charcoal hearths currently enhances development of T. melanosporum mycorrhizas. However, whether this is due to increased infectivity of native ectomycorrhizal communities or to worse conditions for development of T. melanosporum mycorrhizas remains unresolved. Native ectomycorrhizal communities in hearths showed altered composition, although not a clear change in infectivity or richness. Direction of change in hearth soil properties is compared to alteration occurring in soils spontaneously producing T. melanosporum. The interest of these changes to improve T. melanosporum fruiting in plantations is discussed.

  16. Detection of viruses in olive trees in Croatian Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LUIGI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Following identification of four viruses in a general survey of olive trees throughout Croatia, a detailed survey was conducted in 2009 in the field collection of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč (an important reservoir of Istrian native olive germplasm in order to evaluate the sanitary status of the most important Croatian Istria olive cultivars. Twenty five samples from symptomatic or symptomless trees were collected from five autochthonous and four exotic cultivars. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of: Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D. Six of the 25 plants were found positive to CLRV; all infected plants showed leaf and fruit deformation and leaf yellowing. Four positive samples were from the native cv. Buža whereas the other two were from two exotic cultivars: Ascolana tenera and Frantoio. The presence of CLRV,  either in native or imported plants, highlights the importance of strict phytosanitary regulations to prevent incursion of key

  17. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  18. Frying performance of two virgin oils from Cornicabra olives with different ripeness indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero-David, R.; Mena, C.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J.; Pérez-Jiménez, M.A.; Holgado, F.; Bastida, S.; Velasco, J.

    2017-01-01

    The frying performance of two virgin olive oils (VOO) from Cornicabra olives of different ripeness indices, 2.08 for VOO1 and 4.13 for VOO2, was evaluated. Thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic alterations were determined throughout 40 frying operations with potatoes. The initial oils showed similar fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability indices as determined by Rancimat, but VOO1 presented higher amounts of total polyphenols and tocopherols. The oils showed high and similar frying performance. No significant differences in the levels of polar compounds (PC) were found between the two oils during frying. Therefore, the frying stability of Cornicabra VOOs appears to be unconnected with olive fruit ripeness. The limit of degradation at 25% PC as established in different countries was calculated to occur at 55 frying operations in the two oils. As oil toxicity is related to the levels of compounds formed, the use of Cornicabra VOOs for frying is highly recommended. [es

  19. Relevance of the main postharvest handling operations on the development of brown rot disease on stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Maria; Segarra, Joan; Casals, Carla; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is one of the most important postharvest diseases of stone fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the main postharvest operations of fruit - hydrocooling, cold room, water dump, sorting and cooling tunnel - in the development of M. laxa on peaches and nectarines artificially infected 48, 24 or 2 h before postharvest operations. Commercial hydrocooling operation reduced incidence to 10% in 'Pp 100' nectarine inoculated 2 and 24 h before this operation; however, in 'Fantasia' nectarine incidence was not reduced, although lesion diameter was decreased in all studied varieties. Hydrocooling operation for 10 min and 40 mg L -1 of sodium hypochlorite reduced brown rot incidence by 50-77% in nectarines inoculated 2 h before operation; however, in peach varieties it was not reduced. Water dump operation showed reduction of incidence on nectarine infected 2 h before immersion for 30 s in clean water at 4 °C and 40 mg L -1 sodium hypochlorite; however, in peach varieties it was not reduced. Cold room, sorting and cooling tunnel operation did not reduce brown rot incidence. From all studied handling operations on stone fruit packing houses, hydrocooling is the most relevant in the development of brown rot disease. Duration of the treatment seems to be more important than chlorine concentration. In addition, hydrocooling and water dump were less relevant in peaches than in nectarines. As a general trend, hydrocooling and water dump reduced incidence on fruit with recent infections (2 or 24 h before operation); however, when infections have been established (48 h before operation) diseases were not reduced. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Restriction Enzyme-Mediated Integration Mutants as Biocontrol Agents Against Anthracnose Disease in Avocado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoby, N; Zhou, R; Kobiler, I; Dinoor, A; Prusky, D

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT Reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate Cg-14 (teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. Following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. Fuerte avocado fruits. Fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative compared with wild-type Cg-14. Two isolates, Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150, were further characterized. Cg-M-142 produced appressoria on avocado pericarp similar to Cg-14, but caused reduced symptom development on the fruit's pericarp and mesocarp. Isolate Cg-M-1150 did not produce appressoria; it caused much reduced maceration on the mesocarp and no symptoms on the pericarp. Southern blot analysis of Cg-M-142 and Cg-M-1150 showed REMI at different XbaI sites of the fungal genome. Pre-inoculation of avocado fruit with Cg-M-142 delayed symptom development by the wild-type isolate. Induced resistance was accompanied by an increase in the levels of preformed antifungal diene, from 760 to 1,200 mug/g fresh weight 9 days after inoculation, whereas pre-inoculation with Cg-M-1150 did not affect the level of antifungal diene, nor did it delay the appearance of decay symptoms. The results presented here show that reduced-pathogenicity isolates can be used for the biological control of anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides attack.

  1. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA metabolism enzymes during the fruit development and dehydration stress of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shengjie; Li, Ping; Chen, Pei; Li, Qian; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Liao, Yalan; Leng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) in pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' during fruit ripening and under dehydration stress, two cDNAs (PpNCED1 and PpNCED2) which encode 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) (a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis), two cDNAs (PpCYP707A1 and PpCYP707A2) which encode 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA), one cDNA (PpACS3) which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and one cDNA (PpACO1) which encodes ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis were cloned from 'Gold Nijisseiki' fruit. In the pulp, peel and seed, expressions of PpNCED1 and PpNCED2 rose in two stages which corresponded with the increase of ABA levels. The expression of PpCYP707A1 dramatically declined after 60-90 days after full bloom (DAFB) in contrast to the changes of ABA levels during this period, while PpCYP707A2 stayed low during the whole development of fruit. Application of exogenous ABA at 100 DAFB increased the soluble sugar content and the ethylene release but significantly decreased the titratable acid and chlorophyll contents in fruits. When fruits harvested at 100 DAFB were stored in the laboratory (25 °C, 50% relative humidity), the ABA content and the expressions of PpNCED1/2 and PpCYP707A1 in the pulp, peel and seed increased significantly, while ethylene reached its highest value after the maximum peak of ABA accompanied with the expressions of PpACS3 and PpACO1. In sum the endogenous ABA may play an important role in the fruit ripening and dehydration of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' and the ABA level was regulated mainly by the dynamics of PpNCED1, PpNCED2 and PpCYP707A1 at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  5. Irradiation of fruits for quarantine insect disinfestation. Development in the world and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    In many countries strict phytosanitary controls have been established to prevent the entry of foreign insect species. The recent interdiction of ethylene dibromide fumigation in USA led to the search of new methods of quarantine control among which irradiation was considered as the more convenient. In different countries such as USA, Australia, New Zeland, studies were conducted to determine the dose of irradiation efficient for controlling different insect species and to verify that irradiation had no noxious effect on the fruits. At the present time the papaya harvested in Hawaii and irradiated against fruit flies are allowed to enter in the continent of USA. In France the irradiation of apples against Leucoptera malifoliella is under study to promote the exportation of apples to America [fr

  6. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  7. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  8. Development of Probiotic Fruit Juices Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short Chain and Long Chain Inulin Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products.

  9. Commentary to Adam Oliver's 'Incentivising improvements in health care delivery'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The commentary discusses key issues for assessment of performance management within health care. It supports the ambition to develop more realistic understandings of performance management based on insights from behavioral economics as suggested by Adam Oliver. However, it also points to several ...

  10. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  12. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  13. Integrated analysis of 454 and Illumina transcriptomic sequencing characterizes carbon flux and energy source for fatty acid synthesis in developing Lindera glauca fruits for woody biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zixin; An, Jiyong; Wang, Jia; Niu, Jun; Ma, Chao; Wang, Libing; Yuan, Guanshen; Shi, Lingling; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Zhixiang; Qi, Ji; Lin, Shanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Lindera glauca fruit with high quality and quantity of oil has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of carbon flux and energy source for oil biosynthesis in developing fruits is still unknown. To better develop fruit oils of L. glauca as woody biodiesel, a combination of two different sequencing platforms (454 and Illumina) and qRT-PCR analysis was used to define a minimal reference transcriptome of developing L. glauca fruits, and to construct carbon and energy metabolic model for regulation of carbon partitioning and energy supply for FA biosynthesis and oil accumulation. We first analyzed the dynamic patterns of growth tendency, oil content, FA compositions, biodiesel properties, and the contents of ATP and pyridine nucleotide of L. glauca fruits from seven different developing stages. Comprehensive characterization of transcriptome of the developing L. glauca fruit was performed using a combination of two different next-generation sequencing platforms, of which three representative fruit samples (50, 125, and 150 DAF) and one mixed sample from seven developing stages were selected for Illumina and 454 sequencing, respectively. The unigenes separately obtained from long and short reads (201, and 259, respectively, in total) were reconciled using TGICL software, resulting in a total of 60,031 unigenes (mean length = 1061.95 bp) to describe a transcriptome for developing L. glauca fruits. Notably, 198 genes were annotated for photosynthesis, sucrose cleavage, carbon allocation, metabolite transport, acetyl-CoA formation, oil synthesis, and energy metabolism, among which some specific transporters, transcription factors, and enzymes were identified to be implicated in carbon partitioning and energy source for oil synthesis by an integrated analysis of transcriptomic sequencing and qRT-PCR. Importantly, the carbon and energy metabolic model was well established for oil biosynthesis of developing L

  14. MECHANIZED HARVESTING TESTS PERFORMED BY GRAPE HARVESTERS IN SUPER INTENSIVE OLIVE ORCHARD CULTIVATION IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Giametta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today also those countries boasting a century-old olive growing tradition have to look at the latest, most dynamic, non labour-intensive olive growing systems to abate production (notably, harvesting operations costs and remain competitive in a globalized market. This is why over the last few years super intensive olive orchard cultivation has been attracting a lot of interest on the part of olive growers all over the world as it accounts for an innovative model whereby olive groves are tailored to the special needs of grape harvesters. This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. The study is intended to explore both productivity and work capacity of two of the most commonly used grape harvesters, Grégoire G120SW and New Holland Braud VX680, in a view to assessing their harvesting performance by a series of tests conducted in Spain. On the basis of the tests it was possible to verify that the machines are able to detach the almost all the drupes (more than 90%, with one only passage, and this independently of both size and location of drupes on the tree crown and of their maturity stage. Using these machines, two people can often carry out the whole harvest process: an operator driving the harvester and another person transferring the fruit from the harvester in the field to the olive oil mill for processing. With this system, the work speed is usually, in the best working conditions, about 1.7 km/hour and the average harvesting time is about 2.5-3 hours/ha. For the time being it is however impossible to draw definitive conclusions in terms of performance of the above cultivation systems and harvesting machines. Additional key observational studies are needed in the years to come to assess the efficiency of the entire model.

  15. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10–100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption. PMID:26132160

  16. Treatment technologies of liquid and solid wastes from two-phase olive oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, Bárbara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 10 years the manufacture of olive oil has undergone important evolutionary changes in the equipment used for the separation of olive oil from the remaining components. The latest development has been the introduction of a two-phase centrifugation process in which a horizontally-mounted centrifuge is used for a primary separation of the olive oil fraction from the vegetable solid material and vegetation water. Therefore, the new two-phase olive oil mills produce three identifiable and separate waste streams. These are: 1 the wash waters from the initial cleansing of the fruit; 2 the wash waters from the secondary centrifuge and 3 the aqueous solid residues from the primary centrifugation. As well as offering process advantages they also reduce the water consumption of the mill. The introduction of this technology was carried out in 90% of Spanish olive oil factories. Therefore, the new twophase olive mill effluents (TPOME are made up of the mixture of effluents (1 and (2, the total volume of TPOME generated being around 0.25 l/kg of olives processed. In addition, the solid residue (two-phase olive pomace, TPOP has a high organic matter concentration giving an elevated polluting load and it cannot be easily handled by traditional technology which deals with the conventional three-phase olive cake.So, this paper aims to report the main features and characteristics of TPOME, and of TPOP, as compared to the classical olive mill wastewater (OMW and olive cake derived from the three-phase manufacturing process. The advantages and disadvantages of the two-phase decanting process will be summarized. Among the treatments reported for TPOME, aerobic processes in completely mixed and activated sludge reactor showed high COD removal efficiencies. Kinetic constants of the aerobic processes were also compared at different operational conditions. The report also includes the following findings: assays of anaerobic digestion of wastewaters from the

  17. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs, molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences

  18. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences with adequate flanking

  19. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Lisa J; Alkharouf, Nadim; Darwish, Omar; Ogden, Elizabeth L; Polashock, James J; Bassil, Nahla V; Main, Dorrie

    2012-04-02

    There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences with adequate flanking sequence. One hundred

  20. Bayesian and Phylogenic Approaches for Studying Relationships among Table Olive Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Amar, Fathi; Moreau, Fabienne; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Rebai, Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    To enhance table olive tree authentication, relationship, and productivity, we consider the analysis of 18 worldwide table olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.) based on morphological, biological, and physicochemical markers analyzed by bioinformatic and biostatistic tools. Accordingly, we assess the relationships between the studied varieties, on the one hand, and the potential productivity-quantitative parameter links on the other hand. The bioinformatic analysis based on the graphical representation of the matrix of Euclidean distances, the principal components analysis, unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed three major clusters which were not correlated with the geographic origin. The statistical analysis based on Kendall's and Spearman correlation coefficients suggests two highly significant associations with both fruit color and pollinization and the productivity character. These results are confirmed by the multiple linear regression prediction models. In fact, based on the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value, the best model demonstrated the power of the pollinization on the tree productivity (R 2  = 0.846). Moreover, the derived directed acyclic graph showed that only two direct influences are detected: effect of tolerance on fruit and stone symmetry on side and effect of tolerance on stone form and oil content on the other side. This work provides better understanding of the diversity available in worldwide table olive cultivars and supplies an important contribution for olive breeding and authenticity.

  1. Rural Destination Development Based on Olive Oil Tourism: The Impact of Residents’ Community Attachment and Quality of Life on Their Support for Tourism Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Campón-Cerro; José Antonio Folgado-Fernández; José Manuel Hernández-Mogollón

    2017-01-01

    Residents are an essential part of tourism destinations, which makes gaining a deeper understanding of residents’ attitudes towards tourism development necessary because their favourable attitudes can contribute to destinations’ success. This study sought to understand to what extent rural residents’ perceptions of tourism development in their region affect their intention to support further tourism development. The present research also focused on the influence of the variables of community ...

  2. Preliminary Studies of the Field Movement of the Olive Fruit Fly (Dacus Oleae Gmel,) by Labelling a Natural Population with Radioactive Phosphorus (P{sup 32}); Etudes preijminaires sur les deplacements de la mouche de l'olive (Dacus Oleae Gmel. ) par marquage d'une population naturelle au radiophosphore ({sup 32}P); Predvaritel'noe issledovanie polevogo peremeshcheniya olivkovoj fruktovoj mukhi (Dacus Oleae Gmel.) posredstvom mecheniya estestvennoj populyatsii radioaktivnym fosforom (P{sup 32}).; Estudio preliminar de la dispersion de moscas del ouvo (Dacus Oleae Gmel. ) mediante la marcacion de poblaciones naturales con {sup 32}p.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelekassis, Constantine E.D.; Mourikos, P. A.; Bantzios, D. N. [Economic Entomology Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Athens (Greece)

    1963-09-15

    Preliminary trials were conducted to obtain the first data on the field movement of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. These studies were carried out in the olive-growing area at Rovies, Evvia, Greece, during the autumn of 1961, when the maximum adult fly activity usually occurs. A mixture of radioactive P{sup 32} of H{sub 3}P{sup 32}O{sub 4} in HCl and hydrolysate protein, Staley No. 7, was prepared for labelling the naturally occurring adult fly population. Twigs of 30 olive trees which were selected in a semi-mountainous olive orchard at Rovies were treated with the P{sup 32} bait solution on 14 October 1961. Five hundred McPhail traps, containing 3% of diammonium phosphate as a lure, were used for the collection of flies. Traps were distributed in the olive groves of the entire area at Rovies and also in the adjacent areas (fewest or olive groves) up to a distance of 10 km from the treated trees. A total of 350 tagged flies of both sexes were collected in 48 traps during 15 counts of traps made between 15 October and 18 November. Labelled flies which were caught from 1 to 35 days after treatment represented 2.8% of the total number of flies collected in 48 traps, or 0.15% of the total number of flies caught in 298 traps in the entire area at Rovies. A proportion of 73% of the tagged flies were trapped within the first ten-day period following treatment. Labelled flies were found as far as 4300 m (maximum of dispersal) from the labelling station. Radioactivity of tagged flies ranged between 258 and 9549 counts/min per fly (background radiation 8-21 counts/min). These preliminary trials have confirmed a more or less continuous local movement (dispersal) o f flies from the semi-mountainous grove to the adjacent plains or to the coastal olive groves at Rovies from the north to south. Long-distance movement (migration) of Dacus flies to other areas has not been observed. Pine woods appear to act as a barrier to die movement of Dacus oleae adults. (author

  3. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  4. Development of a scheffler fixed focus concentrator for the processing of medicinal plants and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Hensel, O.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing population and industrialization, there is need to cut down the load of fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution. A large part of industrial process heat lies from low to medium temperature range which can be supplied by solar energy. Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium temperature applications in different parts of the world. These concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations throughout the year. The paper presents description and experimental results of medicinal and fruit processing using an 8 m/sup 2/ surface area Scheffler solar concentrator installed at solar campus, university of Kassel, Witzenhausen Germany. The research was focused to promote solar renewable energy in rural and remote locations. The solar system was equipped with Pyranometer and thermocouples to evaluate real time data which was used for performance evaluation of the solar system during processing of different products. In the first phase of the research, several trials were made to evaluate the performance of the system. Within the solar radiations range of 700- 800 W m-2, the receiver temperatures were recorded between 300 - 400 deg. C. The average power was found to be 1.55 kW and system efficiency was found to be 32.34%. Different medicinal plants like Melissa, Peppermint, Rosemary, Cumin, and Cloves buds were successfully processed by using solar energy. Different fruit and vegetables like Apples, Plums, cherries, tomatoes were also processed by using solar energy. Research results have showed that solar energy can be successfully used for the post harvest and fruit processing at rural location. (author)

  5. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  6. Applicability of SCAR markers to food genomics: olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafundo, Simona; Agrimonti, Caterina; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2007-07-25

    DNA analysis with molecular markers has opened a shortcut toward a genomic comprehension of complex organisms. The availability of micro-DNA extraction methods, coupled with selective amplification of the smallest extracted fragments with molecular markers, could equally bring a breakthrough in food genomics: the identification of original components in food. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) have been instrumental in plant genomics because they may allow rapid and reliable analysis of multiple and potentially polymorphic sites. Nevertheless, their direct application to the analysis of DNA extracted from food matrixes is complicated by the low quality of DNA extracted: its high degradation and the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The conversion of an AFLP fragment to a robust and specific single-locus PCR-based marker, therefore, could extend the use of molecular markers to large-scale analysis of complex agro-food matrixes. In the present study is reported the development of sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) starting from AFLP profiles of monovarietal olive oils analyzed on agarose gel; one of these was used to identify differences among 56 olive cultivars. All the developed markers were purposefully amplified in olive oils to apply them to olive oil traceability.

  7. Desenvolvimento dos frutos nas espécies selvagens de amendoim (Arachis spp. Fruit development in wild species of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida H. T. Mendes Conagin

    1959-01-01

    sera espécie A. villosulicarpa Hohene (segundo Krapovickas (¹ e a V. 85 é, provávelmente o A. Diogoi Hoehne subspétie major Hoehne. A ocorrência de dois óvulos por ovário e de frutos catenados em tôdas as espécies selvagens que foram examinadas torna possível concluir que o mesmo processo descrito para Arachis monticola e A. villosa var. correntina explica a formação dos frutos catenados nas espécies selvagens que os possuem.Observations made on the fruit development of wild species of peanut, Arachis monticola and A. villosa var. correntina, received from Argentina, are described in this paper. The ovary is uniloculaled and has two ovules. Fertilization is normal, the embryo and endosperm developing in the same way as in the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. In more than 50% of cases both ovules develop normally, nevertheless abortion of the apical ovule is frequent and may occur in any phase of its development. In the firs case the fruits have two normal seeds; in the second, they have only one, the other being small and shrivelled. Fruits of the two species possess the two seeds separated by a sharp constriction or isthmus; this isthmus is anatomically a peg; it is dry in the ripe fruit and may be easily broken when the fruits are picked at harvest, giving then the erroneous impression that these are one-seeded. Burkart (2,3 and Hoehne (6 described a similar type of fruit for the species Arachis villosa Benth. and A. pusilla Benth.; fruits of the same type were also found by Gregory (1,8 in A. glabrata Benth. and A. hypogaea L. In addition to A. monticola and A. villosa var. correntina the writer found catenate fruits on specimens from a collection of wild species, as follows; A. Diogoi Hoehne f. typica Hoehne, A. glabrata Benth., A. pusilla Benth., A. marginata Gardn. (according to Burkart, A. prostrata Benth. (according to Burkart, A. villosulicarpa (according to Krapovickas, Arachis sp. (probably Arachis Diogoi Hoehne sub-species major Hoehne

  8. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  9. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  10. Genetic Diversity Among Historical Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genotypes from Southern Anatolia Based on SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is an ancient and important crop in both olive oil production and table use. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of olive genetic resources for cultivar development and evaluation of olive germplasm. In the study, 14 microsatellite markers (UDO4, UDO8, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO22, UDO24, UDO26, UDO28, DCA9, DCA11, DCA13, DCA15, and DCA18) were used to assess the genetic variation on 76 olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes from Mardin province together with 6 well-known Turkish and 4 well-known foreign reference cultivars. All microsatellite markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles varied between 9 and 22, with an average of 14.57. The most informative loci were DCA 11 (22 alleles) and DCA 9 (21 alleles). Dendrogram based on genetic distances was constructed for the 86 olive genotypes/cultivars, which revealed the existence of different clusters. The high genetic similarity was evident between Bakırkire2 and Zinnar5 (0.74) genotypes, while the most genetically divergent genotypes were Gürmeşe5 and Yedikardeşler2 (0.19). It was concluded that there was abundant SSR polymorphism in olive germplasm in southern Anatolia in Turkey and could be important for future breeding activities.

  11. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2018-02-01

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Optimization of Malaxation Process using Major Aroma Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cevik,Serife; Ozkan,Gulcan; Kıralan,Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimization of major aroma compounds in olive oils produced from fruits at three maturity stages wasstudied. A central composite design was used for the optimization of malaxation conditions of temperature and times, each at five levels with 13 runs including five central points. The responses of interest were trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, which were investigated and their contents were optimized. A full quadratic second order regression model including the linear, quadratic, and two...

  14. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  15. Effect of Cultivar, Temperature, and Environmental Conditions on the Dynamic Change of Melatonin in Mulberry Fruit Development and Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yin, Li-Yuan; Shi, Xue-Ying; Xiao, Hua; Kang, Kun; Liu, Xing-Yan; Zhan, Ji-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2016-04-01

    High levels of melatonin have been reported in various foods but not in mulberry or its wine. This study investigated the dynamic changes of melatonin levels during mulberry fruit development and ethanol fermentation of 2 different colored mulberry cultivars ("Hongguo2ˮ Morus nigra, black and "Baiyuwangˮ Morus alba, white) at 2 fermentation temperatures (16 and 25 °C). Our results showed that the melatonin level increased in the beginning of mulberry development but decreased in the end. The MnTDC gene expression level correlated with melatonin production, which implied that TDC may be the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthetic process in mulberries. During mulberry fermentation, the melatonin concentration increased rapidly in the beginning and then decreased gradually. Low temperature delayed the melatonin production during fermentation. A relatively high level of melatonin was found in "Hongguo2ˮ compared with "Baiyuwangˮ during fruit development and fermentation. The variation of melatonin correlated with the ethanol production rate, suggesting that melatonin may participate in physiological regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation stage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The polyketide synthase gene pks4 is essential for sexual development and regulates fruiting body morphology in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Nowrousian, Minou

    2014-07-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes have long been known as producers of a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which have toxic effects on other organisms. However, the role of these metabolites in the biology of the fungi that produce them remains in most cases enigmatic. A major group of fungal secondary metabolites are polyketides. They are chemically diverse, but have in common that their chemical scaffolds are synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs). In a previous study, we analyzed development-dependent expression of pks genes in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Here, we show that a deletion mutant of the pks4 gene is sterile, producing only protoperithecia but no mature perithecia, whereas overexpression of pks4 leads to enlarged, malformed fruiting bodies. Thus, correct expression levels of pks4 are essential for wild type-like perithecia formation. The predicted PKS4 protein has a domain structure that is similar to homologs in other fungi, but conserved residues of a methyl transferase domain present in other fungi are mutated in PKS4. Expression of several developmental genes is misregulated in the pks4 mutant. Surprisingly, the development-associated app gene is not downregulated in the mutant, in contrast to all other previously studied mutants with a block at the protoperithecial stage. Our data show that the polyketide synthase gene pks4 is essential for sexual development and plays a role in regulating fruiting body morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Dynamics of Starch and Total Sugars during Fruit Development for Ionathan, Starkrimson and Golden Delicious Apple Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andruţa Mureşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apples represent one of the most important elements in the human diet. The research carried out involved three apple varieties (Starkimson, Ionathan and Golden Delicious harvested during development, which were analyzed in terms of physico-chemical profile. During fruit development, diameter and mass increased continuously for all the three apple varieties studied, acidity decreased and total soluble solids content increased significantly. The pH values of the apple pulp also increased confirming the results obtained for the acidity. The starch concentration was reduced in the early stages of fruit development in all three varieties of apple studied. Starch concentration significantly increased (p <0.05 starting 35 days after full bloom, similar for all three varieties studied. The peak of starch concentration for all three varieties under study was reached at 65 days after full bloom. Starch concentration gradually decreased starting 107 days after full bloom until technological maturity. The results provide important information on how to make the best use of the apple cultivars investigated, and not only, for both technological research and processing practice. Also, they determine the best time to use the apples from physiological falls in different foods and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments...

  19. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  1. Soil to plant transfer of 134Cs for olive and orange trees: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Papanicolaou, E.; Haidouti, C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research programme was to calculate values of transfer parameters of 134 Cs from soil to tree crops (olive and orange trees) in a long term glasshouse pot experiment, started in 1994. Radiocaesium contamination in the different tree parts as well as the importance of the storage or cycling of 134 Cs will also be examined. The experiment was conducted in large pots filled with a calcareous, heavy soil (115 kg/pot) where olive and orange trees, two years after grafting were transplanted. The soil was added to the pot in layers ca. 2 cm thick on the top of which the radioactive solution was added in small drops. Caesium-134 as CsCl (0.5 mCi) was added to each pot. The soil in the pots was watered to field capacity and left to stand for eight weeks for the 134 Cs to reach equilibrium. Plant samples were taken at fruit maturity, eight months after transplanting. It is noticed that the length of experimentation is rather short for tree crops and the data should be considered as preliminary ones with indicative tendencies. Under these conditions plant contamination was generally very low in both plant species studied. The concentration ratios (CR) of 134 Cs for the studied crops did not differ much and they ranged from 0.0007 to 0.002 for olive trees and from 0.0006 to 0.001 for orange trees. Leaves compared to other plant parts showed the highest CR value in both crops. Furthermore new leaves and branches of the