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Sample records for olival superintensivo realidade

  1. Olival superintensivo: realidade ou utopia? Hedgerow olive orchards: reality or utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. De la Rosa

    2007-01-01

    ©xito de las mismas.Nowadays, olive orchards have a densities not higher than 330 trees/ha. The major cost correspond to harvest operations, which is very labour demanding. Recently, a new type of olive plantations with densities around 2.000 tress/ha has appeared. The major advantage of this type of plantations is their totally mechanised harvest, by vineyards straddle-harvesting machines. These plantations have a very early bearing and very productive, at least in the first years. The most common cultivar used is ‘Arbequina’. In the present work, data of the first four harvest of a variety comparative trial are reported. This trial include ‘Arbequina’, ‘Arbequina i-18’, ‘Arbosana’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Fs17’ y ‘UC 2-35’ cultivars. From the ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Arbosana’ had been the most productive and ‘UC 2-35’ the less vigorous. Results of a trial testing densities between 780 and 2580 trees/ha is also described. Up to now, the higher densities have been the most productive ones. However, more definitive results can be obtained in the coming years, when problems of competence among trees started to appear. In summary, as in the near future is expected that the subsides from the EU are going to be greatly reduced and the labour for harvesting is difficult to find, the ability to this type of plantations to be profitable at long term will determine their success.

  2. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In manufacturing, olive oil is used to make soaps, commercial plasters and liniments; and to delay setting ... Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on ... Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient ...

  3. Realidad aumentada y realidad virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Abásolo Guerrero, María José; Mitaritonna, Alejandro; Encina, Natalia; Vicenzi, Mario; Borelli, Lucas; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Naiouf, Marcelo; Giacomantone, Javier

    2015-01-01

    La línea de investigación y desarrollo presentada consiste en estudiar, desarrollar y evaluar aplicaciones de realidad virtual, realidad aumentada e interfaces avanzadas. Uno de los principales objetivos es la formación de recursos humanos y fortalecimiento de la investigación mediante el trabajo intergrupal entre diferentes instituciones nacionales y extranjeras. El proyecto concluido Formación de Recursos Humanos e Investigación en Visión e Informática Gráfica (FRIVIG) de la AECI posibil...

  4. Realidad virtual y materialidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Herranz, Fernando Miguel

    2009-01-01

    1. Fenomenología de partida: Real / Simbólico / Imaginario 2. Realidad 3. Virtual 3.1. Virtual / real / posible / probable 3.2. Los contextos de la realidad virtual A) REALIDAD VIRTUAL INMERSIVA B) REALIDAD VIRTUAL NO INMERSIVA C) REALIDAD VIRTUAL Y DIGITALIZACIÓN 3.3. Cruce virtual / real 3.4. Cuestiones filosóficas 4. Materialidad 5. Materialidad y descentramiento 5.1. Ejemplos de descentramiento en los contextos de Realidad Virtual A’) DUALISMO CARTESIANO, CUERPO Y «CIBORG » B’) EL ESPÍRIT...

  5. Cuenca, realidad virtual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Concepción Rodríguez Ruza; Adela Mª Muñoz Marquina; Aurelio Lorente González; Virginia Cañas Córdoba

    2012-01-01

    This project, Cuenca, realidad virtual, was created so that the key periods of the historical evolution of Cuenca could be explained, where the Islamic Cuenca, Christian Cuenca and Cuenca in the 18th...

  6. Oftalmologia e realidade virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânio Araruna Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar como os simuladores estão sendo usados para ensino, treinamento, terapia e exames na medicina, com destaque para oftalmologia. A realidade virtual surgiu como uma ferramenta auxiliar no ensino e treinamento médico. Na oftalmologia, o progresso dessa técnica tem sido publicado em algumas revistas de saúde. Baseado nessas fontes, investigamos como a Oftalmologia tem interagido com a Realidade Virtual, essa ferramenta que veio para auxiliar o ensino da Medicina. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática de artigos das principais revistas, além de livros sobre o assunto entre 1995 e 2010. Revisamos a literatura publicada dos últimos quinze anos baseados em referências mencionadas em várias revistas, como exemplo podemos citar a Medical Education, Journal of the American College of Surgeon, Computers & Graphics, New England Journal of Medicine, Proceedingof the IEEE no período de 1990 a 2010. RESULTADOS: Após a revisão de 200 artigos encontrados sobre o tema educação médica e realidade virtual publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais entre os anos de 1995 e 2010, percebemos as diferenças entre as áreas da medicina, no que se refere ao uso da realidade virtual (RV. Apenas 10 artigos explicitam com algum aprofundamento os simuladores oftalmológicos. CONCLUSÃO: A oftalmologia é uma das áreas que menos interagem com a realidade virtual, devido a dificuldades de montagem de imagens para serem aplicadas no simulador. Mas é uma das áreas que mais precisa, devido à delicadeza da estrutura de trabalho, olho humano. Assim, a Realidade Virtual (RV tem aparecido na otoscopia virtual e na formação dos atlas virtuais. Na cirurgia, os simuladores ainda são poucos, mas provavelmente será a área mais promissora, devido as vantagens do treinamento virtual. Assim, a RV tem surgido junto aos serious games, ensino e treinamento de oftalmologia, além de terapia de fobias.

  7. Realidad aumentada en medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ortiz Rangel, Ing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la realidad aumentada representa una forma reciente de visualización que combina, de manera funcional, la virtualidad con la realidad misma, generando posibilidades nuevas para la interpretación de información antes no disponible, que abren nuevas maneras para aprender y reconocer los datos, procesarlos en información y convertirlos fácilmente en conocimiento. Las diferentes formas para llevar a cabo experiencias en realidad aumentada, se encuentran listas desde diferentes plataformas informáticas y de telecomunicaciones, que facilitan adelantar proyectos en este sentido, de manera rápida y económica. La Medicina, y particularmente la Cardiología, pueden asistirse de este tipo de medios para complementar la información disponible en otros formatos, y pasarlos a la tridimensionalidad, desde donde la interpretación de imágenes sobre objetos 3D está servida para estos propósitos.

  8. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  9. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and explo

  10. Cuenca, realidad virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Rodríguez Ruza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This project, Cuenca, realidad virtual, was created so that the key periods of the historical evolution of Cuenca could be explained, where the Islamic Cuenca, Christian Cuenca and Cuenca in the 18th Century are comprised. The reconstruction of these different ages is represented by different routes through a threedimensional environment by means of this application .In order to be put into practice, 3D geometries, 3D polygon models, texturin, 3D illumination and threedimensional geometries animation of all of these elements have been implemented. Virtual visits are introduced by some texts, hearings, plans, archive and current pictures. These routes allow the visitor to get to know the past of this town through a recreational and easy going method

  11. Juicio y realidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gallo.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se ocupa de articular la noción de sujeto a conceptos esenciales de la metapsicología freudiana, tales como juicio, pulsión, realidad y represión. Estas nociones, relacionadas con el concepto lacaniano de forclusión, enfatizan el aspecto estructural del sujeto sobre la dimensión genética. Juicio y pulsión son los dos términos que de principio a fin se ponen en discusión, sin dejar de consignar la nueva dimensión del sujeto que la vertiente freudiana de la denegación pone en juego.

  12. nueva realidad de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características de la política latinoamericana de los últimos tiempos ha sido la tensión entre integración y fragmentación. En este contexto hubo una reproducción de situaciones conocidas. Pero también se procesaron cambios importantes. Uno de éstos estuvo relacionado con la irrupción de los liderazgos regionales, de naturaleza y envergadura diversa. Encontramos una puja muy particular entre el liderazgo de Venezuela en un proyecto alternativo y la respuesta geopolítica de Estados Unidos a través de Colombia. La realidad de los liderazgos impactó notoriamente a Argentina. Fue evidente que a partir de la crisis de 2001 perdió capacidad de influencia en la región.

  13. A realidade do virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Simonini Lopes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propõe discutir o conceito de virtual, tendocomo apoio as obras de Pierre Lévy, Jean Baudrillard e Gilles Deleuze.Entendemos que diferentes propostas de realidade do virtualsurgem baseando-se na abordagem de cada um desses autores. E cadauma dessas propostas abre novas perspectivas para o pensamentode enxergar e manipular o conceito de virtual. Partimos, então,neste trabalho, do entendimento do virtual conquanto entidadedesterritorializada (Lévy, 1998, seguindo até sua compreensãoenquanto espaço de potência (Deleuze, 1996. Cada uma dessasabordagens produz um modo de pensar, e, enquanto Lévy situa ovirtual como o espaço de representação da consciência humana,Deleuze já o trabalha como dimensão de intensidades não representacionais, promotora de contínua diferença. Construímos, assim, uma reflexão sobre o modo como alguns pensadores têm trabalhadoo conceito de virtual: utilizando-o como recognição e ignorandoseu entendimento como potência.

  14. Realidad Virtual: Potencial Educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Santamaría Granados

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El grupo GIBRANT centró sus esfuerzos en la investigación de realidad virtual, al experimentar en el uso de herramientas del consorcio Web3D (VRML y X3D, para el diseño y modelamiento de mundos virtuales en 3D, así pudo evidenciar el trabajo de estudiantes y docentes en el proyecto USTA en 3D; como tambien en algunas prácticas de formación en colegios de educación media, que involucran el uso de TIC, en el desarrollo de competencias de ubicación espacial, trigonométrica y rotación de objetos; y la construcción de escenaios que afianzan el proceso de enseñanza - aprendizaje en cuanquier área del saber. Este articulo quiere hacer ver la facilidad y la potencialidad de las MTIC e invita a la comunidad de educacion básica y media a apropiarse de estas tecnologías para su propio beneficio.

  15. Comunidad, realidad y pragmatismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Damiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es explicar la concepción de la realidad sostenida por Charles Sanders Peirce. El trabajo comienza con una presentación de dicha concepción en tres artículos de Peirce: : "The fixation of belief" (1877 y "How to make our ideas clear" (1878 and "Questions concerning certain faculties claimed for man" (1868. Luego se examinan algunas críticas a dicha concepción. La conclusión es que esas críticas dependen de una comprensión incorrecta de esta concepción.The aim of this paper is to explain Charles Sanders Peirce' conception of reality. The paper begins with a presentation of this conception in three works of Peirce: "The fixation of belief" (1877 y "How to make our ideas clear" (1878 and "Questions concerning certain faculties claimed for man" (1868. After that, some critics to this conception are examined. The conclusion is that these critics depend of a misunderstanding of this conception.

  16. Realidad aumentada, realidad virtual, interfaces avanzadas, juegos educativos

    OpenAIRE

    Abásolo Guerrero, María José; Mitaritonna, Alejandro; Bouciguez, María José; Encina, Natalia; Vicenzi, Mario; De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Naiouf, Marcelo; Giacomantone, Javier; Manresa Yee, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    La línea de investigación y desarrollo presentada consiste en estudiar, desarrollar y evaluar aplicaciones de realidad virtual, realidad aumentada e interfaces avanzadas. Uno de los principales objetivos es la formación de recursos humanos y fortalecimiento de la investigación mediante el trabajo intergrupal entre diferentes instituciones nacionales y extranjeras. El proyecto concluido Formación de Recursos Humanos e Investigación en Visión e Informática Gráfica (FRIVIG) de la AECI posibilitó...

  17. Acercando realidades: Arteterapia y psicosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra cómo la creación artística puede servir de alternativa de comunicación en personas con psicosis. A través de la creación artística observamos cómo una realidad interna sale al exterior, produciendo una integración entre mente y cuerpo, entre el sujeto y el mundo que le rodea. El proceso creador proporciona a la persona experiencias y herramientas para una mejor comunicación y socialización. Este trabajo abordará en primer lugar conceptos como realidad, psicosis ...

  18. Comunicación y Realidad Aumentada

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Salvadó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    La realidad aumentada es el puente entre la realidad y la ilusión, y se compone de dos elementos principales; por un lado la imagen real en directo (realidad), y por otro la imagen ficticia que se proyecta sobre ésta, añadiéndole nuevos datos o representaciones. Se analiza el concepto de realidad aumentada y sus posibles aplicaciones

  19. Comunicación y Realidad Aumentada

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Salvadó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    La realidad aumentada es el puente entre la realidad y la ilusión, y se compone de dos elementos principales; por un lado la imagen real en directo (realidad), y por otro la imagen ficticia que se proyecta sobre ésta, añadiéndole nuevos datos o representaciones. Se analiza el concepto de realidad aumentada y sus posibles aplicaciones

  20. El feminismo, una realidad tergiversada

    OpenAIRE

    Lemir González, Ingrid Alexandra; Universidad de Manizales Programa de Comunicación Social y Periodismo

    2016-01-01

    Con un mundo que impone desafíos sociales tan impresionantes, este es un texto que quiere encarar las dimensiones del feminismo actual como uno de esos eslabones en los que se construye la realidad contemporánea. A través de este ensayo se quiere poner en consideración el nuevo foco de atención que traen a la mesa de discusiones sociales y políticas, conceptos como hembrismo, machismo o feminazismo.

  1. ARLAB: Laboratorio con Realidad Aumentada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calderón, Rosalino; Santillana Arbesú, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    ResumenARLAB es una innovación que incorporar tecnología de realidad aumentada a los experimentos clásicos decontrol y automatización industrial, permitiendo integrar y que interactúen varias tecnologías desarrollándoseexperimentos mixtos, parte real y parte virtual en 3D, que se visualiza con un dispositivo inteligente, como lo esun celular o tableta electrónica; con el fin de generar una visión del conocimiento más profunda y clara.

  2. Oliver Sacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renowned neurologist and author Dr Oliver Sacks is a visiting professor at the University of Warwick as part of the Institute of Advanced Study. Dr Sacks was born in London. He earned his medical degree at the University of Oxford (Queen’s College and the Middlesex Hospital (now UCL, followed by residencies and fellowships at Mt. Zion Hospital in San Francisco and at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA. As well as authoring best-selling books such as Awakenings and The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he is clinical professor of neurology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York. Warwick is part of a consortium led by New York University which is building an applied science research institute, the Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP. Dr Sacks recently completed a five-year residency at Columbia University in New York, where he was professor of neurology and psychiatry. He also held the title of Columbia University Artist, in recognition of his contributions to the arts as well as to medicine. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and the Association of British Neurologists, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and has been a fellow of the New York Institute for the Humanities at NYU for more than 25 years. In 2008, he was appointed CBE.

  3. Oliver Jeffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家代表作品:《This Moose Belongs to Me》、《How to Catch a Star》、《Lost and found》、《Up and Down》、《The Way Back Home》、《The Great Paper Caper》、《The Heart and the Bottle》、Oliver Jeffers生于1977年,是一位故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家。他生于爱尔兰,现在在美国纽约的布鲁克林生活。他的创作领域从具象绘画、插图、独立书籍制作到装置艺术,涉猎很广。他的作品被纽约布鲁克林博物馆收入。另外在都柏林、柏林、伦敦、悉尼、华盛顿和贝尔法斯特都有他的艺术品展出。他是家喻户晓的儿童书籍作者。哈伯柯林斯和企鹅出版社都出版过他的书。2004年的《How to Catch a Star》是他第一本儿童书,大受好评。之后他

  4. Review "Derecho y salud como realidades interactivas"

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas, Marcelo Dayrell

    2015-01-01

    Review "DERECHO Y SALUD COMO REALIDADES INTERACTIVAS" (Jorge Tomillo Urbina e Joaquín Cayón de Las Cuevas (Coord.), Aranzadi, Espanha, 2015) Resenha sobre a publicação "DERECHO Y SALUD COMO REALIDADES INTERACTIVAS", de Jorge Tomillo Urbina e Joaquín Cayón de Las Cuevas (Coord.) (Aranzadi, Espanha, 2015)

  5. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  6. Overregularity in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥曼

    2015-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of the earliest works of Charles Dickens. In this novel, the author uses many writing skills which impress the readers a lot. This paper gives a brief description of overregularity in Oliver Twist at the phonological and syntactical levels.

  7. Políticas de la realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Català

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea una nueva manera de comprender el documental político, a partir de establecer la condición histórica tanto de las relaciones entre lo social y lo político, como de la comprensión del cine documental y su correspondencia con la realidad. La forma de la realidad que propone un documental, socio-político o de cualquier otro tipo, surge en primer lugar de un determinado imaginario que, a través de un entramado tecno-ideológico-estético, plantea modos de exposición a partir de los cuales se estructurar los discursos sobre lo real.Por lo tanto, dar forma a un documental, aparte de un ejercicio de moldeado de la realidad, constituye también un modo de acción política que se ejerce en el foro social. Un documental no es sólo político porque hable de política o tenga intenciones políticas, sino que se convierte en un acto político al hablar de la realidad a través de su concepción de la misma. Después de revisar, desde esta perspectiva, las distintas fases de la historia del cine documental, se considera que el nuevo documental político se posiciona en la subjetividad para examinar desde ella las fallas de una realidad mediática empeñada en seguir simulando que actúa objetivamente. La alternativa a esta situación pasa por la creación de nuevas formas tecno-retóricas equivalentes a nuevas maneras de comprender la realidad.

  8. Realidad Virtual, Estado del arte y análisis crítico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Luna, Jacqueline Narcisa

    2012-01-01

    Las alteraciones de la realidad están estrechamente vinculadas a las modificaciones de la percepción, la realidad ha sido modificada por teóricos de los nuevos medios de comunicación, artistas, filósofos, periodistas, médicos, tecnólogos, otros; y se la bifurca en realidad virtual, realidad aumentada, realidad mixta, realidad simulada, realidad artificial, realidad en capas y realidad mejorada.

  9. el mundo perdido de la realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Arisemndi, Germán Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta que la realidad es una noción diseñada por el hombre para establecer los límites de su existencia, donde toda representación simbólica sugerida por las consideraciones fenomenológicas de Eco desde sus estudios semiológicos, vale la pena explorar el concepto de realidad a partir de estas premisas dirigidas en el maremágnum infográfico de los videojuegos, que en la actualidad, ponen la yunta delante del carro para exhortarnos de un mundo plagado de indicios, íconos o símbolos...

  10. Pensamiento, lenguaje y realidad [RESEÑA

    OpenAIRE

    Ostiz-Blanco, M. (Mikel)

    2013-01-01

    Reseña de Ángel Luis González – David González Ginocchio (eds.), Pensamiento, lenguaje y realidad, Cuadernos de Pensamiento Español, no 47, Pamplona, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra, 2012, 149 pg.

  11. Aumentando la realidad química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luisa Roqueta Buj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso de nuevas tecnologías como la Realidad Aumentada en la enseñanza de la Química permite manejar información virtual y asociarla a elementos de la vida real. Se accede a la misma a través de un dispositivo tecnológico con un software específico. Esta herramienta tecnológica recibe el nombre de Realidad Aumentada y permite añadir contenido digital a nuestro mundo real aumentando la percepción que tenemos del mismo. Nos permite incorporar contenido en forma de texto, imagen, audio o vídeo.

  12. La realidad del trabajo de los electricistas

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉS RUIZ, VICENTE

    2012-01-01

    La finalidad de este proyecto es investigar la satisfacción laboral y la seguridad en el trabajo de los electricistas. La investigación se hace por medio del método cualitativo, a través de entrevistas en profundidad con una muestra de ocho electricistas. Andrés Ruiz, V. (2012). La realidad del trabajo de los electricistas. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/17094. Archivo delegado

  13. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  14. Babilonia: entre el mito y la realidad

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como propósito destacar la importancia que tiene la cultura babilónica para la historia de la humanidad, en especial para la cultura hebrea y griega. Babilonia, entre el mito y la realidad, logró desarrollar una serie de manifestaciones culturales que repercutieron e impactaron a la cultura de Occidente. En materia literaria, las obras de Homero y Hesíodo son muestra de ello,  al igual que  el desarrollo de creencias religiosas, que aún alimentan el imaginario colec...

  15. Realidad aumentada en exteriores e interiores

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La tecnología conocida como Realidad Aumentada ya forma parte con mayor frecuencia de nuestra vida cotidiana. Los avances tecnológicos como son, por ejemplo, los dispositivos móviles, han permitido que esta tecnología emergente esté al alcance de cualquier tipo de público. Si bien constantemente surgen diversas propuestas para entretenimiento, medicina, educación, turismo y mantenimiento, entre otras, todavía hay un largo camino por recorrer para que esta tecnología madure en cada campo, o...

  16. A realidade do viver com esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Marques de Oliveira; Priscila Cristina Bim Rodrigues Facina; Antônio Carlos Siqueira Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se entender a realidade do viver com esquizofrenia a partir do relato de quem a vivencia. Foram realizadas entrevistas com dez portadores de esquizofrenia internados em hospital geral, diagnosticados com o transtorno há, no mínimo, cinco anos. Para a análise do conteúdo das entrevistas foi utilizada a análise temática. Foi identificada a categoria "Convivendo com a esquizofrenia" e seis temas que abordam o conhecimento da doença, os sintomas, a difícil convivência, o estigma, a famí...

  17. Realidad de la prueba de mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Berger

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo presenta una visión esquemática de la controvertida  y olvidada Prueba de Mercado. Esta herramienta  presenta la particularidad de cumplir a la vez funciones de planeación y de control en el proceso de innovación de productos y estrategias de comercialización. Se trata entonces de mostrar que la Prueba de Mercado es una actividad menos compleja de lo que se presume y de acuerdo con la realidad colombiana es muy difícil sustituir.

  18. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  19. Campimetría usando realidad virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Posada

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La campimetría es de gran utilidad en el diagnóstico y seguimiento
    de enfermedades retinianas y ha evolucionado de los métodos
    manuales a las modernas técnicas automatizadas. Los objetivos principales son: diseñar, desarrollar y validar un programa en realidad virtural (RV para la realización de campimetrías, desarrollar una página WEB para presentación de avances del proyecto y crear una línea de investigación para el desarrollo de otras aplicaciones médicas con RV.

     

     

  20. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-01-01

    Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159), el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribui...

  1. A realidade do viver com esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se entender a realidade do viver com esquizofrenia a partir do relato de quem a vivencia. Foram realizadas entrevistas com dez portadores de esquizofrenia internados em hospital geral, diagnosticados com o transtorno há, no mínimo, cinco anos. Para a análise do conteúdo das entrevistas foi utilizada a análise temática. Foi identificada a categoria "Convivendo com a esquizofrenia" e seis temas que abordam o conhecimento da doença, os sintomas, a difícil convivência, o estigma, a família e a religião. Esta pesquisa pode permitir a ampliação do olhar para os portadores de esquizofrenia, uma vez que o conhecimento sobre a doença e suas implicações ocorreram a partir da perspectiva de quem vivencia cotidianamente este sofrimento.

  2. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159, el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribuir a la formación de un «realismo total» (Rodríguez Puértolas, 2000, II: 93, al que se une también la asimilación de enseñanzas esenciales como la que representa la narrativa de Cervantes: La novelística de Galdós hunde sus raíces en el mejor Cervantes, como puede verse en su peculiar sentido del humor y de la ironía, en la concepción perspectivista de la realidad y en tantas otras cosas, algunas de ellas en verdad fundamentales. Así el concepto de la Naturaleza y sus relaciones dialécticas con el ser humano; así el Amor como elemento vital y animador del orden cósmico, muy alejado del idealismo vulgar romántico (Ibid., 93.

  3. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil AGENCY... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is revising the United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil. This... the grades of olive oil and olive-pomace oil commonly accepted in the United States and abroad....

  4. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  5. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  6. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  7. Olive oil for tuna canning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucurachi, A

    1967-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the phenomenon of contamination of the preserving oil by contact with the tunnyfish, and attempts to discover a method for guaranteeing the genuineness of the olive oil...

  8. Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康艺凡

    2016-01-01

    Dickens, with his adeptness with language, applies semantic deviation skillfully in his realistic novel Oliver Twist. However, most studies and comments home and abroad on it mainly focus on such aspects as humanity, society, and characters. Therefore, this thesis will take a stylistic approach to Oliver Twist from the perspective of semantic deviation, which is achieved by the use of irony, hyperbole, and pun and analyze how the application of the technique makes the novel attractive.

  9. Mito y realidad del Servicio Público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vidal-Perdomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el título de mito y realidad se estudian los principales aspectos que tienen que ver con la construcción y los cambios operados en la noción de servicio público, una de las más Importantes del derecho administrativo.   La primera parte muestra cómo la extensión de los servicios públicos legitimó en un momento dado la acción del Estado, y dio lugar a la formación de los conceptos del Estado - providencia y Estado del bienestar. Socialmente los servicios públicos  realizaban un cierto ideal de igualdad y ponían en juego el principio de la solidaridad social. En el plano económico el crecimiento de los servicios públicos  mostró facetas del Estado empresario y condujo a las nacionalizaciones. De la sujeción casi integral al derecho público, la crisis de la noción jurídica condujo a la ampliación de la esfera del derecho privado, y más tarde a las privatizaciones. El criterio de la eficacia y el redimensionamiento del Estado llevan a la disminución de los servicios públicos y a las privatizaciones, con un papel del Estado de regulador y estimulante de la competencia. Todas las consideraciones aquí comprendidas se hacen en torno de la celebración de los 50 años de la Revista de Administración Pública de Madrid, quizás la más conocida entre juristas y administradores de lengua española.

  10. La Realidad Aumentada como complemento motivacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazcón, Nicolás Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado avance de la tecnología permite que las tecnologías emergentes sean accesibles por todos los usuarios. Ejemplos de estas tecnologías son la Realidad Aumentada y la Reconstrucción 3D, que gracias a dispositivos como tabletas o teléfonos inteligentes, pueden utilizarse de manera ubicua. Éstas tienen un enorme potencial en el campo de la educación, ya sea como recurso para entender conceptos complejos, como para motivar el aprendizaje de nuevos contenidos. El desafío de estas tecnologías es integrarlas para que sean accesibles y fáciles de utilizar por los docentes y los alumnos. En este trabajo presentamos una metodología para motivar el aprendizaje tanto en tareas de campo, mediante el uso de la Reconstrucción 3D, como en el ámbito escolar mediante libros aumentados. Por medio de un caso de estudio introducimos la Reconstrucción 3D de elementos fósiles de un sitio paleontológico bonaerense, para luego incorporar estos contenidos generados en un libro aumentado. A partir de la digitalización de huellas y fósiles de sitios paleontológicos, se obtuvieron modelos 3D que se integraron en un ambiente de aprendizaje inmersivo en el aula mediante los libros aumentados. Presentamos las opiniones de docentes de distintas disciplinas, que resaltan las posibilidades de esta metodología para su inclusión en el ámbito educacional regional.

  11. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  12. Olive ingredient good for the eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    无

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although olives were used for medical purposes as early as more than 150 years ago, modem studies of various olive extracts have revealed them to be powerful antioxidants that can treat a range of health problems.

  13. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  14. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow....... These results indicate that the quality of the olive oil depends both on the olive cultivar and geographical region. Keywords: Olive oil, Yellow cultivar, Oil-grade cultivar, Shiraz, Kazeroon...

  16. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  17. Enseñando la realidad forense del Derecho Administrativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero Ortega, Ricardo; Sánchez Sánchez, Zulima; Rastrollo Suárez, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    A través del Proyecto de Innovación Docente “Enseñando la realidad forense del Derecho Administrativo” se ha pretendido acercar a los estudiantes de cuarto curso de la Licenciatura en Derecho a la experiencia forense, fundamentalmente mediante su presencia en vistas orales de la Jurisdicción contencioso – administrativa y mediante la celebración de juicios simulados, vinculados estrechamente a la realidad legislativa actual y tomando parte activa en los equipos de la defensa o la acusación. ...

  18. Realidad Virtual Basada en Percepción

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pier, Marissa

    2007-01-01

    Para optimizar la interrelación interfaz usuario en un ensamble de Realidad Virtual o Aumentada, esta tesis propone investigar los fenómenos de la percepción humana estudiando los mecanismos que emplea el cerebro para recibir e interpretar la información que los sentidos le proporcionan. Primeramente, hay que tomar en cuenta que, en realidad, el ser humano no ve con los ojos, ni escucha con los oi?dos, sino que es el cerebro el que finalmente crea una idea de la �realidad� basa?ndose en infor...

  19. Posibilidad de la realidad virtual en entornos BIM

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo Criollo, Soraya Jeannette

    2017-01-01

    Para hablar de realidad virtual, aumentada y buscar la manera de cómo conectar con la metodología BIM, primero hay que definir qué es cada elemento, cómo se utilizan y en qué sectores. De forma simplificada, la realidad virtual es la recreación de un escenario mediante herramientas informáticas para generarnos la ilusión de encontrarnos en un entorno diferente al real. La primera idea que nos viene a la cabeza cuando se habla de RV es asociarla al sector del entretenimiento, co...

  20. Enseñando la realidad forense del Derecho Administrativo

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero Ortega, Ricardo; Sánchez Sánchez, Zulima; Rastrollo Suárez, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    A través del Proyecto de Innovación Docente “Enseñando la realidad forense del Derecho Administrativo” se ha pretendido acercar a los estudiantes de cuarto curso de la Licenciatura en Derecho a la experiencia forense, fundamentalmente mediante su presencia en vistas orales de la Jurisdicción contencioso – administrativa y mediante la celebración de juicios simulados, vinculados estrechamente a la realidad legislativa actual y tomando parte activa en los equipos de la defensa o la acusación. ...

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, D; Duek, L; Berdicevsky, I

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.

  2. Olive oil in food spreads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    .... The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los...

  3. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  4. LO POLÍTICO COMO ACERCAMIENTO PLURAL A LA REALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Hoyos Botero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un análisis de “lo político”, identificándolo primero y luego diferenciando el concepto en el contexto de las ciencias humanas para hacer un recorrido por ellas y dar cuenta de la realidad social que estructura la formación discursiva.

  5. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  6. Desenvolvimento de aplicações educacionais na medicina com realidade aumentada

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo discute os principais conceitos relacionados com a Realidade Virtual e descreve o desenvolvimento de aplicações educacionais na medicina utilizando a tecnologia de Realidade Aumentada com uso da biblioteca gráfica ARToolKit.

  7. Editorial: CUÁNTOS SOMOS EN REALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2006-12-01

    comparable o no a los anteriores, etc. El país debe repensarse y ser mirado cualitativa y cuantitativamente a partir de este censo y ser redireccionado en sus recursos públicos y dejar de dar palos de ciego en materia de planeación nacional e inversiones, con datos que se proyectan, lejos de la realidad. Sus cifras son fundamentales en su uso como herramientas estadísticas de trabajo e investigación para las autoridades económicas, educativas, sociales e investigativas. Así planeación y los centros de estudio podrán realizar sus modelos económicos y sociales. Al menos por ahora el ingreso promedio de los colombianos es mayor del estimado antes; se afectarán las transferencias estatales a los municipios, las tasas de desempleo, los aportes para salud y educación y las tasas de incidencia. Habrá que oír las opiniones de los políticos.

  8. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  9. Contribution of peptides and polyphenols from olive water to acrylamide formation in sterilized table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    To confirm the role of peptides as principal precursors of acrylamide formation in sterilized table olives, peptides from olive water were fractionated. After their partial fractionation by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultrafiltration (

  10. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsaftakis, A.; Vekiari, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphe...

  11. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  12. Desastre e acontecimento na realidade psíquica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Resende Vorcar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto problematiza a sincronia na estruturação do sujeito sem recorrer às teorias de desenvolvimento humano. Para isso, considera a diacronia do trajeto de infans a sujeito por meio do entrecruzamento em trança das três dimensões da realidade psíquica: real, simbólico e imaginário. Este artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar que os acidentes implicados nos entrecruzamentos entre real, simbólico e imaginário são acontecimentos constitutivos da estrutura tridimensional da realidade psíquica de um sujeito qualquer. Diferentemente desses acidentes, os desastres na estruturação do sujeito podem configurar as séries das graves psicopatologias. Como hipótese de trabalho, esta proposta deverá submeter-se à clínic

  13. En torno a la realidad humana en Xavier Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Lolas, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article inquires into the nature of human reality and its connection to the concept of person in the philosophy of Xavier Zubiri(1898-1983. The methodology of the analysis consists in reviewing the nature of human reality through the prism of noology, i.e., the final period of this author’s work, in order to introduce man from its always incarnate, prominently physical, dimension of human reality. This allows individual development and the historical and social display of the human being from a physical perspective to be represented.Este artículo indaga acerca del carácter de la realidad humana y su relación al concepto de persona en el pensamiento de Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983. La metodología de análisis consiste en revisar el carácter de la realidad humana desde la noología, esto es, la última etapa de la obra del autor, a fin de presentar al hombre desde su dimensión eminentemente física y siempre encarnada de la realidad humana, permitiendo repensar desde una perspectiva física el desarrollo individual, así como también, el despliegue social e histórico del ser humano.

  14. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  15. Improved soil quality after 16 years of olive mill pomace application in olive oil groves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberto, García Ruiz; Ochoa, M. Victoria; Hinojosa, M. Belén

    2012-01-01

    This report shows notable improvements of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties after long-term soil application of olive mill pomace compost. About four million tons of olive mill pomace is produced annually in Andalusia, Spain. Olive mill pomace is a main by-product of the olive oil...... extraction industry. Composting is a promising strategy to manage the huge volume of this potentially environmentally harmful pomace. Converting olive mill pomace into a useful soil amendment in semiarid Mediterranean areas of olive oil farms, characterized by low organic matter content and subjected...... to progressive degradation, would be valuable. There is actually no data on the long-term effects of composted olive mill pomace application on soil physicochemical and biochemical properties. However, this information is needed to encourage the composting of this pomace. Here, a field study evaluated soil...

  16. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  17. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  18. Evidence of cross-reactivity between olive, ash, privet, and Russian olive tree pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernerman, S M; McCullough, J; Green, J; Ownby, D R

    1992-12-01

    In a clinical investigation, 103 Michigan residents with symptoms suggestive of allergic rhinitis or asthma were skin tested with olive (Olea europaea) pollen extract. Nineteen had positive reactions. Since the olive tree is not native to nor grown in Michigan, this study was undertaken to determine whether the skin test reactivity was the result of cross-reactivity among tree pollen allergens. ELISAs were developed to measure olive, ash (Fraxinus americana), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) specific IgE antibodies. Inhibition studies were performed to determine whether pollen extracts from each of these tree species could inhibit IgE antibody binding to olive extracts. Eleven of the 19 skin test-positive patients were olive-ELISA positive, eight either were ELISA-positive to ash, seven to privet and ten to Russian olive. There were significant correlations between the ELISA results to olive and each of the other three pollens. The inhibition studies demonstrated that all three of the tree pollens were capable of inhibiting the binding of IgE to olive extract in a dose-response fashion. IgE-immunoblot studies demonstrated several proteins common to olive, ash, and privet. Twelve of the olive skin test-positive patients were contacted and 75% were exposed to one or more of the studied trees in their yards. Five patients had traveled to areas where olive trees are grown. We conclude that there is a high degree of cross-reactivity among allergens from native Michigan trees and from olive trees. This cross-reactivity is the most likely reason for skin test reactivity to olive pollen extract in Michigan.

  19. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... including the three distinct types, ripe, green ripe, and tree-ripened; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green olives. ...

  20. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  1. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  2. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; Hartog, den Jurgen; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  3. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  4. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those p

  5. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  6. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  7. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  8. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  9. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  10. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  11. Dejar de contar los muertos y contar la realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María López Rojas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia, un país que enfrenta una crisis económica, política y social, necesita de una sociedad consciente, que no tire la tarea de hacer país a unos cuantos, los que quieran gobernar y tomar parte de lo que es nuestro y ya estamos olvidando, necesita de periodistas jueces de las verdades y no de paparazzis siempre preparados para entrar a hacer noticias con cámaras de televisión y grabadoras portátiles; profesionales de la información, y esto, en todo el sentido de la palabra, porque "Ias malas noticias no son las buenas", porque los medios de comunicación tienen ya que dejar de contar los muertos para comenzar a contar la realidad.La guerra no está representada en guerrilleros ni paramilítares, el problema está entre nosotros, robots con caras felices incapaces de cuestionarnos acerca de la sociedad que queremos, una población escéptica que espera que los cambios sean logrados por todos sin pensar que entre esos todos estamos incluidos; corno res-pon-sa-bles de la información tenemos que interpretarla, olvidarnos por un momento de la sintonía y el raiting, lo que el país necesita no es una masa escuchando respuestas tontas, tenemos que exigir realidades, noticias bien abordadas y periodistas conscientes de su responsabilidad social, medios que cuenten realidades, que no malentiendan la competencia, que midan el peligro de las palabras y que no ofrezcan miradas sesgadas del presente colombiano.

  12. Realidad aumentada en medicina Augmented reality in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ortiz Rangel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la realidad aumentada representa una forma reciente de visualización que combina, de manera funcional, la virtualidad con la realidad misma, generando posibilidades nuevas para la interpretación de información antes no disponible, que abren nuevas maneras para aprender y reconocer los datos, procesarlos en información y convertirlos fácilmente en conocimiento. Las diferentes formas para llevar a cabo experiencias en realidad aumentada, se encuentran listas desde diferentes plataformas informáticas y de telecomunicaciones, que facilitan adelantar proyectos en este sentido, de manera rápida y económica. La Medicina, y particularmente la Cardiología, pueden asistirse de este tipo de medios para complementar la información disponible en otros formatos, y pasarlos a la tridimensionalidad, desde donde la interpretación de imágenes sobre objetos 3D está servida para estos propósitos.Nowadays, Augmented Reality represents a new form of visualization that combines virtuality with reality in a functional way, creating new possibilities for the interpretation of information that was not previously available. These possibilities lead to new ways of learning and acknowledging data, to process them into information and to convert them into knowledge easily. Various ways to carry out experiments in Augmented Reality are available from different computing and telecommunications platforms, which facilitate the fast and economic development of projects. Medicine, and cardiology in particular, can take advantage of this new type of media to complement the information yet available, transforming it into other formats and passing them to three dimensions, wherever these images are an appropriate complement.

  13. Realidad Aumentada, educación y museos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ruiz Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años la Realidad Amentada está consiguiendo un protagonismo cada vez más importante en diversas áreas de conocimiento, mostrando la versatilidad y posibilidades que presenta esta nueva tecnología derivada de la Realidad Virtual. La capacidad de insertar objetos virtuales en el espacio real y el desarrollo de interfaces de gran sencillez, la han convertido en una herramienta muy útil para presentar determinados contenidos bajo las premisas de entretenimiento y educación, en lo que se conoce como “edutainment”. Fruto de esa dimensión educativa que representa, se han desarrollado en nuestro país varios proyectos para las aulas como pueden ser “Aprendra” (Valencia, o el denominado “Big-Bang 2.0” dentro del programa Eskola 2.0 (País Vasco. La Realidad Aumentada también ha demostrado su función pedagógica en otro tipo de escenarios como son los museos y centros de interpretación, donde constituye uno de los recursos museográficos más vanguardistas gracias a que favorece la interacción entre los visitantes y el objeto cultural de una forma atractiva a la vez que didáctica. Es el caso del Centro de Interpretación de la Orden Militar de Calatrava (Alcaudete, Jaén o el Centro de Interpretación de la Tecnología (Zamudio, Bizcaia, que cuentan en su discurso expositivo con instalaciones basadas en esta tecnología, cumpliendo con la principal función de estos espacios: la difusión de contenidos culturales.

  14. Realidad aumentada, una revolución educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibán de la Horra Villacé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende mostrar las diferentes características que posee esta tecnología en el ámbito educativo y formativo. Destacar la versatilidad en su uso, permitiendo ser válida para cualquier tipo de materia y nivel académico. La motivación y el aprendizaje son dos de los pilares fundamentales sobre los que se crean las metodologías. Es por ello, que la realidad aumentada dota del medio para conseguir este fin.

  15. OLIVE GENETIC DIVERSITY AND MOLECULAR INTERACTION WITH BACTROCERA OLEAE

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide interest in olive (Olea europaea L.) growing is due to the extraordinary nutritional and sensory quality of its main product: olive oil. From a nutritional point of view, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main lipid source of the so-called "Mediterranean diet", stated by the nutritionist Ancel Keys (Keys, 1970). Around 98% of the global table olives and olive oil is produced in the Mediterranean basin.Italy is the world's second largest exporter after Spain (European Commissi...

  16. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  17. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  20. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  1. Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.

  2. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. Evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo; also, they exert other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  3. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Columbia - Russian Olive and Phragmites Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed project is to eradicate phragmites (Phragmites australis) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) from patches in 100 acres within Marsh Unit 3 at...

  5. Cryopreservation of olive embryogenic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Romero, C; Swennen, R; Panis, B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize a protocol for the cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures of olive (Olea europaea L.). Exposure time to loading solution and PVS2 significantly influenced the regrowth rate of both organized and non-organized tissues. Organized tissues were more sensitive to prolonged treatments with vitrification solutions compared to non-organized tissues. Three cryopreservation protocols were compared using non-organized tissues: the "classical" vitrification protocol, an ultra-fast freezing method using droplet vitrification on aluminium foil strips and a "classical" slow freezing method (1 degree C per min). The best results were obtained using the droplet vitrification method after a 60 min dehydration period with PVS2. Under these conditions, all cryopreserved cultures showed renewed embryogenesis six weeks after thawing. A long-term (7-8 weeks) sucrose preculture had a significant effect on the initial response of the cultures, allowing particularly to protect cells against the toxic effects of the vitrification solution.

  6. Da realidade a ser mediada à realidade midiática: status ontológico e epistemológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liriam Sponholz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Há um mundo que independe de um sujeito conhecedor para existir? É possível conhecê-lo? Sob quais condições? Até que ponto? Estas questões assumem uma importância central no trabalho de mediação da realidade feito por jornalistas. O objetivo deste artigo é fornecer um modelo de análise dos status ontológico e epistemológico da realidade social, matéria-prima da produção jornalística, e da realidade midiática como produto jornalístico. Para isso, parte-se da teoria dos mundos de Karl Popper e da concepção sobre a construção da realidade social de John Searle.  

  7. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio; Abia, Rocío; Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98%) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and...

  8. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; López, Sergio; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; Bermúdez, Beatriz

    2004-01-01

    Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid)-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 %) and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipas...

  9. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  10. Main antimicrobial compounds in table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; García, Aranzazu; de Castro, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The inhibitors involved in the lactic acid fermentation of table olives were investigated in aseptic olive brines of the Manzanilla and Gordal varieties. Phenolic and oleosidic compounds in these brines were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection, and several substances were also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol showed the strongest antilactic acid bacteria activity, and its presence in brines could explain the growth inhibition of these microorganisms during olive fermentation. However, it was found that the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, identified for the first time in table olives, and an isomer of oleoside 11-methyl ester were also effective against Lactobacillus pentosus and can, therefore, contribute to the antimicrobial activity of olive brines. It must also be stressed that the three new inhibitors discovered in table olive brines exerted a more potent antibacterial activity than the well-studied oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol.

  11. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  12. Jóvenes e internet. Realidad Y mitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Tonantzin Becerra Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre jóvenes urbanos e internet parece ineludible. Día a día, las actividades, deseos, necesidades e intereses de los y las jóvenes actuales se pue - den visualizar a través de las acciones que realizan en la red, sobre todo en las redes sociales, sitios web, blogs y vblogs. Dichas acciones, son apreciadas de distinta forma por los grupos sociales, de manera que pueden ser altamente valoradas o bien, criticadas. En este ensayo se exponen una realidad y cuatro mitos sobre los jóvenes e internet, en un afán de contribuir a las aportaciones realizadas a este tema desde el ámbito de la comunicación y de los estudios de juventud.

  13. 4D Art: corpos reais e virtuais, uma realidade aumentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lemieux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A companhia canadense 4D Art fascina o olhar do público e interroga seus sentidos de realidade e presença pela interação cênica dos movimentos de corpos reais e virtuais. Para compreender os processos de criação da cena multimídia de 4D Art, apresenta-se uma entrevista exclusiva realizada com os diretores artísticos Michel Lemieux e Victor Pilon. As motivações artísticas do jogo real e virtual, os procedimentos empregados na criação das figuras virtuais e os desafios enfrentados pelos atores aparecem nas palavras dos criadores.

  14. Agentes inteligentes. Aplicación a la realidad virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniesky Coca Bergolla

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se pretende con este trabajo realizar una introducción al tema de agentes y sistemas multiagentes, mostrar sus principales características y tipologías, además de mostrar las principales metodologías utilizadas actualmente para su desarrollo y los lenguajes de programación que soportan esta nueva manera de concebir nuestra vida para ser llevada a las ciencias de la computación; todos los temas dirigidos a su aplicación a la realidad virtual donde se han desarrollado trabajos que se ajustan a este paradigma, pero nunca con una visión integral del mismo.

  15. Marcadores para la Realidad Aumentada para fines educativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Reina Zarate Nava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La Realidad Aumentada (AR es considerada por algunos expertos como la tecnología en crecimiento para el 2014, en diferentes sectores: ingeniería, educación, juegos y negocios, siendo este último el más usado en él 2013. Sin embargo en el sector educativo la AR se presenta en algunos proyectos que se han desarrollado para diferentes áreas de las ciencias, como Química, Física y Matemáticas, lo anterior con el objetivo de facilitar el proceso de Enseñanza-Aprendizaje. En el presente artículo se presenta el modelo de patrones utilizado para un Proyecto AR enfocado en Química, el cual presenta un conjunto de patrones que fueron valorados para facilitar el rastreo de los objetos y a su vez el entendimiento de algunos materiales de los laboratorios de Química I.

  16. A Psicologia Ambiental e as diversas realidade humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wiesenfeld

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo baseia as respostas quanto ao objeto da psicologia ambiental e seus aspectos constitutivos na análise dos periódicos Environment & Behavior, Journal of Environmental Psychology, congressos e estudos latino-americanos. Considera que a definição do objeto, circunscrita a perspectivas que diferem em suas dimensões ontológicas, epistemológicas e metodológicas, ocasiona várias psicologias ambientais. Para contribuir para o desenvolvimento do conhecimento e favorecer as condições de vida e do planeta, as distintas psicologias ambientais deveriam dialogar. Conclui que o enfoque adotado é que levaria a abordar a realidade de modos distintos.

  17. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances protective ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" cholesterol, ...

  18. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Fistonić; Mario Harapin; Nikola Fistonić; Vedrana Bulat; Mirna Šitum; Donatella Verbanac

    2012-01-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They pro...

  19. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  20. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  1. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  2. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  3. Microbiological activity in stored olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2002-05-05

    The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides.

  4. [Olive oil, immune system and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent.

  5. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  6. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  7. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  8. TRABALHAR PARA ESTUDAR / ESTUDAR PARA TRABALHAR: REALIDADE E POSSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes Siqueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho que apresentamos é parte da pesquisa com os estudantes das licenciaturas e da pedagogia da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul-UNISC-RS-Brasil. Este está inserido na linha de pesquisa: educação, trabalho e emancipação. Queremos compreender, à luz do materialismo histórico e dialético e das categorias da crítica da economia política, os significados atribuídos pelos estudantes universitários ao fenômeno trabalho e estudo. É uma pesquisa preferentemente qualitativa de natureza dialética. Para Marx, a essência da realidade humana reside no trabalho, mas a fonte de toda a riqueza está na natureza. Logo, trabalho, natureza e sociedade estão em relação dialética. Trabalho, portanto, é a ideia central articuladora, e natureza e sociedade devem ser estudadas em conexão com o trabalho. Marx trata o trabalho, no modo de produção capitalista, como impedimento ao desenvolvimento humano. Propõe o mesmo como um ato de criação e auto-expressão humana que não deve ter um valor. A compreensão dessa premissa é necessária para que os trabalhadores possam significar e ressignificar o trabalho para além da ideologia dominante. Algumas categorias aparecem como relevantes para a análise: condições de trabalho e de estudo, necessidade de formação, predominância do trabalho sobre o estudo, dificuldade de conciliar tempo de estudo e de trabalho. Na relação com o objeto de estudo, ressaltaremos a crise estrutural do capital, a desregulamentação das leis do trabalho e sua flexibilização e as contradições entre trabalho e estudo bem como quais possibilidades emancipatórias são visualizadas ou sonhadas pelos trabalhadores-estudantes. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: contradições entre trabalho e educação, condições e significados, realidade e possibilidades.

  9. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  10. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  11. Problems and agricultural solutions in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    The most important and extensive crops in the Mediterranean area are olive groves. Within the last 50 years, the surface occupied by olive groves has progressively increased in Spain including more complex topographies, poorer soils and worse climatic conditions. This situation has caused serious problems based on the losses of soil, nutrients and soil quality among others (Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara, 2014). Therefore, alternative practices that avoid soil erosion and soil degradation must be considered. As a consequence, farmers together with scientist are innovating by the development of different practices in olive groves in order to avoid these problems and to improve soil conditions. There is a huge range of new practices. Some of them are: i. alternative management techniques such as organic farming, no tillage and minimum tillage. These techniques have a positive impact in soils (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016). ii. the addition of different substances on the soil. For example, oil mill by-products that are thus potentially useful as soil amendments since they are effective sources of organic matter and nitrogen, improve soil quality and alleviate the environmental and agronomic limitations of Mediterranean agricultural soils, even those under using conventional tillage (Lozano-García et al., 2011; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara, 2013). iii. the use of covers as secondary crops inside the olive grove. These offer secondary benefits derived from alternative crops and soil protection due to fact that in olive groves the main problem is the high quantity of bare surface. With this contribution we want to show the current situation in olive groves and how better results could be obtained when both trustworthy information is available and farmers and scientist work together. REFERENCES Fernández-Romero, M.L., Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Clark, J.M., Collins, C.D. 2016. Soil quality

  12. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  13. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar ph

  14. Vivir bien, entre utopía y realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa Artaraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas dominantes del bienestar siguen empeñándose en entender lo que este término significa. De igual manera, los diseñadores de políticas públicas ( policy makers se empeñan en hacer realidad las visiones dominantes de bienestar. este artículo examina la noción del bienestar adoptada recientemente por la constitución boliviana. se da gran relevancia a las nociones indígenas de «vivir bien», concepto que podría traducirse como «vivir bien en grupo» bajo los principios de sociabilidad y la promoción de valores de reciprocidad. adoptado por los bolivianos en su Constitución de 2009 como uno de los valores fundamentales, el artículo explora la contribución que puede hacer a las nociones de bienestar. sostiene que «vivir bien» constituye progreso en nuestras nociones de bienestar por el énfasis que hace el concepto en las relaciones armónicas, no solo en la sociedad, sino también con la naturaleza (la pachamama —nuestra Madre tierra—, brindando un nexo con la sostenibilidad que las actuales concepciones de bienestar a menudo no logran.

  15. Chillida y la realidad : ¿un nuevo romanticismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Fernández Cabaleiro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El arte del romanticismo es la expresión de una sensibilidad que se libera de las reglas establecidas con el fin de buscar nuevas fuentes de inspiración. Esto lleva al artista a buscar nuevos caminos a través de la naturaleza. A finales del siglo XX el hombre vive una situación de vértigo. El arte surge como una vía de transfiguración. Eduardo Chillida parte de la realidad. La relee y la expresa de un modo nuevo. Agua, luz, espacio, sonido; hombre y libertad; espíritu y materia son de nuevo descubiertas y manifestadas en su obra.Romanticize art was a way of sensibility without regulation; It wanted to look for new inspiration ways. The artist looked into the Nature. At the end of XXth century, the man lives a difficult situation.The art borns as a way of change. Eduardo Chillida begins in the reality. He studies it and he makes it in a new way. Water, light, space, sound; Man and liberty; mind and matter are discovered again in his work.

  16. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ruiz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion.

  17. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  18. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...

  19. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  20. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  1. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  2. Estudio y uso de la tecnología de realidad aumentada en smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Sanahuja, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Estudio de las distintas librerías de Realidad aumentada disponibles para Smartphones Android Estudi de les diferents llibreries de Realitat augmentada disponibles per Smartphones Android Study of the various available Augmented Reality libraries for Android Smartphones

  3. Estudio y uso de la tecnología de realidad aumentada en smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Estudio de las distintas librerías de Realidad aumentada disponibles para Smartphones Android Estudi de les diferents llibreries de Realitat augmentada disponibles per Smartphones Android Study of the various available Augmented Reality libraries for Android Smartphones

  4. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  5. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using a rotary cultivator. For yield mapping, olives were collected manually using rods to shake the tree...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  6. Antioxidant activity of olive wine, a byproduct of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qian; He, Gang; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yibing; Shen, Yuanfu; Gou, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    Context Although olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds, disposing OMWW is a serious environmental challenge. Production of wine via fermenting OMWW may be a promising alternative to deal with OMWW. However, whether or not olive wine from OMWW still reserves its original bioactivities remains unclear. Objective This study examines antioxidant activity of olive wine fermented from OMWW. Materials and methods Hydroxytyrosol in olive oil was determined by HPLC. Total flavonoid, total polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Aged mice were intragastricly administered 7, 14 and 28 mL/kg olive wine consecutively for 30 d. Afterward, levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in mouse plasma and liver. Results Contents of hydroxytyrosol, total flavonoid and total polyphenol in olive wine were 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of olive wine to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was 2.5% and 3.2% (v/v), respectively. Compared with the solvent control group, olive wine with a dose of 28 mL/kg remarkably lowered mouse MDA concentration in liver, and reduced protein carbonyl level in plasma (p wine at doses of 7 and 28 mL/kg notably enhanced SOD activity in both mouse plasma and liver (p wine from OMWW has potential for treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  7. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    OpenAIRE

    A. GÁMBARO; Raggio, L.; Ellis, A. C.; Amarillo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster ...

  8. Evaluating potential olive orchard sugar food sources for the olive fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, C.; A.F. Belo; Nunes, F. M.; Ganhão, E.; Müller, Carsten Theodor; Torres, L.; Rei, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major olive pest in the Mediterranean basin where increasing insecticide resistance has enhanced damage and necessitates more reliance on other control strategies, such as biological control. Provision of floral resources has been reported to improve the effectiveness of natural enemies. Here, we tested the effect of six plant nectars and two honeydew sources on the survival of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: B...

  9. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  10. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  12. Jornalismo e realidade: da necessidade social de notícia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Simão Pontes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Peter Berger e Thomas Luckmann, em A construção social da realidade (de 1966, e John Searle, em Mente, linguagem e sociedade (de 1998, estão preocupados em estabelecer como a realidade social é instituída. Esta problemática traz complexidade para o campo do jornalismo, quando pensado como instituição dessa mesma realidade. O esforço deste texto é duplo: aproximar os conceitos e a estrutura argumentativa de Berger e Luckmann dos de Searle e pensar o jornalismo como uma instituição plena, historicamente fundada e que, por isso, não apenas institui a realidade social, mas também é instituído por ela. Com base no pressuposto de que o jornalismo se sustenta na linguagem para compor a realidade da notícia, discutiremos aqui a necessidade social de notícia, considerando como o jornalismo é instituído e reconhecido socialmente e como ele se organiza e interioriza suas funções interferindo na realidade social.

  13. Ambientes de realidade virtual: que Real é este?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Axt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discute-se, a partir das Escolas de Santiago e de Genebra, a contraditória sensação de realidade em mundos virtuais. Foi proposta uma dupla aproximação do sujeito ao mundo, diferenciando organismo vivente e observador, ambos encontrando-se na, e sendo ligados pela, interface sensório-motora. Esta, ao dar suporte à mente consciente-autoconsciente, acaba por instaurar uma duplicidade, quanto à produção de sentidos-significações, cujo resultado, para a subjetividade, poderá ser, em ambientes RV, uma vivência-experiência em que concreto e virtual sejam vivenciados-experienciados-refletidos como mundos, espaços e tempos, a-paralelos. Tais vivências-experiências-reflexões, obtidas mediante contínuos deslizamentos entre esses mundos distintos, mas entrelaçados, ao coordenarem-se, poderão criar um efeito de Real, permitindo à Educação, pelo exercício da interpretação, explorar novos possíveis modos de aprender-sentir-conhecer-conceituar-comunicar, e assim inaugurar formas alternativas de entendimento do Real-Social: a subjetividade, em sendo cooptada na produção de sentidos e significações, mediada por uma corporalidade sensório-motora constituída e constituidora da cognição, sabe-se cooptada na produção de sentidos e significações conceituadas mediada por um observador-conceituador.

  14. A realidade social e os sujeitos solitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Franco Ferrari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trabalha-se a solidão como afeto inerente ao processo de subjetivação de sujeitos neuróticos, psicóticos e perversos, considerando que há casos inclassificáveis. Inseridos numa realidade social, esses sujeitos, e os laços sociais que conseguem estabelecer com o repertório que portam, têm a possibilidade de justapor solidões. Essa possibilidade é aqui focada nos modos de vida próprios do capitalismo. Tecem-se considerações sobre o gozo que dificulta a saída dessa maneira de funcionar, embora o mal-estar esteja presente em todos os sujeitos, e sobre a possibilidade que a psicanálise oferece de se localizar aí um sujeito desejante e inventivo.The social reality and the solitary subjects. The text works the loneliness as the inherent affection to the process of subjective functioning from neurotics, psychotics and perverted subjects, considering that there are unclassified cases. Those inserted in a social reality, subjects and the social links once established by them, within the carried repertory, have the possibility to overlap loneliness. This possibility is focused in here on the ways of living particularly from capitalism. It weaves considerations about the enjoyment, which makes difficult the exit from this way of working, although the discontentment is part of all subjects. Furthermore it talks about the possibility that psychoanalysis offers finding a subject wishful and inventive.

  15. Filipinas, fin de siglo: imágenes y realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizalde, María Dolores

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an image of the Philippines at the end of the 19th century, different to the picture of underveloped islands, inhabitated by savages unable to selfgovernment, transmited by the historiography and caricatures of that time. With this purpose, they are studied the process of redefinition of the Spanish colonial goverment, the strengthening of a new filipino society, the development of the economy and commerce, and the strong international interests in the islands.

    El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una imagen de las Filipinas de fin de siglo, diferente de la transmitida por la historiografía tradicional y por la viñetas y caricaturas de la época. Frente a los estereotipos de unas islas atrasadas, incapaces del autogobierno, habitadas por salvajes a los que había que civilizar, se impone una realidad definida por el gobierno colonial de España, en pleno proceso de redefinición; por el afianzamiento de una burguesía ilustrada filipina, la pujanza de una clase campesina y obrera, la fuerza de un movimiento de afirmación nacional, y el desarrollo de una economía agroexportadora en pleno crecimiento; y por la presencia de fuertes intereses internacionales que hay que entender insertos en la marea de expansión colonial y reparto de mercados y territorios ultramarinos; intereses internacionales de los que se da cuenta a través de un análisis de comercio, inversiones y presencia diplomática de las grandes potencias en las Filipinas de fin de siglo.

  16. Realidad, mito y deseo. La mirada grecolatina de Aurora Luque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtanen, Ricardo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Luque’s poetry is one of the most representative of contemporary poetry, located within a Greek culturalism, where myth and reality blend into everyday life. Luque’s poetry is characterized by irony, nonchalance, frivolity and dedramatization. The article presents a series of poems where one can find a demystification of the classical element. A poetry stressed by some topoi such as carpe diem or Catullus’ odio et amo, which have been always represented from a light-hearted glance ruled by the spirit of Eros. The article also emphasizes the play on intertextuality –following Catullus– as well as the epicurean inclination/spirit/passion of the autor.

    La poesía de Aurora Luque representa una de las poéticas más representativas de nuestra contemporaneidad, ubicada dentro de un culturalismo grecista, donde mito y realidad se conjugan dentro de la cotidianidad. La poesía de Luque se caracteriza por su ironía, desenfado, frivolidad y desdramatización. El artículo presenta una serie de poemas donde se produce una desmitificación del elemento clásico. Una poesía marcada por algunos topoi como el carpe diem o el odio et amo catuliano, siempre representados desde una mirada desenfada y dominada por el espíritu del Eros. El artículo destaca además el juego de intertextualidad –en seguimiento de Catulo– así como la vocación epicúrea de la autora.

  17. Synonymical remark about Cetonia bifida Oliv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegieter, J.Z.

    1891-01-01

    In a paper on the Australian Schizorrhinidae Dr. Kraatz established a. o. a new genus Dysephicta (Deuts. Ent. Zeitschr. XXIV, p. 208) for the reception of Cetonia bifida Oliv. (the Schizorrhina bifida of G. & P., Schaum and the Munich Catalogue), which was said to be from India or. The type specimen

  18. Role of yeasts in table olive production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Querol, A; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2008-12-10

    Table olives are a traditional fermented vegetable of the Mediterranean countries, but their production and consumption are now spread all around the world. Yeasts can play a double role in this food. They are present throughout the fermentative process and it is generally accepted that they can produce compounds with important organoleptic attributes determining the quality and flavour of the final product. However, yeasts can also be spoilage microorganisms in olive fermentation/storage and packing causing gas pockets, swollen containers, cloudy brines and off-flavours and off-odours. Candida boidinii, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia anomala, P. membranifaciens, Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are species isolated with a high frequency from olive processes. Scarce information is still available about the ecology, biochemistry and molecular biology of these important microorganisms in table olives. A wider knowledge about these aspects could facilitate the possible application of yeasts as a starter culture, due to their ability to produce aromatic compounds, antioxidants, enzymes, and improve the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

  19. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  20. Analysis of Cohesion inOliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文

    2016-01-01

    Cohesion is an important concept in the study of stylistics. This thesis aims to study the applications of cohesion in the Charles Dicken’ world-famous novelOliver Twist, including both the grammatical and lexical cohesive devices in the work.

  1. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives

  2. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  3. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  4. Virtualidad - realidad empresarial. Caso empresa Pyme–biocosmética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Aragón Chamorro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha observado en Colombia un notable incremento en la penetración y uso de Internet gracias a la reducción de los costos de conexión y del hardware computacional necesario, así como a las diversas opciones de acceso a la Web. En este marco, desde el Grupo de Investigación en Productividad y Competitividad, GICPE, de la Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, se ha desarrollado un proyecto denominado “Empresa pyme Virtual Colaborativa – Modelado y Arquitectura”, que inscribe entre sus alcances la catalogación de la realidad empresarial del enfoque colaborativo en empresas virtuales MIPYME. Este artículo presenta la percepción colaborativa en ambientes virtuales de un caso piloto en particular, para el dúo clientes-empresa MIPYME (proveedora en el esquema de la cadena de suministro, bajo la premisa “ganar-ganar” con el aprovechamiento de la tecnología Web a su disposición. La hipótesis planteada está en función de establecer la intensión de todos los clientes con acceso a Internet, para realizar una vinculación inter-dependiente con su proveedor especializado de productos y servicios, bajo un modelo de colaboración virtual en el campo de su especialidad. El análisis, tanto de la información estadística y estudios relacionados, como los resultados obtenidos en el sondeo realizado en la empresa MIPYME piloto, revelaron una positiva predisposición por parte de las personas-clientes, en no solo beneficiarse de un entorno de colaboración virtual, sino también de aportar información y experiencias para beneficio de la comunidad conectada. Las empresas MIPYME deben incorporar entre sus estrategias de desarrollo, el uso de plataformas de comunicación con sus clientes y proveedores, con el objetivo de aprovechar las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación disponibles, bajo la salvedad de que esta plataforma responda a las necesidades del encadenamiento acorde a las posibilidades de todos los

  5. Virtualidad - realidad empresarial. Caso empresa Pyme–biocosmética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Aragón Chamorro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha observado en Colombia un notable incremento en la penetración y uso de Internet gracias a la reducción de los costos de conexión y del hardware computacional necesario, así como a las diversas opciones de acceso a la Web. En este marco, desde el Grupo de Investigación en Productividad y Competitividad, GICPE, de la Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, se ha desarrollado un proyecto denominado “Empresa pyme Virtual Colaborativa – Modelado y Arquitectura”, que inscribe entre sus alcances la catalogación de la realidad empresarial del enfoque colaborativo en empresas virtuales MIPYME. Este artículo presenta la percepción colaborativa en ambientes virtuales de un caso piloto en particular, para el dúo clientes-empresa MIPYME (proveedora en el esquema de la cadena de suministro, bajo la premisa “ganar-ganar” con el aprovechamiento de la tecnología Web a su disposición. La hipótesis planteada está en función de establecer la intensión de todos los clientes con acceso a Internet, para realizar una vinculación inter-dependiente con su proveedor especializado de productos y servicios, bajo un modelo de colaboración virtual en el campo de su especialidad. El análisis, tanto de la información estadística y estudios relacionados, como los resultados obtenidos en el sondeo realizado en la empresa MIPYME piloto, revelaron una positiva predisposición por parte de las personas-clientes, en no solo beneficiarse de un entorno de colaboración virtual, sino también de aportar información y experiencias para beneficio de la comunidad conectada. Las empresas MIPYME deben incorporar entre sus estrategias de desarrollo, el uso de plataformas de comunicación con sus clientes y proveedores, con el objetivo de aprovechar las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación disponibles, bajo la salvedad de que esta plataforma responda a las necesidades del encadenamiento acorde a las posibilidades de todos los

  6. Apariencia y realidad en Hamlet y Las Meninas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PRIETO MARTÍNEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Shakespeare comenzó a ser estudiada en profundidad a finales del siglo XVII y, sobre todo, en el siglo XVIII. Desde ese siglo hasta el momento actual la investigación en torno a la obra shakesperiana se ha desarrollado hasta tal punto que resulta inabordable. De entre la obra de Shakespeare, Hamlet es probablemente la que suscita mayor interés a causa de su compleja estructura y su contenido ambiguo. Del mismo modo, la obra de Velázquez comenzó a estudiarse con rigor en el siglo XVIII, aunque hasta el siglo XX no se investigan sus características e influencias. Como en el caso de Shakespeare, la bibliografía existente en la actualidad sobre su obra resulta inaccesible para el investigador. De entre todas sus pinturas, Las Meninas, del mismo modo que Hamlet, es la que despierta mayor interés y tiene una proyección universal. Haciendo un recorrido por las investigaciones más importantes realizadas sobre ambas obras en los tres últimos siglos, intento encontrar semejanzas entre ellas, basándome fundamentalmente en su estructura. Apoyando mi investigación en la teoría deconstructivista, según la propuesta de J. Derrida, y siguiendo el esquema formal de ambas obras, propongo el tema general de apariencia y realidad como núcleo de sus semejanzas. Los puntos de analogía entre Hamlet y Las Meninas son, en síntesis, los siguientes: - Texto (expresado en el ser o no ser y el reverso del lienzo sobre el que pinta Velázquez. - El personaje del espectro en Hamlet y el personaje invisible en el cuadro (María Teresa de Austria o el espectador. - Velázquez significante representado en el cuadro y la obra dentro de la obra que representan los cómicos. - El personaje de Claudio, como símbolo del tirano y los reyes representados en el espejo. - Finalmente considero la vigencia y proyección que tienen ambas obras en el mundo actual.

  7. El Admirarse como forma de enfrentar la nueva realidad americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Moreno, Raúl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a study of the use of admiratio to display the new American reality at the end of the fourteenth and into the fifteenth century. After exploring the semantic wealth of the term and defining it, we will present it as the first stage of the cognitive process of the human being, whose object will be Nature, understood as a whole entity in which men are included. The depiction of the admirable thing as a part of the cognitive process will also have its place in this study. But it is under the renovation that proposed the Renaissance, when admiratio turned into a poetic function related to that of movere, solving America as inventio the problem of verisimilitude inherited from the Middle Ages. Then, this concept will be used by our authors, not only to reflect a stage of knowledge, but with a clearly rhetorical function: to create a specific state of mind in the reader in order to obtain something from him.

    El artículo analiza el uso de la admiratio para presentar la nueva realidad americana a finales del siglo XV y durante el XVI. Tras explorar la riqueza semántica del término y definirlo, se parte del mismo, como el primer estadio del proceso cognitivo del ser humano, cuyo objeto será una naturaleza, entendida como totalidad que incluye al hombre. La plasmación de lo admirable como parte del proceso cognitivo tiene también su lugar en el estudio. Pero será la transformación que supone el Renacimiento, la que convertirá a la admiratio en una función poética relacionada con el movere, y a la que América como inventio solucionaba el problema de la verosimilitud heredado de la Edad Media. El concepto será usado por nuestros autores, no ya para reflejar una fase del conocimiento, sino con una función claramente retórica: provocar un estado de ánimo en el lector para conseguir algo de él.

  8. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  9. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  10. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  11. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the major Mediterranean products, whose nutritional and economic importance is well-known. However the extraction of olive oil yields a highly contaminating residue that causes serious environmental concerns in the olive oil producing countries. The olive cake (OC) coming out...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  14. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  16. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2017-08-11

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms.

  18. Impact of Olive Cultivation on Biodiversity in Messenia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellström, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    The biggest threat and cause to loss of biodiversity have been found to be the intensification of agriculture under the 20th century. Messenia is one of the oldest olive cultivation areas in Greece and the landscape is dominated by olive groves characterized by extensive tillage, which causes serious erosion and might be a threat to plant diversity. Organic olive cultivation is an alternative that aims to preserve and support biodiversity. In this study the plant composition in the edge zones...

  19. Considerações Iniciais sobre a Experiência da Realidade Aumentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Sergio Ide

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A realidade aumentada é um conceito introduzido na década de 1990 que se refere à possibilidade de incrementar a realidade que se apresenta à nossa visão com imagens digitais, em geral, dispostas num visor. Hoje se verifica o desenvolvimento crescente de dispositivos de realidade aumentada, tais como Google Glass, Meta Pro, Vuzix, Icis, Atheer One, GlassUp, SmartEyeglass, Galaxy Glass. Movidos pela atualidade do tema, circunscrevemos o campo da experiência promovida por dispositivos de realidade aumentada. Empreendemos uma revisão de literatura, recorrendo a fontes diversas: artigos procurados com o descritor augmented reality na base Web of Science, matérias publicadas sobre o tema em jornais impressos ou portais de informação, vídeos de divulgação de smartglasses. Os resultados apontam para duas abordagens sobre a experiência da realidade aumentada. A primeira se mantém em domínios já cobertos pelos smartphones, destacando atributos como mobilidade, instantaneidade e ubiquidade. A segunda destaca o fenômeno de ampliação da cognição, memória e percepção.

  20. Los estatutos subjetivos de la realidad en la obra de Jorge Luis Borges. Una lectura psicoanalítica.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Calderón, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Este ensayo examina el concepto de realidad de acuerdo a las propuestas metafísicas de Jorge Luis Borges tal y como se observa en sus cuentos y poemas. Para Borges, la realidad está íntimamente relacionada con las nociones de ficción, sueño y olvido. Así, Borges despliega en su literatura una suerte de enunciado calderoniano dejando en claro que "la vida es sueño". Por su parte, el psicoanálisis explora la cuestión de la realidad bajo las construcciones de la realidad psíquica, el estadio del...

  1. Analysis of minor components in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos

    2004-10-29

    Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.

  2. Studying on rooting ability of olive cultivars region of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA BREGU; FADIL THOMAJ; ANIDA MEMA

    2014-01-01

    The results brought in this study present the rooting ability of semi dendric olive pieces, including the five most important cultivars of the area which are used as oil cultivar ("olive white", “Kushan", "Karre" and "black olive from Ndroq Tirana") or as cultivar used for oil and salting (Boç and red olive). Anchoring (sample) material is taken from three age-old mother plants and with a good health and vegetation condition. Previously pieces are treated with IBA at 4000 ppm concentration. ...

  3. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration.

  4. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  5. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  6. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase.

  9. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  10. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  11. Medical professionalism development of oliver R. Avison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryue, Sook-Hee; Yang, Eun Bae

    2009-06-01

    How does professionalism develop while becoming a great doctor? This study based on the life of Avison, a great doctor, aims to identify the developmental features of an excellence and professionally ethical doctor. We chose Oliver R. Avison, who founded the first modern hospital and medical school in Korea, now known as Severance Hospital and Yonsei University College of Medicine. Sixteen pivotal events in Avison's life were extracted, based on 2 standards: self-memory and strong feeling. Further we analyzed Avison' life using a professional development analysis model. Oliver Avison's medical professionalism development was divided into 4 periods: 'Motivating in Medicine period', 'Medical Training period', 'Medical Doctor period', and 'Medical Educating period'. A hallmark of Oliver Avison's medical professionalism development was the growth of motivation and social responsibility, medical knowledge, medical creativity, intra-personal intelligence, and relationship forming abilities. To excel in medicine, a medical student should be encouraged to understand his unique intellectual potentials and interest as a medical worker, and try to understand problems in the established domain and field of medicine, to develop new medical symbol systems, and climates.

  12. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoyannos, E.; Batrinou, A.; Chatzilazarou, A.; Bratakos, S. M.; Stamatopoulos, K; Sinanoglou, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki) were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in phenolic and tocopherol contents and the...

  13. Realidad e interés. El horizonte de la filosofía kantiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto null

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se delinea el horizonte de la filosofía kantiana y su modo de pensar tomando como hilo conductor los intereses racionales y los diversos tipos de realidad que ellos nos hacen comprender. El interés teórico sólo llega a lo fenoménico e instrumental, a lo cósico. Es el interés de la razón práctica el que llega más lejos, hasta la realidad en sí, dibujando el ámbito supremo de realidad y de posibilidad en el modo de ser de la acción, del deber, pero también el de la esperanza. Por último, el interés desinteresado de lo estético nos abre al modo de ser de lo singular y de lo simbólico

  14. Narconovela y sociedad. Narrar el crimen en una realidad postpolítica

    OpenAIRE

    Jastrzębska, Adriana Sara

    2016-01-01

    En cada fase de su desarrollo, el género negro, al describir la transgresión de las normas, paradójicamente suele confirmar y reforzar su vigencia. La narconovela igualmente demuestra ser fruto de una realidad social muy concreta y un momento histórico determinado. El objetivo del artículo es caracterizar esta modalidad dentro de la producción negra y criminal, echando mano a ejemplos de la narrativa colombiana y mexicana. Dicho subgénero, nacido en una realidad postpolítica, globalizada y de...

  15. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  17. Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Peña, Aránzazu

    2010-06-01

    Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of water (control) and two insecticide doses, which were halved the second year. From June to September six olives trees per site were inspected every 15d for feeding galleries in olive branches; the arthropods, collected in traps placed below the olive trees (three traps per site), were identified and counted. Results show that feeding galleries were significantly reduced, what proves that the pyrethroid insecticide efficiently protected the olive trees from the olive bark beetle with a single application and even at the lower dose employed in 2006. Some repellent effect may occur as deduced from the number of P. scarabaeoides individuals captured. Other individuals from the insect community were also affected to a great extent by insecticide application, though no statistical differences were found among the treatments due to the high variability in insect captures. Among the parasitoids, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae were captured in great numbers. Mirids were the predators whose numbers drastically increased in traps placed under the treated trees, while spiders and ants were less affected. A knock-down effect was noticed for some insect groups, for instance mirids and Euphyllura olivina. Approximately 80% of their captures corresponded to the first date of sampling after insecticide application.

  18. Trabalhar para estudar/estudar para trabalhar: realidade e possibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes Teresinha fraga Siqueira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho que apresentamos é parte da pesquisa, ainda não concluída, com os estudantes das licenciaturas e da pedagogia da Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul- UNISC-RS-Brasil. Este está inserido na linha de pesquisa: educação, trabalho e emancipação do mestrado em educação desta Universidade. Queremos compreender, à luz do materialismo histórico e dialético e das categorias da crítica da economia política, os significados atribuídos pelos estudantes universitários ao fenômeno trabalho e estudo. É uma pesquisa preferentemente qualitativa de natureza dialética. Para Marx, a essência da realidade humana reside no trabalho, mas a fonte de toda a riqueza está na natureza. Logo trabalho, natureza e sociedade estão em relação dialética. Trabalho, portanto, é a ideia central articuladora, e natureza e sociedade devem ser estudadas em conexão com o trabalho. Marx trata o trabalho, no modo de produção capitalista, como um impedimento ao desenvolvimento humano. Propõe omesmo como um ato de criação e auto-expressão humana que não deve ter um valor. A compreensão dessa premissa é necessária para que os trabalhadores possam significar e ressignificar o trabalho para além da ideologia dominante. Algumas categorias aparecem como relevantes para a análise: condições de trabalho e de estudo, necessidade de formação, predominância do trabalho sobre o estudo, dificuldade deconciliar tempo de estudo e de trabalho. Na relação com o objeto de estudo, ressaltaremos a crise estrutural do capital, a desregulamentação das leis do trabalho e sua flexibilização e as contradições entre trabalho e estudo bem como quais possibilidades emancipatórias são visualizadas ou sonhadas pelos trabalhadores estudantes.Resume Ce travail constitue une partie de la recherche entreprise avec les étudiants du cours de pédagogie de l´Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul – UNISC – RS – Brésil. Il est intégré dans le champ de

  19. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  20. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  1. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  2. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containi

  3. Olive cake combustion in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topal, H.; Durmaz, A. [Gazi Univ, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Atimtay, A.T. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which an environmentally sound technology was developed for biomass usage for energy production in Turkey. A circulating fluidized bed of 125 mm diameter and 1,800 mm height was used to determine the combustion characteristics of olive cake (OC) produced in Turkey. Olive cake, an olive oil milling waste product, is available in large amounts at a very low cost. Efficient use of OC in energy production solves the problem of waste management and contributes to meeting targets of the Kyoto Protocol. In this study, olive cake alone and olive cake plus lignite mixtures were burned in separate experiments and in various ratios. A new feeding mechanism was developed to feed the olive cake to the bed. On-line concentrations of oxygen, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and total hydrocarbons were measured in the flue gas along with temperature distribution in the bed. Emissions were compared with national standards and combustion efficiency of the olive cake plus lignite coal mixtures and olive cake alone were calculated. The optimum operating parameters were described. OC burned with 94 to 98.5 per cent efficiency. The combustion efficiency increased with increased excess air ratio because volatiles released from the fuel were burned more completely. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP guidelines for virgin olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrakis, Christos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GMP guidelines for the production of virgin olive oil. Standard procedures and conditions are indicated for olive production, harvesting, transportation and storage, for oil manufacture, storage and packaging, for buildings, process logistics and the materials used throughout the production chain.

  5. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2010-10-01

    The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen.

  6. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  7. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  8. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  9. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  10. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  11. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  12. Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.

  13. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  14. Internet de las cosas y Realidad Aumentada: Una fusión del mundo con la tecnología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Camacho Castillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La realidad aumentada (AR y el internet de las cosas (IoT son tecnologías que en la actualidad están en auge debido a la innovación que están generando en múltiples áreas. A diferencia de otras tecnologías como la realidad virtual, con la realidad aumentada se pueden aprovechar tecnologías de bajo coste como un teléfono inteligente para su uso y experimentación, mismo es el caso del internet de las cosas que solo necesita de software/hardware en versiones libres. En este artículo se presenta un esquema de la mezcla del internet de las cosas con la realidad aumentada, además del desarrollo de una aplicación ejemplo para mostrar el potencial de su interconexión en lo que se denomina realidad mixta.

  15. Recomendaciones para el uso de everolimus en trasplante renal de novo: falsas creencias, mitos y realidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pascual

    2017-05-01

    Estas recomendaciones tratan de aportar la evidencia científica que apoya esta práctica, discuten las falsas creencias, mitos y realidades de la combinación y concretan pautas que permiten utilizarla con seguridad y evitar complicaciones.

  16. Algunos mitos, estereotipos, realidades y retos de Latinoamérica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2008-01-01

    ... sólo fuera un simple objeto de estudio, el cual tiene características similares. El propósito de este trabajo es analizar algunos de los mitos, estereotipos, realidades y retos atribuidos a una de las...

  17. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  18. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang; Wenhui Cui; Jiujun He; Zhenfu Wang; Xiaolu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capil ary injury and reduced damage to organel es and the matrix around the capil aries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly in-creased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phospha-tase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, im-munohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax pro-tein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apop-tosis.

  19. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  20. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a v

  1. REALIDAD, FICCIÓN Y JUEGO EN EL QUIJOTE: LOCURA-CORDURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rodríguez González

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervantes nos induce a replantearnos y a considerar lo que es realidad y lo que es ficción o fantasía. En El Quijote se produce un extraordinario juego de ficción novelesca. Sin embargo, la frontera entre realidad y fantasía no tiene límites precisos, y no los tiene, porque Cervantes así lo quiso. La ficción literaria en El Quijote (ficción de realidad, realidad de ficción, ficción de ficción es un juego que realiza Cervantes para presentarnos a un loco aparente que no quiere distinguir los límites entre su realidad (realidad de ficción, ficción de realidad y la de la ficción de sus lecturas (ficción de ficción. El quijotismo clínico no es nada más que un juego cervantino (quijotismo lúdico para conducirnos a un quijotismo simbólico: agonía en pos de un ideal y de valores trascendentes y en busca de un proyecto de humanidad heroica, un camino hacia la libertad y hacia la ilusión de una conciencia individual que se sostiene en el misterio y en el prodigio de una percepción subjetiva de un mundo imaginario, en otras palabras, de lo eterno e inmutableCervantes induces us to re-examine the problem of reality vs. fiction/fantasy. Indeed the Quijote leads into an extraordinary play of novelistic fiction. However, the boundary lines between fantasy and reality have no precise definition, and this is because Cervantes himself wished it so The literary fictions in the Quijote (fiction out of reality-reality out of fiction- fiction out of fiction is a game played by the author to introduce an apparent lunatic who will not dicriminate between the limits of his reality (reality out of fiction and the fictional in this own reading (fiction out of fiction. This clinical quixotism is but a cervantine play (ludic quixotism to lead us to a symbolic quixotism: agony after an ideal and trascendental values, and to a search for a project of heroic humanity, a road to liberty and to an illusion of an individual conscience sustained by mystery

  2. Is Jamie Oliver "easy peasy" in Slovene?:

    OpenAIRE

    Metka Lovrin

    2013-01-01

    The research aims to identify the idiolectal features in selected cookbooks by Jamie Oliver (The Naked Chef, Happy Days with the Naked Chef and Jamie’s Ministry of Food), and how they were rendered into Slovene by Oliver’s translators. As a theoretical basis, it relies on Koller’s three-stage model for analyzing the original and the translation. The paper also confronts the problems that arise from cultural differences between Slovene and British culture. Lexical items are layered into indepe...

  3. THE OLIVE INDUSTRY OF BRONZE AGE CRETE: EVIDENCE FOR VOLCANIC DAMAGE TO OLIVE GROVES AND PROPERTY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN CRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Riley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive wood, stone olive presses and clay spouted tubs, used for separating olive oil and water, are found on Crete in association with the Late Bronze Age archaeological evidence for earthquake and fire damage to property. Recovery of these artefacts suggests that the Cretan olive industry was adversely affected by the volcanic eruption on the neighbouring island of Santorini. The intention in this paper is to sketch the background to Minoan olive farming, and then to examine the archaeological evidence for connections between the Santorini eruption and the Cretan olive industry in the Late Bronze Age.

  4. THE EXISTENCE OF OLIVE TREES IN TURKEY AND SEYÄ°TOBA VILLAGE WHICH IS AN EXAMPLE OF CULTIVATION OF OLIVE SEEDLING (SARUHANLI, MANÄ°SA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dursun ÇİTÇİ (M.A.H); Güner, Bülent; Zeki BOYRAZ

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of our country furits field is the olive grove. The number of olive trees and, applied with a large range of support has been growing rapidly in Turkey. In just the last five years, 40 million olive trees planted with olive trees in our country the number has exceeded 150 million. This situation needs a significant amount of olive seedlings are exposed in many parts of our country.Olive trees prodcution is mainly based on the private companies. Manisa's Saruhanlı Seyitob...

  5. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  6. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Paul VOSSEN; Kicenik Devarenne, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    California’s olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels....

  7. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Paula; PEREIRA, J. A.; Bento, Albino; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2008-01-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of diffe...

  8. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  10. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  11. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  12. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  13. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  14. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.

  15. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-07-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  17. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanouilides, C.; Fousekis, P.; Grigoriadis, V.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece). To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer) and Spain (exporter). The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool. (Author)

  18. Price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Emmanouilides

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the degree and the structure of price dependence in the principal EU olive oil markets (Spain, Italy and Greece. To this end, it utilizes monthly olive oil price data and the statistical tool of copulas. The empirical results suggest that prices are likely to boom together but not to crash together; this is especially true for the prices of the two most important players, Italy (importer and Spain (exporter. The finding of asymmetric price co-movements implies that the three principal spatial olive oil markets in the EU cannot be thought of as one great pool.

  19. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  20. The Effect of Soil Management on Olive Yield and VOO Quality in a Rainfed Olive Grove of Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Sastre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed olive groves have been traditionally tilled in order to reduce the competition for water and nutrients. In sloping Mediterranean olive groves, this practice leads to high erosion rates, resulting in a reduction in soil fertility. Cover crops have been employed as a sustainable olive grove management strategy, but previous studies found differences in their effect on fruit load and there is scarce information on their influence on the virgin olive oil (VOO quality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different soil management strategies on olive and oil yield and VOO physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a rainfed olive grove (238 trees·ha−1 of Cornicabra cultivar, the main in Central Spain. No effect of soil management was found in olive or oil yield along three cropping seasons. VOO quality was mainly influenced by the year, but slight differences were found in the driest year between the studied treatments. Small differences in fruit ripening, pigments, and several fatty acids as well as in sensory parameters were found.

  1. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Functional olive Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formulated Using Olive Mill Wastewater and Whey Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated b...

  2. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  3. Reabilitação vestibular com realidade virtual na ataxia espinocerebelar

    OpenAIRE

    Zeigelboim,Bianca Simone; Souza, Sandra Dias De; Mengelberg,Heidi; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi verificar os benefícios da reabilitação vestibular (RV) com realidade virtual, por meio de avaliação pré e pós-aplicação da Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg (EEB), em quatro casos de ataxia espinocerebelar (AEC). Os casos foram submetidos aos seguintes procedimentos: anamnese, inspeção otológica, avaliação vestibular e aplicação da EEB pré e pós-RV, com a realidade virtual representada por meio da utilização de jogos do equipamento Wii Fit. Os casos retratam quatro pacien...

  4. Combinando la realidad aumentada con las plataformas de e-elearning adaptativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fabregat Gesa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Sistemas Hipermedia Adaptativos (SHA y la Realidad Aumentada forman parte de las tecnologías con mayor potencial en la enseñanza y de los procesos de aprendizaje. El objetivo de este trabajo es explicar cómo combinar la realidad aumentada con las plataformas de e-learning adaptativas, para ponerlas a disposición de los estudiantes en el proceso de aprendizaje, de manera que les permita beneficiarse de la relación con los objetos en el espacio que los rodea, lo que conlleva a que los entornos de e-learning adaptativos permitan un aprendizaje más personalizado y de esta manera, permitir al estudiante avanzar al ritmo de sus propias capacidades e intereses.

  5. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process.

  6. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek eHeperkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  7. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  8. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  9. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Pereira, José Alberto; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, M Letícia

    2008-08-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of different types and trade treatments, namely natural olives Cv. Galega (NOG), natural turning colour olives (NTCO), green olives (GO), black ripe olives (BO) and natural olives purchased in the traditional market and obtained from traditional producers (NOt). Simultaneously it was verified specific legislation of the table olives in what it concerns to labeling rules, pH values and the identification of isolated yeasts. In general, table olives consumed showed acceptable security with exception of four NOt samples that presented Staphylococcus aureus. In a considerable number of samples high number of microorganisms indicators of contaminations were observed that reveals the need of optimization the hygienic procedures during production process to improve the quality and safety of table olives. During the work seven yeasts were isolated from olive pulp and brine.

  10. The effect of olive oil on osteoporosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; Rivas, Ana; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ruiz, Concepción

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and associated fractures is found to be lower in countries where the Mediterranean diet is predominant. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of olive oil and especially phenolic compounds. To review current knowledge by searching for all relevant publications since 2001 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, using the descriptors: Mediterranean diet, virgin olive oil, phenols, bone, osteoblast and osteoporosis. Published evidence suggests that olive oil phenols can be beneficial by preventing the loss of bone mass. It has been demonstrated that they can modulate the proliferative capacity and cell maturation of osteoblasts by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity and depositing calcium ions in the extracellular matrix. Further research on this issue is warranted, given the prevalence of osteoporosis and the few data available on the action of olive oil on bone.

  11. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production.

  12. Polanski lavastas filmi "Oliver Twist" oma lastele / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Oliver Twist" Charles Dickensi romaani ainetel esilinastus Prahas, kus toimusid ka filmivõtted. Tšehhi, Suurbritannia, Prantsusmaa ja Itaalia koostöös valminud filmi lavastas Roman Polanski

  13. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  14. Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjana, Aurelia N; D'Orazio, Carla; Ryan, Vanessa; Rasool, Nooshin; Ng, Justin; Islam, Nabilah; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni.

  15. Polanski lavastas filmi "Oliver Twist" oma lastele / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Oliver Twist" Charles Dickensi romaani ainetel esilinastus Prahas, kus toimusid ka filmivõtted. Tšehhi, Suurbritannia, Prantsusmaa ja Itaalia koostöös valminud filmi lavastas Roman Polanski

  16. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  17. A Stylistic Analysis of Register Theory in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    Stylistic analysis refers to the linguistic approach to literature.Stylistics will mainly focus on the register theory,taking Charles Dickens' masterpiece Oliver Twist as a good example to demonstrate how the register theory is embodied in the work.

  18. SINGLE CRITERION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN OLIVE OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider the supply chain management in olive oil industry. We construct the mixed-integer programming model connecting the optimization of olives harvesting and storage and olive oil production. The goal is to maximize the olive oil producer profit consisting of revenue, production cost and storage cost. In the same time, we have to take into the consideration the farmers’ (suppliers’ utility too. Namely, the suppliers want to maintain the harvest delay and delivery cost as minimal as possible. In the case of single criterion optimization problem we suppose that the producer is taking care of all five goals, so the objective function consists of the producer’s revenue, storage cost, production cost, harvest delay and delivery cost with the appropriate sign. Due to the big dimension of the problem two heuristics are proposed for solving it. Some simulations are performed and the results show good heuristics behavior.

  19. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  20. A Stylistic Analysis of Register Theory in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2015-01-01

    Stylistic analysis refers to the linguistic approach to literature.Stylistics will mainly focus on the register theory,taking Charles Dickens’ masterpiece Oliver Twist as a good example to demonstrate how the register theory is embodied in the work.

  1. El discurso de los buenos. La realidad el acontecimiento y las noticias hoy

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    La pregunta por la realidad es una pregunta con respuestas distintas según la clase de ontología a la que se acuda para responderla, pero aquí no vamos ni siquiera a intentar el inventario de las respuestas posibles, porque de verdad nos interesa ahora es ocuparnos de las respuestas que el Imperio Americano ofrece a esa pregunta. SIN FINANCIACIÓN Sin índice de impacto (2007)

  2. La opinión pública como factor creador de realidades

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos Benito, Sara

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es un estudio que intenta corroborar que la opinión pública formada por los medios de comunicación, a menudo no coincide con la realidad. Para ello, la autora, ha tomado como objeto de estudio un barrio de la ciudad de Plasencia (Cáceres), el barrio de Gabriel y Galán, su situación social y económica

  3. Fenomenología y realidad virtual: el reto de un nuevo mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilles Calvo, Karina P.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available I try to study in this paper the virtual reality called SecondLife making use of the phenomenological method. For this purpose I analyze what happens in the natural attitude where reality is the factual existence here-and-now, and against which the virtual reality bears a duplication of planes: the real-real thing and my digital copy. To analyze what sustains the concept of reality it is necessary to make use of the epokhe. By means of it, we find out the relation of a bodily subject to the world, in a sense that is not given in SecondLife, a virtual universe whose zero-point is just my avatar, that is, the physical object that represents me. The paper unfolds of the consequences of this contrast.En este artículo pretendemos estudiar el fenómeno de la realidad virtual SecondLife usando el método fenomenológico. Para ello partimos del análisis de lo que sucede en la actitud natural. En ésta, la realidad es el aquí-ahora fácticamente existente que se me da, y la realidad virtual conlleva una duplicación de planos: lo realreal y mi copia digital. Para desentrañar el entramado que sustenta el concepto de realidad es necesario aplicar la epojé. Mediante ésta, damos con la imbricación de un cuerpo viviente y el mundo, relación que no se da en SecondLife, universo virtual cuyo punto cero es mi avatar u objeto físico que me representa. El artículo es el despliegue de las consecuencias de las ideas aquí expuestas.

  4. INVESTIGACIÓN SOCIAL CON TRANSFORMACIÓN DE LA REALIDAD: UNA NECESIDAD DE NUESTRO TIEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Cubides Cipaguata

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plantearé la relación entre producción de conocimiento en el campo de la realidadsocial su relación con la transformación de esa misma realidad. No una cosay la otra por aparte, sino cómo la labor investigativa e intelectual no puedeentenderse desligada de un tipo de incidencia sobre los fenómenos en el sentido de sucambio.

  5. Jamie Oliver i den gode smags tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    klassestereotyper og hierarkier, ligesom den bruges til at legitimere Jamies disciplinering af personer med dårlige madkompetencer, særligt arbejderklassemødre. Der er med andre ord grund til at forholde sig kritisk til strategien i Jamie Olivers opbyggelige kogebogsprojekt og stille spørgsmålet, om ikke kampen i...... den gode sags tjeneste først og fremmest tjener til at skabe et positivt billede af tv-kokken/kogebogsforfatteren som etisk individ (og brand) på bekostning af de gastronomisk nødstedte. Det skal nævnes, at jeg i min læsning af Jamies kogebogs-kampskrift har ladet mig inspirere af den russisk...

  6. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138.

  7. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  8. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinda, Ángeles

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  9. PERTINENCIA DE LOS INSTITUTOS UNIVERSITARIOS CON LA REALIDAD SOCIO-ECONÓMICA VENEZOLANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pertuz Belloso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tuvo como objetivo describir la realidad socio-económica de los institutos universitarios venezolanos a partir de una investigación de campo de carácter descriptiva y con un diseño de campo no experimental. El estudio corresponde a una transeccional, se trabajó con un censo poblacional conformado por una muestra de un (1 director, sub-directores académico y administrativo y ochenta y ocho (88 profesores de los institutos tecnológicos de Cabimas y Maracaibo. La técnica de recolección utilizada fue la encuesta, usando un cuestionario con 15 ítems, validados por 5 expertos, y con una confiabilidad (α Cronbach de 0,93. La técnica de análisis de los datos fue la distribución de frecuencias porcentuales. Los resultados obtenidos indican una clara descontextualización en la aplicación de los planes de la nación en estas instituciones, lo cual evidencia escasa pertinencia y vinculación con la realidad socio-económica venezolana; por lo tanto, para su vinculación con tal realidad, se recomienda instrumentar una estrategia de migración de estructura organizacional, hacia la implementación de otra de tipo matricial.

  10. La educabilidad: atributo mediacional entre la realidad curricular y organizativa del centro escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel PÉREZ FERRA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Es evidente, que la actividad de los centros educativos necesita para alcanzar las finalidades que justifican su existencia y trabajo, ser planificada, ordenada, programada, desarrollada y evaluada. Toda esta labor se sintetiza y recoge en el Proyecto de Centro, instrumento de planificación a medio plazo, que concreta y desarrolla los elementos que lo integran: Finalidades educativas, Proyecto curricular de Centro y Reglamento de Organización y Funcionamiento. En este artículo realizamos una reflexión sobre la conveniencia, posibilidad y realidad de utilización con carácter orgánico de dos documentos esenciales en el Proyecto de Centro. Nos referimos al Proyecto Curricular de Centro y al Reglamento de Organización y Funcionamiento. El estudio integra tres perspectivas complementarias: la realidad ontológica o conveniencia de dicha relación que intentamos justificar desde el atributo educabilidad, propio del hombre, nexo de unión entre la esencia de los dos documentos; la realidad histórica de los últimos cincuenta años y su incidencia en la relación organizativo-curricular de los centros; por último, valoramos la trayectoria lineal de la formación del profesorado en España y sus respuestas al centro como unidad organizativa, profesional y curricular.

  11. Realidad aumentada, proyectos en el aula de primaria: experiencias y casos en Ciencias Sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cozar-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La realidad aumentada es un recurso que permite añadir información virtual sobre la realidad, propiciando una aplicación educativa que posibilita una serie de dinámicas e interacciones en el aula. Desde la presente aportación se introduce una integración de esta tecnología en una unidad didáctica en 4º, 5º y 6º de primaria. Se parte de los supuestos pedagógicos de las teorías psicológicas constructivistas, concretamente desde la teoría del aprendizaje significativo y por otra parte los supuestos en aprendizaje colaborativo. Se plantea un proceso centrado en la exploración de figuras a través de la realidad aumentada con dispositivos, trabajo grupal y trabajo centrado en el arte de los pueblos prerromanos, tratando de identificar sus características. Se concluye que este planteamiento aporta un interés, curiosidad y satisfacción al alumnado, potenciando su motivación desde enfoques activos y colaborativos

  12. Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, N

    2010-06-01

    Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.

  13. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  14. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-01

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  15. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  16. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Khatib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A research was needed to monitor the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW: production and relative production of olive mill waste. This was achieved by collecting data from 92 local olive mills in order to study the olive production yield, water consumption in olive washing and in oil recovery, wastewater generation relative to olive processed and oil generated, and solid waste generation. The OMW is usually discharged in the open environment, thus producing pollution to the soil surface and underground water. Approach: The progress on this problem is made by reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD as a major OMW pollutant. An upper flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB facility was constructed and operated for eight months in a progressive program operation for standardization and optimization purpose, and so to treat the waste by COD reduction. Results: The results reveal local variation in most of the investigated parameters. The olives in some area are found to contain large solid waste than other areas, resulting in lower oil yield and higher solid generation per ton of olive produced. The COD concentration was increased gradually from 5,000-30,000 mg/L and the efficiency improved significantly during the operation from 46%-84% COD removal. The organic load of OMW 27,000mg/L was reduce below 5,000 mg/L, that permits its direct discharge into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conclusion: The implications and relevance of the results imply that OMW must be treated before discharge to the sewer system. On the other hand, the nonconformity between areas must be taken into consideration for future work.

  17. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  18. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

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    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Medina-Pradas and Arroyo-López. Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treat...

  20. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo eMedina-Pradas; Francisco Noé eArroyo López

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always rem...

  1. Efectividad de un programa de juego basado en realidad virtual para la mejora cognitiva en la esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga López-Martín

    2016-03-01

    Conclusiones: La participación en intervenciones de realidad virtual dirigidas al entrenamiento cognitivo ofrece un gran potencial de ganancias significativas en los diferentes dominios cognitivos evaluados en pacientes con esquizofrenia.

  2. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  3. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilo Čolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre-treatment. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of different cultivars of olive cake, to produce pellets, and determine their basic quality parameters. The pellets obtained from olive cake had mainly satisfactory results regarding their quality in comparison to standards for fuel pellets. It should be kept in mind that these standards are manly for wood pellets, and therefore some lower criteria could be applied for olive cake and such biomass. The highest amount of residual oil and the lowest amount of protein was found in cultivar ‘Buža’ and produced pellets had the smallest abrasion index (8.15%. Other cultivars had lower oil and higher protein content, and abrasion index higher than 10%. For these cultivars preparation of material (conditioning and/or binder adding prior to pelleting is necessary. Higher heating value (HHV and lower heating value (LHV were not significantly influenced by different chemical composition of cultivars, thus attention should be paid on their influence on pelleting process.

  4. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017.

  5. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  6. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rajabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major,in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results:According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P

  7. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  9. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  10. Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

    2006-02-01

    Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  12. MODALIDAD UNA HERRAMIENTA DEL LENGUAJE PARA ACCEDER A LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE REALIDAD/ES: UNA CONCEPCIÓN DE CIUDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Valencia López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto visibiliza la recreación y construcción de una forma de concebir la ciudad, en la página de opinión de la prensa local de Pereira/Colombia (La Tarde y el Diario del Otún, en el período de renovación urbana de la ciudad, a partir del “compromiso” y “actitud” del locutor. Para abordar esta cuestión, se expone, el contexto temático del artículo y los dos sentidos de la expresión “realidad de los medios de masas”, del sociólogo alemán N. Luhmann. Posteriormente, se describen los marcadores modales actualizados en los enunciados del locutor. Finalmente, se presenta la cadena de enlaces.

  13. Naturally occurring Trichogramma species in olive farms in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMATMOHAMEDHEGAZI; ANNETTEHERZ; SHERIFHASSAN; ESSAMAGAMY; WEDADKHAFAGI; SANIASHWEIL; AHMEDZAITUN; SAFAAMOSTAFA; MOHAMEDHAFEZ; AHMEDEL-SHAZLY; SOMAIAEL-SAID; LAMIAABO-ABDALA; NOHAKHAMIS; SAMIAEL-KEMNY

    2005-01-01

    A survey of two-year studies (2001-2003) was carried out in two olive groves sited at two representative olive growing areas, namely Paradise Park (arid area) and Burg E1-Arab farm (semi-arid area) to monitor the frequency of endemic Trichogramma species on olive moth (Prays oleae) and jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis). The suspended host bait traps were found to be a more practical and effective tool for collecting Trichogramma wasps than the attached ones. Four naturally occurring Trichogramma species were collected for the first time in Egypt from the olive groves, where releases have never been conducted. T.bourarachae was collected exclusively from Burg El-Arab farm. It seems that this wasp species adapts well to the semi-arid area. Three species, namely T. cordubensis, T. nr.pretiosum and T. cacociae were isolated from Paradise Park farm. All of these wasps were also bred from naturally parasitized host eggs during favorable and even at unfavorable temperature conditions of June-August. However, these endemic species did not occur naturally in sufficient numbers to keep the pest populations from reaching damaging levels.The excessive usage of insecticides and the oophagous predators (e.g., ants and lacewing larvae) are some factors that affect the performance of Trichogramma wasps in olive farms.The presence of warm weather wasp strains suggests the existence of well-adapted wasp species or swains which may be appropriate candidates for the control of target pests in olive groves. Additional study is required to determine the best “habitat-specific” species/strains of Trichogramma for augmentative release of naturally occurring wasps and to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs. Efforts should be made to conserve these endemic species from oophagous predators, hot weather and insecticides.The olive and jasmine moth-larvae and pupae found under tree canopies were bred and emerged parasitoids were listed.

  14. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagna Fiammetta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the

  15. Oliver Peek: me pole teeninud 100 miljonit ebaseaduslikult / Oliver Peek ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peek, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    LHV analüütik Oliver Peek, keda USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutus SEC süüdistab infovarguses ja ebaseaduslikus tulu teenimises, põhjendab, miks ta ei näe oma tegevuses midagi seadusevastast. Lisad: Meestel energiat ka eraettevõtluseks; Mõni LHV Traderi kasutaja võib siiski raha kaotada; LHV pensionifondidega pole probleeme; SEC: enamiku kohtuasju võidame. Tabel: Ost ja müük. Vt. samas: LHV tehingute anatoomia. Kommenteerib Tõnu Samuel

  16. Oliver Peek: me pole teeninud 100 miljonit ebaseaduslikult / Oliver Peek ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peek, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    LHV analüütik Oliver Peek, keda USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutus SEC süüdistab infovarguses ja ebaseaduslikus tulu teenimises, põhjendab, miks ta ei näe oma tegevuses midagi seadusevastast. Lisad: Meestel energiat ka eraettevõtluseks; Mõni LHV Traderi kasutaja võib siiski raha kaotada; LHV pensionifondidega pole probleeme; SEC: enamiku kohtuasju võidame. Tabel: Ost ja müük. Vt. samas: LHV tehingute anatoomia. Kommenteerib Tõnu Samuel

  17. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

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    Dıraman, Harun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte and Çilli and nine samples from foreign olive cultivars (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski were investigated. All olive samples were collected from the National Olive Collection Orchard at Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes, color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method, the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively.

    En este estudio, doce muestras de diferentes variedades de aceituna autóctonas (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte y Çilli y nueve muestras de diferentes variedades foráneas (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski fueron investigadas. Todas las muestras de aceitunas fueron obtenidas del National Olive Collection Orchard de Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turquía. Los parámetros básicos cualitativos (acidez, valor de peróxidos e índices espectrofotométrico, escala de color y perfil de ácidos grasos fueron determinados en aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de las aceitunas de las variedades aut

  18. The Possibilities of Using By-Products from Olive Oil in Ruminant Feeding

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    Mustafa Boga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, meeting adequately nutrient requirements of animal is a major problem due to cost of feed. This situation results in the feed manufacturers to search alternative feed source in order to provide more economical feeding in animal nutrition. In Turkey known as a paradise of olive, a number of substances were discharged to the environment during olive processing. After pressing of olive, the olive remains such as olive cake and black water cause off-odour, groundwater pollution, visual pollution and formation of a fly in environment. Among these by-products, olive cake has been extensively used as fuel. However, olive cake and black water can be used as alternative animal feed due to their high nutrient contents. In this review, the importance and use of the olive cake and black water in animal nutrition will be discussed.

  19. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-07-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m{sup 3} during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  20. Biological control and endophytism of the olive root bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) has always been a fundamental crop in the Mediterranean Basin. Driven by the fact, among others, that an increasing number of scientific reports highlight the benefits that olive oil consumption has for human health, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide to other regions with Mediterranean-type climate. Two relevant pathogens affecting olive trees are the hemibiotrophic soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae and the bacterium Pseudomonas savastano...

  1. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    OpenAIRE

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances rece...

  2. Development of organic olive cultivation and its importance for the sustainability in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Migliorini, P

    2011-01-01

    Olive is the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world counting 9,2 million hectares of area harvested in 2009: 8,3 million are in the Mediterranean countries. This paper explain why the development of organic olive cultivation (5% of the total olive cultivation) can increase the sustainability of the Mediterranean. Regarding the ecological aspects, organic farming has benefits on landscape, biodiversity soil, water and air. Regarding economic sustainability organic olive oil produc...

  3. PUBLICIDADE, ENUNCIAÇÃO E REALIDADE AUMENTADA: desdobramentos da categoria de pessoa na era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Tôrres de Azevedo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, visamos refletir sobre uma ação publicitária que se utilizou da tecnologia de realidade aumentada, desenvolvida para a marca Linx, em março de 2011. Mobilizamos fundamentos da Semiótica Discursiva, especificamente sobre a questão da enunciação e a instalação da categoria de pessoa, articulando-os com conceitos afeitos à Comunicação Social, em especial a perspectivas utilizadas para compreensão dos fenômenos da cibercultura. Pretendemos, assim, identificar peculiaridades nas interações mediadas por dispositivos de realidade aumentada, considerando esse tipo de atividade comunicativa como aspecto absolutamente novo para os estudos do discurso publicitário.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: publicidade; semiótica; comunicação; cibercultura; realidade aumentada.   ABSTRACT In this article, we aim to reflect on an advertising action that was used augmented reality technology developed for Linx brand in March 2011. We mobilized foundations of semiotics Discursive, specifically on the subject of enunciation and the installation of the category of person, articulating with concepts accustomed to the media, especially the perspectives used to understand the phenomenon of cyberculture. We intend, therefore, to identify peculiarities in interactions mediated by augmented reality devices, considering this type of communicative activity as absolutely new aspect to the studies of advertising discourse.   KEYWORDS: advertising; semiotics; communication; cyberculture; augmented reality.   RESUMEN En este artículo, pretendemos reflexionar sobre una acción de publicidad que utiliza tecnología de realidad aumentada, desarrollada para la marca Linx en marzo de 2011. Movilizamos a fundaciones de la semiótica discursiva, específicamente en el sujeto de enunciación y la instalación de la categoría de persona, articulando los conceptos aficionado a los medios de comunicación, en particular las perspectivas que se utilizan para la

  4. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives.

  5. LA INVESTIGACIÓN APLICADA: UNA FORMA DE CONOCER LAS REALIDADES CON EVIDENCIA CIENTÍFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Rosa Vargas Cordero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se expone una interpretación sobre la investigación aplicada vigente en el Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado de la Universidad de Costa Rica (SEP, para el trabajo final de graduación en las maestrías profesionales. Se discuten algunos criterios de la autora, discusiones académicas sobre el tema y otros razonamientos, con base en aportes de diferentes autores. Se fundamenta la necesidad de actualizar conocimientos acordes con la investigación y las posibilidades para realizarla, y se parte del supuesto de que la investigación es imprescindible en la formación profesional, ya que genera nuevos conocimientos que realimentan las disciplinas y el ejercicio profesional. La investigación requiere rigurosidad y excelencia; además, sostiene la plataforma para proponer y desarrollar nuevas investigaciones. Por ello, no se puede ignorar la importancia de la participación activa de estudiantes y docentes en los procesos de investigación, para favorecer la toma de conciencia de la realidad que se investiga, así como de los deberes y derechos de quienes investigan, lo que implica una nueva forma de pensar la práctica investigativa, de manera que se ofrezcan soluciones en función de los contextos, las acciones de las personas y los cambios filosóficos, ontológicos, epistemológicos y metodológicos en investigación. Al respecto, la investigación basada en el conocimiento y la comprensión de cómo perciben las personas su realidad y a sí mismas; es decir, aquella que se enfoca en el desarrollo de acciones para el mejoramiento de la realidad que se investiga es vista a lo largo del ensayo como una necesidad operativa.

  6. Vermicomposting of olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth.

  7. Oliver Wendell Holmes. "Miscuit utile dulci".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, G E

    1974-12-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future-our present.

  8. Harvest of table olives by mechanical harvesting equipment

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    Filippo Gambella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the performance, of an electric comb equipped with five undulated fingers used for mechanized the harvesting of table olives. The first aim of the work was to test three different types of coating materials used for covering the fingers: Silicon (S, Vulcanized rubber (VR and Natural rubber (NR. The diameter of the coating materials tested were 7mm (D1, 14 mm (D2, 19 mm (D3 in order to evaluate the damage of different working conditions on the intact olives. During harvesting, silicon at 7mm and 14mm resulted in the largest percentage of undamaged the fruit (67% and 65%, natural rubber 63% and vulcanized rubber at the 54%. The second aim was to evaluate the combination, in terms of the best performance, of the machines used for mechanized harvesting of table olives. Several factors have been examined: undulating fingers variation thickness, different rotational speeds and different coating materials used to reduce the impact damage on olives. From the tests on olive tree we have determined that while plastic materials (S and (NR appear to have a positive role in harvest quality, the vibration transmitted to the operator’s hand is great from 6.48 m/s2 for S to 6.31 m/ s2 for NR and 2.92 m/s2 for VR, respect to the materials used.

  9. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae.

  10. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

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    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  11. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  12. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future.

  13. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nimer Assy; Faris Nassar; Gattas Nasser; Maria Grosovski

    2009-01-01

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagonlike peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased lowdensity lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

  14. Bactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde-like compounds from olive products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; García, Aranzazu; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The bactericidal effects of several olive compounds (nonenal, oleuropein, tyrosol, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid either free [EDA] or linked to tyrosol [TyEDA] or to hydroxytyrosol [HyEDA]), other food phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, and carnosic acid), and commercial disinfectants (glutaraldehyde [GTA] and ortho-phthalaldehyde [OPA]), were tested against strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. It was found that the bactericidal activities of olive GTA-like compounds (EDA, HyEDA, and TyEDA) were greater than those exerted by several food phenolic substances. Surprisingly, these olive antimicrobials were as active as the synthetic biocides GTA and OPA against the four bacteria studied. Thus, it has been proposed that the bactericidal activity of the main olive antimicrobials is primarily due to their dialdehydic structure, which is similar to that of the commercial biocides GTA and OPA. Our results clearly reveal that olive GTA-like compounds possess a strong bactericidal activity even greater than that of other food phenolic compounds or synthetic biocides.

  15. Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E

    2017-02-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha(-1) ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year(-1) of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  17. Mujer, amor y violencia: nuevas interpretaciones de antiguas realidades, 2da. Edición

    OpenAIRE

    Dueñas Vargas, Guiomar; Martínez Giraldo, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez Rodríguez, María Himelda; Puyana Villamizar, Yolanda; López Díaz, Yolanda; Barreto Gama, Juanita María; León de Leal, Magdalena; Ordóñez, Monserrat; Thomas, Florence

    1991-01-01

    Cuando nos detenemos a pensar el mundo y la sociedad en sus relaciones concretas, concediéndole especial significación a la situación de la mujer en la historia, encontramos que son ya bastante amplias y de largo tiempo las acciones emprendidas por ellas en defensa de sus derechos, en la búsqueda del reconocimiento de sus capacidades, de sus ideas, de sus sentimientos y de su ser entero. Buscar y ofrecer, desde la perspectiva de la mujer, explicaciones a la realidad, supone ubicarnos en el te...

  18. Edad dorada y construcción de la realidad en las columnas de Manuel Vicent

    OpenAIRE

    Rubino, Atilio Raúl

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar una selección de columnas de Manuel Vicent publicadas en A favor del placer. Cuaderno de Bitácora para náufragos de hoy, de 1993 que reúne columnas aparecidas en El País durante los cinco años anteriores. Las columnas de Vicent se diferencian del estilo periodístico por el uso de elementos literarios. Pero esto no sólo incluye a la forma sino también al sentido que otorga a la realidad, producto de los mismos procedimientos. Nos centraremos en particula...

  19. Terapia de exposición mediante Realidad Virtual en los trastornos alimentarios: presente y futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran Vilalta Abella; Jana Pla Sanjuanelo; Marta Ferrer García; José Gutiérrez Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar el uso de la realidad virtual (RV) como técnica de exposición para el tratamiento de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Para ello se analizó la literatura existente con el fin de responder a dos cuestiones: primero, ¿existe evidencia sobre la capacidad de los entornos y estímulos virtuales para provocar respuestas de ansiedad y craving en pacientes con TCA?; y, segundo, ¿la aplicación de técnicas de exposición mediante RV permite la dismin...

  20. Realidad y perspectiva de las competencias para el ejercicio directivo en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    En la presente comunicación se aborda la realidad portuguesa de la gestión escolar. Se analiza el encuadramiento legislativo, la contratación, la formación y la evaluación de los directores de las escuelas no superiores en un contexto que es muy marcado por la definición de tipologías de funciones y muy poco por competencias. Simultáneamente, se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre competencias de liderazgo y se cruzan elementos con la experiencia de los países i...

  1. La menopausia como modificadora de la realidad axiológica

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Jiménez, Rafael Ángel

    2001-01-01

    La menopausia es un acontecimiento vital estresante, influenciada por aspectos biológicos,psicológicos, sociales y familiares de la cultura de la que se procede. La base central de este trabajo se situó en la "Teoría Constructivista" fundamentando la siguiente hipótesis: El período involutivo de la mujer muestra una construccción de la realidad axiológica dependiente tanto de estereotipos socio-culturales, como de enfermedad ginecológica intercurrente en este período, y respondiendo a los sig...

  2. La generación de la imagen televisual: un refugio organizado de una realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Arama Colón Peña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La nuestra es una generación de la imagen; una época en que todos los jóvenes, niños y adultos están sometidos a una variedad de imágenes, mayor que la conocida hasta ahora; una época en la que en particular los jóvenes y los niños parecen haber encontrado en la imagen televisual un refugio organizado de una realidad que nos pertenece a todos por igual.

  3. Memoria, trauma y duelo en la era de la realidad transparente

    OpenAIRE

    AMANDA OLIVEROS

    2004-01-01

    La violencia y la destrucción hoy aparecen bajo el signo del capital de ficción con su nueva herramienta: el totalitarismo de la información, que es un intento de configuración de un Otro sin barra ni barrera, y que miente, cuyo rasgo característico es el de devorar el objeto y con ello el peso de lo real que estructura la realidad y el valor de la significación de la vida. Situamos así el estado de excepción y las masacres cometidas en nombre del padre, en Afgan...

  4. Realidad aumentada en dispositivos iOS como sistema de ayuda a los alumnos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este Proyecto consiste en la realización de! una aplicación destinada a los alumnos de la Universidad para obtener ayuda e información del Campus Universitario. La aplicación se ejecuta en dispositivos móviles iOS: iPhone, iPad e iPod Touch y emplea tecnologías de Realidad Aumentada proporcionadas por el SDK Vuforia de Qualcomm. Esta aplicación servirá como nexo de unión entre soportes, a priori incompatibles, como una simple hoja de papel impresa y el propio dispositivo electrónico haciendo ...

  5. Realidade virtual na atividade cerebral: um estudo comparativo entre estados emocionais de adultos jovens e idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Wagner Henrique Souza

    2014-01-01

    A associação de realidade virtual(RV) à prática clínica tem se mostrado comum nos últimos anos, sendo mais uma ferramenta de atenção à saúde, inclusive na terceira idade. Seu uso vem sendo relacionado a maiores índices de adesão terapêutica e bem estar, aspectos de base emocional frequentemente observados através de instrumentos subjetivos e de validade questionável. O presente estudo analisou os efeitos imediatos do treino de equilíbrio em contextos variados de RV sobre o comp...

  6. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  7. Potential of Agroindustrial Waste From Olive Oil Industry for Fuel Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Olive pulp (OP) is a highly polluting semi-solid residue generated from the two-stage extraction processing of olives and is a major environmental issue in Southern Europe, where 80% of the world olive oil is produced. At present, OP is either discarded to the environment or combusted with low...

  8. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  9. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  10. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  11. Gross and net rates of nitrogen mineralisation in soil amended with composted olive mill pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Muñoz, B.; Hatch, D. J.; Bol, R.

    2011-01-01

    Olive mill pomace is the major waste product in the olive oil industry and composting these by-products for the purpose of recycling nutrients and organic matter is a sound environmental strategy. Yet little is known about the quantity and timing of nitrogen (N) release from composted olive mill...

  12. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans; enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield and a better quality of the oil. These technic

  13. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  14. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  15. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation.

  16. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  17. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils.

  18. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiammetta Alagna; Mario Kallenbach; Andrea Pompa; Francesca De Marchis; Rosa Rao; Ian T Baldwin; Gustavo Bonaventure; y Luciana Baldoni

    2016-01-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic com-pounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results pro-vide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack;information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  19. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  20. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cayuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%.

  1. Modelling the number of olive groves in Spanish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Huete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The univariate generalized Waring distribution (UGWD is presented as a new model to describe the goodness of fit, applicable in the context of agriculture. In this paper, it was used to model the number of olive groves recorded in Spain in the 8,091 municipalities recorded in the 2009 Agricultural Census, according to which the production of oil olives accounted for 94% of total output, while that of table olives represented 6% (with an average of 44.84 and 4.06 holdings per Spanish municipality, respectively. UGWD is suitable for fitting this type of discrete data, with strong left-sided asymmetry. This novel use of UGWD can provide the foundation for future research in agriculture, with the advantage over other discrete distributions that enables the analyst to split the variance. After defining the distribution, we analysed various methods for fitting the parameters associated with it, namely estimation by maximum likelihood, estimation by the method of moments and a variant of the latter, estimation by the method of frequencies and moments. For oil olives, the chi-square goodness of fit test gives p-values of 0.9992, 0.9967 and 0.9977, respectively. However, a poor fit was obtained for the table olive distribution. Finally, the variance was split, following Irwin, into three components related to random factors, external factors and internal differences. For the distribution of the number of olive grove holdings, this splitting showed that random and external factors only account about 0.22% and 0.05%. Therefore, internal differences within municipalities play an important role in determining total variability.

  2. Modelling the number of olive groves in Spanish municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huete, M.D.; Marmolejo, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    The univariate generalized Waring distribution (UGWD) is presented as a new model to describe the goodness of fit, applicable in the context of agriculture. In this paper, it was used to model the number of olive groves recorded in Spain in the 8,091 municipalities recorded in the 2009 Agricultural Census, according to which the production of oil olives accounted for 94% of total output, while that of table olives represented 6% (with an average of 44.84 and 4.06 holdings per Spanish municipality, respectively). UGWD is suitable for fitting this type of discrete data, with strong left-sided asymmetry. This novel use of UGWD can provide the foundation for future research in agriculture, with the advantage over other discrete distributions that enables the analyst to split the variance. After defining the distribution, we analysed various methods for fitting the parameters associated with it, namely estimation by maximum likelihood, estimation by the method of moments and a variant of the latter, estimation by the method of frequencies and moments. For oil olives, the chi-square goodness of fit test gives p-values of 0.9992, 0.9967 and 0.9977, respectively. However, a poor fit was obtained for the table olive distribution. Finally, the variance was split, following Irwin, into three components related to random factors, external factors and internal differences. For the distribution of the number of olive grove holdings, this splitting showed that random and external factors only account about 0.22% and 0.05%. Therefore, internal differences within municipalities play an important role in determining total variability. (Author)

  3. Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products. To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO, the “intensive” olive grove (HDO and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO. The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS, the two-phase system (2PS, the three-phase (3PS, and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS. The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained.

  4. Bisphenol A exposure assessment from olive oil consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R

    2017-07-01

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.

  5. Sociabilidades e realidades permeáveis Sociabilities and permeable realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gosciola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto busca fundamentar o conceito de Realidades Permeáveis como o processo da combinação de sociabilidade e computação pervasiva. Para tanto, trata dos procedimentos e efeitos de sociabilidade promovidos em movimentos e mídias colaborativas que lançaram e lançam mão da comunicação e de seus recursos tecnológicos. Compara como a sociabilidade se organiza ao longo da história da comunicação em relação às mudanças sociais provocadas pelas inovações tecnológicas e a constituição de redes colaborativas a partir delas. Palavras-chave: Realidades permeáveis. Computação pervasiva. Sociabilidade. Tecnologia da comunicação. This paper aims to conceptualize Permeable Realities as the combination process between sociability and pervasive computing. The text deals with sociability procedures and effects that happen in collaborative media which have used communication technological resources. It compares the way sociability is organized throughout the communication history to the current social changes determined by technological innovations and by the collaborative networks. Keywords: Realities permeable. Pervasive computing. Sociability. Communication technology.

  6. Realidad actual de las epilepsias en chile y latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Manuel Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Las epilepsias afectan en Latinoamérica (LA entre 2.886.000 a 4.617.000 personas, pero solo una minoría tiene acceso a diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados. Debido a que gran parte de la población depende de los servicios públicos de salud, los países tienen una baja inversión “per capita” en salud en general y en epilepsias en particular. Sin embargo esta realidad puede cambiar, ya que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS en septiembre de 2011 aprobó la “Estrategia y Plan de acción sobre la Epilepsia” para las Américas. Este tiene por objetivo que los gobiernos, apoyen la formación de programas nacionales y legislaciones en epilepsia, y los países que ya los tengan las puedan perfeccionar, además de acciones que lleven a mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes, permitiendo una integración social plena y romper el estigma asociado a las epilepsias. Este texto analiza la realidad en LA con acento en Chile

  7. Aplicación de la realidad virtual no inmersiva para Ingenieros Agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds León Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo aborda sobre la utilización de la realidad virtual no inmersiva en el campo de la ingeniería muy utilizado hoy en día por diferentes universidades y centros de investigación para el desarrollo de sus investigaciones y aplicación en la docencia, el trabajo se centra en el modo de uso de la realidad virtual por especialistas no informáticos que no tengan conocimientos de programación, donde se desarrolla una metodología que permite crear mundos virtuales sin la utilización de técnicas de programación y de fácil desarrollo ya que utilizan herramientas muy conocidas en el campo de los ingenieros como son los sistemas CAD/CAE aunque no se deja de mencionar aspectos importantes sobre Web y Vrml que son necesarios para una mejor compresión de la metodología elaborada y consideraciones especiales que debe tenerse en cuenta para crear mundos virtuales o escenas virtuales.

  8. Serious games baseados em realidade virtual para educação médica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane dos Santos Machado

    Full Text Available A evolução tecnológica tem permitido utilizar novas abordagens no processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Os serious games se relacionam com uma categoria especial de jogos, voltados a conteúdos e finalidades específicos, nos quais o jogador utiliza seus conhecimentos para resolver problemas, conhecer novas problemáticas e treinar tarefas. Uma das tecnologias propícias à construção de serious games é a Realidade Virtual, que oferece ambientes computacionais tridimensionais com formas avançadas de interação capazes de prover maior motivação ao processo de aprendizagem. No contexto da educação médica, tais aplicações apresentam um nicho ainda pouco explorado, se observados sua relevância e impactos na sociedade. Este artigo apresenta os serious games baseados em Realidade Virtual como uma proposta para o ensino de conteúdos específicos da área médica. Para isso, categoriza-os e apresenta o que tem sido desenvolvido nos últimos anos, seus componentes, características de desenvolvimento e suas potencialidades como oportunidades de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e negócios.

  9. BALANCE DE LA ECONOMÍA COSTARRICENSE EN 1999: REALIDADES, ESPEJISMOS Y DESAFÍOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Manuel Mora Jiménez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A primera vista, la economía costarricense mostró en 1999 importantes signos de vitalidad: menor inflación, bajo desempleo (aunque con un subempleo significativo, alto crecimiento del producto interno bruto (PIB y de las exportaciones, aumento en los salarios reales (según las estadísticas oficiales, crecimiento del crédito y de la liquidez dentro de las metas del programa monetario, significativos ingresos de capital externo y de inversión extranjera directa, balanza comercial positiva, etc. Pero si observamos la realidad más de cerca (aunque permaneciendo dentro de la óptica macroeconómica, necesariamente limitada, veremos que detrás de las cifras más alegres se ocultan serios problemas sin resolver, muchos de ellos de larga data, que exigen renovadas estrategias y políticas para enfrentar los desafíos de un desarrollo económico con justicia social y sostenibilidad ambiental. A continuación hacemos una apretada síntesis del desempeño económico reciente, reconociendo los avances y las oportunidades cuando corresponda, pero a la vez llamando la atención sobre los problemas que aún persisten, y advirtiendo sobre los espejismos que podrían estar distorsionando el análisis objetivo de la realidad.

  10. Hechos y palabras: la realidad colombiana vista a través de la prensa escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Caicedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la primera aplicación al estudio de la realidad colombiana de culturomics, un nuevo método de investigación que describe tendencias culturales, sociales y lingüísticas con base en el análisis cuantitativo de textos digitalizados. El artículo usa la totalidad de las noticias y opiniones publicadas durante los últimos veinte años en tres medios escritos de circulación nacional con el propósito de describir la trayectoria de algunos fenómenos socioeconómicos y políticos: la corrupción, la división de poderes, el conflicto, el optimismo económico, etc. Más allá de los hallazgos concretos, muestra de qué manera se puede usar el método para describir la cambiante realidad de un país en desarrollo.

  11. Realidad aumentada aplicada a la enseñanza de Ciencias Naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fracchia, Claudia Carina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En la educación primaria, gran parte del profesorado pone de manifiesto las dificultades que muestran sus alumnos en la comprensión de textos científicos y en algunos casos la desmotivación progresiva que se observa hacia la lectura de libros de ciencias. Son diversos los obstáculos que se desprenden de los libros de textos, por ejemplo el vocabulario, o que las imágenes o gráficos empleados que no despiertan mucho interés al compararse con otros recursos multimediales. En la actualidad, existen recursos que emplean Realidad Aumentada que pueden ser aplicados al contexto educativo, facilitando que los estudiantes manipulen objetos virtuales a través de marcadores como si se tratasen de objetos reales, realizando estas operaciones de forma natural e intuitiva, sin ningún tipo de hardware adicional que medie en la relación alumno-computadora. En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de una experiencia de extensión desarrollada en el año 2014, donde se utiliza la tecnología Realidad Aumentada para la enseñanza de temas abarcados en Ciencias Naturales en el nivel primario.

  12. Plant genetics. Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, R; Ouazzani, N

    2001-10-18

    Early domestication and extensive cultivation have meant that staple Mediterranean fruit crops such as olives, grapes and dates exist in wild-looking forms that are secondary derivatives produced by sexual reproduction among cultivated plants (cultivars), which were initially propagated vegetatively. By using genetic markers associated with characters that render plants unsuitable for domestication, we show here that genuinely wild olive trees, which cannot be distinguished morphologically from feral forms, still survive in a few Mediterranean forests. These wild stocks are genetically distinct and more variable than either the crop strains or their derived feral forms, a finding that has important implications for the conservation of these ancient lineages.

  13. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  14. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  15. Joan Oliver i Salvador Espriu en el teatre de postguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Maria Gibert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author sets out the dramatic production of Joan Oliver and Salvador Espriu, two different ways of understanding the concept of theatrical literary creation and of interpreting projection requirements. Oliver, in general, presents the angle of the bourgeois comedy; the critical tone of the drama he produced before the Civil War either disappears or is considerably tempered. Espriu applies himself to a theatre with tragic roots, embellished with the combination of diverse elements, without taking the possibilities of immediate premiere performances into consideration.

  16. Entomofauna associated with the olive tree in southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the main insect species that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem. The field trials have taken place in two olive groves, one situated in Olhão and the other one in Loulé, both in Algarve and also under Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The sampling techniques used differ according to their purpose (sticky traps, pheromone traps, pitfall traps and samples of aerial parts of the trees such as inflorescences, leaves, fruits...

  17. Deficit irrigation principles applied to olive orchard in Slovene Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PODGORNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree has anatomical-morphological and physiological adaptations which enable it to cope well with dry conditions and water deficits. However, if water shortage occurs during the development phases (shoot growth, flower bud development, bloom, fruit set, cell division and enlargement and oil accumulation, which are the most susceptible to stress, it can also have a negative effect on the growth and productivity of olive trees. The Slovenian Istria is facing with increased risk of drought. Due to increased occurrence and intensity of agricultural droughts controlled deficit irrigation will become an inevitable element of agricultural practice in Slovene Istria.

  18. Soil organic carbon pools in olive groves of different age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaccesi, Luisa; De Feudis, Mauro; Nasini, Luigi; Regni, Luca; D'Ascoli, Rosaria; Castaldi, Simona; Proietti, Primo; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, the practices which favor the increase of soil organic carbon in the agroecosystem have been widely studied because of their influence on the reduction of atmospheric CO2 (Lal, 1993; Schlesinger, 2000). The accumulation of the organic carbon into the soil depends to a great extent upon climate and pedological properties (Burke et al., 1989; Miller et al., 1994), although in the agricultural soils the cultivation system also plays a key role. The olive grove might potentially represent a relevant land use to improve C sequestration in soil, but there are few data available to support this hypothesis. In a study site located in central Italy (Deruta, PG), we analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in two olive groves of different age (7 and 30 years) and, as control, in a site adjacent to the groves cropped with cereals for at least 30 years. With the aim to isolate and quantify the active, intermediate and passive functional SOC pools in the olive groves and in the control, we used a combined physical and chemical fractionation method (Zimmermann et al., 2007). The main results shown that the total organic carbon content in the Ap horizons was the highest in the 30-years-old olive grove, followed by the 7-years-old olive grove, and then by the control soil. The content of active C, in form of particulate organic matter (POM) and water soluble organic matter (WEOM), was greater in the olive grove compared to the control soil and increase with the age of the grove. About the amount of C in the intermediate and passive pools, no significant differences were found among the olive groves and the control. These preliminary results indicated that the greater total organic C content occurred in the 30-year-old olive grove with respect to the 7-years-old grove and the control, has to be ascribed to the greater content of active organic matter (POM and WEOM), and not to the accumulation in soil of organic C in a more stabilised form.

  19. Brief Analysis of the Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄二靓

    2016-01-01

    As one of the foremost critical realist writers of the Victorian era, Charles Dickens is adept at using language to create all kinds of characters in a humorous or ironic tone. Therefore he received massive popularity for his unique style in storytelling. Oliver Twist is one of Charles Dickens's masterpieces and also the most appropriate choice for the stylistic study on Charles Dickens. This thesis endeavors to explore the aesthetic effect of semantic deviation appearing in Oliver Twist so that we can have a better comprehension about the excellent writing skill of Charles Dickens.

  20. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  1. The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria Albertina; Andrade, Laura,

    2014-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in labor...

  2. Association Mapping in Turkish Olive Cultivars Revealed Significant Markers Related to Some Important Agronomic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya Sozer; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important fruit trees especially in the Mediterranean countries due to high consumption of table olive and olive oil. In olive breeding, the phenotypic traits associated to fruit are the key factors that determine productivity. Association mapping has been used in some tree species and a lot of crop plant species, and here, we perform an initial effort to detect marker-trait associations in olive tree. In the current study, a total of 96 olive genotypes, including both oil and table olive genotypes from Turkish Olive GenBank Resources, were used to examine marker-trait associations. For olive genotyping, SNP, AFLP, and SSR marker data were selected from previously published study and association analysis was performed between these markers and 5 yield-related traits. Three different approaches were used to check for false-positive results in association tests, and association results obtained from these models were compared. Using the model utilizing both population structure and relative kinship, eleven associations were significant with FDR ≤ 0.05. The largest number of significant associations was detected for fruit weight and stone weight. Our results suggested that association mapping could be an effective approach for identifying marker-trait associations in olive genotypes, without the development of mapping populations. This study shows for the first time the use of association mapping for identifying molecular markers linked to important traits in olive tree.

  3. The Importance of Drying for Valorization of 2-Phase Olive Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Baysan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With starting healthy consumption awareness in people throughout world, olive oil demand has increased and it is expected that this demand will increase day by day. As a result of increase in the demand for olive oil, the rise in amount of olive pomace that emerges after olive oil production is evident. The differences in olive oil production methods result in varied wastes in terms of property and quantity. Olive mill waste water and olive pomace possessing 35-40% moisture come out in 3-phase system while only olive pomace possessing 60-70% moisture comes out in 2-phase system. The quantity and pollution degree of waste water coming out in 3-phase system are considerably high from 2-phase system. Recycling of 2-phase olive pomace containing also olive mill waste water, which is highly harmful for environment and is generally discharged to nature without any treatment, is considerably important by processing. This review gives information about the necessity of drying of olive pomace and related studies with this subject.

  4. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  6. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  8. THE EXISTENCE OF OLIVE TREES IN TURKEY AND SEYÄ°TOBA VILLAGE WHICH IS AN EXAMPLE OF CULTIVATION OF OLIVE SEEDLING (SARUHANLI, MANÄ°SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dursun ÇİTÇİ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of our country furits field is the olive grove. The number of olive trees and, applied with a large range of support has been growing rapidly in Turkey. In just the last five years, 40 million olive trees planted with olive trees in our country the number has exceeded 150 million. This situation needs a significant amount of olive seedlings are exposed in many parts of our country.Olive trees prodcution is mainly based on the private companies. Manisa's Saruhanlı Seyitoba village of the district, in widespread with the production of olive trees, the area has become one of the major producers centers. Seyitoba, especially the olive widespread in the last 10 years, seedlings and sapling production has increased rapidly in the village has become an important source of livelihood.Our study aims the evaluation of the socio-economic differentiation parallel with the development of olive trees existence in Turkey. Seyitoba village is an attractive example of geographical place which this development will be observed.

  9. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  10. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from olive affected by “olive quick decline syndrome” in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufic ELBEAINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf in olive trees in southern Italy, the scanty molecular information on this bacterium and its association with the olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS prompted the necessity to isolate and acquire more genetic data on the type of strain present in that region. For the first time, the bacterium was isolated from infected olive on culture media. Genetic information were obtained through genomic comparison with other subspecies or strains. The sequences of thirteen genes from its genome, comprising seven housekeeping genes (leuA, petC, lacF, cysG, holC, nuoL and gltT usually used in multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems, and six genes involved in different biochemical functions (RNA Pol sigma-70 factor, hypothetical protein HL, 16S rRNA, rfbD, nuoN, and pilU, were analyzed. The sequences of the biochemical function genes were explored  individually to study the genetic structure of this bacterium, while the MLST genes were linked together into one concatameric sequence (4161 bp long to increase the resolution of the phylogenetic analysis when compared with Xf strains previously reported. Sequence analyses of single genes showed that the Xf olive strain is distinct from the four previously defined taxons (Xf subsp. fastidiosa, Xf subsp. multiplex, Xf subsp. sandyi and Xf subsp. pauca with a dissimilarity rate that reached 4%. In particular, Xf from olive shared the greatest identity with the strain “9a5c” (subsp. pauca, but was nevertheless distinct from it. Similarly, the MLST based on concatameric sequences confirmed the genetic variance of Xf from olive by generating a novel sequence type profile (ST53. Phylogenetic tree analyses showed that Xf from olive clustered in one clade close to subspecies pauca (strains “9a5c” and “CVC0018”, but was nevertheless distinct from them. These results indicate molecular divergence of this olive bacterium with all other strains yet reported.

  11. La obtención de logros en la realidad material motivada por la psicoterapia psicoanalítica

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Bermúdez, Jorge Iván

    2010-01-01

    La psicoterapia de enfoque psicoanalítico no contempla dentro de sus objetivos primarios generar un cambio en específico en la Realidad Material del paciente. Sin embargo, surge el cuestionamiento por los espacios, mecanismos y procesos involucrados en la obtención de logros en esta realidad, motivados por la terapia. Es así que se observó la obtención de logros con cualidades materiales durante el desarrollo de tres procesos de psicoterapia psicoanalítica individual, sin producir ningún tipo...

  12. A sangre fría : Conexiones y fronteras entre la realidad, la literatura y el cine

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En A sangre fría Truman Capote experimenta con la realidad para escribir una novela basada en hechos efectivamente sucedidos a los que aplica las técnicas de la gran narrativa del XIX. Esta es la primera transgresión de los límites, porque la literatura, desde Aristóteles, tiene un estatuto fundamental de ficcionalidad. Después, sobre esa destilación de la realidad, concentrada en un texto escrito y organizada de forma literaria, Richard Brooks construye su película con la dobl...

  13. Avaliação do desempenho de operadores no treinamento com simulador de realidade virtual Forwarder.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    O uso dos simuladores de realidade virtual é a solução mais eficiente de treinamento, permitindo capacitar os operadores rapidamente e com baixos custos. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de operadores no treinamento com o simulador de realidade virtual Forwarder. O estudo foi desenvolvido no Centro de Formação de Operadores Florestais (CENFOR), da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Um grupo de 26 operadores de diferentes empresas florestais foi ...

  14. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  15. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  16. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Gold Olive Branch Left on the Moon by Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, left on the Moon's surface by Apollo 11 crewmembers. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, placed the small replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represented a wish for peace for all mankind.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    olive trees and their resistance to transplantation stress. A. Meddad-Hamza1, A. ... This change in the root: shoot ratio permitted greater utilization of soil resources .... sulphur, 0.02% boron, 0.05% copper, 0.15% iron, 0.075% manga- nese and ...

  19. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  20. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  1. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  2. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  3. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  4. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  5. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  6. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  7. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct bios

  8. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-11-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, β-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product.

  9. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  10. Olive oil: an overview of the Japanese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capogna Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of olive oil consumption in Japan, Asia’s largest per capita consumer and at present 14th in the world. Since the early 1990s, total purchases have increased from 4943 t in the 1992/93 campaign to 61 903 t in 2014/15, a more than 12-fold increase over the space of 22 years. Olive oil, in particular extra virgin olive oil, is appreciated by Japanese people primarily for its beneficial effects on health, as well as for its agreeable taste and for its cultural and historical associations. Other key factors to be considered are economic and cultural. Japan is one of the world’s largest economies; disposable incomes are high and these are reflected in household consumption behavior. Culturally, the country is increasingly open to the outside world, discovering and adopting practices from elsewhere, notably the West. This openness, allied to the country’s relative affluence, is demonstrated in the consumption of olive oil, a pillar of the Mediterranean Diet.

  11. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Committee for the 2010 fiscal year include $300,000 for research, $255,000 for marketing activities, and... include $300,000 for research, $255,000 for marketing activities, and $324,923 for administration...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California;...

  12. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Committee for the 2012 fiscal year include $333,791 for research, $480,000 for marketing activities, $50,000... marketing activities, $50,000 for inspection equipment development, and $333,500 for administration...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California;...

  13. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  14. Standardization of RAPD assay for genetic analysis of olive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... for thousands of years and it meets not only the edible .... ethanol. DNA's were dried and re-suspended in 50 µl EDTA. RNA ase (1 µl) was added against the possibility of contamination, in the .... Olive genetic diversity.

  15. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favorable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins, or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product.

  16. Olive black water as raw material for butanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waehner, R.S.; Giulietti, A.M.; Mendez, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Solventogenic Clostridium spp. were used for butanol production from olive black water considering also the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Butanol yields ranging from 0.09 to 0.29 g per g of sugar content and COD removals as high as 85% were achieved in small-scale experiments.

  17. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMedina-Pradas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favourable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product.

  18. Extraction and utilization of saltcedar and Russian olive biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra

    2010-01-01

    This chapter assesses technologies that might be useful for utilization of saltcedar and Russian olive trees as biomass. These are invasive species that are being targeted for eradication by the Bureau of Reclamation under federal legislation passed in 2007. One option is to utilize the biomass from stems and branches, and possibly even from roots and foliage,...

  19. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... California, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural...

  20. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate... California, hereinafter referred to as the ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural...

  1. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Tunisian table olive phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, N; Roblain, D; Thonart, P; Hamdi, M

    2008-05-01

    For the 1st time, 4 olive cultivars, the Meski, Chemlali, Besbessi, and Tounsi, from the Tunisian market were investigated to evaluate the phenolic compounds' contribution in nutritional value of table olives. From the Meski cultivar, we have chosen 4 different samples to evaluate differences within the same cultivar. Basic characteristics and total phenolic content were evaluated in flesh and kernel. The highest value of flesh phenolic content was observed in sample M4 of the Meski cultivar; however, the lowest value was observed in the Besbessi cultivar and they were 1801 and 339 mg GA/100 g dry weight, respectively. The main simple phenolic compounds identified in flesh extracts are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and vanillic acid. Oleuropein was not detected in any samples. The antioxidant activity of Tunisian olive flesh varies between 212 and 462 muM TEAC/g of dry weight. Antioxidant activity of olives was related to their phenolic content but we found a low correlation between phenolic content and TEAC.

  3. Computational annotation of genes differentially expressed along olive fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli Federico

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the identification of large sets of differentially expressed genes in developing olive fruits and the subsequent computational annotation by means of different software. Results mRNA from fruits of the cv. Leccino sampled at three different stages [i.e., initial fruit set (stage 1, completed pit hardening (stage 2 and veraison (stage 3] was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in main processes along fruit development. Four subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed: forward and reverse between stage 1 and 2 (libraries A and B, and 2 and 3 (libraries C and D. All sequenced clones (1,132 in total were analyzed through BlastX against non-redundant NCBI databases and about 60% of them showed similarity to known proteins. A total of 89 out of 642 differentially expressed unique sequences was further investigated by Real-Time PCR, showing a validation of the SSH results as high as 69%. Library-specific cDNA repertories were annotated according to the three main vocabularies of the gene ontology (GO: cellular component, biological process and molecular function. BlastX analysis, GO terms mapping and annotation analysis were performed using the Blast2GO software, a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling GO based data mining on sequence sets for which no GO annotation is yet available. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out a significantly different distribution of the annotated sequences for each GO category, when comparing the three fruit developmental stages. The olive fruit-specific transcriptome dataset was

  4. Modelos y Realidad. Enseñando Macroeconomía de los Noventa Modelos y Realidad. Enseñando Macroeconomía de los Noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Revoredo

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Modelos y Realidad. Enseñando Macroeconomía de los Noventa This paper provides a basic methodological guide for formulating, solving, and calibrating-simple nonlinear stochastic dynamic macro models. The paper ilustrates the usefulness of the various techniques by means of different numerical exercises applied to the economies of Bolivia, Chile, and Peru.

  5. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.

  6. De cómo la realidad puede tomar parte en juegos emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Peinado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un estudio del fenómeno de la utilización de elementos reales en aplicaciones software de entretenimiento. De manera más o menos explícita y significativa, este fenómeno se encuentra en la experiencia de juego de numerosos juguetes y experimentos digitales, así como de algunos videojuegos comerciales de gran popularidad; es interesante conocer, por tanto, sus implicaciones estéticas y funcionales a la hora de diseñar interfaces y sistemas de jugabilidad emergente, así como la posible evolución que este fenómeno de la realidad como componente lúdico puede sufrir en los próximos años.

  7. Hiper-realidade versus sedução: o paradoxo do Big Brother Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Polydoro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumoNeste artigo, jogamos Baudrillard contra si próprio na análise do programa Big Brother Brasil (BBB. Primeiro, desenvolvemos a afirmação do teórico de que este reality show resume-se a refletir o estado de banalidade de uma cultura hiper-real. Em seguida, propomos uma reversão nesta argumentação, ao apontar, no BBB, sinais de um efeito sedutor. No início, recuperarmos alguns pontos da teoria do autor francês e evidenciamos o conceito moderno de realidade, aquilo que desaparece na era da simulação.

  8. El trabajo en la pepena informal en México: nuevas realidades, nuevas desigualdades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Cervantes Niño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalmente se afirma que las actividades de la pepena informal son algunas de las peores formas de empleo en México. Sin embargo, con base en la información de un estudio nacional y mediante una metodología de evaluación rápida, en este texto se destaca que muchas de las características típicas de dichas actividades han mutado y que en la actualidad se pueden encontrar nuevas realidades de esas ocupaciones, las cuales conllevan diferentes desigualdades, pero pueden inducir a una mejor formulación de intervenciones de política pública.

  9. ¿Realidad o ficción?: el impacto comunicativo del 11-s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Muñoz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se trata de analizar la utilización comunicativa e ideológica que se ha hecho del atentado que el 11 de Septiembre de 2001 se produjo en el World Trade Center de Nueva York. En este sentido, se analiza la confusión ideológica ente espectáculo y realidad, subrayándose como este atentado será presentado como un espectáculo más de la industria del entretenimiento y del ocio. La desinformación de los medios, por tanto, se convertirá en la principal técnica comunicativa con la que crear un sentimiento psicológico colectivo de profunda irracionalidad social.

  10. Familias en el siglo xxi: realidades diversas y políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Flores Celis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se sintetizan las intervenciones que se realizaron durante la presentación del libro Familias en el siglo xxi: realidades diversas y políticas públicas, en El Colegio de México. Dicha publicación recopila los artículos derivados del seminario del mismo nombre, que se realizó dos años antes, y cuya finalidad fue analizar el problema de la diversidad familiar y su relación con las políticas públicas en México desde un punto de vista académico, manteniendo un marco de pluralidad y de diálogo con distintos actores de la sociedad.

  11. El Arenero Educativo: La Realidad Aumentada un nuevo recurso para la enseñanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Álvarez Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos el proyecto Arenero Educativo que utiliza la tecnología de Realidad Aumentada para implementar un recurso para la enseñanza de las matemáticas y las ciencias naturales. Esta instalación usa una cámara infrarroja para leer la superficie tridimensional de la arena y después dibujar sobre ella curvas de nivel y cuerpos de agua que se transforman cuando el usuario interactúa con la arena. Describimos con detalle las nuevas posibilidades de su interfaz novedosa y su implementación técnica. Detallamos también nuestra propuesta didáctica y reflexionamos acerca de la importancia de establecer una ruta de implementación accesible. Finalmente, discutimos acerca de la importancia del MediaLab de la Universidad de Salamanca como agente dinamizador de este tipo de proyectos multidisciplinares.

  12. Hacia la convergencia de los sistemas nacionales de gobierno corporativo? Lejos de ser una realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Andrés Ortiz Fandiño

    2006-01-01

    Algunos autores han argumentado que los sistemas de gobierno corporativo de las principales economías están próximos a converger en un único modelo. Sin embargo y a pesar de la tendencia y adopción de prácticas corporativas propias de los sistemas anglosajón y germánico-japonés por países como la China, Alemania y Japón, la idea de una verdadera convergencia de los sistemas corporativos está muy lejos de convertirse en una realidad. Por el contrario, se ve más próximo un modelo híbrido que co...

  13. Utopia, distopia e realidade: um novo verismo na literatura para jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, Thiago Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gênero visado como veículo de “formação” do jovem, a literatura infanto-juvenil muitas vezes torna-se alvo da busca por elementos de uma sociedade utópica. Porém, justamente por se tratar de Literatura, o gênero abre-se a outras possibilidades de vivência da realidade, seja esta compreendida pelo seu mundo mais subjetivo, seja ampliada a questões em escala mundial. Algumas obras inscritas no Programa Nacional Biblioteca da Escola (PNBE sinalizam caminhos da ficção para jovens nos anos 2000, dentre eles, o verismo e a utopia relidos por meio de novas propostas estéticas

  14. El Ius cogens y la realidad socio-política colombiana: El conflicto armado interno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Carrillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las funciones más bellas del derecho en general es el tener la potencialidad de transformar la realidad social. Al incorporar las nociones jurídicas más importantes en su interior, en su psique, como fundamentales e incluso entendiéndolas y creyéndolas como inherentes a él, el hombre suele emanciparse, siendo la bandera de su agitación la reivindicación de aquello que él estima como su derecho. Afortunadamente, no siempre han corrido ríos de sangre para reclamar estas aspiraciones, e incluso el verdadero Mahatma, Ghandi, y Martin Luther King, exigieron de manera pacífica el reconocimiento de sus derechos y los de tantos otros oprimidos.

  15. Ciberespaço: nova realidade, novos perigos, novas formas de defesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    Full Text Available A mídia, nacional e internacional, vem divulgando à exaustão vários tipos de perigo que supostamente rondam a utilização da Internet. Por trás dessa divulgação, parece estar um pressuposto que desafia a Psicologia: o de que somos indefesos para lidar com a nova realidade do ciberespaço. Resultados inesperados de uma pesquisa sobre o uso intensivo da Internet, no entanto, mostram o contrário. A partir destes, novas estratégias de auto-proteção online, que visam principalmente à preservação da intimidade, puderam ser identificadas. Essas estratégias envolvem diferentes formas de utilização, por parte dos usuários, dos próprios programas e recursos tecnológicos disponíveis.

  16. Realities: de la tele-verdad a la tele-realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Arango Forero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El frenético crecimiento del reality y sus múltiples facetas lo han convertido en el género más polémico y criticado de la televisión contemporánea. La génesis de este formato se encuentra en la creación de concursos donde sus participantes develan toda suerte de intimidades frente a las cámaras. Y más allá de mostrar lo real, la polémica se sitúa en qué tan verdadera y natural es esa realidad mediatizada por el lenguaje de la televisión y condicionada incluso por sus propios protagonistas.

  17. Apuntes para una teoría: los "medios", la "realidad" y la alternativa local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Juan Luis Pintos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available "El 99% de los hogares españoles tiene, al menos un aparato de televisión". "Los españoles ven, como media, tres horas de televisión diarias". "Lo que no aparece en televisión, no existe". "Un gobierno que disponga de una televisión gana las elecciones". "Es verdad porque lo han dicho en la tele…"Podríamos seguir acumulando frases de este tenor para elaborar posteriormente un discurso acerca del hecho sociológico de la televisión en nuestro país. Pero la acumulación de tópicos no se viene considerando un buen procedimiento para establecer enunciados rigurosos acerca de algo que se pueda definir como "realidad".

  18. Enfermedades importadas en inmigrantes: mito y realidad Imported diseases in immigrants: myth and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Roca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, a partir del crecimiento de la inmigración procedente de los países de baja renta, en determinados ambientes sanitarios y en la propia sociedad civil a través de los medios de comunicación se ha especulado sobre el riesgo para la salud de la comunidad receptora que comportaba la inmigración. El presente artículo pretende ordenar la terminología que se utiliza para tratar de las enfermedades de los inmigrantes, para que sirva de común denominador en la descripción e interpretación de los datos aportados en la prensa médica, evitando las confusiones que se dan en los ambientes sanitarios no especializados o alejados a esta realidad; aportar unas reflexiones sobre la realidad de estas enfermedades tanto las importadas como las transmisibles y aclarar los riesgos para la comunidad receptora y los determinantes de los mismos.In recent years, with the growth of immigration from low income countries, in certain health spheres and in civil society itself through the mass media, there has been speculation about the risk to the health of the receptor community brought by immigration. This article attempts to conceptualise the terminology that is used to deal with the diseases of immigrants, to serve as a common denominator in the description and interpretation of the data provided by the medical journals, avoiding the confusions that arise in non-specialised health settings or in those that are remote from this. It aims to reflect on the reality of these diseases, both those that are imported and those that are transmissible, and to clarify the risks for the receptor community and their determinants.

  19. Contacto precoz con la realidad asistencial: una experiencia piloto en medicina

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    J.E. Baños

    Full Text Available Introducción: Varios estudios han sugerido que el contacto precoz del estudiante de medicina con la realidad asistencial puede tener unos efectos beneficiosos sobre su motivación, el conocimiento de la relación médico-paciente y la aceptación de la importancia de las materias médicas básicas. En el nuevo grado conjunto de Medicina de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona y la Universitat Pompeu Fabra se ha incorporado una asignatura denominada 'Prácticas de Grado' que se imparte durante los tres primeros años, destinada a permitir el contacto de los estudiantes con la asistencia primaria, los equipos de enfermería y los centros sociosanitarios. El presente artículo describe la experiencia y la opinión de los estudiantes que la cursaron durante el primer año. Materiales y métodos: El artículo describe las características académicas de la asignatura. Se realizó una encuesta a los estudiantes al finalizar la asignatura para evaluar su grado de satisfacción y su percepción sobre el cumplimiento de los objetivos y las competencias que debían alcanzarse. Resultados: Existió una elevada satisfacción con la nueva actividad y una percepción entre los estudiantes de que las competencias preestablecidas se habían alcanzado en su mayor parte. Conclusión: El contacto precoz con la realidad asistencial es un elemento esencial para la comprensión de la actividad médica por los estudiantes de medicina de primer año.

  20. Violencia Escolar y Rendimiento Académico (VERA: aplicación de realidad aumentada

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    Mª del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, dos son los problemas que de forma más notable comprometen el clima escolar en los Centros de Educación Secundaria: la violencia entre alumnos y el bajo rendimiento académico. Ambos aspectos, son tratados en múltiples trabajos de investigación, de donde se extraen datos que apoyan la existencia de una relación, cuanto menos compleja, entre la violencia escolar y el rendimiento académico. De la necesidad de crear nuevas herramientas para evaluar la convivencia escolar y su relación con el rendimiento académico; surge el desarrollo del recurso que presentamos: VERA-Nivel I. Se trata de un videojuego de realidad aumentada, que nos permite recabar información detallada sobre las formas de interacción que tienen los alumnos y con quién, y también, acerca de las habilidades cognitivas que poseen. Además, una de las ventajas que ofrece el uso de realidad aumentada es la posibilidad de analizar las interacciones de los alumnos con sus propios compañeros, en el contexto real del aula. De forma paralela, la aplicación nos permite recompensar conductas no violentas. La aplicación VERA-Nivel I no solo se limita al ámbito educativo, sino que puede y debe ser generalizada a otros contextos en los que proceda el mismo objeto de evaluación.

  1. ARG (juegos de realidad alternativa. Contribuciones, limitaciones y potencialidades para la docencia universitaria

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    Teresa Piñeiro Otero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La ludificación de la educación ha representado una oportunidad para fomentar la interacción, la motivación y la participación del alumnado. Los ARG (las siglas inglesas de juegos de realidad alternativa ofrecen una nueva herramienta altamente inmersiva que puede implementarse en el logro de los objetivos docentes. Uno de sus puntos fuertes consiste en la suma de esfuerzos y recursos (la llamada inteligencia colectiva aplicada a la resolución de problemas. A esto se añade su combinación de plataformas en los entornos online y offline, lo que favorece el «realismo» de la experiencia. En este sentido, el presente trabajo pretende condensar las potencialidades, limitaciones y retos de los ARG al servicio de la educación universitaria. Basándose, a nivel metodológico, en la elaboración de un corpus teórico relevante y adecuado, analiza el potencial educativo de esta herramienta que, en ámbitos como el marketing o la comunicación corporativa ya ha despegado con éxito, pero que en el área educativa todavía no había sido abordada en profundidad. Recopila, además, ejemplos satisfactorios que se han desarrollado en diversas disciplinas académicas en otros países y que no resultan fácilmente localizables. Se concluye que, dados los antecedentes, potencialidades y análisis expuesto, debe valorarse la posibilidad de incorporar los juegos de realidad alternativa a la práctica de la docencia universitaria en el marco de una estrategia educativa que determine sus objetivos y sistema de evaluación más adecuado.

  2. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  3. Indaziflam adsorption in soils amended with olive cake and olive cake biochar: Effect of dose and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indaziflam has been approved by the USEPA for weed control in residential and commercial areas, golf courses, and nurseries. Recently, the use has been expanded to citrus, walnuts and olives, among other crops. According to the USEPA, indaziflam is a herbicide that can be mobile in soils, leaching ...

  4. A Rapid Method for Detection of Refined Olive Oil as Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

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    Maryam Karbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is expensive oil, due to unique specification and its high quality among other edible oils; it might be mixed with other oils. The aim of this research was to identify the added refined olive oil (ROO to extra virgin olive oil. One sample of each oil was analyzed, admixtures of EVOO: ROO were prepared at different ratios (50:50 ,60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and 95:5 w/w. To identify this adulteration, exothermic and endothermic thermograms were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing refined olive oil, onset temperature (Ton was increased from -61.08 to -56.16 °C; also, offset temperature (Toff decreased from 19.09 to 12.57 °C. Also results showed that when the ROO ratio increased then the enthalpy average values of both exothermic and endothermic curves were declined. Chemical tests were performed in parallel to better understanding these changes in curves.

  5. Oliver Kruuda : Teenime liiga vähe / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    AS Tallinna Piimatööstuse suuromanik ja hiljuti Viljandi ning Paide piimatööstuse ostnud Oliver Kruuda avaldab arvamust Eesti piimatööstuse olukorra kohta ja leiab, et piimatootjad teenivad töötlejaist rohkem. Suuremate piimatootjate ja -töötlejate 2002. a. kasuminumbrid

  6. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  8. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  9. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

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    Antonella Pasqualone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  10. The Problem of Olive Mill Wastewater in Turkey and some Solution Alternatives

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    Renan Tunalioğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive, as a fruit, cannot be consumed directly due to the oleuropein substance it contains and needs to be processed into either table olives or olive oil through various production systems. The process of olive oil extraction results in olive oil as the main product, and two by-products, with olive pomace being one and brown-coloured Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW as the other. OMWW has no direct use and it is usually discharged directly to soil, small rivers, lakes or sea, resulting in potential contamination of the environment. Turkey is the fourth largest olive producing country in the world and fifth in olive oil production. Turkey produces approximately 891 393 tonnes of OMWW on average per two years using the current mill production technologies, and hence faces the problem of OMWW. This study proposes and discusses various solution alternatives to overcome the problem of OMWW in Turkey. The results of this study aim to contribute to the ongoing efforts in resolving this problem by the olive industry and to aid policy making to tackle this important issue.

  11. The Problem of Olive Mill Wastewater in Turkey and some Solution Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Tunalioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive, as a fruit, cannot be consumed directly due to the oleuropein substance it contains and needs to be processed into either table olives or olive oil through various production systems. The process of olive oil extraction results in olive oil as the main product, and two by-products, with olive pomace being one and brown-coloured Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW as the other. OMWW has no direct use and it is usually discharged directly to soil, small rivers, lakes or sea, resulting in potential contamination of the environment. Turkey is the fourth largest olive producing country in the world and fifth in olive oil production. Turkey produces approximately 891 393 tonnes of OMWW on average per two years using the current mill production technologies, and hence faces the problem of OMWW. This study proposes and discusses various solution alternatives to overcome the problem of OMWW in Turkey. The results of this study aim to contribute to the ongoing efforts in resolving this problem by the olive industry and to aid policy making to tackle this important issue.

  12. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

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    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  14. Réglementations sur l’étiquetage et la présentation des huiles d’olive

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    Pouyet Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available L’huile d’olive est uniquement obtenue à partir du fruit de l’olivier (Olea europaea L.. Elle est mise sur le marché en respectant les dénominations et définitions suivantes : l’huile d’olive vierge est obtenue directement des olives, uniquement par des procédés mécaniques, éventuellement physiques et notamment thermiques, à condition qui n’altèrent pas l’huile. L’huile d’olive vierge ne doit subir d’autre traitement que le lavage, la décantation, la centrifugation et la filtration. Dans les huiles d’olives vierges on distingue deux catégories : l’huile d’olive vierge et l’huile d’olive vierge extra. L’huile d’olive lampante est impropre à la consommation. L’huile d’olive sans qualificatif est un mélange d’huile d’olive raffinée et d’huile d’olive vierge. L’huile de grignons d’olive est obtenue par extraction avec des solvants ou des traitements physiques, à partir du produit restant lorsque l’huile d’olive vierge ou vierge extra est extraite. Les méthodes d’analyses sont essentielles pour distinguer ces différentes catégories d’huiles d’olive.

  15. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  16. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  17. Detection of viruses in olive trees in Croatian Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LUIGI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Following identification of four viruses in a general survey of olive trees throughout Croatia, a detailed survey was conducted in 2009 in the field collection of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč (an important reservoir of Istrian native olive germplasm in order to evaluate the sanitary status of the most important Croatian Istria olive cultivars. Twenty five samples from symptomatic or symptomless trees were collected from five autochthonous and four exotic cultivars. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of: Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D. Six of the 25 plants were found positive to CLRV; all infected plants showed leaf and fruit deformation and leaf yellowing. Four positive samples were from the native cv. Buža whereas the other two were from two exotic cultivars: Ascolana tenera and Frantoio. The presence of CLRV,  either in native or imported plants, highlights the importance of strict phytosanitary regulations to prevent incursion of key

  18. Quality of Pelleted Olive Cake for Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Brlek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olive cake is by-product of olive oil production. This material cannot be stored in original condition for a long time because it has high water content and relatively high portion of oil that causes rapid deterioration. Thus it is necessary to investigate possible methods of remediation of such by-product, where utilization for energy generation presents a useful option. Several studies have been conducted on energy generation from olive cake, however not one that includes pelleting as a pre-treatment. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of different cultivars of olive cake, to produce pellets, and determine their basic quality parameters. The pellets obtained from olive cake had mainly satisfactory results regarding their quality in comparison to standards for fuel pellets. It should be kept in mind that these standards are manly for wood pellets, and therefore some lower criteria could be applied for olive cake and such biomass. The highest amount of residual oil and the lowest amount of protein was found in cultivar ‘Buža’ and produced pellets had the smallest abrasion index (8.15%. Other cultivars had lower oil and higher protein content, and abrasion index

  19. Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematode communities infesting olive orchards soils in southern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Palomares-Rius

    Full Text Available This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into

  20. Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  1. Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematode communities infesting olive orchards soils in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  2. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed.

  3. Insects related to Olive culture in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perrone Ricalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased cultivation of olive trees in Rio Grande do Sul State and its potential production arouse the need to characterize the assemblage of insects in olive groves, especially those with potential as pests. Therefore, the insect fauna was sampled monthly for two years, in the canopy of olive trees, using beat cloth, and collection of buds in five municipalities in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State. The faunal indices analyzed were abundance, constancy, dominance and frequency. The olive caterpillar Palpita forficifera Munroe 1959 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and mealybugs Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791 and Saissetia coffeae (Walker, 1952 (Hemiptera: Coccidae are the main phytophagous insects in olive farms in the Rio Grande do Sul State, with potential to reach pest status. Eleven insect species were recorded for the first time in olive groves in Brazil. The occurrence of P. forficifera is a new record for the Rio Grande do Sul State.

  4. Cultivar origin and admixture detection in Turkish olive oils by SNP-based CAPS assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to establish a DNA-based identification key to ascertain the cultivar origin of Turkish monovarietal olive oils. To reach this aim, we sequenced short fragments from five olive genes for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) identification and developed CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic DNA) assays for SNPs that alter restriction enzyme recognition motifs. When applied on the oils of 17 olive cultivars, a maximum of five CAPS assays were necessary to discriminate the varietal origin of the samples. We also tested the efficiency and limit of our approach for detecting olive oil admixtures. As a result of the analysis, we were able to detect admixing down to a limit of 20%. The SNP-based CAPS assays developed in this work can be used for testing and verification of the authenticity of Turkish monovarietal olive oils, for olive tree certification, and in germplasm characterization and preservation studies.

  5. Beginnings of Olive Cultivation in Eastern Spain in Relation to Holocene Bioclimatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terral, Jean-Frederic; Arnold-Simard, Genevieve

    1996-09-01

    Morphometric analyses show quantitative differences in anatomical characters of wood and charcoal between wild and cultivated olive. Samples from modern olive wood in eastern Spain (Levante) provide five distinctive anatomical criteria: growth width ring, vessel surface, number of vessels per group, vessel density, and vulnerability ratio. Multivariate analysis shows that growth ring width and number of vessels per group are both significant criteria for discriminating between wild and cultivated olive. Moreover, bioclimatic environments of wild olive (thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean stages) are distinguished by vessel density. Ancient olive charcoal from archaeological sites at Valencia and Alicante implies increasing aridification from the Cardial Neolithic to the Roman Period. This pattern may reflect the onset of a Mediterranean climate and human deforestation. Charcoal from cultivated specimens of early Neolithic age shows that the olive tree is the earliest cultivated temperate fruit.

  6. A review of olive mill solid wastes to energy utilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the utilization of olive industry by-products for energy purposes has gained significant research interest and many studies have been conducted focused on the exploitation of olive mill solid waste (OMSW) derived from the discontinuous or continuous processing of olive fruits. In this review study, the primary characteristics of OMSW and the techniques used to define their thermal performance are described. The theoretical background of the main waste-to-energy conversion pathways of solid olive mill wastes, as well as the basic pre-treatment techniques for upgrading solid fuels, are presented. The study aims to present the main findings and major conclusions of previously published works undertaken in the last two decades focused on the characterization of olive mill solid wastes and the utilization of different types of solid olive mill residues for energy purposes. The study also aims to highlight the research challenges in this field.

  7. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from...... were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS suggesting that: a) olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production; and b) biohydrogen...

  8. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the scientific production of olive products. I – Table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Viesca, Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an overview of the scientific production in the area of table olives during the period 2000- 2005. Author’s productivity, most relevant topics, sources of information and groups of authors are analysed using basic bibliometric indicators. Also, contributions and collaborations among groups of authors are studied. Finally, this work includes impact indicators from the most important journals on this topic.Este artículo presenta un panorama de la producción científica en el área de las aceitunas de mesa durante el periodo 2000-2005. Utilizando indicadores bibliométricos básicos, se ha estudiado la productividad de los autores, los temas más comúnmente tratados, las fuentes de información y los grupos de autores. Además, se analizan las colaboraciones realizadas entre diferentes grupos de investigación. Por último, se incluyen los indicadores de impacto de las revistas más prestigiosas en el sector.

  10. The effect of topically extravirgin olive oil on the UVB-induced immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    AriefBudiyanto, Irianiwati, Vohanes Widodo Wirohadidjojo

    2015-01-01

    Background: UVBradiation may act as an immunosuppressive agent through Langernans cells (LCs)depletion correlated with cyclobuthane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), as the most mutagenic photoproducts. Other studies showed that olive oil can prevent various human cancers, which are defect of immune-surveillance. The effect of olive oil in the UVBinduced LCs depletion is still unclear. Objective: To discover the topical effect of extravirgin-olive-oil in the LCs depletion. Methods: A simple experimenta...

  11. Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from industrially fermented Greek table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Doulgeraki, Agapi; Pramateftaki, Paraskevi; Argyri, Anthoula; Nychas, George John; Tassou, Chrysoula; Panagou, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    A total of 145 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates have been recovered from fermented table olives and brine and characterized at strain level with molecular tools. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) of ApaI macrorestriction fragments was applied for strain differentiation. Species differentiation was based either on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) (black olives) or on restriction analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene (PCR-ARDRA) (brine and green olives). Species ide...

  12. Syrphid community in organic olive groves: can morphospecies be used as surrogates for species?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Syrphids are known as biological control agents of hemipteran pests and, in the olive grove, several species have been identified as predators of Euphyllura olivina (Costa). The objectives of this work were: (1) to study the syrphid community in organic olive groves and (2) to test the potential for the use of syrphid morphospecies as a surrogate for species. The field work was conducted in two organic olive groves located near Mirandela (Northeast of Portugal). The sampling perio...

  13. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eLanza

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions of the indigenous microflora of the olives together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources (fiber-glass fermenters, PVC tanks, pipelines, pumps and water) with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the ...

  14. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is ...

  15. Olive fly transcriptomics analysis implicates energy metabolism genes in spinosad resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sagri, Efthimia; Reczko, Martin; Gregoriou, Maria-Eleni; Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Zygouridis, Nikolaos E; Klelia D Salpea; Zalom, Frank G.; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2014-01-01

    Background The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most devastating pest of cultivated olives. Its control has been traditionally based on insecticides, mainly organophosphates and pyrethroids. In recent years, the naturalyte spinosad is used against the olive fly. As with other insecticides, spinosad is subject to selection pressures that have led to resistance development. Mutations in the α6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) have been implicated in spinosad resistance...

  16. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  17. Instrumentality in health care: a response to Adam Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    In his paper, 'Incentivizing improvements in health care delivery', Adam Oliver discusses recent efforts to manage the performance of health care workers in the United States and United Kingdom. Overall, the results of performance management seem to be mixed, but Oliver's discussion hints at a more fundamental question about this approach, specifically: what are the limits of a focused instrumentality in a context as rich, fluid and collaborative as the delivery of health care? Might performance management schemes actually frustrate the efforts of conscientious health care workers? Indicators make few allowances for the heterogeneity of treatment effects or patient values or preferences. Health care workers may also face pressure to appear to satisfy indicators that are actually impossible to satisfy.

  18. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) as a herbal healer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature. Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially. Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects.

  19. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  20. Utilization of oleuropein by microorganisms associated with olive fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Fernandez, A; Vaughn, R H

    1978-06-01

    Oleuropein, the bitter glucoside of olives, and its hydrolysis products can possess antibacterial action. However, there is no information on the possible utilization of this polyphenolic compound; therefore studies have been made to assess its utilization as a major source of carbon. Various microorganisms associated with fermentation of olives (both desirable lactic acid bacteria and spoilage organisms) did use oleuropein, many without a significant delay in growth resulting in the appearance of a strong visible turbidity. Although the increase in oleuropein from 0.2 to 0.4% (w/v) had little or no effect on the spoilage organisms, the additional glucoside caused a delay in development of growth with some of the lactic acid bacteria. However, all of the latter cultures tested eventually grew and developed strong visible turbidity.

  1. Olive oil waste waters: Controlled fermentation and materials recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, F.; Montedoro, G.F.; Pozzi, V. (Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Detp. di Agrobiologia e Agrochimica Perugia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Industrie Agrarie UNIECO s.c.r.l., Reggio Emilia (Italy))

    Land and water pollution due to waste water and oils deriving from the processing of olives to produce oil represents a serious environmental problem for Spain, Italy and Greece. This paper reports and discusses the results (time dependent enzyme activity) of performance tests on an innovative fermentation process to be used in olive oil waste water anaerobic digestion. An outline is then given of a demonstration depolymerization/materials recovery (including polyphenols, enzymes, etc.) process scheme based on the the tested fermentation method. The fermentation process tests involved the use of an albidus yeast in an Applikon bench scale experimental device. Process parameters were varied to determine optimum fermentation conditions. The European Communities sponsored one cubic meter/day demonstration plant utilizes a preliminary treatment process based on the use of gelatin, bentonite and polyclar.

  2. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.

  4. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  6. NaOH-debittering induces changes in bacterial ecology during table olives fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cocolin

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the impact of the NaOH treatment on table olive fermentations, and for this reason a polyphasic approach has been adopted here to investigate its effect on the fermentation dynamics and bacterial biodiversity. The microbial counts of the main groups involved in the transformation have not shown any differences, apart from a more prompt start of the fermentation when the olives were subjected to the NaOH treatment. The data produced by culture-independent analyses highlighted that the fermentation of table olives not treated with NaOH is the result of the coexistence of two different ecosystems: the surface of the olives and the brines. A sodium hydroxide treatment not only eliminates this difference, but also affects the bacterial ecology of the olives to a great extent. As proved by high-throughput sequencing, the fermentation of the olives not treated with NaOH was characterized by the presence of halophilic bacteria, which were substituted by Lactobacillus at the later stages of the fermentation, while enterobacteria were dominant when the olives were treated with sodium hydroxide. Higher biodiversity was found for Lactobacillus plantarum isolated during untreated fermentation. Different biotypes were found on the olive surface and in the brines. When the debittering process was carried out, a decrease in the number of L. plantarum biotypes were observed and those originating from the surface of the olive did not differentiate from the ones present in the brines.

  7. Explaining German imports of olive oil: evidence from a gravity model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this study the case of olive oil imports of Germany is examined since olive oil is a traditional Mediterranean commodity and Germany is the biggest importer in the EU. A gravity model has been employed so as to analyse those factors that explain the German imports of olive oil that were identified in a preceding analysis of the German olive oil supply chain. The results of two random-effects models corrected for serial correlation and heteroskedasticity suggest that being a Mediterranean P...

  8. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  9. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt.

  10. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  11. Microsatellite Markers for Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae

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    John F. Gaskin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion.

  12. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  13. Extraction of olive oil with supercritical carbon dioxide / Ilana Geerdts

    OpenAIRE

    Geerdts, Ilana

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to extract olive oil from the fruit of Olea europaea by means of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-C02) as an alternative to traditional methods. Extractions were performed on a laboratory scale supercritical fluid extractor of the latest design, featuring three mutually independent flow systems and extremely high flow rates. A number of extraction runs based on a statistical design was performed to establish the conditions (time, pressu...

  14. Bioactivity and phenolic composition from natural fermented table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Mendes, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Nuno; Bento, Albino; PEREIRA, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twentyfour samples of naturally fermented table olives from the northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolic composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol being the most abundant. Total phenolic content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 μg mg−1 of extract. The IC50 values from the an...

  15. Demand for non-commodity outputs from mountain olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Arriaza Balmón, Manuel; Gomez-Limon, Jose Antonio; KALLAS, Zein; Nekhay, Olexandr

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural multifunctionality is the recognition of the joint exercise of economic, environmental and social functions by this sector. In order to make this concept operative to support the design of public policies, it is necessary to estimate the social demand for such functions. The main objective of this article is to present an empirical application in this line. For this purpose we have adopted the agricultural system of mountain olive groves in Andalusia (Southern Spain) at risk of a...

  16. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  17. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrancosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Malheiro

    Full Text Available The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes. Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively, while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible. No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest.

  18. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  19. Photosynthetic characteristics of olive tree (Olea europaea) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Manolis; Fasseas, Costas; Karabourniotis, George

    2007-07-01

    Functional and structural characteristics of corticular photosynthesis of sun-exposed bark of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) were examined. Stomata are only sporadically present during stem primary growth. Light transmission through the phellem was age dependent, decreasing rapidly in stems older than five years of age. Light transmission was also low in pubescent 1-year-old stems. Light transmission was about 50% higher in wet phellem than in dry phellem. Photosynthetic capacity on a unit area basis (measured with an oxygen disc electrode at 27 degrees C and about 5% CO(2) on chlorophyllous tissue discs isolated from the stem) was higher in 1-, 20- and 30-year-old stems compared with 2-10-year-old stems. Low chlorophyll a/b ratio and light compensation points were recorded in olive stems with low phellem light transmission, in accordance with the shade acclimation hypothesis. The intrinsic photochemical efficiency of photosystem II of all stems, especially young stems, was less than that of the leaves. Our results show that olive tree bark possesses an efficient photosynthetic mechanism that may significantly contribute not only to the reduction in concentrations of CO(2) in the inner bark, but also to whole-tree carbon balance.

  20. Polarized absorption in determination of impurities in olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. N.; Zabidi, Z. M.; Yaacob, Y.; Amir, I. S.; Alshurdin, S. H. N.; Aini, N. A.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of impurities in olive oil blending with palm oil was characterized using polarized absorption method. Polarized absorption was based on the absorption of light which vibrating in a particular plane to pass through the sample. This polarized light allowed the molecule to absorb at the specific orientation. There were four samples have been prepared that were 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 0:100 with volume ratio of the olives to palm oil. Two linear polarizers were mounting between the samples in order to get linearly polarized. This specific orientation was affected the absorption spectra of the sample. The results have shown that the analyzing polarizer with angle 00 has bell shape spectra. All the orientation of analyzing polarizer had shown the maximum current output at 100% olive oil. Whereas 100% palm oil has shown the minimum current output. The changing in absorption spectra indicates that the anisotropic properties of each sample were different due to the present of impurities.

  1. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  2. Biotechnology of olive fermentation of Galega Portuguese variety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.; Brito, D.; Catulo, L.; Leitao, F.; Gomes, L.; Silva, S.A; Vilas-boas, L.; Peito, A.; Fernandes, I.; Gordo, F.; Peres, C.

    2004-07-01

    Galega in the main Portuguese olive variety providing the greatest percentage of table olive production from homemade and industrial methods. In this work a better understanding about the fermentation involved in both methods is intended. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute the microflora acting in olive fermentation, being Pichia membranaefaciens the dominant yeast specie present throughout the process. LAB developed their activity mainly along the second fermentation stage where Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus were isolated and identified, as well as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Results of a chemical analysis have shown the effectiveness of both homemade and industrial fermentation methods. Nevertheless, the chemical composition of the brines from homemade samples was more similar than those from the industrial ones. Remarkables differences were found in the phenolic compounds profile mainly on the final fermentation stage. the amount of volatile compounds has enhanced on the same phase in both methods and some differences were found between them. Sensorial analysis has shown the best results obtained through the homemade method. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  4. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  5. Physicochemical and microbiological profile of packed table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, A; García-García, P; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2004-10-01

    The water activity of different commercial products of table olives as well as their physicochemical and microbiological profiles were studied. Average values of water activity were 0.976, 0.977, and 0.990 for green, directly brined, and ripe (by alkaline oxidation) olives, respectively. Mean values of pH were 3.69, 3.92, and 6.52 while salt levels were 5.53, 4.98, and 2.55 for the same commercial products. In some of the commercial products of green and directly brined olives that were examined, a certain level of microorganisms was observed. Most of them were lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, the lactic acid bacteria being more abundant than the yeasts. Traditionally, this flora has not been considered harmful due to its resemblance to that found in natural and spontaneous fermentation. Spore-forming mesophilic aerobes, which can be considered contaminants from ingredient or product handling, were present in only some samples and were always at low levels. However, their detection does not cause any concern regarding safety because there is no reference showing that they can grow in any of the products studied given the physicochemical characteristics found.

  6. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  7. Oliver Twist and Inklings of ‘Grotesque’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hafezi Kermani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Twist is a novel in which the society of pilfers and felons were reconnoitered uninvited by a young boy whose name is Oliver in the Victorian period. He as an orphan faces with dissimilar circumstances that are concealed to the eyes of the conventional people. Dickens, as the narrator of the story, has logged those absurdities and clumsiness in his novel. Dickens uses the idea of grotesque to display the conditions and the scenes to alert people in forms of comic and tragic. Dearth, poverty, lives of thieves, and whatever ensued in his time are dexterously exhibited in this novel by using grotesquery which its function is ‘mixing emotions, tragicomic, abnormality’. He uses melodramatic techniques with grotesque and humorous characterization. He exchanges tragic and comic scenes to balance one against another. Grotesque in Oliver Twist mainly can be debated in three formulas that are comprised as caricature-like characters, Gothic-like environment, and a means of satirizing situations.

  8. USING A GRAPE HARVESTER IN SUPER-INTENSIVE OLIVE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellomo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. In this type of olive cultivation, trees were grown with a central axis mode and a tree distance of 4,00x1,50 m. A “Braud” grape harvesting machine for espalier vineyards was used in an experimental olive grove in Cassano delle Murge. On the basis of harvesting tests it was possible to verify that the harvesting machine is able to detach the almost all the product with an operative work capacity of 0,5 ha/h. An evaluation of harvesting cost was carried out to determine the minimum convenience growing surface, and also to estimate the increase in income per hectare which could be achieved using mechanised harvesting as opposed to manual harvesting. Moreover, in order to determine the economic limits of using the grape harvester, its performance was compared with that of other harvesting machines used in both super-intensive and traditional plantations.

  9. Olive Oil and the Treatment of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghahramani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Post-operative adhesions are the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. The management of small bowel obstruction is surgical and non-surgical. Some studies are conducted to show the efficacy of non-surgical management of adhesive small bowel obstruction such as sesame oil, water - soluble contrasts such as gastrographin. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral olive oil on the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction. Methods All the patients admitted with adhesive bowel obstruction in the hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, from October 2012 to September 2013 that had inclusion criteria were evaluated by general surgeon. The patients were separated into two groups and standard management was done. Then 12 hours after admission, 150 mL olive oil was given by nasogastric (NG tube to the first group. Results The spontaneous resolution time of small bowel obstruction was significantly longer in the control group than the treatment group (59 hours vs. 35 hours. The hospital stay was shorter in the treatment group than the control (three days vs. six days. Conclusions The study results demonstrated that olive is an effective and safe adjunct to the conservative management of small bowel obstruction and markedly reduces the time of resolution of symptoms and length of hospital stay.

  10. Vibration and impulsivity analysis of hand held olive beaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboli, Roberto; Calvo, Angela; Preti, Christian

    2016-07-01

    To provide more effective evaluations of hand arm vibration syndromes caused by hand held olive beaters, this study focused on two aspects: the acceleration measured at the tool pole and the analysis of the impulsivity, using the crest factor. The signals were frequency weighted using the weighting curve Wh as described in the ISO 5349-1 standard. The same source signals were also filtered by the Wh-bl filter (ISO/TS 15694), because the weighting filter Wh (unlike the Wh-bl filter) could underestimate the effect of high frequency vibration on vibration-induced finger disorders. Ten (experienced) male operators used three beater models (battery powered) in the real olive harvesting condition. High vibration total values were obtained with values never lower than 20 m(-2). Concerning the crest factor, the values ranged from 5 to more than 22. This work demonstrated that the hand held olive beaters produced high impulsive loads comparable to the industry hand held tools.

  11. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rufus; Etienne, Nicolas; Alonso, Maria Garcia; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Minihane, Anne Marie; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant and cellular activity of the olive oil phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol (which is also a major metabolite of hydroxytyrosol). Well-characterized chemical and biochemical assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Further experiments investigated their influence in cell culture on cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nitric oxide production by activated macrophages, and secretion of chemoattractant and cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium. Inhibitory influences on in vitro platelet aggregation were also measured. The antioxidant assays indicated that homovanillic alcohol was a significantly more potent antioxidant than the other phenolics, both in chemical assays and in prolonging the lag phase of LDL oxidation. Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects.

  12. PROBLEMÁTICA Y REALIDAD JURÍDICA DE LAS PANDILLAS JUVENILES EN LOS JUZGADOS DE FAMILIA DEL CERCADO DE AREQUIPA 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    NOCIONES GENERALES ANÁLISIS HISTÓRICO ¿QUÉ ES UNA PANDILLA JUVENIL? ORÍGENES DE LAS PANDILLAS PARTICULARIDADES DE LAS PANDILLAS ORGANIZACIÓN DE LAS PANDILLAS EL VANDALISMO NOMINATIVO DE PANDILLAJE PERNICIOSO FACTORES QUE GENERAN LAS PANDILLAS ESTRUCTURA ORGANIZACIONAL DE LA PANDILLA LA VIOLENCIA JUVENIL COMO “PRODUCTO” SOCIAL EL CONTEXTO SOCIAL LAS NUEVAS FORMAS DE VIOLENCIA REVELADORA REALIDAD SOBRE LAS PANDILLAS EN AREQUIPA REALIDAD JURÍDICA DE LAS PANDILLAS PROBLEMÁTICA Y REALIDAD JURÍDICA...

  13. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  14. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  15. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  16. β-cyclodextrin and caffeine complexes with natural polyphenols from olive and olive oils: NMR, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescifina, Antonio; Chiacchio, Ugo; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Romeo, Giovanni

    2010-11-24

    Complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and caffeine (Caf) with biophenols present in olive and olive oil (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and thermodynamical-molecular dynamic studies to verify the formation of supermolecular aggregates. The obtained results indicated that the investigated biophenols form inclusion complexes with β-CD in a molar ratio of 1:1 in aqueous solution having binding constant values from 10- to 40-fold bigger than those of the corresponding complexes with Caf. Then, β-CD preferentially encloses the biophenol molecule, decreasing its bitter taste and, at the same time, preserving it against chemical and physical decomposition reactions that occur during storage.

  17. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  18. Le Varietà di olive sarde suscettibili di trasformazione per olive da mensa: nota 4: caratteristiche ed attitudini della varietà «bosana» coltivata nel nuorese

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Mario

    1982-01-01

    A variety of olive «Bosana» cultivated in Nuoro region, Sardinia, was studied as a possible black olive table consuption. Technological marketing characteristics weave also explored. The results obtained reveal an extremely variable percentage of olives wad can be available is dependent of climate jearly output. Warking teasts confirmed that «Bosana» variety can be used for preparing table olives provided their cultivation is followed under carefully combilled condition.

  19. Transformações na realidade do trabalho no Brasil e em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larangeira Sonia Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os artigos reunidos no dossiê deste número da revista Sociologias foram apresentados em encontros realizados no Brasil e em Portugal como parte de atividades do Programa de Cooperação CAPES-GRISCES denominado Transformações do Trabalho e do Emprego no Contexto da Reestruturação Econômica - coordenado, no Brasil, pela Prof. Dra. Valmíria Piccinini e, em Portugal, pela Prof. Dra. Ilona Kovács, envolvendo os Programas de Pós-Graduação em Administração e Sociologia da UFRGS e o Centro de Investigação em Sociologia Econômica (SOCIUS do Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa e, como instituição associada, o Departamento de Ciências da Administração da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC. O referido programa de intercâmbio tem possibilitado aos pesquisadores envolvidos uma profícua discussão sobre resultados de pesquisas acerca da realidade do trabalho em transformação nos dois países, de tal forma que julgamos oportuno que, ao menos parte daquelas contribuições, se torne acessível ao público interessado, o que fazemos nesta oportunidade.

  20. Realidad penitenciaria en Colombia: la necesidad de una nueva política criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Cerezo Domínguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El hacinamiento carcelario, presente en la mayor parte de los países latinoamericanos, es un problema de gran calado social que genera el sufrimiento de miles de personas privadas de libertad. El lamentable estado de las infraestructuras penitenciarias y las condiciones deshumanizantes en las que transcurre el día a día de los internos comprometen la posición del Estado como garante de derechos fundamentales. Esta circunstancia ha trascendido a la opinión pública, de modo que se ha suscitado un debate –ya antiguo– sobre las políticas públicas desarrolladas en materia penal y penitenciaria. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo principal aproximarse a la realidad del sistema penitenciario colombiano, con el fin de analizar, desde una perspectiva descriptiva y longitudinal, el fenómeno del hacinamiento carcelario para formular propuestas de mejora. Para tal fin se examinan fuentes de información secundarias provenientes de distintos ámbitos, como: fuentes estadísticas oficiales, disposiciones legales nacionales e internacionales, así como estudios de investigación elaborados por académicos e instituciones públicas. Los principales resultados ponen de relieve los efectos negativos que ha ocasionado la política criminal en el ámbito penitenciario y la necesidad urgente de una nueva orientación.